~ Now that it is winter and the temperatures are [rising/falling] rapidly, it is vital that you remember to keep your heaters on at all times

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1 2017 학년도 EBS 수능완성영어영역실전편 2 회변형문제 3 단계 - 어휘양자택일 올바른선생님연합김문경선생님

2 ~ Now that it is winter and the temperatures are [rising/falling] rapidly, it is vital that you remember to keep your heaters on at all times. If you are planning to go [up/out of] town or will not be home, please contact the maintenance office at and keep us [informed/overlooked] about your plans. While you are gone, you will need to make sure that your heater is on and set to at [most/least] 70 degrees, close every window and door in your home, and turn your faucets on to a [high/low] drip. Doing so will [provide/prevent] the pipes from freezing and ensure that they will not leak or break. Please contact the office if you have any questions or concerns. We hope everyone is enjoying the holiday season! : falling, out of, informed, least, low, prevent : rising( ), (go) up( ), overlooked( ), most( ), high( ), provide( ) 19. When a parent sees two children in the midst of battle, the first instinct is to scream at the one who is yours. Unless blood is being shed or the fight is getting particularly [sever/severe] or one of the children is older and is obviously winning hands down, let the children solve their own problems. Toddlers aren't necessarily [rude/polite] to one another. They don't get [insulted/praised] (not for very long, anyway), and they can settle their differences within a matter of minutes and sometimes seconds. Children's [agreements/disagreements] may be more disagreeable to their parents than to the children themselves, but try to suffer in silence rather than [interfere/interplay]. A parent is not impartial and therefore cannot be an effective referee; children may fight even harder if parents are [evolved/involved], to save face in front of adults. : severe, polite, insulted, disagreements, interfere, involved : sever( ), rude( ), praised( ), agreements( ), interplay( ), evolved( ) - 2 -

3 20. Sarah [continued/stopped] crawling through the tunnel, which got smaller. She could hear water flowing through the pipes. The tunnel climbed up, then down, then up again. It was too [easy/difficult] to move on her hands and knees. The tunnel was much darker [without/due to] the flashlight, and she had never longed to stand up so badly. It seemed [impossible/possible] to determine where exactly she was. The floor became damp, which was a little [fortunate/alarming]. If this was a storm drain and it began to rain... She didn't want to think about it. She was crawling along when suddenly she felt nothing under her hands and she began to fall forward. She screamed. At the last possible second, she managed to catch hold of a stone that was sticking [on/out] and push herself back up. She sat back on her heels, breathing for a second, her pulse racing and her mouth dry. : continued, difficult, without, impossible, alarming, out : stopped( ), easy( ), due to(~ ), possible( ), fortunate( ), (stick) on(~ ) 21. Because of the way we treat information, not only do we occasionally accept [inaccurate/accurate] information, we actually need it. Making mistakes can be an important part of news reporting. While news media should aim to produce [deceptive/truthful] information, it is as important that they get the information [into/out] quickly. Accurate information too late is of little value in news terms. For example, a journalist [revealing/covering] a train crash is told by the police chief that there are 60 people dead, but the ambulance chief says 58, while the hospital says the number is 59. What should the journalist report? That a number of people were killed, or should he or she choose one of the numbers and try to [confirm/comply] which is right later on? Of course it might be weeks before the final death toll was determined. Most consumers, I suspect, would prefer to know the [exact/approximate] number rather than wonder what range' a number of deaths' came into. : inaccurate, truthful, out, covering, confirm, approximate : accurate( ), deceptive( ), (get) into(~ ), revealing( ), comply( ), exact( ) - 3 -

4 22. You are clinging, always clinging. Think about this seriously-how you are [continually/temporarily] holding on to memories of the past. You have a great meal at a restaurant, instantly put it on your list of favorites, and go back to it. You like a book by an author and get her other books. You try a [common/particular] strategy at work and it is [failed/successful], so you repeat it over and over. Think about how you use memory all the time. You experience something as good or bad by [comparing/indentifying] it with some event you have stored in your memory, something you cling to. There is no question that this method [complexifies/simplifies] life-perhaps this is the reason you do it. But when too much of your life is run by memory and you don't even know it, you [lose/gain] the ability to experience life spontaneously. That's why the thrill of the rainbow or the green valley is so [common/rare] in your life. : continually, particular, successful, comparing, simplifies, lose, rare : temporarily( ), common( ), failed ( ), indentifying( ), complexifies( ), gain( ), common( ) 23. In contrast to those who wish to lose weight, some-almost always men-want to gain weight. Although not [unhealthy/healthy], they perceive themselves to be [more/less] attractive and masculine and desire to gain several pounds of muscle. Interestingly, men who want to [lose/gain] weight imagine that women prefer men who are much more muscular than these men perceive themselves to be. However, women generally prefer men with [ordinary/particular] body sizes without added muscle. Also, there are biological limits to how muscular one can become. One can try to [maximize/minimize] one's potential for muscularity, however, by engaging in strength training and consuming healthy foods to support that activity. Special diets of "superfoods" and [substitutes/supplements] in and of themselves will not produce increased muscularity, advertising claims notwithstanding. And drugs that are claimed to bring about weight (muscle) gain are either [worthless/valuable] or dangerous. : unhealthy, less, gain, ordinary, maximize, supplements, worthless : healthy( ), more( ), lose( ), particular ( ), minimize( ), substitutes( ), valuable( ) - 4 -

