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1 w y wz 10«3y 203~211 ( ) Journal of Korean Society of Urban Environment w ù p yá k«áyw *Á xá½k w y œw Á* y w ( , k) Characterization of Nonpoint Source Pollutant Loads from the Nakdong River Basin using unit Load Method Ji-Hong Jeon ½ Tae-Kwan Jang ½ Ha-Sun Hwang* ½ Dong-Hyuk Choi ½ Tae-Dong Kim Department of Environmental Engineering, Andong National University *Department of Regional Infrastructures Engineering, Kangwon National University (Received 15 September 2010 : Accepted 2 December 2010) Abstract Spatial change of nonpoint source pollutant loadings along Nakdong River Basin was analyzed using discharged pollutant loading calculated by unit load. Nonpoint source pollutions were more loaded than point source pollution at Nakdong River Basin and increased steadily from upper to down river basin. Major source of nonpoint source pollution from Nakdong River Basin was land cover and second major source of that was livestock. Major source of land cover as nonpoint source pollution was urban for BOD item, forested and agricultural area for T-N and urban, agricultural, forested area with similar ratio for T-P item. Overall nonpoint source pollutions from upland and forest were decreased and thoes from paddy rice filed and urban area were increased as river goes from upstream to downstream. The pollutant loading rates from subwatershed located at downstream were higher than other subwatershed and major source of nonpoint source pollution were land cover and livestock. Key Words : Nonpoint source pollution, Nakdong River Basin, Unit load, pollutant loads ù w w w œ s w. ù w w w ùkû, w w w ùkû. ù w m ùkû ùkû. m w BOD, T-N ùk û, T-P,, ƒ w ùkü. w w w ùkû, w ƒw w ùkü. :, ù,, w I. Corresponding author p» yw m w w š, 203

2 204 yá k«áyw Á xá½k w š yƒ w,» yw y Á w p w z (Ichiki, 1999). p š w, l Á w Ÿ ƒ. w w y j š, w ³ w (w 2, 2000; z 1, 2001; ù x 1, 2001). w ƒ w w w w w š. w w w» w m,» w ³ w wš, w 2005 w w. z y w 2006 w w y» z w š, 2007 y, y, w y, Ÿ Ÿ w » BOD w 42%, ù 50%, 69%, 59% ùkûš, 2015 w w 70%, ù 65%, 67%, 68% wš (y, 2006). ù 2, km 2, km ù ƒ j ƒ ¼ w ƒ š ( ƒ w l, 2010). y, x wì y, w y y w y» w ( w 4, 2001). ù w œ w ƒ w w, y ¾ y w r ù y z ƒw ù w ¾ ùkü šwš. 90 y z š BOD 6.5 mg/l ù kü ù 1996 z l w w ùkü 1999 BOD 4 mg/l w š š (½ y, 2002). ù Fig. 1. Study area. z w œ w (1993~1997) w (1996~2005) w wš ( y w, 2007). ù w w œ w w, ù Áw yw w ù w z» w q. ù 2» e w w w ù œ p q w ù z v w» œwš w. 1. II. ù ù k w w û «w ûw w,,, y, y, û, (Fig. 1). w ù w, ù w e q w» w ù w w w 13 (Fig. 1). NB q e

3 w ù p 205 Table 1. Watershed name, included administrative district, and area Area (km 2 ) Administrative district included in subwatershed River basin Subwatershed NB A Taebaek NB B Bonghwa, Yeongju NB C Andong, Yeongyang, Cheongsong, Uiseong NB D Yeongju, Bonghwa, Yecheon, Mungyeong, Sangju, Gunwi, Uiseong NB E Gumi, Gimcheon NB F Chilgok, Seongju NB G Yeongcheon, Gyeongsan, Taegu, Goryeong NB H Gochang, Hapcheon, Goryeong, Changnyeong, Uiryeong NB I Hamyang, Sancheong, Jinju, Haman, Changyeong, Uiryeong NB J Changwon, Gimhae NB K Cheongdo, Miryang NB L Yangsan NB M Gimhae, Busan ù - q e. ù ù N r NB-M sw g. 2. w xy 2007 y w œw 2» e k w w w. w (River basin), (Subwatershed) w w, w w ù w sw j Fig. 2(a), ƒƒ ù w Fig. 2(b). w ù» w w ü w w y q w» w w, w w ü w w y q w» w w. w sw Table 1. w Á w w, w ƒƒ w. w y, m,,, w w, w ƒ w yw w. w BOD, T-N, T-P. Fig. 2. The difference between NB B river basin (a) and NB B subwatershed (b). III. š 1. ù yp ù ƒ 3 (2007~2009 ) s³ BOD, T-N, T-P y Fig. 3. ù D l ƒw ù G 3w š ùkü, z w w ùkü. BOD T-P y T-N y ùkü, BOD T-P ùk ü ù B š ùkü ù G

4 206 yá k«áyw Á xá½k Fig. 3. Average BOD, T-N, and T-P concentrations in Nakdong River during 2007~2009. Fig. 4. Spatial change of pollutant loads of Nakdong River Basin. j ùkü ù, T-N j ùkü. 2. w p w ƒ w w w Fig. 4 Table 2. Fig. 4 w, w, w ùkü. BOD, T-N, T-P w NB B l NB G¾ ƒw ƒ z NB M¾ w w

5 w ù p 207 Table 2. Nonpoint source pollutant loadings from Nackdong River Basin Nonpoint source loading (kg/km 2 /d) Watershed BOD T-N T-P NB A NB B NB C NB D NB E NB F NB G NB H NB I NB J NB K NB L NB M ùkû. BOD, T-N, T-P w NB G¾ ƒw ƒ w w ùkü ù BOD, T-N, T-P w NP G¾ w ƒw ƒ z ƒw w ùkü. w w ùkù ù w w z w v ƒ ùkû. w w yql r, BOD TP NB B NB D¾ w ƒw z NB G ƒ ùkü. NB G z ã s ƒw ùkü. T-N NB B NB D¾ w ƒw z NB D z s ƒw ù ƒ BOD T-P û ùkû. ƒ w Fig. 5. m w ƒ w, NB D z BODƒ 65%, T-N 70%, T-Pƒ 60% w ùkû. w ùkû, NB B l NB D ¾ w ƒw ƒ BODƒ 32%, T-N 28%, T-Pƒ 35% w ùkû. y w û ùkü,, w 0.5% w ùkù Fig. 5 g. Fig. 5. The spatial change of source ratio of nonpoint source pollution at Nakdong River Basin.

6 208 yá k«áyw Á xá½k Fig. 6. The spatial change of land use component ratio at Nakdong River Basin. w m xy Fig. 6. ù w w ƒ NB D z 70% w ùkû. NB A NB D¾ ã ƒw ƒ z s w w ùkü. w NB A NB D¾ ƒ w ƒ z ã ƒw w ùkü. NB A NB G¾ ã ƒw z 5%ü w w ùkû. w, NB A NB D¾ w,,,»k w ƒ z, NB D ù w ¾ w,,,»k w ƒ w w ùkü. m w Fig. 7. w w ùkü, BOD ƒ 70~80% w ƒ ùkü wì w ƒw w ù kü. w w w ùkü. w ƒ ùkü, T-N NB D z ( + ) w w w ùkü w w ù kû w w wš, w w wš ƒw ùkû. T-N w w ƒw ùkû. T-P w y w T-N w ù Fig. 7. The spatial change of source ratio of nonpoint sourc pollution from land at Nakdong River Basin.

7 w ù p 209 Fig. 8. Pollutant loads of source type from subwaershed. kû, w ùkü, NB D z, ( + ), w j ùkü. 3. p m, y 3ƒ, w Fig. 8. BOD NB M ƒ w ùk ü, NB L, NB I, NB J, NB H, NB G ùkû, T-N NB I ƒ w ùkü, NB H, NB L, NB M, NB J ùkû. T-P NB Iƒ ƒ w ùkü, NB M, NB L, NBJ, NB H ùkù w ƒ ùkû. w p r m w ƒ ùkû, w ew w w ƒw ùkû. BOD T-N, T-N T-P ƒ ƒ w ùkù, NB J w 50% ƒ w ùkû. NB M m w ƒ ùkû, y w w ƒ ùkû. NB M ½w Ÿ ƒ w» q. m w Fig. 9. m BOD wš ùkû. T-N NB D ew w ùkû, w ƒ NB I m w w 50% w ùkû. T-P NB E ew w ùkû, w ƒ NB I m w ƒ w ƒ ùkû.

8 210 yá k«áyw Á xá½k Table 3. Correlation analysis between pollutant loads (kg/ km 2 /day) and concentration (mg/l) BOD T-N T-P Nonpoint source pollution ** ** Point source pollution ** ** ** ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Fig. 9. Pollutant loads of source type of land from subwatershed. 4. w w w ù Table 3. w w BOD, T-Pw w ù w ùkü. T-N ùkü ù, m w w ùkü. w w ùkü y 8 d w l d» q. w T-N w w 1%ü 0.703~0.881 m w w ƒ š ùkû. ù w w p r, w, w ƒ ù m ƒ w ùkü. y x œ, en, x ex x x, j x, e x, w x wš. e ƒ w ex w ƒ. ey Low Impact Development (LID) w ù ƒ š ( y 2, 2009). LID z j» w n s,, y, w» ew k» 1990 v e p LID. ù w p w, ( ) z w j» w» BMPs» LID w ù w z g ù q. IV.» e w w w ù ù w w ù w œ p w w. 1. ù ù 3 s³ œ y r, ù B l ƒw

9 w ù p 211 ù G š ùkü z w ùkü, BOD T-P y w p ùkü ù, T- N š ys w w û ùkû. 2. ù wp w w w, BOD, T-N, T-P w ù D ¾ w ƒ w z ù w ¾ w ƒ w ã ƒw ùkû. p r, m ƒ ƒ w BOD 65%, T-N 70%, T- P 60% w ùkû. m, y ùkû. 4. m p r, ƒ w,,,»k, ùkû. ù D ¾ w z 70% w, ù D¾ ƒw z w 7% w. ù D¾ ƒw z ù ¾ ã ƒw 11% ù kü. ù G¾ ã ƒ w z w (5%) ùkü. 5. m w p r w w w wù w ùkü., w w w w ùkü š w w ƒw w ùkü. BOD ƒ w w ù, T-N ù D z ƒƒ 40% ùkü. T-P ù D z,, w ùkû. 6. ù w w ùkü, ù w m wì w w ùkû ù w w ùkû. 7. wš w, w w ùkù z w t w w w q w z ww» w. ù p œ w ü, w, t w š w w. References 1. ƒ w l wamis.go.kr/ 2. y w ù 90 l. y w. 3. ½ y m» w ù w. y w w» w w. 4. ù x, w w mw» w. wy œwz. 29(9): w, ¼,, z, m w ù p sƒ. w y wz. 17(6): z, w w e w w. y wsƒ. 10(1): y, x, ½k ƒ w w LIDsƒ (LIDMOD) w sƒ. w y wz. 25(1): w, ½ z, ½ w w. y wz. 6(1): y y» z: 4 z( 06~ 15). GPVP y. 10. Atsushi Ichiki, Kiyoshi Yamada. IWA Publishing Study on characteristics of pollutant runoff into lake biwa. Water Science and Technology. 39(12):17-25.

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