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1 저작자표시 - 비영리 - 변경금지 2.0 대한민국 이용자는아래의조건을따르는경우에한하여자유롭게 이저작물을복제, 배포, 전송, 전시, 공연및방송할수있습니다. 다음과같은조건을따라야합니다 : 저작자표시. 귀하는원저작자를표시하여야합니다. 비영리. 귀하는이저작물을영리목적으로이용할수없습니다. 변경금지. 귀하는이저작물을개작, 변형또는가공할수없습니다. 귀하는, 이저작물의재이용이나배포의경우, 이저작물에적용된이용허락조건을명확하게나타내어야합니다. 저작권자로부터별도의허가를받으면이러한조건들은적용되지않습니다. 저작권법에따른이용자의권리는위의내용에의하여영향을받지않습니다. 이것은이용허락규약 (Legal Code) 을이해하기쉽게요약한것입니다. Disclaimer

2 정치학석사학위논문 칸트실천철학에있어서의 정치와종교의관계 2015 년 8 월 서울대학교대학원 정치학과 민경남

3 .,.,,. 3 - I -

4 ,..,.,,.,,. - II -

5 - III -

6 약칭 ( 원제 ) 약호 제 1 비판 (Kritik der reinen Vernunft) KrV (Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?) 보편사 (Idee zu einer allgemeinen Geschichtein weltbürgerlicher Absicht) 정초 (Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten) WE IUH G 제 2 비판 (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft) KpV 종교론 (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) R 이론과실천 (Über den Gemeinspruch: Das mag in der Theorie richtig sein, taugt aber nicht für die Praxis.) TP 영구평화론 (Zum Ewigen Frieden) 법이론 (Metaphysik der Sitten, Rechtlehre) PP MM 논쟁 (Vorlesungen über die philosophische Religionslehre) CF - IV -

7 I (Remer and Schmidt 2010).,, ,,.,.,.,.,. ( ) [post-secular age] -, ( ) [pre-secular age] - 1 -

8 ., ,, (Collas 1997, Koselleck 2000, Rawls and Herman 2000).,.., [Immanuel Kant, ]. [all-destroyer],,,,,, (Palmquist 2000, 3)

9 . 1 -.,,,. (Bernstein 2009; Habermas 2008; Rawls 1997, 2005). (Milbank 1993).. [deistic revelation],. [unorthodox theist]. / (Lilla 1998, 2008; Taylor 2007).., - 3 -

10 .,..,,.,.,. [1784], [1784], [1793], [1795], (1797),. (1793), (1798)...,., - 4 -

11 .,.,..,.,..,...,

12 .,, ( ). 2.,..,. (Rawls 2009)., [idea of reason] (Rawls 1997, 2005)., (Habermas 2008, 2010)., - 6 -

13 [trnaslation] (Habermas 2008). [empirical], [post-metaphysical],. 1) / (Bernstein 2009)., (Milbank 1993).,.,, 1) 인식론적논의를중심으로칸트를세속적인물로평가하는경향은칸트해석에있어서전통적입장이라할수있다 (Firestone 2009). 제 1 비판 을중심으로칸트의경험적지식의절대적조건에대한인식론적사유를중심으로이해하는것이다. 스트로슨에따르면칸트의인식론은초감성적인세계와물자체의존재를전제하고있으며, 물자체에속하는것이인간의감관에대한영향 [affection] 을통해표상으로주어진것이지식또는의식 [knowledge or consciousness] 의대상이다. 그리고이러한논리의연장선상에서인간의자유의현실 [fact of human freedom] 이나도덕적정의에대한지각은감각에의해서경험될수없기때문에예지적 [noumenal] 이라불리며, 따라서지식의문제로는주장되어서는안된다. 즉종교적인것은지식의대상이아니며오직인간이고유하게지니고있는자유의소산으로생각되어야한다 (Strawson 1966, ). 우드는이러한 제 1 비판 의인식론적전제를훼손하지않고종교적인것을함께논의할수있는해석적근거를제공한다. 우드는하나의설득력있는절충적입장을제시한다. 즉, 제 1 비판 에대한전통적독해로야기된칸트철학의지식과종교의대립적인관계를, 칸트비판철학속 자기앎 [self-knowledge] 의지향에주목함으로써절충한다. 우드에따르면칸트의사유속인간은감성 [sensibility] 과이성 - 7 -

