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1 J. Fd Hyg. Safety 22(1), (2007) w k 1,2 Á½ 3 Á y1, w tœw w t y l A Survey on the Sanitary Management in Food Service Institutions Gowan-Soon Soh 1,2, Yong-Suk Kim 3, and Dong-Hwa Shin 1, 'BDVMUZPG#JPUFDIOPMPHZ 'PPE4DJFODF5FDIOPMPHZ.BKPS$IPOCVL/BUJPOBM6OJWFSTJUZ (VOTBO$JUZ 3FTFBSDI$FOUFSGPS*OEVTUSJBM%FWFMPQNFOUPG#JP'PPE.BUFSJBMT 3FDFJWFE'FCSVBSZ"DDFQUFE.BSDI ABSTRACT A survey on sanitary management at 98 food service institutions located in Jeollabuk-Do were conducted. Food service institutions included 13 hospitals, 38 schools, 40 enterprises, and 7 others. The sterilization in boiling water was used for disinfection of tableware, spoon and chopsticks, and dish towel. Cooking kit, refrigerator, chopping board, and knife were sterilized with disinfectant. Frequency of sanitary training program on employees was 56.1% for 1 time/month, 12.2% for 2-3 times/month, and 11.3% for 1 time/week. Preparing ratio of defrosting, warehouse and rest room, and washing and sterilization diary were 73.8, 60.5, and 54.5%, respectively. However, checking ratio of environments (9.5%), personal sanitation (10.8%), and sanitary training program diary (8.4%) were low. Major obstacle factors on the introduction of Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system into food service institutions were lack of equipment and facilities (54.1%) and lack of understanding and data on HACCP system (17.3%). Therefore, in order to reduce the outbreak of food-borne diseases increasing frequency, we estimated that the introduction of sanitary management system and the conversion of dietician' perception on sanitary managements in food service institutions were needed. Key words: sanitary management, food service, food service institution, HACCP y y ƒ y w t x w y š, ƒ, ³ ƒ xy x w ƒ j wù š. w w ³ w x ³ xwš 1-3) w 37.7%, k 19.2%, w 15.2%,» 11.7%, 7.1%,»k 9.1% 4). ù r, w,, Correspondence to: Dong-Hwa Shin, Faculty of Biotechnology (Food Science & Technology Major), Chonbuk National University, Dukjin-Dong, Jeonju, Chonbuk , Korea Tel: , Fax: š, ³ ³, z w ƒ wš š, w š ùz,, œ w, ƒ w ƒ. w w» w 1996 l t» w HACCP t w w» w z, ü t w w» t š w w, t l Áƒœ m w w t y ù w» w ƒ œ w» HACCP wš 5). ü 1996 ƒœt(w, ), 1997 ƒœt( ), 1998 þ t(,, q, ƒ, ƒœt), ƒœt(, z, ƒœe, e 63

2 64 (PXBO4PPO4PI:POH4VL,JNBOE%POH)XB4IJO ), 1999 þ t(»k,, ƒœ t»kƒœt),, 2000 ƒœt(ƒœ, l ), (,, ) w. š t t š y t t, w w» š HACCP ƒ» w 6), x t Áƒœ 142, 53, ƒ k 7). w w HACCP ü z w t w ùƒ» w ƒ y š. ù HACCP x y w w z w š ƒ ƒƒ š HACCP w» ù ƒ 8). y 9) HACCP w w w w w ƒ w ƒ ü w z k š w., ü, w, HACCP w» w k w w, w w w w w w yw, k w. Áü»» w, l ¾ ƒ ü 98 w w w z w š z w. w»á» z w wš,,,, HACCP w. w k sƒw» w w w»»»,, Á», Á e 4 w w k w. š 36 w w 3 (1. v 2. w 3. w ) w. m m vp SPSS 10.0 w w. w w w t w ù s³ t r w. w xk ƒƒ χ test mw w ù 2 w š (one-way ANOVA) w ƒ s³e w» w Duncan's multiple range test w. š»á» k r t 1.»Á» t z w r»,, w k,»», þ š, þ š,, e. (34.4%), (34.4%), þ š(32.6%), þ š(31.8%) w ƒ,»,,»»,, e, w w œ ƒƒ 10%. z r,»,,»»,, e z w ƒ ƒ, w,, 1 1z, þ š þ š 1z w ƒ ƒ. w w ƒ 1z w,, w ww w. e z ƒ ƒ w w. w e w 10) w k w g wš, w ùp Á z w w, þ š 2z w w š w. w w