5 Edible Book Festival Please join us for the 2nd Annual Edible Book Festival! [Create/Remove] an "edible book" [discouraged/inspired] by a book, but made [out of/out] edible ingredients! The edible books are displayed (along with the book that inspired the entry), photographed, judged, and then EATEN by the participants. Details When: Saturday, June 18, :00a.m. - 5:00p.m. Where: Lake Forest Park Age Groups Grades Kindergarten- 6 / Grades 7-12 / Adults Grades Kindergarten-6 & 7-12 will be judged for "best edible book artist." Adult Categories 1. [Most/Least] Appetizing Award 2. Best [Invisual/Visual] Presentation Award 3. Special Judges' Award 4. People's Choice Award Register Register your entry ([including/except] name, age group, and edible book entry title) online at by June 15. Or get to the event by 9:00a.m. to check in and display your Edible Book! 25. YMCA Lifeguard Training This course will train you in Lifeguarding, First Aid, and CPR/AED so that you may be [qualified/disqualified] for a fun and rewarding job as a lifeguard! Ages: Students must be fifteen and over by the first day of the class. When: August 17-September 7 Mondays, from 6:00p.m.-9:00p.m. Sundays, from 11:00a.m.-4:00p.m. Contact: Phone: Cost: Members: $250 / Nonmembers: $300 (This [excludes/includes] your Lifeguard Manual, all [demands/supplies], and a pocket CPR mask.) Register: Online at by phone at , or in person at the front desk. Please register at [least/most] 3 days in advance. The number of participants is limited, so please register early! : qualified, includes, supplies, least : disqualified( ), excludes( ), demands( ), most( ) : Create, inspired, out of, Most, Visual, including : Remove( ), discouraged( ), (made) out( ), Least( ), Invisual( ), except(~ ) - 5 -

6 26. The above graph shows the sources of new additions to the U.S.'s capacity for generating electricity from 2012 to [In spite of/due to] federal tax incentives and environmental standards, additions to the capacity were centered on renewable and [high-carbon/low-carbon] sources. Wind, which held the biggest share of the new electric generating capacity in 2012, showed a [dramatic/steady] decrease to 7% in 2013, but bounced back to 23% in Natural gas made up the [biggest/smallest] portion of the new generating capacity in both 2013 and No coal power was added to the generating capacity in Solar and natural gas showed a [steady/rapid] percentage point increase during the given period. In 2014, solar accounted for 32% of new generating capacity, second only to natural gas. 27. With long eyelashes, dark eyes, and an almost comically large, curved bill, hornbills have many [opponents/admirers]. These birds range from the size of a pigeon to large birds with a 6-foot (1.8 meters) wingspan. Found in Africa and Southeast Asia, hornbills live in forests, rainforests, or savannas, [depending on/regardless of] the species. You can easily pick [on/out] a hornbill from other birds by a special body part on top of their bill called a casque. Hornbills have a long tail, broad wings, and white and black, brown, or gray feathers. This [contrasts/resembles] with the brightly colored neck, face, bill, and casque in many species. Females and males often have [same/different] colored faces and eyes. Bill care is important, and the birds rub their bills [rarely/frequently] across a branch or bark to keep them clean. : admirers, depending on, out, contrasts, different, frequently : opponents( ), regardless of(~ ), (pick) on( ), resembles( ), same( ), rarely( ) : Due to, low-carbon, dramatic, biggest, steady : In spite of(~ ), high-carbon( ), steady( ), smallest( ), rapid( ) - 6 -

7 28. [Internal/External] events, trends, and issues can have an important impact on our approach to influencing someone. Most of us would [acknowledge/deny] that we have little or no influence in areas such as the global economy, a [cooperator/competitor]'s business strategy, or decisions made by leaders of countries we don't live in. Yet these and other decisions and events can have an [implement/impact] on our lives and on how we influence people. For example, knowing that a certain industry is having difficulty filling orders because of [abundances/shortages] of a raw material from a country that is at war may affect our approach to negotiating a business deal. We may not have any impact on the route a hurricane will take, but we can use information we have heard about it to influence a [stranger/relative]'s travel plans. Trends, events, and other factors over which we have no control provide the context within which we exercise our influence. : External, acknowledge, competitor, impact, shortages, relative : Internal( ), deny( ), cooperator( ), implement(, ), abundances( ), stranger( ) 29. Before you begin teaching guitar lessons, you need to [access/assess] yourself as a musician. What do you have to offer as a teacher? What are your strong points? What are your weaknesses? How can you [minimize/maximize] your weak points as a teacher and still be [affective/effective]? Many musicians sell themselves short in this area. Remember that the majority of students you teach will be beginners or [intermediate/superior] players. Many would-be teachers disqualify themselves because they feel they need to be master players to accommodate beginner students. This is almost never the case. What is much more important is the ability to [confirm/convey] and communicate what you know to another person. You likely won't start off with many advanced-level students. I find it much more fulfilling to take beginner or intermediate students and tum them [over/into] advanced students. : assess, minimize, effective, intermediate, convey, into : access( ), maximize( ), affective( ), superior( ), confirm( ), (take) over( ) - 7 -

8 30. When Fil was 16, he announced to his family that he wanted to be a pearl diver in the Indian Ocean. His father and grandfather were [against/favorable] it. His mother took his side. She was the only one who [discouraged/encouraged] him to find a new life in a new land. She told them Fil was not meant to stay in Spain and always struggle. She knew he would leave and find his fortune. The others were [sure/afraid] for him, but they also [ignored/admired] his determination. His father cried when his son left. At first he tried to talk him out of going so far away where he knew no one, but Fil was [determined/generous] and told his father not to worry, as he was now a man. His father knew once he had made [in/up] his mind, Fil would not give in. He had been that way even as a toddler and only his mother would he give in to. : against, encouraged, afraid, admired, determined, up : favorable( ), discouraged( ), sure( ), ignored( ), generous( ), (made) in(~ ) 31. In modern economies, the [similarity/distinction] between goods and services itself is actually being [obscured/clear]. One aspect of this shift to a service economy is what has been called the 'servitization' of products. The notion is that, in a modern economy, products cannot exist on their own and some degree of service is needed to make those products [useless/useful]. Consider the automobile, which is of course a real good. It is only useful, however, over an [expanded/extended] period of time if the owner submits it to continual checkups, fills it with gas and oil, and pays for insurance, registration, and taxes so that he can operate it on community roads. The car is a real good, but it is not necessarily useful unless one also [includes/excludes] the many services that [accompany/accomodate] it. : distinction, obscured, useful, extended, includes, accompany : similarity( ), clear( ), useless( ), expanded( ), excludes( ), accommodate( ) - 8 -

9 32. One good way to [assume/ensure] the development of a broad range of ideas is for senior managers to engage actively with both junior management and front-line [personal/personnel]. When a company's CEO takes the time to [absent/attend] lower-level strategy sessions, and [solicit/ignore] and take note of the ideas of junior employees, it conveys the message that upper management acknowledges that the best ideas can come from the most [unexpected/expected] places. In meetings, a CEO of one global coffee company is known for asking the most junior person-typically a young assistant [wary/careless] about taking a seat at the conference table-what he or she thinks the best approach would be. He then asks that person to explain why, giving the young assistant the same focused attention he gives to everyone else in the room. This kind of leadership gesture [conveys/conducts] a powerful message to every level of an organization that everyone's opinion matters. : ensure, personnel, attend, solicit, unexpected, wary, conveys 33. Many people worry about microwave radiation from cell phones. [Unlike/Like] X-rays, which are high-energy photons, microwaves are photons with [rarely/extremely] low energy. They [define/deposit] their energy in the form of heat; that's what they do in microwave ovens. They do not break DNA molecules in the body (unless they actually burn and char the material), and therefore they pose no risk of [causing/preventing] cancer in the way that X-rays and other energetic radiation (even sunlight) can. The main danger is the heat. Much of the fear of microwaves [undoubtedly/suspiciously] comes from the fact that they share the name radiation with the other, far more dangerous forms, such as gamma radiation. The fear that some people have shown toward such cell phone radiation finds its origin not in physics, but in linguistics. : Unlike, extremely, deposit, causing, undoubtedly : Like(~ ), rarely( ), define( ), preventing( ), suspiciously( ) : assume( ), personal( ), absent( ), ignore( ), expected( ), careless ( ), conducts( ) - 9 -

10 34. Marian Dawkins at Oxford University has pioneered a number of studies that [explode/explore] what animals prefer and how much they want it. To do this she has designed experiments where animals must work for [assess/access] to different choices. Measurements of how hard the animal will work begin to tell us how [valuable/valueless] that resource is to the animal. This provides a way of measuring the animal's [weakness/strength] of preference. For example, animals can be trained to push against a door to open it to get access to one type of resource or another. By putting heavier and heavier weights onto the doors you can find out how hard the animal is prepared to work to reach its choice. [Similarly/Neverthless], you can make the animal do something it prefers not to. Chickens do not like to squeeze through narrow spaces, but they will if this gives them access to something they really desire such as a place where they can dust-bathe. : explore, access, valueless, strength, Similarly 35. Every state in America has laws that [neglect/protect] animals from harm, and those laws primarily protect companion animals. But many of these laws are [weak/strong], poorly written, and enforced occasionally, if at all. Much of this [abundance/lack] of enforcement is due to overworked professionals attempting to prioritize their cases. But sometimes it is simply a lack of care, or understanding, about animals and why we have laws to protect them. Too often we hear, "it's just an animal," in response to learning that an animal has been [helped/harmed] by a human. I have never understood the meaning behind that statement and often shoot back, "and you are just a human, so what's the point?" The blank stares I [receive/send] equally [match/disaccord] my blank stare toward their statement. : protect, weak, lack, harmed, receive, match : neglect( ), strong( ), abundance( ), helped( ), send( ), disaccord( ) : explode( ), assess( ), valuable( ), weakness( ), Neverthless( )

11 36. Some adults respond to children's challenging the rules as though it were an [attack/obedience] on themselves. Authoritarian parents and teachers expect to be obeyed [with/without] question. Arguments are an insult to their authority. A child who argues for [less/more] flexibility may have no intention of challenging anyone's authority. He or she just wants more freedom. But if adults insist that [challenging/respecting] their authority means obeying without question, then children are forced to [disrespect/respect] them in order to challenge the rules. Thus, whether children's speaking up for themselves is seen as an appropriate form of self-expression or an attack depends on how adults [interpret/interfere] it. : attack, without, more, respecting, disrespect, interpret : obedience( ), with(~ ), less( ), challenging( ), respect( ), interfere( ) 37. Ethnic groups in the United States [differ/equalize] in the motivational base for consuming coffee; for example, in the Philadelphia area, [sensible/sensory] (taste-smell) motivations are particularly important among Jews, whereas social factors seem [less/more] important among Italian Americans. Cross-culturally, there are [differences/connections] in both specific motivations and the complexity of the motivation. In a Mexican highland village weak but hot coffee is drunk once a day, an hour or so after [sleeping/awakening]. The motivation for doing so is rather simple and uniform: to warm up in the morning. The point of this is that we must understand the motivational structure of consumption before attempting further analyses and general explanations. In terms of motivational structure, coffee is more [simple/complex] than many other foods. The motivation for consuming rice, fish, or chili pepper is Jess [changeable/static], both among individuals within a culture and across cultures. : differ, sensory, more, differences, awakening, complex, changeable : equalize( ), sensible( ), less ( ), connections( ), sleeping( ), simple( ), static( )

12 38. Mystery shopping is a form of non-customer research that measures individual employee service behavior. As the name [influence/indicates], mystery shoppers are generally trained personnel who pose as customers and who shop [unannounced/expected] at the business. The idea is to [criticize/evaluate] an individual employee during an actual service encounter. Mystery shoppers evaluate employees on a number of characteristics, such as the time it takes for the employee to [acknowledge/disregard] the customer, eye contact, appearance, and other specific customer service factors. Results [retained/obtained] from mystery shoppers are used as constructive employee feedback. Consequently, mystery shopping [hinders/aids] the business in coaching, training, evaluating, and formally recognizing its employees. : indicates, unannounced, evaluate, acknowledge, obtained, aids : influence( ), expected( ), criticize( ), disregard( ), retained( ), hinders( ) 39. Performing from memory is often seen to have the effect of [weakening/enhancing] musicality and musical communication. It is commonly argued that the very act of memorizing can guarantee a more thorough knowledge of and [intimate/distant] connection with the music. In addition, memorization can enable use of direct eye contact with an audience that is more [consistent/convincing] than reference to the score. Those who "possess" the music in this way often convey the [impression/implication] that they are spontaneously and sincerely communicating from the heart, and indeed, [past/contemporary] evidence suggests that musicians who achieve this are likely to find their audiences more [respective/responsive]. Moreover, when performers receive and react to visual feedback from the audience, a performance can become truly [interactive/internal], involving genuine communication between all involved. : enhancing, intimate, convincing, impression, contemporary, responsive, interactive : weakening( ), distant( ), consistent( ), implication( ), past( ), respective( ), internal( )

13 40. : triggers, credit, submit, intentions, intended, result : preventions( ), penalty( ), subscribe( ), interests( ), pretended(~ ), cause( ) Peter Gollwitzer and colleague Veronika Brandstatter found that action [triggers/preventions] are quite effective in motivating action. In one study, they tracked college students who had the option to earn extra [credit/penalty] in a class by writing a paper about how they spent Christmas Eve. But there was a catch: To earn the credit, they had to [submit/subscribe] the paper by December 26. Most students had good [interests/intentions] of writing the paper, but only 33 percent of them got around to writing and submitting it. Other students in the study were required to set action triggers-to note, in advance, exactly when and where they [pretended/intended] to write the report (for example, "I'll write this report in my dad's office on Christmas morning before everyone gets up"). A whopping 75 percent of those students wrote the report. That's a pretty astonishing [cause/result] for such a small mental investment. 41~42. It is true that we live in a world that is very [similar/different], in many ways, from the world in which our ancestors lived. We no longer face the [temporary/constant] threat of being eaten by predators, for example, and the chance of being attacked by other humans is surely much [reduced/increased]. If the [emotion/emission] of fear evolved to help us avoid these dangers, then it might seem that we would be better off without it today. Certainly, an [proper/excessive] capacity for fear leads to all sorts of problems that many people would really love to be free of, such as phobias and panic attacks. One does not hear of many people who suffer from the [same/opposite] problem-that of having too little fear. The reason for this [apparent/obscure] imbalance, however, may well be that those with no capacity for fear end up in the morgue long before they are aware they have a problem. Fear does not merely protect us against predators. It also prevents us from a whole host of [deliberate/reckless] behaviours, many of which are potentially [fatal/fetal]. Fear will stop you from crossing a busy road without looking or from dancing on the edge of a cliff. A life without fear might be [more/less] painful, but it would also be a lot shorter. : different, constant, reduced, emotion, excessive, opposite, apparent, reckless, fatal, less : similar( ), temporary( ), increased ( ), emission( ), proper( ), same( ), obscure( ), deliberate( ), fetal( ), more( )

14 43~45. A long time ago, in Egypt, there lived a famous mystical person named Zun-Nun. A young man came to visit him and asked, "Teacher, I do not understand why people like you dress in such a way. Isn't it necessary to dress smartly these days?" The mystic only smiled, took his ring from one of his fingers, and said, "Young friend, I will answer your question, but first do one thing for me. Take this ring and go to the market across this street. Can you sell this for one chjp of gold?" Having looked at Zun-Nun's dirty ring, the young man became [confident/doubtful]. "One chip of gold? I am not sure this ring could be sold at that price." "Try first, young man. Who knows? You can do it." The young man went to the market. He offered the ring to the textile, vegetable, meat, fish traders, and the others. The fact was that nobody was [reluctant/willing] to pay a chip of gold for the ring. He went back to Zun-Nun and reported, "Teacher, nobody was [brave/timid] enough to offer more than one chip of silver." With a wise smile Zun-Nun said, "Now go to the diamond trader at the back of this street. Show this to the owner. Don't give your price. Just listen how much he will pay for this ring." The young man went to the shop Zun-Nun had mentioned and returned with a different [expression/impression] on his face. He then reported, "Teacher, the traders in the market really do not know the value of this ring. The diamond trader offered one thousand gold chips for this ring, and the value of this ring is [less/more] than a thousand times what the traders in the market offered." Zun-Nun just smiled subtly and said [softly/roughly], "That was the answer to your question, my friend. A person cannot be judged only by his dress. The traders in the market give value [unlike/like] that. But not the diamond expert. : doubtful, willing, brave, expression, more, softly, like : confident( ), reluctant( ), timid( ), impression( ), less( ), roughly( ), unlike(~ )