1 사 (Noun) Ⅰ 1. 종류 : 고유, 보통, 집합, 물질, 추상명사 1 셀수있는명사 : 단, 복수가능 many, few 로수식. 보통, 집합명사. 2 셀수없는명사 : 단, 복수없음. much, little 이수식. 물질, 고유, 추상명사. 2. 종족대표 : 어떤종족의전체. 1 A(an) + 단수보통명사.( 대표단수 ) A horse is a useful animal. 2 The + 단수보통명사. ( 대표단수 ) The horse is a useful animal. 3 복수보통명사. ( 대표복수 ) Horses are useful animal. 3. The + 단수보통명사 = 추상명사 * The pen is mightier than the sword. 4. 집합명사와군집명사 * The audience was a large one. * The audience were deeply impressed 군집명사 : 복수동사 were, 개별적으로깊은감명. 하나의집합체 : 집합명사 단수동사개별적으로취급 : 군집명사 복수동사 5. 항상복수취급되는집합명사 1 Police 형 * The police ( 경찰들 ) a policeman ( 경찰한사람 ) The clergy ( 성직자들 ) a clergyman ( 성직자 ) The nobility ( 귀족들 ) a nobleman ( 귀족 ) The peasantry ( 농민들 ) a peasant ( 농민한사람 ) ~ 등의집합명사는부정관사도못붙이고복수형으로도쓰지않으며보통 the 와함께쓰여복수취급. 2 Cattle 형 : Cattle, People, Poultry, vermin 은단지약간수의모임이며, 집합의한계가없으므로관사도안붙고복수형도없이그대로복수취급되어복수동사를받는다. * Cattle are grazing in the pasture part, portion, half, the rest, the majority, most, the bulk 등은뒤에오는말에따라그수가결정된다. * The rest of the boys are playing baseball. 3 Family 형 Nation, Army, People, Party 등은집합의한계가명료하며, 또한집합체를단위로셀수있으므로단, 복수가능. many people ( 많은사람들 ), some people ( 어떤사람들 ) 처럼 people 이 사람들 의뜻으로서군집명사로쓰일땐복수취급을하며복수동사를사용한다. 그러나 people 이국민, 민족의뜻으로쓰일땐집합명사로단수취급을한다. * many people = 많은사람들. many peoples = 많은민족들. people = 사람들 ( 군집 ) a people = 하나의민족 ( 집합 ) two peoples = 두개의민족들 ( 집합 ) 6. 집합적물질명사 * furniture( 가구 ), clothing( 의류 ), merchandise( 상품 ), produce( 농산물 ), game( 사냥감 ), baggage( 소포 ). 위의단어는물건의집합체이지만양을나타내는물질명사로취급. 집합적물질명사는 1 부정관사 a, an 을붙일수없다. ( 물질명사이므로 ) 2 항상단수취급을하므로단수동사 3 양을나타내는 much, little 로수식 4 하나, 둘셀때 a piece of, an article of 7. 물질명사의보통명사화 1 제품을나타낼때 * Glass is apt to break. 유리 물질명사 * He has a glass in his hand. 유리잔 보통명사 paper( 종이 ) 물질 copper( 구리 ) 물질 the paper( 서류, 신문 ) 보통 a copper( 동전한닢 ) 보통 2 구체적으로셀수있는개체
2 * The bridge is built of stone. 돌 물질 * The boy picked up a stone. 돌멩이 보통 3 종류를나타낼때 * Wine is made from grapes. 술 물질 * This is a good wine for health. 좋은술 보통 * They sell various wines at that store. 여러가지술 보통 4 사건을나타낼때 ( 구체적현상 ) * Fire burns wood. 불 물질명사 * They was a fire last night. 화재 보통 5 물질명사가한정이될때는정관사 the를사용. * Water is turned into steam by heat. 물질명사 * The water in this glass is not good to drink. ( 유리잔속에한정된물 ) 8. 보통명사화 1 국민한사람, 가족, ~의집안사람의뜻일때 * He is a swiss. 스위스사람. * His father is a Lincoln. 링컨가문의사람. * The Bakers loved to entertain others. 베이커씨부부. The + 고유명사복수형 : Baker씨일가족 Baker씨부부. 2 라는사람 (a certain) 의뜻. * A Mr. Lee called you up in your absence. 3 제품, 작품을나타낼때 * He bought a Ford. 포드자동차한대. * There are two Rembrandts in the gallery. 두점의렘브런트작품. 4 과같은사람, 사물 ( 성질을나타냄 ) 을나타낼때 * A Newton cannot become a Shakespeare. * He is the Newton of the age. 형용사구. ( 당대의 ) 고유명사다음에형용사구가와서수식이되는경우에는부정관사 a, an 대신반드시정관사 the를사용. 9. 추상명사의보통명사및집합명사화 : 종류, 구체적행동, 어떤성질의소유자를나타낼때. * He was wild in his youth. 추상 ( 청춘시절 ) * He is an ambitious youth. 청년 - 보통명사. * Youth should respect age. 젊은이 - 집합. 늙은이들. * She has beauty and intelligence. 추상. * She was once a beauty. 미인 - 보통. 10. 물질명사의수량표시 * a piece of bread : 빵한조각. * a glass of milk : 우유한잔 slice toast : 토스트한조각. water : 물한잔. * a lump of sugar : 설탕한덩어리. * a shoal of fish : 물고기한마리. pound : 설탕한파운드. school spoonful : 설탕한숫가락. * two cups of coffee : 커피두잔. * a shower of rain : 한차례의소나기. * three cakes of soap : 비누한장. * a bolt of thunder : 한차례의천둥소리. * a sheet of paper : 종이한장. * a flash of lightning: 한차례의번갯불. 11. 추상명사의수량표시 * a piece of information. (good luck, advice) 하나의정보. ( 한차례의행운, 한마디의충고 ) * a piece of news : 뉴스한편. 12. Of + 추상명사 = 형용사구 * a man of ability = an able man. * a man of use = a useful man. * a man of wisdom = a wise man. * a man of sense = a sensible man. * a man of learning = a learned man. * of use = useful, of value = valuable, * a man of experience = an experienced man. * of experience = experienced, of importance = important. 13. 전치사 + 추상명사 = 부사구 * with ease = easily : 쉽게. * in succession = successively : 연속적으로. * with kindness = kindly : 친절하게. * in reality = really : 사실상. * with fluency = fluently : 유창하게. * in haste = hastily : 급히.
3 * with care = carefully. * by accident = accidentally : 우연히. * with rapidity = rapidly : 재빨리. * on purpose = purposely : 고의적으로. * without doubt : 의심할바없이. * on occasion = occasionally : 때때로. * without hesitation : 주저하지않고. 14. 관용어법 * He is kindness itself. 추상명사 + itself all kindness = all + 추상명사 very kind = very, extremely + 형용사. extremely kind ( 매우 ~ 한 ) 그는매우친절하다. 15. An angel of a wife * She is an angel of a wife.(of-동격, 전치사와같은아내, an angelic wife. of 다음에부정관사 a) * There was a mountain of a wave. * She has a crystal of an eye. * It was a castle of a house. 16. Have + the + 추상명사 + to do * He had the kindness to help me. (have + the + 추상명사 + to do) = He was so kind that he helped me. (so + 형 + that + S + V) = He was so kind as to help me. (so + 형 + as to do) = He was kind enough to help me. ( 형 + enough + to do) = He kindly helped me. ( 부사 + 동사 ) 사 (Noun) II 1. 복합명사의복수형 1 중요한말이나명사에 -s * looker-on lookers-on : 구경꾼 (spectator) by-stander by-standers passer-by passers-by father-in-law fathers-in-law : 장인, 시아버지 2명사또는중요한낱말이없는복합어는끝에 --s 또는 --es * forget-me-not forget-me-nots( 물망초 ), go-between( 중개자, 중매인 ) go-betweens merry-go-round merry-go-rounds : 회전목마. good-for-nothing good-for-nothings : 쓸모없는자. 2. 상시복수 1짝또는두부분이하나를이루는의류및도구의명칭. ( 보통복수취급 ) trousers, gloves, scissors, glasses, spectacles, 2복수형태의학과명 형태는복수이나단수취급을함 ( 단수동사 ) economics, politics, physics, mathematics, phonetics, ethics, statistics 통계학 단수취급, 통계 ( 표 ) 복수취급. 3. 분화복수 * air : 공기 - airs : 건방진태도. arm : 팔 - arms : 무기, 팔들. manner : 방법 - manners : 예절, 방법들. ash[æʃ] : 재 - ashes : 유골. custom : 습관 - customs : 관세, 세관, 습관들. provision : 준비 - provisions : 식량. color : 색 - colors : 기, 색깔들. 4. 상호복수 : 두개이상의것이상호적으로작용해야할경우에는반드시복수형태를해야한다. * shake hands with : 악수하다. change cars : 차를갈아타다. exchange seats with : 자리를바꾸다. be friends with : ~와친구사이다. take turns : ~교대하다. make friends with : ~와친구가되다. exchange letters with : 편지를교환하다. be on good terms with : ~와사이가좋다. 5. 복수어미생략 Ⅰ
4 1 복수형명사가수사다음에와서형용사적으로쓰일때단수형. * He is two years old. He has a three-year-old daughter. 2 수사 + 복수명사가형용사적으로쓰일때단수사용. * a five-dollar bill : 5 달러짜리지폐한장 a ten-mile race : 10 마일의경주. the three-power conference : 3 대강대국회담. 6. 생략 Ⅱ 1 dozen, score, hundred, thousand, percent 등이수사다음에올때는복수일지라도반드시단수형을쓸것. * one hundred - five hundred. score : 득점 의뜻도있지만 20 의수도나타냄. two score 40. three score and ten dozen, score, hundred, thousand, million 등이막연한수를나타낼땐복수형을사용한다. * dozens of eggs : 여러다스의계란. hundred of people : 수백명의학생들. scores of books : 수십권의책. 3 pair, couple 등이짝을나타낼때에는단수, 복수가능. (head 는항상단수 ) two pair(s) of shoes : 구두두켤레. four couple(s) of hounds : 4 쌍의사냥개. five head of oxen : 소 5 마리. head 는짐승의머리수를셀때쓰이며앞에복수수사가와도항상단수형으로쓴다. 7. 복수형의낱말을단수취급하는경우 1 학과명 : economics, politics, physics, mathematics, phonetics, ethics, 2 복수형태의국가명. * The Netherlands, The Philippines, The United States (of America) 등의국가명은반드시정관사 The 를사용하며복수형태를가지지만언제나단수동사를사용한다. 3 시간, 거리, 가격, 중량을하나의단위로취급할때에는단수취급한다. * Thirty miles is a good distance. 부분을나타내는말. half( 반 ) the rest( 나머지 ) of + 단수명사 단수동사. a lot( 많은 ) 물질명사 most( 대부분 ) 추상명사 the majority( 대부분 ) of + 복수명사 복수동사. lots( 많은 ) 8. 통성명사와중성명사 1 통성명사 : parent, monarch, spouse( 배우자 ) 동물을나타내는통성명사의대명사는 it 로받지만사자, 개와같이사나운동물은남성취급을하며 he 로받고, 고양이, 앵무새등과같이약한동물은여성취급하여 she 로 child, baby 등은 it 로받는다. 2 중성명사 ( 무생물 ) 의의인화 * 강하고, 맹렬하고, 위대한것. : 남성명사 (sun, war...) * 아름답고우아하고가련한것. : 여성명사 (moon, peace...) 국가명은경제 사회 문화적측면은여성취급하여 she 로 ( 원래문법에서는여성으로받는다고하지만, 실제는중성으로받는경우가대부분임 ), 국토나지리적측면은중성취급하여 it 로받는다. * England is justly proud of her(its) poets. ( 국가, 여성 ) * America is rich in its natural resources. ( 국토, 중성 ) 9. 소유격의형성 1 사람이나동물의소유격은원칙적으로 's 를쓴다. * A man's stick. The cat's ear. 2 무생물의소유격은 of + 명사 의형태로표시한다. * The legs of the table. 3 -s 로끝나는복수명사의소유격은 '(apostrophe) 만붙인다. * girls' play 4 고유명사는어미가 -s 로끝나더라도 's 를붙인다. * Charles's hat. Jones's Dictionary. 예외 : 고대희랍인, 그리고 Jesus, Moses, Socrates, Columbus 등의고유명사는 -s 로끝날지라도 's 만붙여서소유격을만듦.
5 5 복합명사나하나의어군을이루는말의소유격은마지막에 's 를붙임. * father-in-law : 장인 ( 복합명사 ). fathers-in-law : 장인들. father-in-law's hat : 장인의모자 fathers-in-law's hat : 장인들의모자들. 6 동격명사의소유격 : 일반적으로뒤에있는동격명사에 's 를붙인다. * my friend John's wife. 7 각자소유와공동소유 * Tom's and Frank's books : 별개의책. * Tom and Frank's books : Tom 과 Frank 가공유하는책. 10. 의미 1 소유자표시 : Tom's book. 2 저자, 발명자표시 : Shakespeare's Macbeth. 3 사용목적 대상표시 : a girl's high school. 4 주격관계 ( 행위의주체 ) 표시. * My daughter's death: 내딸의죽음 (= My daughter died. 주격 ) * Mother's love of children. * John's success. 5 목적격관계 ( 행위를받는것 ) 표시. * My daughter's education: 내딸의교육. ( 목적격관계 ) (=Someone educates my daughter) * Caesar's murderers = those who murdered Caesar. * Shakespeare's admirers = those who admire Shakespeare. 11. 소유격의용법 1 사람또는동물에한해서는원칙적으로 's 를쓴다. 2 무생물이의인화된경우. * Fortune's smile: 운명의미소. * Nature's works : 자연의작품. 3 시간, 거리, 가격, 중량을나타내는명사. * today's paper: 오늘신문. tomorrow's lesson: 내일수업. * a day's journey : 일일간의여행. * five minutes's walk: 도보로 5 분거리. * ten miles' distance: 10 마일의거리. * a pound's weight: 1 파운드의무게. ten pound's weight. * a dollar's worth of sugar. 4 독립소유격ᄀ소유격 ('s) 다음에오는 house, shop, office, store, place 등의공공건물, 상점, 집등은생략한다. * My uncle's (house) ᄂ같은명사가되풀이될때반복을피하기위해서소유격다음에오는명사는생략함. * This book is my brother's (book) 5 이중소유격 : a, an, this, these, that, these, some, any, no, which, what, such, each, every 등은소유격과함께나란히쓸수없다. 즉 a, an, this + 명사 + of + 소유대명사의형태로써야한다. * this my father's camera. ( X ) * this camera of my father's. ( O ) 6 관용적표현. * for mercy's sake: 제발. for conscience' sake: 양심상. * at once wits'(wit's) end: 어찌할바를몰라. 사 (Article) 1. 부정관사 : 자음앞 a, 모음앞 an. - 발음에기준을둠.. an honest man, a one-act play 2. 부정관사 a, an 의용법 1 one( 하나 ) 을뜻할때. * We shall stay here a day or two. ( 하루나이틀 ) * They resigned their posts in a body. ( 일괄적으로 ) 2 대표단수. * A dog is a faithful animal. 3 A certain( 어떤 ) 의뜻. * A Mr. John came to see you. In a sense, It is true: 어떤의미로는 ~
6 4 The same( 같은 ) 의뜻. * Birds of a feather flock together. * We are of an age. ( 동갑이다 ) of a mind. ( 마음이같다 ) of a humor.( 성질이같다 ) 5 per( 마다 ) 의뜻. * I write to her once a day. ( 하루에한번씩 ) 6 some( 어느정도, 약간 ) 의뜻. * He was speechless for a time. ( 한동안, 얼마동안 ). * He is industrious to a degree. ( 어느정도 ) 3. The 의용법 1 앞에나온명사가반복될때. * I met a boy, and the boy showed me the way. 2 수식어구 ( 형용사구, 형용사절 ) 에의해한정이될때. 물질 추상 고유명사는원칙적으로정관사를사용할수없으나수식어구로한정, 제한이되면정관사 the 를사용한다. * Water is changed into steam by heat. * The water of this well is not good to drink. ( 이우물의물 ) 3 문맥상전후관계를누구나알수있는경우. * The post office is near the station. 4 시간, 수량의단위를나타낼때. * Sugar is sold by the pound. 물건을사고팔때단위를표시하는방법은 by the + 단위 와같이반드시정관사 the 사용. - 출제빈도매우높음. * She rented the apartment by the month. * They hired a man by the day. ( 일당으로, 하루단위로 ). 5 종족대표. * The dog is a faithful animal. 6 신체일부를표시할때. * He caught me by the hand. 7 일반적으로유일무이한것에사용. * The sun is much larger than the moon. * I wish to make a journey round the world. 8 최상급, 서수 (first, second ), any, last, same 앞에서사용. * Seoul is the largest city in korea. * Egypt was the first country to become civilized. * February is the second month of the year. * You will need a second pair of shoes. second 가 한번더, 또다른 의뜻으로쓰일땐 a second 를사용. 9 기계, 발명품, 악기명. * Does the lady play the piano well? * The steam-engine was invented by J.watt. 10 관용어구에서 * in the morning. in the evening. in the sun( 햇볕에서 ). * in the dark( 어두운곳에서 ). in the middle of ~ (~ 의한가운데 ) 4. 신체일부를표시하는방법 1 catch 형의동사. S + V + 사람 + by the 신체일부분. catch, seize, take, hold, grasp 등의동사는전치사 by 를사용한다. * He caught me by the neck. 2 strike( 치다 ) 형의동사 S + V + 사람 + on the + 신체일부. 치다, 때리다뜻인 strike, hit, pat, tap, touch, kiss 등의동사. on the + 신체일부. * He struck me on the ear. hit on the head. 3 look( 보다 ) 형의동사. S + V + 사람 + in the + 신체일부.
7 * I looked him in the eye. gazed in the face. stared 5. 정관사. 1 강, 바다, 선박, 해협등의이름. * The Thames. The Han River. 2 반도, 군도, 산맥의이름. * The Korean peninsula[pəninsjulə]: 한반도. 3 어떤나라의이름이나지명, 국명은일반적으로무관사이지만복수나 of 한정구 가붙으면 the 를쓴다. * The United States of America. The Netherlands. 언어를말할땐 English, Korea 처럼관사없이사용하지만 language 를함께쓰면반드시 the 를사용한다. 4 관공서, 공공건물을나타낼때. * The State Department: 미국무성. 예외 : 역, 항구, 호수, 다리, 공항, 공원에는일반적으로 the 를붙이지않는다. * Seoul Station. Pagoda Park. Pusan Harbor. Kimpo airport. 5 철도, 열차, 항공기, 배, 신문, 잡지, 학회의이름앞에. * The Pullman( 풀만호 : 철도이름 ). * the Queen Mary. the Royal Academy.( 영국미술원 ) 6. 관사의위치 * so, as, too, how, however + 형용사 + 부정관사 + 명사. * Such a work cannot be done in so short a time. * He is as kind a boy as you are. * such, half, rather, many, quite, what, whatever + 부정관사 + 형용사 + 명사. * She is such a good painter. * He is rather an old man. * all, double, both + 정관사 + 명사. * All the boys were present. * I paid double the price for it. 7. 관사의생략 1 호격, 가족관계를나타낼때. * Water, two cups of coffee. * Father, may I go out? * Father is looking for you, John. 2 식사, 질병, 운동, 계절, 학과의이름. * They were having breakfast when I arrived. Because I have a heavy breakfast. I have no appetite. The breakfast I had this morning was too light. 식사명앞에형용사가올때식사명이형용사구나절로한정이될때에는관사를사용한다. * He is suffering from fever. cancer. consumption.( 폐결핵 ) * I have a headache. ( 두통 ) a toothache. ( 치통 ) a stomachache. ( 복통 ) ache 가들어가는가벼운병명앞에는부정관사 a 를사용한다. * They are playing tennis. 운동명은관사없이사용하지만악기명은 the 를사용한다. * He majors in English literature. * I major in the English literature of the 20th. 형용사구 (of-) 로수식되는경우에는 the 를사용. 3 관직, 칭호, 신분 + 고유명사일때. * Professor Lee: 이교수. * President Kim Dae Jung 4 관직, 신분, 혈통을나타내는말이주격보어, 목적격보어로쓰일때. Mr. Lee was appointed principal of our school.( 주격보어 ) 5 a kind of ~, a sort of ~ 다음에오는명사앞에는일반적으로관사를붙이지않는다. * He is a kind of gentleman. 6 짝을이루는두개의명사가전치사혹은접속사로밀접하게연결될때. * We are man and wife before heaven. * Rich and poor celebrate New year's day.
8 the rich and the poor는 the + 형용사 로서복수보통명사이나 and로연결되어 the가생략됨. * father and son. body and soul. arm in arm( 팔짱을끼고 ). side by side( 나란히 ) 7 공공건물이본래의목적으로쓰일때. * I am going to the school to see him. * School begins at 9 O'clock school이본래의목적인공부, 수업등의뜻일땐관사없이사용한다. * in school: 재학중 * go to church: 예배보러가다. * go to hospital: 입원하다. * go to prison: 징역살이하다. * at church: 예배중. * go to sea: 선원이되다. * go to bed: 잠자리에들다. * at table: 식사중. * at sea: 항해중. 8 교통, 통신수단을나타낼때. * I came here by steamer. by train. (=in a train) by car. (=in a car) * I informed him by telephone. 교통수단이나통신수단을나타낼때에는 by + 교통 ( 통신 ) 수단 의형태이며, by 다음에관사를사용하지않 는다. : 출제빈도높음 9 man 이인간, 남성의뜻으로 woman이여성의뜻으로쓰일때. * Man is stronger than woman. 10 관용어구로쓰일때. a 전치사 + 명사. * in the morning. * at noon : 정오에. * in the afternoon. * at night : 밤에. * in the evening. * at midnight : 한밤중에. * in the daytime. * at hand : 가까이에, 손닿는곳에. * at dawn[dɔ:n] : 새벽에. * in town : 도회지에서. * at daybreak : 새벽에. * in the country: 시골에서. b 동사 + 명사. * take place : 일어나다, 발생하다. * lose sight of : 시야에서놓치다. * take the place of ~ : ~을대신하다. * keep house : 살림을하다. * take part in : ~에참가하다. * take hold of : 잡다, 쥐다. * take cold : 감기들다. 8. 생략과반복 * A poet and statesman is dead. ( 관사생략 ; 동일인 1명 ) * A poet and a statesman are dead. ( 관사있음 ; 2명 ) 예외 : 불가분의관계가있을때는두사람이라도 and 다음에관사를 붙이지않고첫명사에만관사를붙인다. * The king and Queen. a doctor and nurse. a cup and saucer. a watch and chain. a knife and fork. a needle and thread. (Adjective) Ⅰ 1. 한정용법 : 형용사가직접명사앞또는뒤에서수식하는용법. * I found an empty box. * He was awake all the night. (2 형식 ) * I found the cage empty.( 서술용법 ; 5 형식 ) * I found the empty cage. ( 한정용법 ) 형용사가주격보어나목적격보어로쓰이는경우를형용사의서술적용법이라한다. 한정용법에만쓰이는형용사 * an inner pocket : 안주머니. * a woolen goods : 모직물. * the outer world : 외부세계. * a woolen box : 나무상자. * the former case : 전자의경우. * a golden saying : 금언. * the upper lip : 윗입술. * a lone traveller : 외로운나그네. He is a drunken man. He is drunk. drunken 은반드시한정용법에만쓰이고, drunk 는서술용법에만쓰임. 2. 서술용법
9 서술용법에만쓰이는형용사. a- 로시작되는형용사 : afraid, awake, alone, asleep, ashamed, aware 등과 fond, content, unable, worth 등이모두서술용법에만사용됨. * I am afraid of death. be fond of~ : ~ 을좋아하다. * be ashamed of~ : ~ 을부끄러워하다. * be aware of~ : ~ 을알다. * be afraid of~ : ~ 을두려워하다. * The bird is still alive. live 는동사 [liv] 로서 살다 이나형용사로쓰이면 [laiv] 로발음, 살아있는, 활기있는 의뜻으로한정용법에쓰임. living 역시살아있는의뜻으로한정용법에쓰임. * The baby is sound asleep. ( 이때 sound 는부사, 깊이 ) 3. 서술용법의차이에따라뜻이달라지는단어 * a certain lady.( 어떤부인 ), It is quite certain. ( 확실한 ) * Brown is late.( 늦다 ), the late Brown.( 고 Brown) * He is the present king. ( 한정용법 ; 현재의왕 ) * The king was present. ( 서술용법 ; 참석하다 ) 서술용법은주격보어, 목적격보어, 명사뒤에서한정용법등세가지로쓰임. * her late husband : 고인이된남편. * the late king : 선왕. * right : 한정용법으로쓰이면 오른쪽의 서술용법으로쓰이면 올바른 4. 형용사의후위수식 1 두개이상의형용사가명사를수식할때. * She is a lady beautiful kind and rich. 2 형용사가다른요소와결합되어길어질때. * This is a useful dictionary. * I have a dictionary useful for children. ( 형용사구 ) 3 -thing, -body 를수식하는형용사는후위수식. * Please give me something hot. 4 -able, -ible 로끝나는형용사가최상급 all, every 다음에오는명사를수식할때. * I have tired every means possible. * This is the best method conceivable. 5 서술용법의형용사가명사수식. * He is the greatest poet alive. 형용사절의 who is, which 가생략된형식. a boy (who is) ten years old. the latter (which is) written in English. 6 관용어구. * from time immemorial: 옛날부터. * the sum total : 합계, 총계. * Asia Minor : 소아시아. * the authorities concerned: 관계당국. * God almighty : 전능의신. * a poet laureate : 계관시인. 5. 형용사의어순 관사등 서수 기수 성질 대소 생태, 색 신, 구재료 소속 a, an first one heavy large white new American the second two valuable small yellow old Swiss these last several black wooden * My first new salary is spent. 6. the + 형용사 ( 또는 p.p.) 의용법 1 복수보통명사 * The rich have troubles as well as the poor. 2 단수보통명사 * The deceased was a very up right statesman. the deceased: 고인. the accused : 피고인. the dead : 죽은자등은단수보통명사로단수취급한다. 3 추상명사로쓰일때. * The good and the beautiful do not always go together.
10 ( 선과미가항상병행하는것은아니다.) 7. 취하는형용사 * This book is worth reading. * It is worth while to read this book. * My house is near the lake. * They are opposite each other. * They are very like each other. 이들을전치사로볼수도있음. 8. 수량형용사 Many, Much * Many a student has repeated the same mistake. = Many students have repeated the same mistake. many a + 단수명사는복수의의미지만반드시단수동사를사용. * a good many a great many a great number of + 복수명사 a large number of 많은, 수많은, 수 에쓰임. a multitude of I have a good many things to do today. A large number of people visit the historic site. * a good deal of + 물질 추상명사 a great deal of : 많은양의, 상당한양의. He has had to spend a good deal of money on medicines. * a lot of lots of + 복수또는단수명사 (a) plenty of : 많은, 수많은. 수또는양 에쓰임. She spend a lot of money on clothes. * as many: 같은정도의수. 동수의. as much: 같은정도의양, 동량의. * like so many: 같은수의 ~ 처럼. like so much: 같은양의 ~ 처럼. He made ten mistakes in as many lines. (as many = ten) ( 그는열줄에서열개의잘못을저질렀다.) There were five accidents in as many days. (as many = five) (5 일동안에 5 건의사고가발생했다.) She was respected, and her husband as much despised. ( 그녀는존경을받았는데, 남편은그만큼멸시를받았다.) He drank two bottles of beer and as much wine. ( 그는맥주두병과포도주두병을마셨다.) They worked like so many ants. ( 그들은개미떼처럼일했다.) * not so much A as B = not A so much as B = less A than B = B rather than A = A 라기보다는오히려 B 이다. He is not so much a scholar as a statesman. = He is not a scholar so much as a statesman. = He is a statesman rather than a scholar. * not so much as = not even = ~ 조차도못한다. She can not so much as write her own name. = She can not even write her own name. * not much = 너무 ~ 은아니다. He is not much of a scholar.( 그는대단한학자는아니다.) I do not see much of him. ( 나는그를자주만나지는않는다.) * without so much as = without even = ~ 조차도없이. He left without so much as saying goodbye to me. 9. 수량형용사 Few, Little * few, a few: 수표시에사용. few : 거의없는, 별로없는 ; 부정을나타냄. a few: 조금있는 ; 긍정의기분을나타냄. He has few friends. ( 거의없다.)
11 He has a few friends. ( 약간있다.) * little, a little: 모두양표시에사용. little : 별로없는 ; 부정의기분. a little: 약간있는 ; 긍정의기분. I have a little money with me. ( 약간있다.) I have little money with me. ( 거의없다.) * not a few = quite a few = no few = a good many = many = 상당히많은. 수 에사용. There are not a few such men. * only a few = but few = 약간. He has only a few friends. * the little I did the little (what little) I could.( 나는미력이나마전력을다했다.) the little 은뒤에수식하는말이오므로 the 가붙는다. * not a little = quite a little = no little = much = 꽤많은. 양 에사용. It has caused me not a little anxiety. (not a little = considerable) * I little dreamed that I should never see him again. = Little did I dream that I should never see him again. ( 내가그를다시는보지못하리라는것은꿈에도생각하지못했다.) * little better than = as good as = ~ 과거의같은. He is little better than a beggar. * little short of = almost It is little short of a miracle. ( 그것은기적이나다름없다.) 10. 수사 1 five hundred / five thousand / five million. hundreds of people / five million inhabitants. 2 $ 2,358 = two thousand three hundred and fifty-eight dollars. hundred 다음에 and 를넣어읽는다. * (the year) 1981 = nineteen eighty-one 처럼 100 단위가없을때에는 three thousand and twenty-one 으로읽는다. 연대는둘씩나누어읽는다. 1990: nineteen hundred. 1801: eighteen hundred and one. (or eighteen one) * (at) 7: 55 a.m. = seven fifty-five [ / ei / em] * a girl in her teens 3 He was the first president of the university. Do it a second time. (a second time = again) Two-thirds of the apples were bad. Two-thirds of the land was uncultivated. 서수사 : 서수사에는 the 를붙임. first, second, third 이외는기수사에 -th 를붙여서수사를만듬. 철자에주의 : fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth, twentieth, fourteenth, fortieth. Napoleon Ⅲ = Napoleon the Third. World War Ⅱ = World War Two 혹은 the Second World War. a third world war.( 또다른세계대전 ) 분수읽기. ( 분자는기수, 분모는서수 ) ½ = a half (or one half), ⅔ = two thirds, ⅓ = one third. 4 2/7 = four and two sevenths. 분수의수는그뒤의말에따라결정됨. one and a half 는단수로받는다 = two point three four. 4 I had to pay double the usual price. * He has twice as much money as I have. * This is three times as large as that. = This is three times the size of that. (Adjective) Ⅱ
12 1. 1 일음절어. * tall - taller - tallest. * long - longer - longest. 단모음 + 단자음의경우는자음을하나더쓰고 -er, -est 를붙임. * big - bigger - biggest. 2 -le, -ly, -some, -ow, -er 등의어미로끝나는 2 음절어. * able - abler - ablest. * early - earlier - earliest. 3 More, Most. : 3 음절이상의형용사인 beautiful, diligent, interesting 등과 2 음절어로서어미가 -ful, -able, -less, -ous, -ive, -ing 등으로끝나는단어는 more, most 를붙여서비교급과최상급을만듦. well-known - better-known - best-known. fine-looking - finer-looking - finest-looking: 잘생긴. 2. 불규칙변화 * good (well) - better - best. * bad (ill) - worse - worst. * many (much) - more - most. * little - less - least. * old - older - oldest : 나이먹은, 늙은. elder - eldest : 연상의. He is three years older than I. He is my elder brother. * late - later - latest : 늦은, 나중의. ( 시간적개념 ) - latter - last : 마지막의. ( 순서적개념 ) the latest news.( 최근의소식 ), the last news.( 마지막소식 ) * far - farther - farthest: 먼. ( 거리적개념 ) - further - furthest: 먼. ( 정도적개념 ) As I was very tired, I could not walk any farther. ( 내가매우피곤했으므로, 나는더이상걸을수가없었다.) We must get further information. ( 우리는더많은정보를입수해야한다.) 3. 라틴어비교급 : 어미가 -or 인형용사의비교급은 than 대신에 to 를사용하며, 이때 to 는전치사 to + 목적격, 즉 superior, inferior, senior, junior, exterior, interior, anterior, posterior, major, minor 등으로사용한다. He is three years senior to me. He is my senior by three years. 4. 원급 * as as : 동등비교. * not so as: 열등비교. She is as tall as Tom. She is not so tall as Tom. * He is as poor as (poor) can be. = He is as poor as anything. as A as (A) can be, as A as anything: 더할나위없이, 극도로 A 하는. * He walked as fast as possible. = He walked as fast as he could. as A as possible, as A as one can : 될수있는한 A 하게 * He was as brave as any man in the world. He is as great a statesman as ever lived. as ~ as any + 명사 : 어느누구에게도못지않게 한 as ~ as ever + 과거동사 : 지금까지 한,( 최상급의뜻 ) 누구에게도못지않게 한 5. 비교급 1 우등비교 * He is five inches taller than Mary. * This is much bigger than that. ( 이것은그것보다훨씬크다.) much, still, even, (by) far 등이비교급과함께쓰여서비교급을강조하며 훨씬, 한층 의뜻으로쓰인다.
13 2절대비교 : 비교의상대없이비교급을쓰는경우. * the younger generation. ( 젊은세대 ) * the higher classes. ( 상류계급 ) * higher education. ( 고등교육 ) * The greater part of the students are teen-agers. ( 학생들의대부분은 10대들이다.) * Her upper tooth has to be pulled. ( 그녀는윗니를빼야한다.) 3열등비교. * Mary is less tall than Tom. = Mary is not so tall as Tom. 6., 동일인물의비교 같은사람 ( 동일인 ) 또는같은물건의서로다른성질을비교할때는음절에관계없이 more + 원급 + than의형태를쓴다. * He is cleverer than his brother. * He is more clever than honest. (= rather) 7. the + 비교급 : 비교급앞에는원칙적으로정관사 the를사용하지않지만다음의경우엔예외적으로정관사 the를사용한다. 1 of A and B 또는 of the two 등의구가있을때. * Tom is the taller of the two. 2 원인이나이유를표시하는부사구또는부사절이있을경우. * He worked the harder, because his master praised him. 3 the + 비교급... the + 비교급... * The more one has, the more wants. 8. 부정구문 1 A is no more B than C is D = A is not B any more than C is D = A is not B just as C is not D = A가 B가아닌것은 C가 D가아닌것과같다. ( 양자부정 ) A whale is no more a fish than a horse is. = A whale is not a fish any more than a horse is (a fish). 2 A is no less B than C is D = C가 D인것과만찬가지로 A가 B이다. ( 양자긍정 ) * He is no less guilty as you are. = He is as much guilty as you are. ( 네가죄가있는것과마찬가지로, 그도죄가있다.) * He was no less a person than the president. ( 그는다른사람이아닌바로대통령자신이었다.) no less a person than : 다름아닌바로 인. 3 not more than : 이상은 ~이아니다. not less than : ~보다덜 ~하지않다, ~에못지않게 하다. * He is not more diligent than you are. * Light is not less necessary than fresh air to health. ( 빛은신선한공기못지않게건강에필요하다.) 4 no more than = only : 겨우, 단지. no less than = as many as = as much as : 만큼이나. not more than = at most : 기껏해야. not less than = at least : 적어도. * He has no more than 10,000 won.( 그는겨우만원밖에없다.) He has no less than 10,000 won.( 그는만원이나갖고있다.) * I have not more than three hundred books. ( 나는기껏해야 300권의책을가지고있다.) * I have not less than three hundred books. ( 나는적어도 300권의책을가지고있다.) 9. 최상급 * She is the most diligent (girl) of our classmates. (= in our class) * He is the tallest of all his classmates. 최상급앞에는원칙적으로정관사 the 를쓸것. of 다음에는복수보통명사를, in 다음에는단수명사를쓸것.
14 * The boy studies hardest of them all. * He runs fastest of all. 형용사의최상급앞에는 the 를사용, 부사의최상급에는 the 를사용치않음. * She is by far the tallest player in the team. 최상급을강조할땐 by far, much 를사용. * 절대최상급 This is a most interesting book to me. a most = a very. most people: 대부분의사람들. the most: 가장 ~ 한. at best: 기껏해야. at most: 많아야. * He is the last man to tell a lie. ( 그는거짓말할사람이절대아니다.) 10. 최상급 1 정관사가명사또는대명사의소유격으로대체되는경우. * It is his greatest pleasure to read novels. 2 동일인, 동일물의성질을비교할때. * This river is deepest at this point. 3 부사의최상급. * He always works hardest in the office. 11. 비교문장전환 * Mt. Everest is the highest mountain in the world. 의내용을네가지로달리나타낼수있다. No (other) mountain in the world is so high as Mt. Everest. ( 부정주어 + so + 원급 + as ~ ) No (other) mountain in the world is higher than Mt. Everest. ( 부정주어 + 비교급 + than ~ ) Mt. Everest is higher than any other mountain in the world. ( 주어 + 비교급 + than any other + 단수명사 ) Mt. Everest is the highest of all the mountains in the world. ( 주어 + 최상급 + of all (the) + 복수명사 ) (Adverb) 1. 부사의형태 1 부사 : 형용사 + ly. * 형용사 + ly: slow slowly. careful carefully. * -y + ly = ily - happy happily. * le + ly = ly - possible possibly. 예외 : sole solely. whole wholly. * -ue + ly = uly, true truly, due duly. * -ll + ly = -lly, full fully. 2 형용사와같은형태의부사. early, long, hard, enough, hear, well, ill, far 등... * I get up early in the morning. ( 부사 ) * The early bird catches the worm. ( 형용사 ) 2. 부사의기능 : 원칙적으로동사, 형용사, 다른부사 ( 구, 절 ) 등을수식하며, 명사, 대명사, 문장전체를수식한다. * He speaks English well. * Evidently he has made a mistake. = It is evident that he has made a mistake. 3. 부사의위치빈도부사 ( 정도부사 ) 는 how often 에대한답으로 always, generally, regularly, often, never, sometimes, seldom. 정도부사에는 nearly, almost, still, barely 등이있다. 위치 : 일반동사앞, be 동사다음, 조동사와본동사사이에온다. 목적어가명사일때 put on your coat (O) : 타 + 부 + 목 put your coat on (O) : 타 + 목 + 부 목적어가대명사일때 put on it (X) put it on (O) : 타 + 목 + 부 자동사 + 전치사는하나의타동사구로쓰이므로분리시킬수없음. Look at the boy. Look at him. ( ) Look him at. ( )
15 4. 배열순서 1 시간부사어구 : 작은단위 + 큰단위장소부사어구 : 작은단위 + 큰단위 * I'll call on you at seven o'clock next Sunday. * We spent the holidays in a cottage is the morning. 2 장소 + 방법 + 시간부사방법 + 장소 + 시간부사짧은부사구 + 긴부사구 * He came to Korea by ship last year. * She played beautiful at the concert last night. * We arrived safely at the station. 5. 중요한부사용법 still + 본동사 명사 + enough (O) be동사 + still enough + 명사 (O) 조동사 + still + 본동사 형. 부 + enough (O) still + 부정조동사 enough + 형. 부 (X) * He is still standing. : 그는아직도서있다. He is standing still. : 그는가만히서있다. ( 형 ) * She still dislikes him. He still doesn't like her. * I need enough eggs. = I need eggs enough. * Only I can see him in the room. I can only see him in the room. I can see only him in the room. I can see him only in the room. ago는현재를기준으로지금부터 ~전의뜻이고과거시제와함께쓰이고, before는과거기준으로그때보다그이전. 과거완료와함께쓰임. before는막연한과거를나타내어현재완료와쓸수있으나 ago는현재완료와쓸수없음. * He passed away three ago. * He said that she had died three years before. * I have seen this picture before. * I have seen her a few days ago. (X) 6. very, much의용법 very 형. 부원급현재분사 much 동사비교. 최상급과거분사 * He breaks his words very often. * I don't like beef much. 과거분사가명사를직접수식하는한정용법으로쓰일때와동사로서의성격을잃고형용사적인용법으로쓰이고있는 tired, pleased, delighted, surprised, satisfied 등인경우에는 much 대신 very 를사용. * A very celebrated scholar presided at the meeting. * She had a very annoyed look on her face. * He was very tired with a long walk. 서술형용사인 afraid, alike, fond 등은 much 로수식. the + very + 최상급 much + the + 최상급 * He is much ashamed of his behaviour. * He is the very best runner in our class. * He is much the best runner in our class. 7. 의문부사 : 출제빈도매우높음 * 직접의문문 : 의문부사 + 동사 + 주어? * 간접의문문 : 의문부사 + 주어 + 동사 ( 부사절 ) * Where does he live? * I don't know + When should I do it? I don't know when I should do it. ( 간접의문 ; know 의목적어 ) I don't know when to do it. ( 부정사구 ; 명사적용법 ) think, believe, imagine, suppose 등의동사다음에직접의문문을연결할때에는의문부사를문두로도치. * Do you think + Where does he lives?
16 Do you think where he lives? ( ) Where do you think he lives? ( ) 8. * where, when, how, why 등은 부사 + 접속사 의역할을하며 전치사 + which 로바꿀수가있다. * This is the place + He was born in it. This is the place which he was born in. ( 형용사절 ) This is the place in which he was born. This is the place where he was born. This is the place that he was born. (where 의대용 ) This is where he was born.( 주격보어 ; where 의명사절, 선행사 the place 생략 ) * 관계부사의계속적용법. ~, where ~, and there.. ( 그리고거기에서...) ~, when ~, and then... ( 그리고그때...) We went to Rome, where we stayed for a week. Wait till seven, when he will be back. You may go wherever you like. (wherever = to any place that) Wherever you may go, I will follow you. (wherever = no matter where) (Pronoun) Ⅰ 1. 인칭대명사 2. It 의용법 1 앞에언급한명사를받는다. * He took a stone and threw it. (= a stone) 2 앞에나온구나절을받는다. * The prisoner attempted to escape, but found it impossible. * He is innocent, I know it quite well. 3 가주어로쓰일때. * It is very pretty that doll. 4 가목적어로쓰일때. * I make it a rule to get up early. to have breakfast at eight. 5 It 가비인칭대명사로쓰일때. a 날씨, 명암, 시간, 거리, 계절. * It is fine today. ( 날씨 ) * It is spring now. ( 계절 ) * What time is it, now? ( 시간 ) * How far is it from here to the station? ( 거리 ) * It is dark in the room. ( 명암 ) b 막연한상황을나타낼때 * How goes it with you? ( 요즘경기가어떻습니까?) * How is it in the market? 3. It ~ that 강조구문. 1 평서문의강조. * I bought the book yesterday. It was I that(who) bought the book yesterday. It was the book that I bought yesterday. It was yesterday that(when) I bought the book. 진주어, 가주어구문인경우. * that 절을 it 자리에놓아도문장이성립함. * It is that 을생략하면문장이성립하지않음. 강조구문인경우. * that 절을 it 자리에놓으면문장이성립하지않음. * It is that 을생략해도문장이성립함. 2 의문문의강조. * Did you send me the flower? You sent me the flower.
17 It was you that sent me the flower. Was it you that sent me the flower? 의문문 평서문 강조구문 다시의문문의순으로고침. 4. 수, 성, 격. 인칭대명사란사람의호칭인 I, he, him, you 등이며, 인칭대명사가문장에서주어, 주격보어자리에있을땐주격, 타동사와전치사의목적어나목적격보어자리에있으면목적격을사용한다. 전치사다음에타동사의목적어에는반드시목적격을사용한다. 5. 소유대명사 1 소유대명사 = 소유격 + 명사 * This dictionary is mine. (= my dictionary) 소유대명사는 소유격 + 명사 대신독립적으로쓰이며 mine, ours, yours, his, hers, theirs 등이있음. 2 이중소유격에서 of 다음에소유대명사 a, an, this, that, any, no, which, some, these, another 등은소유격과함께쓸수없으므로 a, an + 명사 + of + 소유대명사 로쓴다. * Show me another book of hers. 3 소유격의의미를강조하기위해 own 을사용한다. * a, any, some, this 등 + 명사 + of one's own 의형태로사용. * I have no house of my own. 6. 재귀대명사 1 재귀적용법 : self 형의재귀대명사가타동사의목적어로쓰이는경우, 주어의행위결과가다시주어자신에게미치는경우. ( 동사에만 stress). * She killed herself. committed suicide. took her own life. 그녀는자살했다. * History repeats itself. 2 강조용법. * I myself wrote this book. = I wrote this book myself. 재귀대명사가강조용법일땐재귀대명사를생략해도문장이성립하며, 재귀대명사에 stress 가옴. 7. 전치사 + 재귀대명사 1 for oneself : 혼자힘으로 (without another's help), 자기자신을위하여 (for one's sake) 2 by oneself : 외로이, 홀로 (all alone) * He lives in that house by himself. 3 기타. * The candle went out of itself. ( 저절로 ) * to oneself: 자기혼자에게만. * beside oneself = insane = mad = at the end of self-control : 제정신이아닌, 미친. * come to oneself = become conscious: 의식을찾다, 제정신이들다. * in itself: 본질적으로 8. That of~, Those of~ * The population of Japan is much larger than korea. ( ) The population of Japan is much larger that of korea. ( ) 반복을피하기위하여 that of korea 라고해야함. 앞에나온단어가단수일땐 that, 복수일땐 those 를사용. 9. This, That 의용법 1 the one the other the former the latter that this 전자후자 the one 이후자 the other 가전자를가리킬때도있음. : 많이사용되지않음. * We keep a dog and a cat; I like the one better than the other. 2 This, That 이앞문장또는뒷문장의내용을가리킬때. * He did not answer the letter, and this made me all the more angry. * Those who like borrowing dislike paying. (those who: ~ 하는사람들, He who: ~ 하는사람 ) 10. Such 의용법
18 1 Such was my reward. ( 내가받은보답은이런것이었다.) * Such는보어이다. 이것은단수, 복수에두루쓰인다. 2 as such의형태로앞에나온어구나문장을받음. * He is a child and must be treated as such.(= a child) 그는어린아이이므로그렇게 ( 어린아이로 ) 취급되어야한다. 3 such ~ as : 과같은 ~ such as: 가령 ~과같은. * Such men as Washington and Lincoln are rare. ( 워싱턴과같은이는드물다.) * Autumn gives us fruits, such as pears, persimmons, and apples. ( 가을은우리에게배, 감, 사과같은과일을준다.) 3기타. * Such + 명사 + that 너무 ~ 하므로. So + 형용사 / 부사 + that * She is such a lovely child that every body loves her. * He had such a fever that he nearly died. = He was so feverish that he nearly died. 11. The same 용법 1 We must do the same. ( 우리는같은것을해야한다.) 이 same에는항상 the가따른다. 여기서는 do의목적어이다. 2 This is the same watch as I gave her. ( 동일종류 ) This is the same watch that I gave her. ( 동일물 ) 이 same은형용사이다. 보통 the same ~ as 은동일종류를 the same ~ that 은동일물을나타낸다. 3 Are these the same people who came here yesterday? ( 이분들이어제여기에왔던그분들인가?) the same은 that 이외의관계대명사나관계부사와도같이쓰인다. the same ~ where (when, who, as)... 4 They do not think the same as we do. ( 그들은우리처럼생각하지않는다.) 부사로서의 the same. the same = in like manner. 12. So의용법 1 대명사로서목적어로쓰임. So는대명사로서 do, say, tell, speak, think, suppose, imagine, hope, believe 등의타동사의목적어로쓰인다. * Is he coming? * I think so. 2 보어로쓰일때. * He had been weak, but he wouldn't be so no longer. 13. So am I, So I am. A: I am pretty. B: I am pretty, too. ( = So am I. ) A: You are pretty. B: Yes, I am pretty, indeed. ( = So I am. ) 14. 부정대명사 one 의용법 1 총인칭의용법 * One should keep one's word. one 이일반적인뜻으로사람, 세상사람, 누구나와같이사용되는경우 총인칭용법. 총인칭용법으로사람의뜻인경우에도 he, him, himself, she, her, herself 가쓰임. * One took his book and the other took his pen. one 이막연하게사람을가리키지않고, 한사람을가리킬때에는 him, his, himself 등으로받고있음. 2 명사의반복을피할때. A + 단수보통명사 one. ( 같은종류이나다른물건 ) the, this, that + 단수보통명사 it ( 똑같은그물건 ) * If you need a book, I will lend you one. * I bought a book, but I lost it. 3 성질형용사또는지시형용사 + one(s). * Your plan is a good one on paper. one : 성질형용사나지시형용사 (the, this, that 등 ) 다음에오는명사의대용으로쓰이는데단수이면 one, 복
19 수이면 ones 를사용함. 4 a certain 의뜻으로쓰임. * I received a letter from one Mr. Jones. 15. one 사용할수없는경우 1 셀수없는명사 ( 물질 추상명사 ) 다음의 one 은생략됨. * I like a red rose better than a white one. * I like red wine better than white. (one 생략, wine 이물질명사 ) 2 명사, 대명사의소유격다음이나소유격 + own 다음에는 one 을생략한다. * Your father's house is larger than my father's. * This bed is my own. 3 기수나서수다음에 one 은생략한다. * He has three cars and I have two. 4 최상급의형용사, the + 비교급 뒤의 one 은생략한다. * He has two sisters; the elder is more beautiful than the younger. 16. One, Other, Another 1 one, the other : 하나는, 또하나는 ( 명확히 2 개의것이있을때 ) the one, the other : 전자, 후자 * I have two brothers; One is in England, and the other in America. * Mary has a white and a red rose; the one is lovelier than the other. 2 one, another( 또는 a second), the other: 셋중에서순서없이열거할때. one, another, a third, the other: 넷중에서순서없이열거할때. the first, the second, the third: 셋중에서순서나등급대로열거할때. * There are three men. One is a doctor, another(is) a teacher, and the other(is) a lawyer. * There are four flowers in the vase; one is 'rose', another, 'tulip', a third, 'carnation' and the other ( 또는 the fourth) is 'lily'. 3 some -, others: 약간은, 또약간은. ( 집단이나한계가막연할때 ) some -, the others: 약간은그리고나머지는.( 집단이나한계가명확할때 ) * Some went on foot; and others (went) by bus. * There are ten students; some study German, and the others (study) French. 17. Another 의네가지용법 1 하나더 (the more) 의뜻. * Will you have another cup of coffee? * I am going to stay another week. ( 앞으로또일주일 ) 2 다른 (different) 의뜻. * I don't like this; show me another. 3 역시같은사람 (also one, a similar one) 의뜻. * If I am a fool, You are another. 4 A is one thing and B is another: A 와 B 는별개의것이다. * To know is one thing and to teach is another. 5 기타. * They were helping one another in their work. * They looked at each other. one another 는셋이상에서 each other 는둘사이에서 서로서로 의뜻으로쓰이는것이원칙이나명확히구별해서사용하지는않는다. 18. Some, Any 의용법 1 긍정문에서는 some, 의문문, 조건문, 부정문에서는 any. * I have a lot of pencils; if you want any, I will give you some. 2 권유, 의뢰의의문문과긍정의대답을기대하는의문문 some. * Will you have some beer? * Any one can do it. 3 긍정문의 any: 어떤 ~ 일지라도. * Any child knows it. 4 some = about, a certain. * We waited some twenty minutes. (= about) * He went to some place in Africa. (= a certain) 19. None, No 의용법 * none: 단독으로쓰여부정대명사. no : 명사에붙어형용사로쓰임.
20 * none 은원래 no one 의뜻으로대명사로서단수, 복수어느쪽에나쓰이지만가산명사를나타낼때는보통복수취급을한다. * no 는 I have~, There is~ 문형에서 not any 대신에쓰여 조금도 ~ 아닌 의뜻을나타낸다. * None have succeeded in solving the problem. ( 아무도그문제를풀지못했다.) He sought rest and found none. ( 그는휴식을찾았으나조금도찾지못했다.) * I have no children. ( 나는어린애가없다.) There is no hope. ( 희망은조금도없다.) He is no genius. ( 그는결코천재가아니다.) He is no genius. 는 He is not a genius. 보다강한뜻이다. 20. each, every, all 등이부정어와함께쓰이면부분부정이된다. 1 not + both: 둘다 ~ 한것은아니다. * I know both of them. ( 완전긍정 ) * I do not know both of them. ( 부분부정 ) * I do not know either of them. = I know neither of them. ( 완전긍정 ) 2 not + all: 모두가 ( 셋이상일때 ) ~ 한것은아니다. * I invited all of them. ( 완전긍정 ) * I did not invite all of them. ( 부분부정 ) * I did not invite any of them. ( 완전부정 ) = I invited none of them. not + any = none. * All is not gold that glitters. ( 부분부정 ) 3 not + every: 누구나 ( 어느것이나 ) ~ 한것은아니다. * Everybody likes her. ( 완전긍정 ) * Everybody does not like her. ( 부분부정 ) * Nobody likes her. ( 완전부정 ) Every + not 의완전부정은 nobody( 사람인경우 ), nothing( 사물인경우 ). 4 부분부정. * not + always: 항상 ~ 한것은아니다. The rich are not always happy. The rich are never happy. * not + completely : 완전히 ~ 한것은아니다. Not all of the crew completely happy. * not + entirely = not + altogether: 전적으로 ~ 한것은아니다. You are not entirely free from blame. I do not altogether agree with him. * not + necessarily: 반드시 ~ 한것은아니다. The greatest minds do not necessarily ripen the quickest. * not + absolutely : 절대적으로 ~ 한것은아니다. not ~ in the least = not ~ at all = never: 결코 ~ 이아니다. ( 완전부정 ) 21. At all, -thing, -body 의용법 1 at all. * They are not interested at all. ( 조금도 ~ 이아니다 ) * If you do it at all do it well. ( 조건문 ; 적어도, 기왕에 ) * Do you believe it at all? ( 의문문 ; 도대체 ) * I am surprised that he passed the exam at all. ( 평서문 ; 어쨌든 ) * There are very little if at all. ( 관용적 ; 있다손치더라도 ) 2 -thing, -body. : any 와 some 의용법에준한다. * Is there anything interesting in today's paper? * Is anybody in the room? * I saw something white in the dark. -thing 의대명사를수식하는형용사는대개그뒤에온다. * everything: 둘중하나, something: 상당한것, nothing: 하찮은것. Money is everything to her. He thinks something of himself. If want to be anybody, you must make efforts.
21 She was a humble nobody a few years ago. 22. Either, Neither, both. * Do you know either of the two sisters? ( 둘중의하나 ) Do you know any of the sisters? ( 셋이상중의하나 ) either side = both side. * If you do not go, I will not, either. If you will not do so, neither will I. not 과 too 는같이못쓰며 too 대신 either 를쓴다. not either = neither, neither will I = nor will I. * I do not know both of the sisters. ( 그두자매를다알지는못한다.) not + both = 부분부정. (Pronoun) Ⅱ 1. 용법 : 의문문을나타내는 who, whom, what, which, when 등을의문사라고하며크게의문대명사와의문부사로나눈다. * 의문대명사 : who, whom, whose... 의문부사 : why, where, when, how... 1 직접의문문과간접의문문. * Who is that man? * I don't know who that man is. 의문사 + 동사 + 주어형태 직접의문문. 직접의문문이다른문장의일부분 ( 주어자리, 목적어자리, 주격보어자리, 동격자리 ) 이되어명사로쓰이는경우. ( 의문사 + 주어 + 동사 간접의문문 ) 2 의문사가문두로나가는경우. : 동사가 think, suppose, believe, imagine, guess... 등의생각동사일때는반드시의문사를문두로도치. * What does he want? * Do you know what he wants? yes, no 의대답이가능하다. * Do you think what he wants? ( ) What do you think he wants? ( ) yes, no 로대답할수없다. * 의문사절은명사처럼글의주어, 목적어, 보어의역할을한다. Who did it is a question to me. ( 누가그것을했는지나에게문제가된다. 주어의역할.) The question is who did it. ( 문제는누가그것을했느냐이다. 보어역할.) Tell me who did it. ( 누가그것을했는지말해다오. 동사의목적어 ) There is no doubt as to who did it. ( 그것을누가했는지에대해의심할바없다. 전치사의목적어.) * 의문사절이전치사의목적어가될때, 전치사가생략되는경우가많다. They are ignorant what they are after. ( 그들은자기들이무엇을추구하고있는지도모른다. be ignorant of 의 of 가생략되었다.) I have no idea who did it. ( 누가그것을했는지전혀모른다. as to 가생략된것이다.) = I have no idea as to who did it. 2. 수사의문문 : 자기말을강하게표현. * Who knows? ( 수사의문문 ; 누가알겠는가?) = Nobody knows ( 평서문 ; 아무도모른다.) * Who does not know the fact? = Everybody knows the fact. 일반적으로수사의문문이긍정이면평서문은부정문, 부정이면긍정문이다. * Who is there but commits errors? = There is nobody but commits errors.( 관 대주격으로 that ~ not). = Everybody commits errors. Who is there that does not commit errors? ( 형용사절 ) There is nobody that does not commit errors. ( 형용사절 ) * Who would do such a thing but a fool? = Who but a fool would do such a thing. = None(Only) but a fool would do such a thing. but 은전치사로서 ~ 을제외하고는의뜻. (save, except) 3. 부가의문문주로회화에서쓰이며앞문장 ( 주절 ) 이긍정이면부정의부가의문을, 앞문장이부정이면긍정의부가의문을사용. * They are listening to the radio, aren't they?
22 * She can't speak French, can she? 주절에 be 동사가있을땐 be 동사, 조동사가있을땐부가의문에서도조동사를사용한다. * Tom has a book, doesn't he? ( ) hasn't he? ( ) have 가본동사로쓰여져 소유하다 의뜻일땐부가의문에서는 do 로쓸것. * You've been to Pusan, haven't you? have 가조동사로쓰일땐 have 로쓴다. * You have to study English, don't you? have to 는부가의문문에서반드시 have 대신 do 를사용한다. * You bought a new car, didn't you? 일반동사는부가의문문에서 do 를사용한다. * You should study harder, shouldn't you? * I ought to go by plane, shouldn't I? 조동사 should 나 ought to 는반드시 shouldn't I 의형태로쓴다. * She's doing her best, isn't she? (= She is doing her best.) She's done her best, hasn't she? (= She has done her best.) * You'd better go at once, hadn't you? You'd 는 You had 의약자이며 had better 의부가의문문은 hadn't 이다. * Do it at once, will you? Have a cup of coffee, won't you? 명령문의부가의문은주절이긍정이든부정이든언제나 will you? 로쓰며단, 권유의뜻으로쓰인명령문은 won't you? 를사용한다. * We have no time, do we? He seldom came here, did he? 주절에 no, nothing, seldom, hardly, scarcely 등이있을경우는이들자체가부정의뜻이포함되어있으므로부가의문문은긍정으로쓴다. 4. Who 1 Who * This is the girl. She is a good typist. This is the girl who is a good typist. ( 형용사절 ) She 가주격이므로주격 who 를사용. 2 Whom * This is the boy. I wanted to see him. This is the boy whom I wanted to see. 3 Whose * A child is called an orphan. His parents are dead. A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan. A child 와 His 는같은사람, His 가소유격이므로소유격관계대명사인 whose 를씀. 5. 관계대명사 Which : 선행사가동물이나사물일때쓰이며주격으로 which, 소유격으로 of which 나 whose, 목적격으로 which 가쓰인다. 또한 which 가계속적용법으로쓰일땐구, 절, 형용사들을선행사로받는용법이있다. 1 주격, 목적격으로쓰일때. * I have a book. It is very interesting. I have a book which is very interesting. * This is the dictionary. I bought it yesterday. This is the dictionary which I bought ( 목 ) yesterday. 관계대명사다음에이어지는문장에서주어가생략되었으면주격, 전치사나타동사의목적어가생략되었으면목적격으로사용한다. 2 소유격으로쓰일때. * This is the word. I don't know the meaning of it. This is the word which I don't know the meaning of. which 는전치사 of 의목적격이므로생략가능. This is the word of which I don't know the meaning. This is the word the meaning of which I don't know. This is the word whose meaning I don't know. which 앞에전치사 of 가있을땐 of which 가소유격이기때문에 which 를생략할수없다. 3 which 가구, 절, 형용사를선행사로받을때. * He wanted to come, which was impossible. (= but it) 관계대명사앞에 comma 가있으면계속적인용법으로서 접속사 (and, but, for, though) + 대명사 의형태이다.
23 4 신분, 지위, 성격을선행사로받을때. * He is a gentleman, which his brother is not. 선행사가사람일지라도신분, 지위, 성격을나타낼때에는 who, whom 을쓰지않고 which 나 that 을사용한다. * She is no longer the shy girl which( 또는 that) she was ten years ago. that 은계속적인용법에는쓰이지않고제한적용법에만사용이가능하다. 6. 전치사 * This is the house. I spoke of it. This is the house which I spoke of. This is the house (which) I spoke of. This is the house of which I spoke. ( 전치사 + 관. 대는생략불가 ) This is the house that I spoke of. (that앞에서는전치사를쓸수없음.) 7. 관계대명사 that that은한정용법에만쓰이고, 계속적용법에서는쓸수없다. that은사물, 사람, 동물에모두쓰이며소유격이없다. that 앞에는전치사를쓸수없다. 1선행사가사람과동물일때. * A man and his dog that were passing by were injured. 2최상급, 서수사, the very, the only, the last, the same, every, all, any, no 다음에서는 that을쓴다. * He is the greatest poet that korea has ever produced. 3의문대명사 who, what, which 다음에서는 that을쓴다. * Who that has common sense can believe such a thing? ( 주격 ) * Which is the book that you want to read. ( 목적격 ) 8. That의용법 1 지시대명사. * Can you see that? * The climate of korea is milder than that of china. 2 지시형용사. * Give me that chair. * from that hour: 2시간부터. * at that time : 2시간에. that이지시형용사로쓰일땐 that + 명사 의형태로 that이다음에오는명사를수식하는형용사적으로쓰이며 저~, 그~ 의뜻으로쓰인다. 3 지시부사. * Don't eat that much. ( 그렇게많이먹지마라 ) that이수량이나정도를나타내는형용사나부사를수식하면서그만큼, 그렇게의뜻으로사용되는경우 지시부사. 4 접속사로쓰일때. * That he is innocent is certain. ( 주어 명사절 ) = It is certain that he is innocent. ( 진주어 ) that 다음의문장이완전한경우에는 that이접속사로쓰인경우이다. 5 It ~ that 강조구문. * I bought the book on Monday. = It was on Monday that I bought the book. 6 관계대명사로쓰일때. * He is the greatest actor that has ever lived. that이관계대명사일땐 that 앞에선행사가있어야하며 that~의문장에서주어, 목적어, 또는보어가생략되어야한다. 7 관계부사의대용으로쓰일때. * This is the last time that(when) I teach you. * This is the village that(where) the poet was born. that이관계부사 when, where, why, how 등의대용으로쓰임. That의발음 : 지시대명사, 지시형용사, 지시부사일때 [dæt]. 관계대명사, 접속사, 관계부사일때 [dət]. 9. 관계대명사 What * What(that which) is beautiful is not always good. ( 주어 명사절 )
24 * I will do what(all that) I can. ( 목적어 명사절 ) 관계대명사 what 은선행사를포함한다 : what = 선행사 + 관계대명사. what 은 that which~, all that~, anything that~, the thing which~ 와같은용법이다. what 은자체내에선행사와관계대명사가포함되었으며명사절을유도한다. * What one has: 재산, What one is : 인격. You should judge a man not by what he has but by what he is. * A is to B what C is to D = Just as C is to D, so is A to B = What C is to D, A is to B = A 가 B 에대한관계는 C 가 D 에대한관계와같다. Reading is to the mind what(as) exercise is to the body. = Just as exercise is to the body, so is reading to the mind. = What exercise is to the body, reading is to the mind. ( 독서가마음에대한관계는운동이신체에대한관계와같다.) * What is + 비교급 : 더욱 ~ 한것은. She is beautiful, and what is better still, tender-hearted. 10. 제한적용법과계속적용법 * He had three sons, who became statesmen. ( 계속적용법, who = and they) * He had three sons who became statesmen. ( 제한적, 한정적용법 ) 제한적용법 : 관계대명사가이끄는형용사절이앞에있는선행사를수식하며제한, 또는한정하는경우를제한적용법이라고하며, 관계대명사앞에,(comma) 가없고뒤에서올려번역한다. 계속적용법 : 관계대명사앞에,(comma) 가있으며선행사를수식, 그것에관해설명을하는경우를계속적용법이라고하며, 접속사 (and, but, for, though) + 대명사의역할을한다. 또한이것은위로부터내려번역하며관계대명사의생략이불가능하고 that 은이용법에쓸수없다. * He had four sons who became doctors. 제한적용법 - 의사가아닌아들이또있었는지도모른다. He had four sons, who became doctors. 계속적용법 - 아들넷이있었는데, 모두의사가되었다. * Everybody likes Tom, who is kind. (, who = for he) ( 모두 Tom 을좋아한다. 왜냐하면그는친절하기때문이다.) I met a boy, who told me the news. (, who = and he) ( 나는한소년을만났는데, 그가그소식을나에게말했다.) The farmer, who is poor, is honest. (, who = though he) ( 그농부는비록가난하지만정직하다.) 11. 관계대명사의생략 1 타동사또는전치사의목적격. * This is the boy (whom) we saw yesterday. ( 동사의목적어 ) * He has no friend (whom) he can depend upon. ( 전치사의목적어 ) * This is the house (which) he lives in. 관계대명사를생략할때, 관계대명사앞에있는전치사는뒤에온다. 2 주격보어, 목적격보어로쓰일때 * He is not the man (which or that) he was two years ago. 3 관계대명사다음에 there is, there are 가계속될때. * He taught me the difference (that) there is between right and wrong. 4 There is, Here is, It is, What is, Who is 로시작되는구문에서. * There is a boy (who) wants to see you. * It was he (that) met her yesterday. 5 예외적으로관계대명사가생략이안되는경우. a 관계대명사의계속적용법에서는생략이불가능하다. I bowed to the gentleman, whom I knew well. b 전치사 + 관계대명사가시간, 장소, 방법등을나타낼때. I remember the day on which he went to the front. (= when, 시간 ) c of which, of whom 이어느부분을나타낼때에는생략이불가능하다. I bought ten pencils, the half of which I gave my brother. 12. 복합관계대명사 : 관계사 + -ever.(whoever, whomever...) What 과복합관계대명사는모두선행사의역할과관계대명사역할을동시에하고있음. 1 명사적용법. * Give it to whoever wants it. (= anyone who; wants 의주어 )
25 * Give it to whomever you like. (= anyone whom; like 의목적어 ) * Choose whichever you like. (= anything that) * I will give you whatever you need. (= anything that) 2 형용사적용법. * You may read whatever book you like.(= any book that) * Take whichever book you like. (= any of the books that) * Whosever horse comes in first wins the prize. (= anyone whose) whosever 는거의쓰이지않고 anyone whose 가쓰인다. 2 부사적용법. ( 양보의부사절을유도 ) * Whoever may come, he will be welcome. (= No matter who) * Whatever you may do, do it well. (= No matter what) * Whichever you choose, you will be pleased. (= No matter which) 오늘의영어에서는 may 를안쓰고직설법을쓰는경우가많다. Whatever 는부정문, 의문문에서강조어로쓰인다. * There can be no doubt whatever about it. * Is there any chance whatever? ( 조금이라도가망이있습니까?) 13. 형용사 * He spoke to me in french, which language I could not understand. 관계대명사로서의 which 가명사 language 를수식한다. * I gave them what money I had. what 은 money 를수식하는동시에 I had 를형용사절로 money 에연결시킨다. = I gave them all the money that I had. (what = all the...that) * I will approve whichever(or whatever) course you decide on.( 복합관계형용사 ) 14. 의사관계대명사 As 선행사에 such, the same, as 등이있을때, 뒤의 as 는관계대명사로본다. * Choose such friends as will benefit you. (will 의주어 ; 주격 ) * I have the same trouble as you have. (have 의목적어 ; 목적격 ) * As many men as came were caught. ( 온사람은다붙잡혔다 ; 주격 ) * He is absent, as is often the case. (as 의선행사는 He is absent( 절 )) * He is American, as I knew from his accent. ( 그의말투로안일이지만그는미국인이었다.) * As was the custom with him, he went out for a walk after supper. ( 여느때처럼식사후에산책나갔다.) 15. But 의용법 1 등위접속사로쓰이는경우. * Summer is hot, but winter is cold. * He is a hard-working but not very intelligent boy. 2 부사로쓰이는경우. * He is but a child. ( 그는단지어린애에지나지않는다.) * It is but a question of money. ( 그것은단지돈에관한문제이다.) 부사로쓰이면단지, 오로지, 불과 (only) 의뜻으로쓰이며, But 을생략해도문장이성립한다. 3 전치사로쓰이는경우. * All but him were drowned. ( 그를제외하고는모두가익사했다.) * Nobody but me attended the meeting. ( 나를제외하고는아무도그모임에참석하지않았다.) but 이전치사로쓰이면 except, save 의뜻으로쓰이며, but 을생략하면문장이성립하지않는다. (but + 목적격형태로쓸것.) 4 종속접속사로쓰이는경우. * No one is so old but he may learn. = No one is so old that he may not learn. 종속접속사로쓰이면 that ~ not 의뜻으로쓰이며, but 이하의문장은완전한문장이된다. 5 관계대명사로쓰이는경우. 선행사에부정어인 not, no 등이있는경우, but 속에 not 의뜻포함 * There is no rule but has some exceptions. = There is no rule that has not some exceptions. but 이하의문장불완전 16. 의사관계대명사 than 선행사에 more 가있는문장에서주격또는목적격으로 * There are more books than are needed. * Her service has been more valuable than was supposed.