3 "4VSWFZPOUIF4BOJUBSZ.BOBHFNFOUJO'PPE4FSWJDF*OTUJUVUJPOT 65 Table 1. Disinfection methods and frequency for tableware and cooking kit Tableware Spoon and chopsticks Cooking kit Refrigerator Freezer Chopping board Knife Dish towel Disinfected overgarment Disinfected cap Boiling water Steam Disinfection methods (%) Frequency (%) Disinfectant Drying None At once after using 1/day 1/week Others (47.3) (5.4) (2.2) (38.7) (6.5) (54.2) (22.9) (18.8) (4.2) (71.0) (3.2) (2.2) (21.5) (2.2) (57.3) (25.0) (14.6) (3.1) (33.0) (6.6) (35.2) (19.8) (5.5) (53.3) (25.0) (19.6) (2.2) (3.4) (1.1) (62.9) (0.0) (32.6) (8.6) (18.3) (64.5) (8.6) (3.4) (0.0) (63.6) (1.1) (31.8) (8.6) (18.3) (64.5) (8.6) (27.2) (3.3) (55.4) (6.5) (7.6) (50.5) (40.0) (7.4) (2.1) (29.3) (4.3) (56.5) (5.4) (4.3) (51.6) (42.1) (4.2) (2.1) (67.4) (0.0) (23.9) (5.4) (3.3) (29.5) (65.3) (3.2) (2.1) (28.9) (0.0) (32.2) (4.4) (34.4) (26.1) (53.3) (13.0) (7.6) (27.8) (0.0) (32.2) (5.6) (34.4) (26.1) (51.1) (15.2) (7.6) w 29.5%, z w 50.5%, þ š 2z w 8.6% w. w w k t 2. z 1zƒ 56.1% ƒ š, 2-3zƒ 12.2%, 1zƒ 11.3%,»k w 1z w œ 20.4%. 11) z ùkü š w (p<0.01). z ƒ w ƒ, mw» šw» w Õ v w. œ l 33.7% ƒ š, w xz ƒ 20.4%, ƒƒ 7.1% ùkû.»k w, w w mw š w. w xz w 1z š w, x w w, q š, w ù» w w l œ w q. k w z 1 ƒ wwš. z w q ù w y wš, t ù ƒ ƒ ƒ y w w v w. wr, ƒ š w ƒ ù, d š, w w ƒ.» w w w» ù, ww ww

4 66 (PXBO4PPO4PI:POH4VL,JNBOE%POH)XB4IJO Table 2. Food sanitary training program for employees in food service institutions Classification Frequency (%) Frequency of sanitation training 1/week 11 (11.3) 2-3/month 12 (12.2) 1/month 55 (56.1) The others 20 (20.4) Information collection Sanitation training of dietitian 20 (20.4) Internet 33 (33.7) Books 9 (9.2) Sanitation training of dietitian + Internet 7 (7.1) Sanitation training of dietitian + Books 1 (1.0) Internet + Books 2 (2.0) All 7 (7.1) The others 19 (19.4) Frequency of disinfection on food service facilities 1/week 13 (13.3) 2/month 15 (15.3) 1/month 67 (68.4) 1/two months 1 (1.0) None 2 (2.0) Status of kitchen floor Wet 37 (37.8) Dry 58 (59.2) The others 3 (3.0) w ù, š xk š w ew., ( ) z w 1zƒ 68.4% ƒ š, 2 zƒ 15.3%, 1zƒ 13.3% š, w œ 2.0%. w w 59.2%ƒ w š wš, 37.8% w š w, š w dry kitchen system š, š ƒ óù z w ¾ w ¼ w ƒ š ƒ. w dry kitchen system w w w w œ y wš, w ù w ƒwš, z Á z ü j, w y w v ƒ». k w t 3. r, w (73.8%), š y (60.5%),» ³ (54.5%), (41.1%), (31.5%), š (30.5%), (27.8%), þ š þ š (20.0%) š. ù (10.8%), t(9.5%), (8.4%) š. r, (p<0.05), (p<0.05)ƒ. r, (p=0.048), (p=0.04). w 41.7%, ƒ 35.9%, w ƒ 10.8% ƒ (p=0.048). w œ 45.5%, ƒ 43.6%, w ƒ 16.2% w œ œ w ù w w œ w œ ƒ (p<0.05)., ³ w œ w 60.6%, 50.0%, 50.0% w w œ. þ Ì j w œ 36.4%, ƒ 21.1%, w ƒ 14.3%,»k 16.7%, w ƒ. w ƒ 76.3%, w 73.3%, 63.6%» wš, œ š. w w z ƒ w, w v ù, t w z ƒ e š w w wùƒ w. w, Á ³, š y w œ w œ š,,, š, t,, þ Áþ š j, š œ.

5 "4VSWFZPOUIF4BOJUBSZ.BOBHFNFOUJO'PPE4FSWJDF*OTUJUVUJPOT 67 Table 3. Preparing ratio of operating diary in food service institutions Type Food service institutions Hospital School Enterprise Others Total No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) χ 2 (p) Food materials Cooking Stock Defrosting Meal sampling Check of environments Washing and sterilization Personal hygiene Temperature of refrigerator and freezer Sanitary training program Yes 5 (41.7) 4 (10.8) 14 (35.9) 2 (28.6) 25 (27.8) 7.91 * No 7 (58.3) 33 (89.2) 25 (64.1) 5 (71.4) 70 (72.2) (0.048) Yes 4 (33.3) 13 (39.4) 17 (44.7) 3 (42.9) 37 (41.1) 0.56 No 8 (66.7) 20 (60.6) 21 (55.3) 4 (57.1) 53 (58.9) (0.907) Yes 2 (16.7) 13 (35.1) 13 (33.3) 1 (14.3) 29 (30.5) 2.47 No 10 (83.3) 24 (64.9) 26 (66.7) 6 (85.7) 66 (69.5) (0.480) Yes 7 (63.6) 22 (73.3) 29 (76.3) 4 (80.0) 62 (73.8) 0.82 No 4 (36.4) 8 (26.7) 9 (23.7) 1 (20.0) 22 (26.2) (0.846) Yes 5 (45.5) 6 (16.2) 17 (43.6) 1 (16.7) 29 (31.5) 8.30 * No 6 (54.5) 31 (83.8) 22 (56.4) 5 (83.3) 63 (68.5) (0.040) Yes 1 (7.7) 6 (16.7) 2 (5.1) 0 (0.0) 9 (9.5) 3.81 No 12 (92.3) 30 (83.3) 37 (94.9) 7 (100) 86 (90.5) (0.283) Yes 6 (50.0) 20 (60.6) 19 (50.0) 3 (60.0) 48 (54.5) 0.97 No 6 (50.0) 13 (39.4) 19 (50.0) 2 (40.0) 40 (45.5) (0.810) Yes 0 (0.0) 6 (16.2) 4 (10.3) 0 (0.0) 10 (10.8) 3.21 No 12 (100) 31 (83.8) 35 (89.7) 5 (100) 83 (89.2) (0.360) Yes 4 (36.4) 5 (14.3) 8 (21.1) 1 (16.7) 18 (20.0) 2.62 No 7 (63.6) 30 (85.7) 30 (78.9) 5 (83.3) 72 (80.0) (0.450) Yes 1 (8.3) 3 (7.9) 4 (10.3) 0 (0.0) 8 (8.4) 0.74 No 11 (91.7) 35 (92.1) 35 (89.7) 6 (100) 87 (91.6) (0.870) Warehouse and rest room Yes 6 (54.5) 24 (75.0) 19 (50.0) 3 (60.0) 52 (60.5) 4.73 (0.190) No 5 (45.5) 8 (25.0) 19 (50.0) 2 (40.0) 34 (39.5) * p<0.05. ƒ w t % w w 2 w x. (p<.000)ƒ. w x š w, w Á (35.6%), (21.1%), (18.9%) w. Á ƒ 35.6% ƒ j Öx, 22.2%., ƒ š mw g ùƒ» w z. HACCP HACCP w t 5. HACCP w w œ 40.8% wš, w œ š wš œ 18.4%. HACCP ƒ» w w w w t w ( ) w üò 54.1% ƒ š, HACCP w 17.3%, w x 7.1%, 7.1% w, w ƒ. ü «w w w ù, t w w HACCP

6 68 (PXBO4PPO4PI:POH4VL,JNBOE%POH)XB4IJO Table 4. Outbreak frequency of foodborne disease in food service institutions and its causes Outbreak frequency Total Cause of outbreak of foodborne disease Yes None No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) Absence of sanitary control system 0 (0.0) 17 (18.9) 17 (18.9) Absence of temperature and time control 0 (0.0) 32 (35.6) 32 (35.6) Lack of understanding of employees on hygiene 1 (1.1) 19 (21.1) 20 (22.2) Lack of equipment and facilities 0 (0.0) 9 (10.0) 9 (10.0) Lack of understanding of dietician on sanitary management 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Carelessness on control of food materials by supplier 0 (0.0) 11 (12.2) 11 (12.2) The others 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) Total 2 (2.2) 88 (97.8) 90 (100.0) Table 5. The obstacle factors on the introduction of HACCP system into food service institutions Classification Frequency (%) Introducing Yes 40 (40.8) No 40 (40.8) Under consideration 18 (18.4) Obstacle factors to introduce A shortage of time 6 (6.1) Lack of understanding of employees on hygiene 5 (5.1) Lack of equipment and facilities 53 (54.1) Lack of support by administrative support team and manager 7 (7.1) Insufficient financial resources 7 (7.1) Lack of understanding and data on HACCP system 17 (17.3) The others 3 (3.1) Á ƒ j» l Á w d š w ù HACCP Á» ww w HACCP š w y ƒ ƒ ƒ., ù x š w x HACCP w Á ³ y v w š.»»» k»»» w w w t 6.» x ³ ww š Thermo label w y (52%), j (36.7%), v w», (31.6%), ww»» (29.6%) š ù,» t w y w (11.2%), t» t (19.4%), j (20.4%), sw(20.4%) w š. ƒ w»»»» (CCP) w w wš w wì w.» Áx ³ ww š Thermo label w y p=0.008 ƒ., 72.5% (30.8%) w (39.5%) w w w.

7 "4VSWFZPOUIF4BOJUBSZ.BOBHFNFOUJO'PPE4FSWJDF*OTUJUVUJPOT 69 Table 6. A survey on sanitary handling of cooking kit and equipments in food service institutions Food service institutions Management items Hospital School Enterprise Others Total No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) (p) Using equipments and facilities for sanitary management Using equip Using sinks separately by its usage Cleaning and sterilizing sinks for vegetable washing Cleaning and sterilizing for washing by hand Using kitchen kit fit in menu and meal service amount Cleaning and sterilizing washer at sterilizing temperature Completely drying kitchen kit and storing in dry storage room Cleaning surface on kitchen kit Separately keeping cleaning things and detergent after labeling from foods Yes 4 (30.8) 7 (18.4) 18 (45.0) 2 (28.6) 31(31.6) 6.41 No 9 (69.2) 31 (81.6) 22 (55.0) 5 (71.4) 67(68.4) (0.093) Yes 5 (38.5) 11 (28.9) 18 (45.0) 2 (28.6) 36(36.7) 2.39 No 8 (61.5) 27 (71.1) 22 (55.0) 5 (71.4) 62(63.3) (0.496) Yes 4 (30.8) 8 (21.0) 7 (17.5) 1 (14.3) 20(20.4) 1.24 No 9 (69.2) 30 (79.0) 33 (82.5) 6 (85.7) 78(79.6) (0.744) Yes 3 (23.1) 10 (26.3) 7 (17.5) 0 (0.0) 20(20.4) 2.88 No 10 (76.9) 28 (73.7) 33 (82.5) 7 (100) 78(79.6) (0.411) Yes 5 (38.5) 10 (26.3) 13 (32.5) 1 (14.3) 29(29.6) 1.64 No 8 (61.5) 28 (73.7) 27 (67.5) 6 (85.7) 69(70.4) (0.651) Yes 4 (30.8) 15 (39.5) 29 (72.5) 3 (42.9) 51(52.0) * No 9 (69.2) 23 (60.5) 11 (27.5) 4 (57.1) 47(48.0) (0.008) Yes 4 (30.8) 5 (13.2) 2 (5.0) 0 (0.0) 11 (11.2) 7.57 No 9 (69.2) 33 (86.8) 38 (95.0) 7 (100) 87(88.8) (0.056) Yes 2 (15.4) 7 (18.4) 9 (22.5) 1 (14.3) 19(19.4) 0.52 No 11 (84.6) 31 (81.6) 31 (77.5) 6 (85.7) 79(80.6) (0.914) Yes 3 (23.1) 7 (18.4) 14 (35.0) 2 (28.6) 26(26.5) 2.85 No 10 (76.9) 31 (81.6) 26 (65.0) 5 (71.4) 72(73.5) (0.416) * p< ) w w j û w w w, j p ƒ e ƒ j Á ƒ v w š w, j š ƒ w w (40%), (35%), (20%) wš.» x ³ ww š Thermo label w y š ƒ w, w w ƒ (p<0.01). t y w» w w, e w w š ƒ. k Almeida 13) w w x w w š w. 12) HACCP w sƒ w -,,»» ƒ w w sƒw š w, w w w t 7., (,, ) (44.9%), w ü (34.7%), 1z (32.7%), e (26.5%) š, ù 10% w w š. ü w w 15.4% w (2.6%) (0%) w (p<0.05). w w. w, 1z w 23.1% w (0%) (0%) w (p<0.01) w w.» w œ, w,, z w w t w. 11)

8 70 (PXBO4PPO4PI:POH4VL,JNBOE%POH)XB4IJO Table 7. A survey on personal sanitary management of employees in food service institutions Management items Performing regularly sanitary education for cooks Performing annual health examination for service personal Excluding food service personal with infectious diseases Wearing disinfected cap in cookroom Wearing disinfected overgarment in cookroom Wearing privately using footwear in cookroom Off limiting of outsider unwearing disinfected cap, disinfected overgarment, and privately using footwear Wearing and properly change singleuse gloves Locating automatic hand washing facilities Using automatic hand washing facilities properly Sticking notice for proper hand washing Avoid wearing artificial accessories ** p<0.01. Food service institutions Hospital School Enterprise Others Total No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) Yes 1 (7.7) 2 (5.3) 4 (10.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (7.1) 1.24 (0.744) No 12 (92.3) 36 (94.7) 36 (90.0) 7 (100) 91 (92.9) Yes 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) No 13 (100) 38 (100) 40 (100) 7 (100) 98 (100) Yes 0 (0.0) 2 (5.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.0) 3.22 (0.358) No 13 (100) 36 (94.7) 40 (100) 7 (100) 96 (98.0) Yes 2 (15.4) 1 (2.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (3.1) 8.16* (0.043) No 11 (84.6) 37 (97.4) 40 (100) 7 (100) 95 (96.9) Yes 2 (15.4) 2 (5.3) 1 (2.5) 0 (0.0) 5 (5.1) 3.78 (0.287) No 11 (84.6) 36 (94.7) 39 (97.5) 7 (100) 93 (94.9) Yes 2 (15.4) 2 (15.4) 4 (10.0) 0 (0.0) 8 (8.2) 2.13 (0.545) No 11 (84.6) 36 (84.6) 36 (90.0) 7 (100) 90 (91.2) Yes 3 (23.1) 19 (50.0) 19 (47.5) 3 (42.9) 44 (44.9) 3.02 (0.388) No 10 (76.9) 19 (50.0) 21 (52.5) 4 (57.1) 54 (55.1) Yes 3 (23.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (3.1) ** No 10 (76.9) 38 (100) 40 (100) 7 (100) 95 (96.9) χ 2 (p) (0.000) Yes 7 (53.8) 11 (28.9) 14 (35.0) 0 (0.0) 32 (32.7) 6.39 (0.094) No 6 (46.2) 27 (71.1) 26 (65.0) 7 (100) 66 (67.3) Yes 7 (53.8) 7 (18.4) 11 (27.5) 1 (14.3) 26 (26.5) 6.82 (0.094) No 6 (46.2) 31 (81.6) 29 (72.5) 6 (85.7) 72 (73.5) Yes 5 (38.5) 16 (42.1) 11 (27.5) 2 (28.6) 34 (34.7) 2.03 (0.566) No 8 (61.5) 22 (57.9) 29 (72.5) 5 (71.4) 64 (65.3) Yes 2 (15.4) 2 (5.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (14.3) 5 (5.1) 6.21 (0.102) No 11 (84.6) 36 (94.7) 40 (100) 6 (85.7) 93 (94.9) w» w ƒ» w w ƒ š šw. p, ƒ. w HACCP p «x 14-23) š». ƒ¾ ƒ š w 24), w e 32.7% ù w. 17) w e ƒ û w ùkü w w, 25) w ü 22.1% w w. Ê ü w w ƒ(p<0.05), 1z w w ƒ(p<0.01) ƒ. ü w w 1 z w w, w, wš š, y w w ƒ w ƒ š, w ü ƒ w w ƒ,

9 "4VSWFZPOUIF4BOJUBSZ.BOBHFNFOUJO'PPE4FSWJDF*OTUJUVUJPOT 71 ƒ. Á» k Á» w w w t 8. š y e s (45.9%), ü»m r Ë (33.7%) š š, É» s» (4.1%), s ƒ wš (6.1%) 10% š. w. Á e k Á e w w w t 9., y w ù e(38.8%), z» v» (33.7%), (29.6%), w y (28.6%) š. ù Á e, v w y, y, w, 10% š., y w ù eƒ ƒ ƒƒ 61.5%, 47.5% w (21.1%) w (p<0.05) w Á e., w, ƒ w, wƒ w w (42.1%), (23.1%), (20.0%) wš, Á e, w ƒ, ƒ, y, w (61.5%), (47.5%), w (21.1%). y y e š œ, ù œ, k,,, œ,, w œ. w» w k k w 74 w» (CCP) w w w 8 w ù š, t 10.» x ³ w y (52.0%), ww»» (29.6%) š š, y (98.0%), w w (94.9%), w» (92.9%) š. w w, wš ƒ w w wš 3 (1. v, 2. w, 3. w ) sƒw, w w, ƒ x Ás Table 8. A survey on sanitary management of supply and drainage equipment of water and wastes in food service institutions Management items Rubber hose hanger, attachment of nozzle switch Opening and shutting switch of waterway and cleanness Timely treatment of garbage and waste Garbage can with pedal and cleanness Managing food sludges and wastes properly against vermin and rats Food service institutions Hospital School Enterprise Others Total No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) Yes 6 (46.2) 15 (39.5) 22 (55.0) 2 (28.6) 45 (45.9) 2.81 No 7 (53.8) 23 (60.5) 18 (45.0) 5 (71.4) 53 (54.1) (0.421) Yes 2 (15.4) 1 (2.6) 3 (7.5) 0 (0.0) 6 (6.1) 3.34 (0.343) No 11 (84.6) 37 (97.4) 37 (92.5) 7 (100) 92 (93.9) Yes 2 (15.4) 0 (0.0) 2 (10.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (4.1) 6.24 (0.100) No 11 (84.6) 38 (100) 38 (90.0) 7 (100) 94 (95.9) Yes 4 (30.8) 14 (36.8) 13 (32.5) 2 (28.6) 33 (33.7) 0.33 No 9 (69.2) 24 (63.2) 27 (67.5) 5 (71.4) 65 (66.3) (0.955) Yes 3 (23.1) 3 (7.9) 7 (17.5) 0 (0.0) 13 (13.3) 3.73 (0.292) No 10 (72.9) 35 (92.1) 33 (82.5) 7 (100) 85 (86.7) χ 2 (p)

10 72 (PXBO4PPO4PI:POH4VL,JNBOE%POH)XB4IJO ƒw. w w w t 11.»»,» w w», t, w ƒ w w 2.24 ƒ,, ww w»» w w 0.86 ƒ û. Table 9. A survey on sanitary management of structure and arrangement of building and facilities in food service institutions Management items Dividing to prevent cross-contamination Sufficient worktable area Washable water-proofing materials (wall, floor, ceiling) and cleanness Facilities to block vermin and rats Locating insecticidal lamp in proper place Lighting for cook Separating working place and rest room, and proper hand washing facilities Separately using footwear for rest room, and setting of disinfector for footwear Possessing dressing room, clothes and footwear chest for employee Cleaning and sterilizing throughly cooking facilities after using Keeping proper ventilation system excluding hood * p<0.05. Food service institutions Hospital School Enterprise Others Total No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) Yes 4 (30.8) 11 (28.9) 12 (30.0) 2 (28.6) 29 (29.6) 0.02 (0.999) No 9 (69.2) 27 (71.1) 28 (70.0) 5 (71.4) 69 (70.4) Yes 3 (23.1) 16 (42.1) 8 (20.0) 1 (14.3) 28 (28.6) 5.74 No 10 (76.9) 22 (57.9) 32 (80.0) 6 (85.7) 70 (71.4) (0.125) Yes 1 (7.7) 10 (26.3) 12 (30.0) 2 (28.6) 25 (25.5) 2.64 No 12 (92.3) 28 (73.7) 28 (70.0) 5 (71.4) 73 (74.5) (0.450) Yes 1 (7.7) 1 (2.6) 3 (7.5) 0 (0.0) 5 (5.1) 1.51 No 12 (92.3) 37 (97.4) 37 (92.5) 7 (100) 93 (94.9) (0.680) Yes 5 (38.5) 6 (15.8) 8 (20.0) 2 (28.6) 21 (21.4) 3.22 No 8 (61.5) 32 (84.2) 32 (80.0) 5 (71.4) 77 (78.6) (0.359) Yes 2 (15.4) 3 (7.9) 3 (7.5) 0 (0.0) 8 (8.2) 1.55 No 11 (84.6) 35 (92.1) 37 (92.5) 7 (100) 90 (91.8) (0.670) Yes 1 (7.7) 2 (5.3) 1 (2.5) 0 (0.0) 4 (4.1) 1.12 No 12 (92.3) 36 (94.7) 39 (97.5) 7 (100) 94 (95.9) (0.772) Yes 8 (61.5) 8 (21.1) 19 (47.5) 3 (42.9) 38 (38.8) 9.20 * No 5 (38.5) 30 (78.9) 21 (52.5) 4 (57.1) 60 (61.2) (0.027) Yes 3 (23.1) 3 (7.9) 7 (17.5) 0 (0.0) 13 (15.3) 3.73 No 10 (76.9) 35 (92.1) 33 (82.5) 7 (100) 85 (84.7) (0.292) Yes 3 (23.1) 11 (28.9) 18 (45.0) 1 (14.3) 33 (33.7) 4.51 No 10 (76.9) 27 (71.1) 22 (55.0) 6 (85.7) 65 (66.3) (0.211) Yes 1 (7.7) 7 (18.4) 8 (20.0) 2 (28.6) 18 (18.4) 1.55 No 12 (92.3) 31 (81.6) 32 (80.0) 5 (71.4) 80 (81.6) (0.672) (p) Table 10. A survey on sanitary management of critical control points in food service institutions Classifi-cation Kitchen kit Personal hygiene Facilities Critical control points Performance Yes No No. (%) No. (%) Cleaning and sterilizing for washing by hand 20 (20.4) 78 (79.6) Using kitchen kit fit in menu and meal service amount 29 (29.6) 69 (70.4) Cleaning and sterilizing washer at sterilizing temperature 51 (52.0) 47 (48.0) Performing regularly sanitary education for cooks 7 (7.1) 91 (92.9) Excluding foodservice personnel with infectious diseases 2 (2.0) 96 (98.0) Using automatic hand washing facilities properly 26 (26.5) 72 (73.5) Dividing to prevent cross-contamination 29 (29.6) 69 (70.4) Facilities to block vermin and rats 5 (5.1) 93 (94.9)

11 "4VSWFZPOUIF4BOJUBSZ.BOBHFNFOUJO'PPE4FSWJDF*OTUJUVUJPOT 73 Table 11. Dietician' perception against sanitary management items in food service institutions Operating step Sanitary management items Mean±S.D. Sanitary handling of cooking kit and equipments Personal sanitary management Sanitation of supply and drainage equipment of water and wastes Sanitary management of structure and arrangement of building and facilities Using equipments and facilities for sanitary management 1.31±1.15 Using sinks separately by its usage 1.32±1.12 Cleaning and sterilizing sinks for vegetable washing 0.97±1.35 Cleaning and sterilizing for washing by hand 1.10±1.41 Using kitchen kit fit in menu and meal service amount 0.86±1.32 Cleaning and sterilizing washer at sterilizing temperature 1.17±1.05 Completely drying kitchen kit and storing in dry storage room 2.24±1.25 Cleaning surface on kitchen kit 2.12±1.32 Separately keeping cleaning things and detergent after labeling from foods 1.07±1.38 Performing regularly sanitary education for cooks 1.07±1.42 Performing annual health examination for service personal 2.45±1.14 Excluding food service personal with infectious diseases 2.55±1.07 Wearing disinfected cap in cookroom 2.28±1.26 Wearing disinfected overgarment in cookroom 2.23±1.29 Wearing privately using footwear in cookroom 2.21±1.29 Off limiting of outsider unwearing disinfected cap, disinfected overgarment, and privately using footwear 1.02±1.38 Wearing and properly change single-use gloves 2.18±1.31 Locating automatic hand washing facilities 1.11±1.41 Using automatic hand washing facilities properly 1.23±1.46 Sticking notice for proper hand washing 1.38±1.13 Avoid wearing artificial accessories 1.07±1.40 Rubber hose hanger, attachment of nozzle switch 1.22±1.10 Opening and shutting switch of waterway and cleanness 0.91±1.32 Timely treatment of garbage and waste 2.03±1.40 Garbage can with pedal and cleanness 0.83±1.32 Managing food sludges and wastes properly against vermin and rats 2.04±1.39 Dividing to prevent cross-contamination 1.05±1.39 Sufficient worktable area 0.79±1.26 Washable water-proofing materials (wall, floor, ceiling) and cleanness 0.95±1.33 Facilities to block vermin and rats 1.05±1.41 Locating insecticidal lamp in proper place 0.95±1.36 Lighting for cook 0.90±1.33 Separating working place and rest room, and proper hand washing facilities 2.03±1.36 Separately using footwear for rest room, and setting of disinfector for footwear 0.99±1.37 Possessing dressing room, clothes and footwear chest for employee 0.79±1.24 Cleaning and sterilizing throughly cooking facilities after using 1.04±1.39 Keeping proper ventilation system excluding hood 1.03±1.37 w w y w ƒ w w 2.55 ƒ (,, ), w w 1.02 ƒ û. Á,» w w»,» w ƒ w 2.04 ƒ, ü»m r Ë, w ƒ w w 0.83 ƒ û., e w w y, w, w ƒ w w 2.03 ƒ, wƒ w w 0.79 ƒ û. sƒ w w

12 74 (PXBO4PPO4PI:POH4VL,JNBOE%POH)XB4IJO r w w», Á, š,» Áx y, ü, š y e s w s³ 2 w û ù kþ. p, w w», Á,» Áx y» w w jš, w w ù g w v ƒ. ü,, w, z e š w 98 w k w w.»á» t»,, w k,»», þ š, þ š,, e. (34.4%), (34.4%), þ š(32.6%), þ š(31.8%) w ƒ. z 1zƒ 56.1% ƒ š, 2-3z 12.2%, 1z 11.3%. w (73.8%), š y (60.5%),» ³ (54.5%), š, t(9.5%), (10.8%), (8.4%) û. HACCP (54.1%) HACCP w w (17.3%).»»»,, Á»,, e w š. Á» w w wš ù»»» e w w. ƒw j» w w y v w. š x 1., ½ ³: ù w - m. w t wz, 2, (1987). 2., ½ ³: ù xš. w t wz, 4, (1989). 3. : ³,. HACCP j, w y w, (2001) ( ). 5. Bauman, H.E.: The HACCP concept. and microbiological hazard categories. J. Food Technol., 28, (1974) ( ). 7. KFDA HACCP» k: HACCP xy (2006). 8. : t HACCP. t w, 30, (1997). 9. y w, : t w w w : HACCP w». w t wz, 7, (1992). 10. : y -,, ü -., 60, 9-13 (1984). 11., x : w. w wz, 11, (1995). 12., y, x,, x : w ksƒ. w t wz, 16, (2001). 13. Almeida, R.C., Kuaye, A.Y., Serrano, A.M. and de Almeid, P.F.: Evaluation and control of the microbiological quality of hands in food handlers. Rev. Saude. Publica, 29, (1994). 14. Paulson, D.S.: Evaluation of three handwash modalities commonly employed in the food processing industry. Dairy Food and Environ. Sanit., 12, (1992). 15. Farkas, D.: Creatind awareness. Food Manage, 31, (1996). 16. Albrecht, J.A, Summer, S.S. and Hemmeman, A.: Food safety in child care facilities. Dairy Food and Environ. Sanit., 12, (1992). 17., w: ü k t w. w t wz, 1, (1986).

13 "4VSWFZPOUIF4BOJUBSZ.BOBHFNFOUJO'PPE4FSWJDF*OTUJUVUJPOT : z., w z, (1997). 19.,. ½, : t w y w, w tywz, 6, (1991). 20. : t. tœ, 19, (1993). 21. Smith, K.: An Evaluation of Food safety training using videotaped instruction. Foodservice Res., 12, (2000). 22. Bryan, F.L.: Teaching HACCP techniques to food processors and regulatory officials. Dairy Food and Environ. Sanit., 11, (1991). 23.,, x : k» z sƒ. w y ywz, 9, (1994). 24. Longree, K. and Armbruster, G.: Quantity food sanitation. A Wiley-interscience Pub. Inc., (1987). 25., x, w, y, ½ : w œ (II). w y ywz, 10, 1-10 (1995).