14 . 2),., [unorthodox theist] (Taylor 2007). 3) de-christianization post-christianization.,,.,. [moral theology],, - 8 -

15 ,. -,, (Lilla 1998)., (Lilla 2008). 4).,,

16 ..,.,.,... (Riley 1999).,, (Ripstein 2009)

17 , [publicity] (Ellis 2005).,...,, (Yovel 1980).,. (Baron 1987).,, (Michalson 1990).,,, (Kleingeld 1999)

18 ,.,.,? (Riley 2007).,..,. 5),

19 (De Vries 2001). (Beiner 2010)., (Beiner 2010, 1, ). (Beiner 2010, 228).. la politique le politique..,, (DiCenso 2011; Lilla 2008).,

20 ..( 2 ).( 3 ),,, ,.,..,.,..,,

21 ,.,.,,,,..,..,..,..,.,.,

22 .,,

23 II. 1. :,. 6) ( ),,,,,

24 ,., [Politik]. [the applied doctrine of right], [the theoretical doctrine of right] [morality] (PP, VIII:370). [ ], [recht] (MM, VI:219)., [ [law-governed organization of society](iuh, VIII:20), [juridical condition, gesetzlichen Zustande](PP, VI:349), [Öffentliches Recht](MM, VI:311)].,.,, (Riley 1987)., /

25 ,.,,,,,, (Rawls and Herman 2000)., [heresy] [fanatic]. [societas civilis] (Colas 1997) , (Koselleck 2000),.,

26 .,,, (G, IV:387).,., (G, IV:387)., (G, IV:392).,,..,.., [ethical autonomy],. [, ]. [ ] (G, VI: )

27 , (G, IV: ).,, [ praktischen Vernunft, Wille]. (G, IV:395; IUH, VIII:19; WE, VIII:42; TP, VIII:367).,. [Vernunft] (G, IV:395). [Vorstellung], (G, IV: , 412, 417; KprV, V:15-16).,.,. 7),

28 ..,.,,. [ ] (MM, VI:205). [recht], / / / [rechtlich](mm, VI:231)., (MM, VI: ).,,.. /, [ ].,.,

29 (MM, VI:219).,,,., (MM, VI:231). (MM, VI:232).,,,. [definitivartike] [öffentliches Recht] [Staat] (PP, VIII: ; MM, VI: ).,.., (MM, VI:306). [Privatrecht]. [ ]

30 , (MM, VI: ) [provisorisch], (MM, VI:257), (MM, VI:307)., [ ] (MM, VI:311).,.,..,.,..,

31 ..,.. [appropriate contractarianism]., [autonomy] (Riley 1999). 2.,.,.,.,

32 ,.. 1),.. [teleological view]., [natura daedala rerum] [a purposive plan] [natural predisposition] (PP, VIII:361; IUH, VIII:18; WE, VIII:42). [deism]. 1, 1.,,, (KrV A:631/B:65; Wood 1991).,?

33 ?.,?., (IUH, VIII:17)., (IUH, VIII:18).,, (IUH, VIII:18).., [antagonism].,. (IUH, VIII:20-22), (IUH, VIII:27-29)

34 . 1), 2), 3) (PP, VIII:363). [hard casing] (WE, VIII:42).?,?,., (Wood 2006).,. [fate]. [Providence],., (PP, VIII:363).,,

35 ..,.., (IUH, VIII:19).., (G, IV:395). (Ellis 2005, 99).,.,,...,

36 .. 2). [Staat] [Konstitution], (MM, VI:311, 313),,,,.. [noninstumental] (Ripstein 2009, 9)..., (Ripstein 2009, 8-9).,,

37 ,.,,. [republican constitution]., (PP, VIII: ; MM, VI;316). [Volk],.., [Volks],, (MM, VI: ). [Regent], [ ] [ ] (MM, VI: ).. [ ], ( ), (MM, VI:311).. [Regent]

38 ,., (IUH)., (MM)..,.,,., (MM, VI:307).. [freedom], [equality], [independence]. (TP, VIII: ; MM, VI:314). (1),.,,. (2)

39 ,,.. (3). [original contract] (TP, VIII: )., (TP, VIII:297; PP, VIII: ). (TP, VIII:297)., [quid facti] [quid juris]., (Cassirer 1963, 34-35),..,.,,,.,

40 . (MM, VI:319),, (MM, VI:320)... (TP, VIII:299), (MM, VI:322).,.,.,, (TP, VIII:297). (PP, VIII: ; MM, VI: ).,...,

41 ,.,..,.,, [ ] [ ] [ ], (MM, VI:340).,,. 3) :.,,. /..,,

42 ..,.,,., [perfect civic union of the human species]... [Deputierte] [Repräsentativsystem], (PP, VIII: ).,,. (PP, VIII:351), [federation].,,

43 (PP, VIII:354).,,..,. [right to war],, (MM, VI:343, ). - ( ) (MM, VI:355).., [Aufklärung, enlightenment]. (WE, VIII:35).,.,,. [an age of enlightenment] [the enlightened age] (WE, VIII:42)

44 .,!. [hard casing] [civic freedom] [intellectual freedom] [freedom of action] (WE, VIII:42). [critique], , 2 (PP, VIII:352)...,,.,

45 .., ( ),. [publicity] (Ellis 2005).,.,. 3..,..,.,

46 ,.,. -,.,....,, [ ],.,,.,,., (MM, VI: )

47 ., (MM, VI: ).,., (WE, VIII:41).,.,.,.,,. [Frederick II] (WE, III:37-40).,.,

48 ..,,. [ ] (MM, VI: ).,..,,,, (MM, VI: )..,..,..,

49 .,.,,.,.,, (Bernstein 2009; Habermas 2008; Rawls 2005)..?,?,

50 III..,.,.,..,,,.,,.,.,. 1. :

51 ,.., [Friedrich Willhelm II], [Wöllner Edict].,... 1,. -, 1794 (Beck 1969, )., (R, VI:8-9; CF, VII:19-20).,

52 , [Autonomie]., [Wille]., (R, VI:3). (R, VI:5)?.., [Willkür],

53 ..,, [the need], (KprV A: ; R, VI:6).,.,.,,.,.,,. [höist Gut].,, (R, VI:5).. (R, VI:5).,

54 .,.(R, VI:5),.,. [moralische Religion].?. 8),,?, (KrV, A: /B: ).,,. 9) 9)

55 ,, (R, VI:52)..,,..,. [Gesinnung],, [ ] (R, VI:46).,.,., [ ](R, VI: ).,,,,,

56 .,. 2. :?. (R, VI:41-44)., (R, VI:52). (R, VI: ). [conventional shell], (Habermas 2008, ).,

57 1).,., (Baron 1987; Yovel 1980).,..,. 1,. - (i), [ ] (ii) (R, VI:19-20).,. /

58 .. (i) /. /, (R, VI:21)., (ii). /, (R, VI:21).,? [propensio]., [Analge].,,.. (R, VI:26-31)

59 , :,, (R, VI:28-31).,.,,.,., (R, VI:32)...,,.,,, (Kleingeld 1999, 59).,

60 (Kleingeld 1999; Yovel 1980). (Baron 1987).,,(R, VI:33). 2),??. / (R, VI:26-28). [moral regeneration] (Michalson 1990, 52-55)..,.. (R, VI:78, 83)

61 [ ] [, ] (R, VI:83)..,...,., (R, VI:60-62)., (R, VI:65)..,. -.,,

62 .,,, (public revolution)., (R, VI:82-83).,.,..,.,.,,. 3). 3, (

63 ) ( ), (R, VI:95).,, (R, VI:97)..,,..., (R, VI:96)..,,.,

64 . (R, VI:98).,. (R, VI:103). (R, VI:101). [ ],, -, [ ] (R, VI:102).,,.(R, VI:102),,.,., [ethisch Gemeinwesen] [ ; rechtlich Gemeinwesen]., (R, VI:97-98)

65 [öffentlisich], -.,., ( ),.,, (R, VI:99).,.(R, VI:101),.. [theistic]., (KrV, A: /B: )., (R, VI:193). 1), 2),, 3)

66 (R, VI:140)..,,....,,. (R, VI:141),.,. [ ], (R, VI:153).,, (R, VI:153),

67 ..,.,,.,.,..,,.,,

68 3..,..,.,.,.,,,.,..,.,

69 .,.,..,. 1792,,., (DiCenso 2011, 282).,. (R, VI:79-80)., ,, (De Vries 2001)

70 (DiCenso 2011)., (R, VI:102).,, -. 3,.,.,.., (MM, VI:327)

71 . (R, VI:153).,.,,,.,. (R, VI:96).,.., (R, VI:134).,,.,,.,

72 ,

73 IV. :. [raison d etat],., (Koselleck 2000).,,,.,..,,

74 ...,.,.,.,.,.,,

75 ,..,.,.., - (MM, VI: , )., (PP, VIII:363).,.,,., (R, VI:60-65, 199).,.,, (R, VI:96)

76 ,..,,..., (Ripstein 2009).,,.., (MM, VI: ).,.,,. 3,

77 ,, (R, VI:94). [ ], [ ] (R, 95-96).,., (R, VI:96).,, (R, VI:94)... 10),,..,

78 .,.,. (R, VI:79-80). (R, VI:80-85).,.,,.,,.,.,,,.,

79 .,.,., [sharp divide] (Bernstein 2009, ).,.,,.. (Habermas 2008). [boundary]. [practical belief/pragmatische Glaube], (Wood 2009, 18).,

80 (R, VI:139)., -.,.,.,.,,.., -. [civic sphere]..?,,. [culture; le

81 politique],.,. (Riley 2007)..,.,..,.., -.,

82 .,,,..,..,, ( ).,. ( ),.,,,,,.,, ( )

83 ,.,.,. [ ],. -.,.,,.,.,

84

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95 Abstract The Relationship of Politics and Religion in Kant s Practical Philosophy Min, GyungNam Department of Political Science The Graduate School Seoul National University Nowadays, the post-secular condition, in which the political influence of religion has been escalating and the modern principle of political secularism has become at stake, requires new ideal relationship between politics and religion. In this context, the aim of this thesis is to interpret the unnoticed but ideal relationship between politics and religion from the Immanuel Kant s practical philosophy with the balanced approach. Kant revealed that both politics and religion are the spheres of autonomous order constructed by human being s faculty of reason. Taken his political philosophy and religious philosophy together, this thesis tries to capture the tension between politics and religion constructed upon the disparate foundations. To understand the implication of Kant s practical philosophy in regard with politics-religion relationship, one needs to concern Kant s historical background, the pre-secular condition of the early modern Europe. It was a transitional period in which the religious order based on the orthodox Christian belief and newly formed political secularism coexisted in mutually oppositive manner. In this context, Kant s practical philosophy intended to suggest justifiable constituting principles of politics and religion, and to demand the political-religious reality changed along with the principles. To be specific, Kant s political philosophy justified secular legal order and its autonomous legislation by human being. In his political writings, Kant coherently justifies the construction of state or civil society

96 insofar as republican constitution He also suggests the expectation on universalization of political order based on the republican states. Kant s religious philosophy argues that the practical reason requires religion for the moral practice. And it also reinterprets Christian faith from the perspective of moral religion in order to extract the principle for human moral progress. The book III of Religion within the boundaries of Mere Reason criticizes political community as an ethical state of nature. He emphasizes the necessity of constructing ethical community in the form of Church to overcome the ethical state of nature. Taken Kant s arguments from political philosophy and religious philosophy together in a balanced way, this thesis interprets the tension between politics and religion which are constructed ideally. The political order legislated voluntarily by human being and the religious order dependent on the rational belief in transcendental being or God are mutually exclusive to each other at the level of constituting principle. Nevertheless, while coexisting simultaneously, political order and religious order tend to overlap and embrace each other. By examining it, we can find the tension between politics and religion beyond the mere compatibility between them. At last, this thesis has three implications. First, this thesis suggests a balanced understanding of Kant s practical philosophy and an alternative perspective on Kant s attitude toward secularism and religion. Second, this thesis sheds light on the Kant s religious philosophy which has been less covered in political theory and figures out its political implications in the relationship with political order. Third, in the context of post-secular period, this thesis captures the ideal tension between politics and religion from Kant s practical philosophy that may help establish a new ideal relationship between politics and religion. keywords: Kant s practical philosophy, politics and religion, secularism, republican constitution, moral religion, ethical community Student Number: