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1 Res. Plant Dis. 16(2) : (2010) Research in Plant Disease The Korean Society of Plant Pathology g t, q» w sƒ ½y Á Á½ 2 Á yk 3 Á 4 Áy ³ 1 *Á½» ** š w w w, 1 w w, 2 û», 3 w, 4 w w Evaluation of Disease Occurrence by Cultivar, Sowing Date and Locational Difference in Korean Soybean Fields Hong Joe Kim, Ji Yeon Oh, Dong Kwan Kim 2, Hong Tai Yun 3, Woosuk Jung 4, Jeum Kyu Hong 1 * and Ki Deok Kim** College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul , Korea 1 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Jinju National University, Jinju, Kyungnam , Korea 2 Jeonnam Agricultural Research & Extension Service, Naju , Korea 3 National Institute of Crop Science, Suwon , Korea 4 Department of Applied Biosciences, Kunkuk University, Seoul , Korea (Received on February 17, 2010; Accepted on July 25, 2010) Occurrence of plant diseases is dependent on various factors in the agricultural system. Due to recent extensive environmental climate changes, i.e. global warming, agricultural systems such as planting dates and cultivars are being affected. Gradual transition in disease occurrence and incidence in the agricultural fields can also be affected by direct and/or indirect environmental changes. In this study, we evaluated disease occurrence and incidence in soybean plants to investigate whether it could be related with cultivars, planting dates and geographical differences in Korea in Soybean cultivars including Taekwang, Pungsan, Cheongja 3, Saeol, and Dawon were planted in four different dates, May 15, June 1, June 15, and June 30, in two locations, Suwon, and Naju. Soybean diseases such as wild fire and bacterial pustule were mainly found depending on cultivars, planting dates, and areas. Wild fire occurred severely on cv. Taekwang while bacterial blight did on cv. Dawon among tested cultivars. Disease developments of wild fire and bacterial blight generally decreased in delayed planting regardless of cultivars. KeywordsG: Bacterial pustule, Cultivar, Sowing date, Soybean disease, Wild fire»z ùy w» y w t w y ƒ ùkùš.»z ùy w š (Garrett, 2006; Gregory, 2009). w wù, *Corresponding authors Phone) , Fax) ) **Corresponding authors Phone) , Fax) ) w vw š. g, wì wù. g (Clemente Cahoon, 2009), g y z û w œ ƒ š (Reddy Yang, 2009). g w w. p w wš š ƒ g w» w wš. g w w e, w g w

2 w w. g ³ Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines w, Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycines w, P. syringae pv. tabaci w, ³ w Septoria glycines w, g j (soybean mosaic virus). ¾ g w g w w ³ ü š (w wz, 2009). ƒ g w š š, k ³ ù, ³ x ƒ (Hokawat Rudolph, 1991; Hwang Lim, 1998; Kim, 2006). Hwang Lim(1998) w ³, 11 g t w ƒ NCPPB w 63 ³ 5. g z w ƒ ³ y w v w. w ³ s w g t k w ƒ. w g w w. q g w ³ PCR w w w w y w (Lee, 2009). g k» w vw dw (Park Lim, 1986; Wrather, 1997; Yorinori, 2005; Wrather Koenning, 2006), w w y w w» kw (Laurence Wood, 1978; Dorrance, 2003; Oh Kim, 2003).»z y w ƒ dw w.»z y y w 10 l (Manning Tiedemann, 1995; Coakley, 1999). t»z y» yk (CO 2 ), (O 3 ), ƒ ³ w y w w w (Manning Tiedemann, 1995, Bilgin, 2008). ƒ ƒw g j (Bilgin, 2008). ù, g ³ Fusarium oxysporum g g t, q» w sƒ 177 g y w ƒ û (Damicone, 1987).»z y w ƒ g w g e w w dwš w v š. ü g s (Kim, 2005), (Park, 2006), g (Kim, 2006) ³ š š, ³ w xk, š. g w w,, sww g w w w (Oh Kim, 2001; 2003). t g q» yw»z y w ƒ s ³ w. g e t, q» w w, k»z y wz g y w» y wš w. x s, t q». 2008» ( 37 o 29', 127 o 04') w û ù ( 34 o 58', 126 o 52') û» g s w. ƒ x j» ƒ 2.4 m 2.4 m š, 60 cm 15 cm 3 qw. x ƒ g t 3 w, e w., kÿ, t, 3y g 4 t, ù w 4 t t q w. ƒƒ g t s 5 15, 6 1, 6 15, 7 1 4z w g w w. sƒ. ƒ x g wš, 2 w w. w vw sƒ w x ü x ùkü (%) txw (American Phytopathological Society, 1984). sƒ z w. m. g e t, q» w w

3 178 ½y Á Á½ Á yká Áy ³Á½» w m v SAS(Statistical Analysis System, Cary, NC, USA) Program package w. 2008» û ù g s w w w, (P. syringae pv. tabaci), (X. axonopodis pv. glycines), (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tracheiphilum), (Cercospora kikuchii), (Calonectria ilicicola), (Phakopsora pachyrhizi), g j w (Fig. 1). ù wš ù w ƒ ³ w vw sƒw. s. g s (wild fire) (bacterial pustule) ùkû, ƒ Fig ƒ, 3y t t x. ù q w kÿ t w. t 5 15 q w x w, 6 1 q w kÿ t (Fig. 2A). t w, q w ù (Fig. 2C) q w 3y t 8% ùkû, kÿ t 5 15 l 6 30 ¾ q» (Fig. 2B). ù z q w x. t t 1 2 e sƒ x ùkù. t y w. kÿ t» q w ( ) 1 sƒ» w Fig. 1. Symptoms of various diseases occurred in Korean soybean fields in (A) Wildfire (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci), (B) Bacterial pustule (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines), (C) Fusarium root rot (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum), (D) Purple seed stain (Cercospora kikuchii), (E) Red crown rot (Calonectria ilicicola), (F) Rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi), and (G) Soybean Mosaic. Fig. 2. Disease severity (%) of wild fire (A and B) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and bacterial pustule (C and D) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines in four soybean cultivars ( Chungja 3, Pungsan, Saeol, and Taegwang ) with four different sowing dates (15 May, 1 June, 15 June and 30 June) in Suwon in Disease severity was evaluated on August 30 (A and C) and September 29 (B and D), Data are presented as means and standard errors of three replication blocks.

4 ƒw ù, z q w( ) x ùkû (Fig. 2B). 6 1 q w kÿ 5 15 q w j, 6 30 q w 8%. sƒ w ù, q w t 1 sƒ w (Fig. 2C) q w kÿ t x û (Fig. 2D). ù s. s g w. 1 sƒ, 6 1 q w t x 58% ƒ w, 6 15 q w kÿ t x 17% ƒ w (Fig. 3A). ù 3y, t, t x ùkù. w z 2 3y, t t w ù,,, kÿ t y sƒ w w (Fig. 3B). ù s w. 1, t 4z e q» w š, p q Fig. 3. Disease severity (%) of wild fire (A and B) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and bacterial pustule (C and D) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines in five soybean cultivars ( Chungja 3, Pungsan, Saeol, and Taegwang ) with four different sowing dates (15 May, 1 June, 15 June and 30 June) in Naju in Disease severity was evaluated on August 30 (A and C) and September 29 (B and D), Data are presented as means and standard errors of three replication blocks. g t, q» w sƒ 179»ƒ q g ƒ ùkû, q» w. q»ƒ w q w g 6.7% ƒ ùkü (Fig. 3C). t kÿ t w. t 5 15 q w ù, q»ƒ w w 6 1 q w kÿ ƒƒ 20.0, 16.7% ƒ w q w t x x ùkù. 2 sƒ, 3y q» x w ù, t t 1 sƒ» ùkû (Fig. 3D). t t q»ƒ q x % ƒ ùkû q w t 10%, 6 30 q w x x w. sƒ w m w Table 1. ù w (P=0.0236), t (P<0.0001) q»(p<0.0001) w. w» sƒ» t y (P=0.0004) q» y (P=0.0015) w š ù kû. t q»(p<0.0001),, t, q»(p<0.0001) sƒ», t q» y (P=0.0014) w. ù (P<0.0001),» sƒ»(p=0.0009), t (P<0.0001), q»(p<0.0001) w, y w š., sƒ» q»(p=0.3330),, sƒ», q» y (P=0.5398) ù, sƒ», t q»(p=0.7220)ù, sƒ», t q» y (P=0.2908) w. š mw»z y ù g w k 3,

5 180 ½y Á Á½ Á yká Áy ³Á½». Table 1. Analysis of various factors on the occurrence of wild fire and bacterial pustule in Korean soybean fields in 2008 Source of variation Wild fire Bacterial pustule df SS a F value P value df SS F value P value Region b < Time c Cultivar d < < Date e < < Region Time Region Cultivar < Time Cultivar Region Time Cultivar Region Date Time Date Region Time Date Cultivar Date < < Region Cultivar Date < < Time Cultivar Date Region Time Cultivar Date a SS = sum of squares, b Region is Suwon and Naju field in 2008, c Each data were assessed disease incidence at August and September in 2008, d Different soybean cultivars as follows: Taekwang, Pungsan, Cheongja 3, Saeol, and Dawon, e Soybean cultivars were sown in four different dates, May 15, June 1, June 15, and June 30. w 2008 g w y šwš w. t g. ù ƒ ƒ 4 t ( 3y, t,, kÿ ) 5 t ( 3y,, t,, kÿ ) g q w w. w ù, kÿ t ƒ, t ùkù. kÿ t ƒ w., ù g s œm kÿ t w. ù w š, t q w. ù, t,, kÿ t w wš, 3y ùkù. w, t w. w g t. 3y t t ³ w w t w. ù t t w w t ùkû. q» g.»z y g q» w w» mw g q» w. ƒ w kÿ g t, ƒ 5 15 q w s ƒ w, z q»ƒ. ù s 1 sƒ», t 6 1 q, kÿ 6 15 q w. ù w q» q w». q»ƒ ùkû. Wells II Williams 79 g t w g ³ ³(Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea) w w w (Park Lim, 1986). ù, 2000 l 2002 ¾ x g s bean pod mottle virus(bpmv) w g q» w w (Krell, 2005). Phomopsis sp. w g 1992 l 1994 ¾ t ƒ ù, q» (Wrather, 1996). flj g p Heterodera glycines w g t q»

6 ƒ ùkù w, t q» ƒ ùkû (Hershmann, 1990). w g q» w ³ g t w w., w g q» w ü šw. p xw ü g t kÿ t q» w. g w»» ƒ. ü w 5 15 g q š ù, mw ƒ w q» ³ j. g. û ù w. ù œm q kÿ t w,. ù. ƒ o C, o C (American Phytopathological Society, 1984),, û ù.»z y» w w ww wz ww š w ù»z y w g z w w. w w. Ÿ w y»z y w» z ùy, q» t k ƒ w š. s, y y w., g t, q», ƒ g t, q» w sƒ 181 ù g e w w» w sƒw. kÿ, t, 3y,, t 5 15, 6 1, 6 15, z,, ù q w, g. kÿ t ƒw w, t w p. t q»ƒ w FTA» (g )( y: ) w w. š x American Phytopathological Society Compendium of soybean diseases. 4th edition. pp Bilgin, D. D., Aldea, M., O Neill, B. F., Benitez, M., Li, M., Clough, S. J. and DeLucia, E. H Elevated ozone alters soybean-virus interaction. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 21: Clemente, T. E. and Cahoon, E. B Soybean oil: Genetic approaches for modification of functionality and total content. Plant Physiol. 151: Coakley, S. M., Scherm, H. and Chakraborty, S Climate change and plant disease management. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 37: Damicone, J. P., Manning, W. J., Herbert, S. J. and Feder, W. A Growth and disease response of soybeans from early maturity groups to ozone and Fusarium oxysporum. Environ. Poll. 48: Dorrance, A. E., Kleinhenz, M. D., McClure, S. A. and Tuttle, N. T Temperature, moisture, and seed treatment effects on Rhizoctonia solani root rot of soybean. Plant Dis. 87: Garrett, K. A., Dendy, S. P., Frank, E. E., Rouse, M. N. and Travers, S. E Climate change effects on plant disease: Genomes to ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 44: Gregory, P. J., Johnson, S. N., Newton, A. C. and Ingram, J. S. I Integrating pests and pathogens into the climate change/ food security debate. J. Exp. Bot 60: Hershmann, D. E., Hendrix, J. W., Stuckey, R. E., Bachi, P. R. and Henson, G Influence of planting date and cultivar on soybean sudden death syndrome in Kentucky. Plant Dis. 74: Hokawat, S. and Rudolf, K Variation in pathogenicity and

7 182 ½y Á Á½ Á yká Áy ³Á½» virulence of strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines, the incitant of bacterial pustule of soybean. J. Phytopathol. 131: Hwang, I. and Lim, S. M Pathogenic variability in isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines. Kor. J. Plant Pathol. 14: Kim, S. M., Lee, J. B., Lee, Y. H., Choi, S. H., Choi, H. S., Park, J. W., Lee, J. S., Lee, G. S., Moon, J. K., Moon, J. S., Lee, K. W. and Lee, S. H First report of Soybean Dwarf Virus on soybean (Glycine max) in Korea. Res. Plant Dis. 12: Kim, W. G., Hong, S. K. and Han, S. S Occurrence of web blight in soybean caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1(IA) in Korea. Plant Pathol. J. 21: w wz w., w, 853 pp. Krell, R. K., Pedigo, L. P., Rice, M. E., Westgate, M. E. and Hill, J. H Using planting date to manage bean pod mottle virus in soybean. Crop Protect. 24: Laurence, J. A. and Wood, F. A Effects of ozone on infection of soybean by Pseudomonas glycinea. Phytopathology 68: Lee, Y. J., Kang, M. H., Noh, T. H., Lee, D. K., Lee, G. H. and Kim, S. J Direct PCR detection of the causal agents, soybean bacterial pustule, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines in soybean seeds. Res. Plant Dis. 15: Manning, W. J. and Tiedemann, A. V Climate change: potential effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), and ultraviolet-b (UV-B) radiation on plant diseases. Environ. Pollut. 88: Oh, J. H. and Kim, D. Y Effect of cultural practices on the occurrence of pod and stem blight and purple blotch, and on soybean growth. Res. Plant Dis. 7: Oh, J. H. and Kim, K. H Influence of temperature, wetness duration and fungicides on fungal growth and disease progress of soybean anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. Res. Plant Dis. 9: Park, E. W. and Lim, S. M Effect of bacterial blight on soybean yield. Plant Dis. 70: Park, S. W., Kim, H. S., Woo, S. H., Shim, H. K. and Kim, H. T Morphological characteristics and molecular identification of Calonectria ilicicola causing soybean red crown rot. Res. Plant Dis. 12: Reddy, N. and Yang, Y Natural cellulose fibers from soybean straw. Bioresource Technol. 100: Wrather, J. A. and Koenning, S. R Estimates of disease effects on soybean yields in the United States 2003 to J. Nematol. 38: Wrather, J. A., Anderson, T. R., Arsyad, D. M., Gai, J., Ploper, L. D., Porta-Puglia, A., Ram, H., H. and Yorinori, J. T Soybean disease loss estimates for the top 10 soybean producing countries in Plant Dis. 81: Wrather, J. A., Kendig, S. R., Wiebold, W. J. and Riggs, R. D Cultivar and planting date effects on soybean stand, yield, and Phomopsis sp. Seed infection. Plant Dis. 80: Yorinori, J. T., Paiva, W. M., Frederick, R. D., Costamilan, L. M., Bertagnolli, P. F., Hartman, G. E., Godoy, C. V. and Nunes, J. Jr Epidemics of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in Brazil and Paraguay from 2001 to Plant Dis. 89: