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1 English Linguistics 1. s-ane : s-anity plea se : plea sant cr-ime : crim-inal sere ne : sere nity (Great Vowel Shift)..,,., [e:] ~ [æ] sane ~ sanity / please ~ pleasant, [i:] ~ [e:] serene ~ serenity, [ai] ~ [i] crime ~ criminal. (diphthong) ([ai] ~ [i] crime ~ criminal). 2...,. CV (preferred CV pattern)... west side : west end blind man : blind eye wild goose : wild end handmade Appendix

2 03, (consonant cluster) ( ). (descriptively) (1), SPE (distinctive feature) (2). (1) C / C ## C # (2) [+cons] / [+cons] ## [+cons] # 3. a. John believed Mary to study hard. b. John wanted Mary to study hard.. believe (1a) want (1b). (1a) VP V S o (1b) VP V S 1. (1a) believe S NP M VP John [+past] V S believe NP M VP Mary to study hard 352 VISION

3 English Linguistics (1b) want S NP M VP John [+past] V S want COMP Ø S NP M VP Mary to study hard.,. (1a) NP( Mary) NP( ), (Raising), (1b)., believe Raising NP Mary. want. NP (2). (2) (a) Mary was believed to study hard by John. (b) For Mary to study hard was wanted by John. (b) *Mary was wanted to study hard by John., believe NP want., believe, want (obligatorily). (3). (3) (a) John believed himself to study hard (b) *John wanted himself to study hard, believe Small Clause S, want S. (4) (a) John believed [S Mary to study hard] (b) John believed [SMary to study hard], (4)(a) for-comp (5)(a). (5) (a) *John believed for Mary to study hard (b) John wanted for Mary to study hard Appendix

4 03, (4) PRO. (6). (6) (a) *John believed PRO to study hard (b) John wanted PRO to study hard,. 354 VISION

5 English Linguistics 1. comp-ete - comp-etition med-icinal - med-icine maint-ain - maint-enance t-elegraph - t-elegraphy an-alysis - an-alytic s-olid - s-olidity ph-one - ph-onetic Talm-udic - Talm-ud Tom : Can you read this book? Sue : Yes, I can. A : schwa. (vowel reduction) (1). (1) + syl [ ] / + str [-stress] B :.. can [ ]. can [kæn]. Appendix

6 03 2. Mom : Which apple do you like better? Bob : I like the red one. (indefinite anaphor) one., (substitution) N., one PP (complement), (complement). one. (adjunct). (1). a. *Mary likes the student of physics more than the one of chemistry. b. Mary likes the student with long hair more than the one with short hair., (uncountable). (2). a. If you haven t got a fresh chicken I ll take a frozen one. b. *If you haven t got fresh cream I ll take tinned one.,., ones. a one. one a. a. I d like to try on those shoes. Which ones? The ones at the front of the window. b. I m looking for a flat. I d like a small one with a garden. *I d like a one with a garden., this, that, these, those, either, neither, another (determiners). a. I think my dog s the fastest (one). b. Which (one) would you like? Let s have another (one). my, your some, any, both,. a. I need some matches. *Have you any ones? b. *I ll take both ones. 356 VISION

7 English Linguistics 1. Why, how could +t thou know the+e men in Kendall Greene, when it was +o darke, [w h V kudst " V no "iz m n n k nd l grin hw n t w z so dærk] thou could +t not, +ee thy Hand? [" V kudst n t " V kudst n t si " hænd] I don t like to dance in the park now. [ dont l k tu dæns n " pærk n V ] 2. - A : *When have you seen John? B : Only yesterday. when (time-point) (co-occurrence)., when ( ). A (co-occurrence restriction). Appendix

8 03 3. (a) The principal liked all parents to monitor their children s academic progress. (b) The principal persuaded all parents to monitor their children s academic progress... (1) (a) like (b) persuade VP VS VP V NP S S complement like persuade NP S complement. (1) (labelled bracketing) (2). (2) (a) [S The principal liked [S[S all parents to monitor their children s academic progress]]] (b)[s The principal persuaded [NP all parents] [S[S PRO to monitor their children s academic progress]]] (3). (3) (a) For all parents to monitor their children s academic progress was liked by the principal. (a) *All parents were liked to monitor their children s academic progress by the principal. (b) All parents were persuaded to monitor their children s academic progress by the principal. (3), (2) like NP(all parents) like., persuade NP., like persuade. 358 VISION

9 English Linguistics 4. (assimilation),,,,,., lost in [l st in] [l s tin] [l s] [tin]. /t/ /d/ [D]., blind man [d] [blåin mæn]. Appendix

10 03 1. A new word may be formed from an existing word by subtracting an affix which is thought to be part of the old word; that is, ignorance sometimes can be creative. Thus, peddle, was derived from peddler on the mistaken assumption that -er was the agentive suffix. Such a word is called a(n) ( ). The verbs hawk, stoke, swindle, and edit all came into the language by this word-formation process. back-formation 2. One characteristic of many pairs of ( ) antonyms is that one is marked and the other unmarked. The unmarked member is the one used in questions of degree. We ask, How high is it? (not How low is it? ) or How tall is she? We answer One thousand feet high or Five feet tall but never Five feet short, except humorously. High and tall are the unmarked members of high/low and tall/short. gradable 3. Some speakers of English substitute a glottal stop for the [t] at the end of words such as don t or can t or in the middle of words like bottle or button. The substitution of the glottal stop does not change the meaning; [d nt] and [d n ] do not contrast in meaning, nor do [batl] and [ba l]. A glottal stop is therefore not a phoneme in English since it is not a distinctive sound. These sounds [t] and [ ] are in ( ) ( ) in these words. free variation 360 VISION

11 English Linguistics 4. A(n) language is one that indicates the relation of words in a sentence largely by means of inflections, whereas the language that makes extensive use of prepositions and auxiliary verbs and depends upon word order to show other relationships are known as a(n) language. Thus, Old English is and Modern English is. synthetic, analytic 5. Inho has just begun to learn English, and you hear him pronounce the word spike as (b) rather than as (a). (a) [spayk] (b) [s iph åiki ], where [ i ] stands for the vowel written as in the Korean alphabet. (1) :. /p/ : s p voiceless bilabial unaspirated stop aspirated. : [ ay] [ai]. (2) ( C 0 C 0 ; C 0 C 0 1). ( diphthong) :. Appendix

12 03 6. Consider the following minimal pair of sentences : (1a) Prof. Lee wrote the beginning paragraph carelessly. (1b) Prof. Lee worded the beginning paragraph carelessly. The verbs write and word, however, are in sharp contrast, as shown below : (2a) Prof. Lee wrote that letter. (2b) *Prof. Lee worded that letter. write NP(complement), word NP ADVP., carelessly (1a) (adjunct), (1b). 7. Consider now further examples. (a) Prof. Lee wrote the preface carelessly, and so did Prof. Kim. (b) Prof. Lee worded the preface carelessly, and so did Prof. Kim. do so(substitution) V o V. (a) (b). (a) VP V V ADVP V o NP carelessly write the preface 362 VISION

13 English Linguistics (b) VP V V o NP ADVP word the preface carelessly (substitution)v (a) V do so, (b) V. (a) (ambiguous). 8. Consider the following paradigm of words : unfair unhappy unfriendly unnatural undo untie undress unhook un,. 9. (12=2) Word Af Adj UN V Af do able State meaning of undoable the above tree diagram represents. Draw a tree diagram that represents the other meaning. Appendix

14 03 it is impossible to do Word Adj Af Af V able un do 10. Consider the following sentences : (a) The man foolishly destroyed his brand new car. (b) His brand new car was foolishly destroyed by the man. (c) *The avalanche foolishly destroyed his brand new car. (1) foolishly NPNP [+animate]. (2) (c)foolishly Agent NPThe avalanche, NP [animate]. (1) restriction. 364 VISION

15 English Linguistics 1. A : (1) What did you buy at the market? B : (2) I bought a new sweater. A : Why did you buy it? B : Today is my mother s birthday. (3) I d like to give it to her.. (1) market (2) sweater (3) give. content word() focus. primary stress. 2. Appendix

16 03 2. (1) *I wrote my this book. (2) *I like the all three boys. (1). this book of mine. (2) all the. all(predeterminer) / the(centraldeterminer) / three(postdeterminer) (Determiner). 3. (1) In Old English, ( ) verbs added a -d or -t to form their preterits and past participles as in modern talk, talked. (2) The ( ) of unstressed vowels in Middle English resulted in the loss of schwa in final syllables and the reduction of inflections. English had come to depend on function words and word order to express grammatical relations that had previously been expressed by inflection. (3) The Modern English word ( ) was pronounced as [mis]([mi:s]) in the Middle English period. weak leveling (or merging) mice 366 VISION

17 English Linguistics 4. (1) a. Drunks would get -and junkies would fall - off the bus. b. * Drunks would put -and junkies would also put - off the customers. (2) a. * Drunks would get it off. b. Drunks would put them off. (3) a. Drunks would get slowly off the bus. b. Drunks would put completely off the customers. (3a) : (3b) : get off : put off : a. (3a) : prepositional verb (3a) : (3b) : phrasal verb (3b) :. (1) : get off get, put off off. (2) : (get) off the bus and, put off put off constituent off the customers. Appendix

18 03 1. [u:] : high back rounded tense vowel, [u] : high back rounded lax vowel fool [ ] would [ ] took [ ] suit [ ] good [ ] wolf [ ] fool[fu:l], took[tuk], good[gud], would[wud], suit[su:t], wolf[wulf] 2. Susan : Can I get a ride with you? Jane : My car is not working. Maxims of conversation (1) Quantity, (2) Quality, (3) Relevance, (4) Manner 4 (Relevance). 3. (A) I can t stand your little brother. (B) Your little brother, I can t stand. Topicalization(NP preposing ) (ungrammatical sentence) (A) (B) 368 VISION

19 English Linguistics (phrasal constituent) (preposing). (your little brother). (1) (a) I can t stand your little brother. (b) Your little brother, I can t stand. (2),. (2) (a) *Your, I can t stand little brother. (b) *Little brother, I can t stand your. (1) your little brother your little brother. 4. read investigate know resemble change sleep. : : know, resemble. : (a) I m seeing the president at ten o clock.( 10 ). : Appendix

20 03 1. Inho : Lisa seemed to have much difficulty doing her homework. James : Oh, did she? She [maytf^ :t] of asking us for help. Inho : Pardon? James : I mean I am sorry she didn t think of asking us for help. ^ She of asking us for help. ^. might have thought. deletion(h, æ) devoicing(v-f) 2. Why don t you me this evening? The employer peopled the house with ten adults. My mother. 370 VISION

21 English Linguistics. conversion. watered the plant 3. (1) Sharon had been to Boston, hadn t she? (2) Sharon had been to Boston, didn t she? (3) Sharon had the dentist examine her son, hadn t she? (4) Sharon had the dentist examine her son, didn t she? (2) (3). (1) (2)had tag question had. (3) (4)had tag question do. 4. The yellow fog that rubs its back upon the window-panes, The yellow smoke that rubs its muzzle on the window-panes, Licked its tongue in the corners of the evening, Lingered upon the pools that stand in drains,... rub, lick, linger [+animate]. Appendix

22 03 1. A : Do you like the English teacher? B : Yes, I do. he s French, but he teaches English so well. A : Do you like the English teacher? B : Yes, I do. he s a typical Englishman. But interestingly, he teaches Spanish, not English. - ; primary stress English. - ; primary stress teacher. [ - Radford(1988), p. 215] 2. a. the claim that the proof was false b. the claim that John is a genius a. the claim that John has made b. the claim that John found upsetting 372 VISION

23 English Linguistics,, that complement,, that, adjunct [ - Radford(1988), p. 128 ; Aarts(1997), p. 126] 3. Tommy was walking around in a park with his grandma yesterday. An idea hit him when he saw a boy eating an apple in a nearby store. So he said to his grandma in a serious voice, Grandma, my teacher always says that fruit is good for us. And I like apples best. Hearing this, his grandma laughed and said, Oh, you re old enough to say that. All right, I ll buy you an apple. (1) Speaker s meaning (2) Speaker s meaning : Could you buy me an apple buy me an apple. I want to eat an apple.. Hearing this, his grandma laughed and said, Oh, you re old enough to say that. All right, I ll buy you an apple.. Appendix

24 03 1. (during a coffee break at work) Tony: I have two tickets for the theater tonight. Susan: Good for you. What are you going to see? Tony: Measure for Measure. Susan: Interesting play. Hope you enjoy it. Tony: Oh, so you re busy tonight. In this conversation, Susan, deliberately or otherwise, takes Tony s utterance as a statement of fact, rather than a(n) (1). The interlocutors are either native speakers of English or competent users of the language. It is not at the level of grammar or vocabulary that they are not able to achieve their intention or purpose of communication, but at the (2) level. Susan misunderstood the (3) force of the utterance within the context. It is clear from this example that interpreting discourse, and thus establishing (4), is a matter of readers and listeners using their linguistic knowledge to relate the discourse world to entities, events, and states of affairs beyond the text itself. (1) (2) (3) (4) : Second Language Teaching & Learning David Nunan, p VISION

25 English Linguistics 2. Many prefer a familiar authority figure to a young achiever. Whenever she visits her parents, Jane prefers traveling by train to driving alone. Airlines would prefer to update rather than retrain crews. For obvious reasons, I preferred my house to his. I would far prefer to drive rather than go by train. I much prefer playing in the open air to reading indoors. Many parents prefer tissues to handkerchiefs, but they are not without problems. I prefer placing orders over the phone to using websites to buy new items. He prefers to study in the library rather than stay at home playing computer games.,, give NP NP give : : (1) (2) (3). (1) suggestion (request or invitation) (2) discourse (3) illocutionary (4) coherence. (1) prefer to : (2) prefer to : (3) prefer to rather than : Appendix

26 part1- 부록 교 :33 PM 페이지 376 Virtual Printer 03 기출문제 (1992 년 ~2011 년 ) 2004 년서울 1. Read a piece of written work by a student. Identify TWO UNGRAMMATICAL parts, according to the context in the passage. Write down the original and corrected versions for each part. [4점] Yesterday Minju called me to go to the movie theater. I told her that it would be a good idea to go to see a movie early in the morning. When I was going out without a coat this morning, Mom said, It s cold today. The temperature will fall below zero. With no warm coat on will you catch a cold. But I ignored her advice, as I often did. Minju was supposed to be at the box office by 7:30, but she did not show up on time. It was very windy this morning and I felt as if it were 10 degrees below zero. I kept waiting with a runny nose, but she did not come till 8:30. When Minju finally came, I was coughing as well. In the evening, my coughing got worse and I had a high fever. I had a bad cold. I should listen to Mom, but my regret was too late. Ungrammatical Parts Your Corrections Ungrammatical Parts With no warm coat on will you catch a cold I should listen to Mom Your Corrections With no warm coat on, you will catch a cold I should have listened to Mom 376 VISION 영어학개론

27 English Linguistics 5. He lives in a region historical known for supporting several utopian communities. The most famous of the utopian communities was formed by Shakers. Jeff lives near the Shaker community which was built in a relatively isolated part of this county. Jeff s mother works two days a week at the Shaker community as a guide, and she can describe Shaker furniture with perfectly clarity. In the middle of the nineteenth century more than 4,000 converts were active as Shakers. Shakers accepted a life of celibacy, so they depended complete on converts to sustain their faith. (1) (2) (3) (1) historical historically (2) perfectly perfect (3) complete completely 11. (a) When the doctor had examined the patient, she picked up the telephone. (b) When she had examined the patient, the doctor picked up the telephone. (c) She examined the patient, and then the doctor picked up the telephone. (d) There is a good doctor here, and you should go to see her. (c) She the doctor. Appendix

28 boring eager likely merry obvious pleasant sorry tough boring, pleasant, tough 21. In English, aspirated voiceless stops occur at the beginning of a stressed syllable, as in pie and appear, but unaspirated voiceless stops are produced when preceded by [s] as in spy and spat. If [p] is pronounced instead of [p h ] in pie, it does not make a difference in meaning since these two phonetically different sounds count as the same thing in English. That is, though they are phonetically distinct, they belong to the same mental representation and correspond to a single mental category, which is phonologically referred to as a (1). The two stops, [p h ] and [p], are allophones of / (2) /. (1) (2) / / (1) phoneme (2) /p/ 378 VISION

29 English Linguistics 23. The position of a tonic accent is closely connected with information type. A focused constituent usually receives the tonic accent, while a non-focused constituent, which is understood to be old information or is presupposed, is unaccented. Consider the following sentence: Peter met Jennifer in his office, too. The meaning of too is to indicate that what has been said previously with the use of one word or term applies as well with the use of another word of the same form-class. For example, if Jennifer and too are accented in this sentence (/Peter met Jennifer in his office, //too./), it is presupposed that Peter met some other person in his office and the presupposed part is unaccented. Thus, the sentence means that Peter met Jennifer as well as some other person. /Peter met Jennifer in his office, // too./ Peter as well as some other person met Jennifer in his office. Appendix

30 Traditional grammarians have classified whether and if as the same grammatical category, i.e., subordinate conjunction. If we look at the two grammatical sentences below, it might seem as if there is a potential parallelism between whether and if, since they appear to occupy the same position. I don t know whether he will come here. I don t know if he will come here. Do whether and if actually belong to the same grammatical category? There are arguments that whether and if belong to different grammatical categories. whetherif (a) I wonder whether to go. (b) I wonder if to go. (c) I wonder when to go. (d) I wonder that to go. (e) I m not certain about whether he ll come here. (f) I m not certain about if he ll come here. (g) I m not certain about when he ll come here. (h)i m puzzled at that he should have resigned. (i) I don t know whether or not he will turn up. (j) I don t know if or not he will turn up. (1) 380 VISION

31 English Linguistics whether if (1) (b), (d), (f), (h), (j) whether if Appendix

32 03 I love movies. First, movies take us all over the world. We can see beautiful sights. We can learn about interesting cultures. You don t have to leave home. I love movies. Movies are just plain fun. You may have a hard day at work. It feels good to sit down and be entertained by a good movie. There are two main reasons why I love movies. The first reason is that movies take us all over the world. We can see beautiful sights and learn about interesting cultures despite ever leaving home. I also love movies because they are just plain fun. After a hard day at work, it feels good to sit down and be entertained by a good movie. 20. Mistake Your Correction despite without. 382 VISION

33 English Linguistics 23. The plural suffix -s is pronounced as [ z] in words like buses, bushes, benches, mazes, rouges, and garages. These words end with the consonants [s, z, +,,, t+, d,]. These sounds differ with respect to voicing as well as place and manner of articulation. That is, they do not share any articulatory feature. They do, however, have an auditory property in common: they all have a high-pitched hissing sound quality. The high-pitched hissing sound quality is described by using the feature, sibilant. These sounds form the natural class of sibilant consonants in English. Using this feature makes it possible to state a generalization. If we state that [ z] occurs in six different situations, we treat the six consonants as if they were a random collection of sounds with no relation to each other. By referring to the natural class, however, we can state the generalization like this :. The plural suffix -s is pronounced as [ z] after the sibilants. Appendix

34 03 2. There are still some Bostonians who consider their city the center of the world. One of my father-in-law s favorite stories concerns a European traveler arrived at Boston s Logan Airport in mid-december sometime back in the 70s. Coming out of the airport, he found an empty cab waiting to take him to his hotel in the city. As they drove along, the passenger asking the driver whether he could recommend some sights that a first-time visitor to Boston should see. All right, said the driver. Let s see. You certainly ought to visit our great universitiesharvard and MITand at this time of year you ought to go to the planetarium. There is an exhibit showing how the stars were arranging in the sky on the night when Jesus was born. Over Bethlehem? asked the visitor. No, said the driver with some exasperation. Over Boston, of course. (1) ( ) ( ) (2) ( ) ( ) (3) ( ) ( ) (1) arrived who arrived(having arrived) (2) asking asked (3) arranging arranged 384 VISION

35 English Linguistics 7. Consider the sentences below. (1) John will meet his employer at the castle. (2) a. At the castle, John will meet his employer. b. His employer, John will meet at the castle. c. Meet his employer at the castle, John will (indeed). (3) a. *Employer at the, John will meet his castle. b. *Meet his, John will employer at the castle. In each of the sentences in (2) a group of words has been moved to the beginning of the sentence, since it forms a syntactic unit called a constituent. On the other hand, in (3), the preposed words do not form constituents. That is why they are ungrammatical. Only a constituent can be preposed. The people can move the sculpture into the museum. The people can see the sculpture from the museum. Appendix

36 03 NP the sculpture PP into the museum constituent. the sculpture in the museum constituent. ex) a. Into the museum, the people can move the sculpture. b. The sculpture, the people can move into the museum. c. * The sculpture into the museum, th people can move. the sculpture from the museum (constituent) the sculpture from the museum. ex) a. * From the museum, the people can see the sculpture. b. * The sculpture, the people can see from the museum. c. The sculpture from the museum, the people can see. 9. (a) Mary is angry that Jeff failed the exam. (b) Mary is sure that Jeff failed the exam. (c) Mary was hopeful that she convinced the principal. (d) Mary was surprised that she convinced the principal. (e) It is significant that Mary defended her dissertation successfully. (f) It is possible that Mary defended her dissertation successfully. : (a), (d), (e) : angry, surprised, significant 386 VISION

37 English Linguistics 11. A characteristic of all human languages is the potential to create new words. The categories of noun, verb, adjective, and adverb are open in the sense that new members are constantly being added. One of the most common types of formation is derivation, which creates new words from already existing morphemes. Derivation is the process by which a new word is built from a base, usually through the addition of an affix. However, derivation does not always apply freely to the members of a given category. Sometimes, for instance, a particular derivational affix is able to attach only to stems with particular phonological properties. A good example of this involves the English suffix - en, which combines with adjectives to create verbs with a causative meaning. However, there are many adjectives with which -en cannot combine, since the suffix -en is subject to a phonological constraint. In particular, it can only combine with a monosyllabic stem that ends in an obstruent. abstracten olden quicken greenen liven bluen louden stouten : abstracten, bluen, greenen Appendix

38 Orientation(OR): an utterance that provides the addressee with information about the complainer s identity and/or intent in initiating the complaint Act Statement(AS): an utterance that states the trouble source Justification - of the speaker(js): an utterance by the complainer that explains why s/he is personally making the complaint - of the addressee(ja): an utterance by the complainer that offers a reason for the addressee s having committed the wrong Remedy(R): an utterance that calls for an action to correct the wrong Valuation(V): an utterance by the complainer that expresses his/her feelings about either the addressee or the wrong that has been committed I ve been waiting two hours. I know the doctor might have gotten tied up. That s not your fault, but this is ridiculous. I ve already taken three hours off from work. Gosh! I really have to be back at noon Could you please see what you can do? AS (1) and (2) Js and V (3) (1) Ja (2) V (3) R 388 VISION

39 English Linguistics 22. It is sure that John will pass the test. It is probable that John will pass the test. sure subject-to-subject raising : John is sure to pass the test. probable subject-to-subject raising : * John is probable to pass the test. Appendix

40 03 5. Words with more than one affix are formed by means of several steps. For example, consider the word unusable, which is composed of a prefix un-, a stem use, and a suffix -able. The prefix un-, meaning not, attaches only to adjectives and creates new words that are also adjectives such as unkind. The suffix -able, on the other hand, attaches to verbs and forms adjectives such as countable. Since un- cannot attach to use, the suffix -able attaches first to the stem use, creating usable. The prefix un- is then allowed to combine with usable to form unusable. Now consider the word reusable, in which the prefix re- attaching only to verbs is used. Our understanding of how the affixes combine with other morphemes enables us to state the formation of reusable as a two-step process whereby (1) attaches to (2) first, and then (3) is added to (4). (1) (2) (3) (4) (1) re (2) use (3) able (4) reuse 390 VISION

41 English Linguistics 6. The meanings of words change over time. There are some general directions in which word meanings change. They may undergo extensions in meaning when their denotation covers more than it did. For example, the word barn used to denote a storage place for barley but its denotation generalized to cover any kind of farm-based storage shed. Semantic reductions, on the other hand, occur when the denotation of a word shrinks. The word starve used to denote dying in general but now denotes dying of hunger. The connotations of words can also change. Degradations in meaning occur when a word acquires a worse connotation, while semantic elevations come about when a word takes on somewhat grander connotations over time. Lewd started out meaning those who were lay people as opposed to clergy. It then narrowed to mean those who were ignorant, and from there narrowed to obscene. Chivalrous, by contrast, was at one time synonymous with warlike; it now refers to more refined properties such as fairness, generosity, and honor. Words villain ledger manufacture Meaning Changes Middle English: a humble serf Current English: a scoundrel Middle English: any book Current English: an account book Latin: to make by hand Current English: to make by hand or by machinery Types of Change (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3) (1) degradation (2) reduction (3) extension Appendix

42 03 9. The following two sentences have different meanings or implications: (1) Jane managed to talk with the Dean. (2) Jane tried to talk with the Dean. To observe the meaning difference, we can add some expressions to the sentences: (3) Jane managed to talk with the Dean, but she couldn t talk with him. (4) Jane tried to talk with the Dean, but she couldn t talk with him. Sentence (3) is contradictory in meaning, but sentence (4) is not. The reason for the contradiction is that the first clause implies that the complement proposition (i.e., Jane s talking with the Dean) is true, but the second clause denies it. managed to do do. Laura managed to answer the question Laura. and finally she answered it. 392 VISION

43 English Linguistics 11. Words that contain salient information in a sentence are called content words. They include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. The less prominent words in a sentence are called function words. Examples of function words are pronouns, articles, prepositions, and conjunctions. In connected speech, function words are pronounced differently than when they are spoken in isolation. Here are some examples: Written Form Spoken Form Tom watched her last night. ['t m 'w t t r 'læst 'nayt] A cup of tea. [ 'k<p 'tiy] Give them a break. ['g v m 'breyk] Now and then. ['naw n '"n] (1) (2) (3) (4) (1). (her, them) (2). (of)(and) (3) (schwa). (and) (of [ ]) Appendix

44 03 Consider the underlined noun phrases below: (1) a. Mr. Smith is a teacher of children. b. Mr. Smith is a teacher from America. (2) Mr. Smith is a teacher of children from America. The noun phrase in (2), which is a combination of (1a) and (1b), is ambiguous. The phrase from America modifies either the head teacher or the head children. Thus, the ambiguity results from the possible modification of either head by the phrase from America. However, with the intended meaning Mr. Smith teaches children and he is from America, sentence (3) is ungrammatical: (3) *Mr. Smith is a teacher from America of children. The notions of complement and adjunct can be used to explain the ungrammaticality of (3). A complement is a phrase required by the head while an adjunct is its optional modifier; from America is an adjunct of the head teacher and of children, its complement. The noun phrase in (3) is ungrammatical since it does not satisfy the structural requirement that the (A) should come closer to the head than the (B) does. 21. (A) (B) (A) complement, (B) adjunct 22. The student read the book on the stool. (1) the modifier (2) the modified heads (1) on the stool (2) book, read 394 VISION

45 English Linguistics 1. Middle English short a, [a], was now a fronted sound [æ]; long i, [i] had become a dipthong, culminating in our current () ; long u, [u] had dipthongnized too, ultimately culminating in our current pronunciation [au] these and other vowel changes, commonly called the (), act as boundary marker between Middle English and Modern English. [ai], Great Vowel Shift [ei], Great Vowel Shift [ai], Long Vowel Shift [ei], Long Vowel Shift 2. (A) Korean students often struggle with trying to pronounce English words such as eat and it the way native speakers of English do. Fortunately, even if they mispronounce such words, people understand, since the context makes it clear which word they have said : Still some native speakers of English have trouble in understanding them when they mispronounce the word live as they pronounce the word leave or vice versa. (B) In some languages there are vowels that differ phonetically from each other only by duration. That is neither height of the tongue nor tenseness distinguishes the vowel from its counterpart in pairs of words which have a contrast in meaning. It is customary to transcribe this difference either by doubling the symbol or by the use of a diachronic colon after the segment, as for example [aa] or [a]. Since English long vowels differ qualitatively from their paired short vowels, Americans use different symbols to distinguish them. Appendix

46 03 counterpart (length), (quality). 3. Many pronunciation teachers would claim that a learner s command of segmental features is less crucial to communicative competence than a command of suprasegmental features, since the suprasegmentals carry more of the overall meaning than do the segmentals. To better understand this point of view, imagine a native speaker of English engaged in conversation with an adult learner. The learner is discussing an incident in which her child had choked on something and could not breathe. He swallowed a pill, she says. What kind of peel? asks the native speaker. An aspirin, says the woman. Oh, a pill! I thought you said peel, responds the native speaker. Such incidents in native-nonnative speaker conversation involving mispronunciation of segmental sound usually lead to minor repairable misunderstandings. With suprasegmentals and connected speech, however, the misunderstanding is apt to be of a more serious nature. Learners who use incorrect rhythm patterns or who do not connect words together are, at best, frustrating to a native-speaking listener; more seriously, if these learners use improper intonation contours they can be perceived as abrupt, or even rude; and if the stress and rhythm patterns are too non-nativelike, the speakers who produce them may not be understood at all.,. 396 VISION

47 English Linguistics (Major sentence stress) Grammarians sometimes divide all words into two classes : (1) content wordswhich have meaning in themselves, like mother, forget and tomorrow ; and (2) function words which have little or no meaning other than the grammatical idea they express, such as the, of, and will. In general content words are stressed, but function words are left unstressed, unless the speaker wishes to call special attention to them. Content words, usually stressed, include Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs, Demonstratives, Interrogatives. Function words, usually unstressed, include Articles, Prepositions, Pronouns, Possessive adjectives, Relative pronouns, Conjunctions, Pro-form one, Auxiliaries. While all content words receive sentence stress, one content word within a particular sentence will receive greater stress than all the others. We refer to this as the major sentence stress. In most cases the major sentence stress falls on the last content word within a sentence. () Content words are stressed in a sentence; function words are not stressed. () :,. 4. A foreign student is applying for a library card at a university library. He is handed a form by an overworked male assistant, who is a native speaker of English, but after looking at it, he realizes it is the wrong one. Foreign student : Excuse ME. You have GIVEn me thewrong form. Library assistant: Sorry. I gave you what you ASKed for. [irritated, appeals to others in the queue for support] Appendix

48 03 Foreign student : NOIt IS the WRONG form. Library assistant : OK. There's no need to be rude. <Key> means falling intonation. means extra emphasis on stressed syllables. Capital letters mean stressed syllables. Instead of the underlined section of the conversation, a native speaker of English might say the following : Ex CUSE You ve given me the wrong FORMCompared to the native speaker s utterance, the foreign student s pronunciation appears to give the impression of being. rude ((A),?, (b),..) 5. - Hi, Mike! We have not seen each other for so long. Today I was so busy. This morning I had to see an important exam. It was stressful, but I think I will get a good score. Anyway, I was relieved after the exam. In the afternoon, I paid a visit to my grandmother, who is still in hospital. I think she is getting better now. Afterwards, I went home because I wanted to do a long relaxing bath. I really hope you and your family are well. I want to see you soon. Take care. Jinwan from Busan 398 VISION

49 English Linguistics - (1) (2) (1) see an exam take an exam (2) do a bath take a bath 6. When one listens to everyday conversations, implicatures appear everywhere. It is often enough for a speaker to just hint at a certain piece of information ; the addressee will interpret that information as relevant to the ongoing interaction and will infer the speaker s intention. This facilitates processing for the listener. It is probably also does so for the speaker. Speakers manage to select just the relevant information for expression. A blatant failure to respect a conversational maxim can convey some intention in a marked way. Here is an example of such exploitation: Arnold and Betty jointly attend a harpsichord performance. When it is over, the following conversation ensues. Arnold: How did you like it? Betty: It was a nice piano recital. Betty s answer violates the maxim of quality, since she knows perfectly well that the instrument was a harpsichord. This is in fact mutually known. Arnold therefore infers that Betty is flouting a maxim, and, on the assumption that Betty is cooperative, Arnold will try to find out what Betty intended to convey. The most likely interpretation here is that the performer played the harpsichord as if it were a piano- i.e., without real feel for the instrument. A less likely but possible interpretation is that the harpsichord was such an awful make that it sounded like a piano. Which interpretation. There is no standard or conversational way to infer the intention in this case of flouting a maxim. A speaker who exploits a maxim, for instance, to produce Appendix

50 03 irony, as in the above example, must estimate whether enough contextual conditions are fulfilled in order for the addressed interlocutor to make the inference. It should further be noticed that Betty s remark does not convey the same information that would have been conveyed if she had said The performer played without real feel for the instrument. That would not have been ironical; the breaking of the maxim creates the special effect of irony. Arnold the mutually context depends infer from will Betty s answer upon known Arnold will infer from Betty s answer depends upon the mutually known context. 7. Our longevity is affected by many factors. Some of these factors, such as gender, quinka, and heredity, are unchangeable. However, other factors are changeable. We can take two extremely gistorical measures to improve our health ; for example, get excercise and sleep 8 hours every night. (1) quinka a. : (Noun) b. : (and), quinka gender, heredity,. (2) gistorical : a. : (Adjective) b. :, gistorical measures,. -cal. 400 VISION

51 English Linguistics 8. profound adj 1. (extreme) felt or experienced very strongly or in an extreme way. 2.(showing understanding) showing a clear and deep understanding of serious matters. (a) His mother s death when he was aged six had a very profound effect on him. (b) The review that I read said that it was a thoughtful and profound film. (c) This is a book full of profound, orignal and challenging insights. (d) The invention of the contraceptive pill brought about profound changes in the lives of women. Appendix

52 03 9. Just as words have strong and weak parts, so, do sentences have strong and week parts. Function words are mostly unstressed in the sentence. English has stress-timed rhythm. There is nearly equal time between the sentence stress. Stressed syllables will tend to occur at relatively regular intervals. Times from each stressed syllables to the next will tend to be the same, irrespective of the number of intervening unstressed syllables. To express the notion of such rhythm, the foot is used as a unit of rhythm. The foot begins with a stressed syllable and includes all following unstressed syllables up to (but not including) the following stressed syllable. Practice the sentences using natural rhythm and stress (B) 6 (Practice, sentences, using, natural, rhythm, stress) 402 VISION

53 English Linguistics 3. (1) Blending is formed by combining parts of existing words. (2) Acronyms are formed from the first letter(s) of each word in a phrase and pronounced as a word. (3) Functional Shift is formed by converting a word belonging to one category to another without any changes to the form of the word. (a) waterbed : water + bed (b) NYU : New York University (c) water (Verb) : water (Noun) (d) netizen : Internet + citizen (e) national (Adjective) : nation (Noun) (f) NASA : National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1) (2) (3) (1) (d) (2) (f) (3) (c) (2) (b)? pronounced as a word Appendix

54 03 6. It is common that every syllable contains a vowel at its nucleus. However, certain consonants also act as the nucleus elements of syllables in English. Words such as (1), in which the nasal sound comes after stops or fricatives, show that the nasals are syllabic. But we can t say that nasals become syllabic whenever they occur at the end of a word after a consonant. Words such as (2), in which the nasal sound comes after a sonorant consonant, show that the nasals are not syllabic. Therefore, the key issue here appears to be the manner of articulation of the consonant preceding the nasal sound at the end of a word. (a) charm (b) chasm (c) film (d) seldom (e) leaden (f) salon (1) (2) (1) (b), (e) (2) (a), (c) 12. In English we can find a type of assimilation where two segments assimilate to each other. The outcome of this assimilation is a third distinct segment which combines properties of the two assimilating segments. In careful speech, for example, could you would be realized as [kωd ju:]; but in normal conversation it is more likely to be realized as [kωd, ]. In the example, the alveolar stop [d] and following palatal approximant [j] fuse to give the voiced post-alveolar affricate[d,]. The voice, place, and manner of articulation of the two input segments are combined to form a third segment. 404 VISION

55 English Linguistics (In the lobby of a library) A : Hi, would you do me a favor? B : Yes, what can I do for you? A : I think I left my umbrella in the library yesterday. B : Oh, did you? Any idea where you left it? A : I don t know... But I sat by the windows over there. B : All right. Just a moment. I ll go and have a look. A : Thanks. (After some time) B : I m sorry. I couldn t find it anywhere. Why don t you come back tomorrow? I ll ask the janitor if he found it. A : Okay, thanks. See you tomorrow. (1) Hi, would you do me a favor? (2) Oh, did you? (3) Why don t you come back tomorrow? 16. Consider the sentences : Max believed that there was a rose in the garden. Max believed Mary to have chocolate. and show that the verb believe can take as its complement a finite clause, in which the verb contains the information of tense and/or (A), or a non-finite clause, in which the verb does not. Consider further the following sentences: Appendix

56 03 Max told Mary that there was a rose in the garden. Max told Mary to have chocolate. The verb tell can take two complements, as in, where the NP Mary functions as the object of the main clause. Given and, it appears that the verbs believe and tell behave alike. But, a sharp contrast arises between and when the NP is replaced by the expletive there. Max believed there to be a rose in the garden. *Max told there to be a rose in the garden. Traditionally, the ungrammaticality of is due to (B) the constraint on the type of object that the verb tell takes, as shown in and. Max told Mary to have chocolate. *Max told the tree to have chocolate. Another way of accounting for the difference in and is to rely on the distribution of the expletives. The sentences in and indicate that expletives always occupy the subject position. a. There is a rose in the garden, isn t there? b. It is raining, isn t it? a. *I talked about there. (expletive there) b. *I saw it. (expletive it) Given both the difference of the number of complements that the verb can take and the constraint on the distribution of expletives, it can be concluded that the difference in grammaticality between and is based on the fact that (c). (A) 406 VISION

57 English Linguistics (B) (constraint) 10 (C) 50. (A) agreement (B) tell NP tell [+human]( [+animal]). (C) (5)believe complement 1, to there. (6) tell complement 2 [+human] NP to that. (6) there. * a finite verb means a verb inflected for Tense and/or Agreement (Radford, 1988, p. 287) 21. (a) How long is the train? (b) How short is the train? Appendix

58 03 (long short), how long ~? (unmarked), how short ~? (marked). 22. (1) Jane was about to knock on the door but stopped short. Her eyes opened widely in shock when a voice screamed loudly from somewhere in the house. She decided to leave immediately. (2) Old Mr. Elkins is over ninety but is still going strong. Although he convincingly says that he can reach a hundred, he admits that he may be aiming a bit highly. However, there is a widely held belief in the village that he will get there. (3) When I took my driving test, the examiner said that I had done everything right except reversing when I had turned too sharply and mounted the pavement. He strongly recommended that I practice in a car smaller than the one I d been using late. (1) widely wide (2) highly high (3) late lately * stop short :. 408 VISION

59 English Linguistics 24. The cowboy rode the horse from the town with spirit. (a) with spirit modifies the NP headed by town and from the town modifies the NP headed by horse. (b) with spirit modifies the NP headed by town and from the town modifies the VP headed by rode. (c) with spirit modifies the NP headed by horse and from the town modifies the NP headed by horse. (d) with spirit modifies the VP headed by rode and from the town modifies the NP headed by horse. (1) With spirit, the cowboy rode the horse that was from the town. (2) The cowboy rode the horse away from the town that had spirit. (1) (2) (1) (d) (2) (b) Appendix

60 Examples (1) and (2) show that the verb believe may take as its complement a finite clause, as in (1), or a non-finite clause, as in (2) (1) John believes [that Bill is taller than him]. (2) John believes [Bill to be taller than him]. Complement-taking gets more complicated with the adjective likely. It can take a finite clause as its complement, as in (3). But, can it take a non-finite clause complement? (3) It is likely [that Bill is taller than him]. (4) It is likely [Bill to be taller than him]. (5) Bill is likely [to be taller than him]. Since (4) is ungrammatical, we are tempted to say that the adjective cannot take a (A) as its complement. We can t do so, however, because (5) is acceptable. Hence, let us say that likely can take a non-finite clause complement, but it cannot allow an NP like Bill to immediately follow it. Then, what about the verb believe in (2)? Well, we have to say that the verb allows an NP to immediately follow it. At this point, let us think about the passive past participle of the verb believe. Compare (6) and (7) with (1) and (2), respectively. (6) It is believed [that Bill is taller than him]. (7) It is believed [Bill to be taller than him]. It is interesting to see that it is not the case that both (6) and (7) are okay.... Answer : 410 VISION

61 English Linguistics Answer : Believed in (6) and (7). Answer : (A) non-finite clause, (B) Bill is believed to be taller than him (C) cannot allow an NP to immediately follow it. 16. The difference between formaland informaluses is best seen as a scale, rather than as a simple yes or no distinction. Consider the following example. (1) There are many selfish people with whom one would hesitate to converse. Sentence (1) is towards the formal end of the scale for a number of reasons: Use of there are, which (unlike the less formal there s) maintains the plural con cord with many selfish people as subject. Use of many selfish people itself, rather than the more informal a lot of selfish people or lots of selfish people. Appendix

62 03 Use of the initial preposition to introduce a relative clause (with whom), rather than a construction with a final preposition whom... with. Use of whom, which is itself a rather formal pronoun compared with who. Use of the generic personal pronoun one, rather than the more informal use of generic you. If we replaced all these features of (1) by informal equivalents, the sentence would run as in (2). (2) you would hesitate to. However, it is significant that this sentence seems very unidiomatic. The reason is that a translation from one variety to another cannot be treated as a mechanical exercise. In practice, informal English prefers its own typical features, which include, for example, contracted forms of verbs (there s rather than there is, etc.), omission of the relative pronoun who/whom/that, and informal vocabulary rather than more formal vocabulary such as converse. As an example of informal English, (3) is a more natural-sounding sentence than (2). (3) There s However, we could make more lexical changes to increase or decrease the formality of this sentence. For example, replacing people by guys would make the sentence even more informal: (4) There s 412 VISION

63 English Linguistics There s (There is) a lot of (lots of) selfish people who(m) converse with a lot of (lots of) selfish people you d hesitate to talk with a lot of (lots of ) selfish guys you d hesitate to talk with 17. English has a set of principles or rules which allow native speakers to assign stress to the appropriate syllable of a word. The unit of a syllable may contain as its core a long vowel or a short vowel, a monophthong or a diphthong, or one or multiple consonants before or after the core. Consider the following two-syllable verbs : ballot exclude attract annoy divde abstract enter delight incline salute contain feature protest portion signal We can see that the stress may fall on either the first or the second syllable. Since stress placement rules usually apply to the final syllable first, compare the underlined rhyme sections of the stressed second syllables with the rhymes of the unstressed counterparts. We notice that the final syllable is stressed when it contains,, or in its rhyme section. That is, the final syllable is stressed when its rhyme is heavy in a sence. Answers : a long vowel a diphthong multiple consonants Appendix

64 Suppose that I am an American soldier in the Second World War and that I am captured by Italian troops. And suppose also that I wish to get these troops to believe that I am a German officer in order to get them to release me. What I would like to do is to tell them in German or Italian that I am a German officer. But let us suppose I don t know enough German or Italian to do that. So I, as it were, attempt to put on a show of telling them that I am a German officer by reciting those few bits of German that I know, trusting that they dont know enough German to see through my plan. Let us suppose I know only one line of German, which I remember from a poem I had to memorize in a high-school German course. Therefore I, a captured American, address my Italian captors with the following sentence : Kennst du das Land, wo die Zitromen blühen? In saying this sentence, I intend my captors to believe that what I mean is I am a German officer, and I intend to produce this effect by means of their recognition of my intention. Nonetheless, the words I utter mean Do you know the land where the lemon trees bloom? An utterance act is simply an act of uttering sounds, syllables, words, phrases, and sentences from a language. A locutionary act is an act of saying the propositional content of an utterance, while an illocutionary act is characterized as an act performed in saying something. Utterance Act : The author utters to his Italian captors, Kennst du das Land, wo die Zitromen blühen? Locutionary Act : He says to them, Illocutionary Act : He suggests that. Answers : Do you know the land where the lemon trees bloom? he is a German officer 414 VISION

65 English Linguistics 6. Intonation in Questions functions to differentiate normal information from contrastive or expressive intentions. In other words, intonation performs an important conversation management function, with the speaker being able to subtly signal to the interlocutor to respond in a particular fashion, or to pay particular attention to a piece of highlighted information. There are two syntactic options for making yes/no Questions. The first option, which is general or unmarked, involves the inversion of the subject and the auxiliary verb, as in (1). (1) Did Tom cook DINner? This unmarked option is accompanied by rising intonation. In this pattern, the speaker is asking about the truth of what he or she is saying. The second option, which is less general or marked, takes the form of a statement with no subject-auxiliary inversion, as in (2). (2) Tom cooked DINner? In this marked pattern with rising intonation. the speaker is either asking the interlocutor to repeat or is making an assumption and wants the interlocutor to confirm it (i.e., the speaker has good reason to expect a yes answer). Another prosodic pattern for the uninverted guestion has emphatic stress, high pitch, and exaggerated intonation on one or two of the constituents that lend themselves to focus, as in (3). (3) TOM cooked DINner? In this pattern, the speaker is reacting with surprise or disbelief to certain information just received. For learners of English, it does not make sense to practice the unmarked and marked versions of Tom cooked dinner in isolation and out of context. Appendix

66 03 Learners must under stand early on that one version is appropriate in one context, whereas the other is appropriate in another context. (Kelly is a friend of Lisa s family.) Lisa : The guys kept doing nice things for me because it was Mother s Day. Bob washed the car, Joe ironed the shins, and Tom cooked dinner. Kelly : ( ) Lisa : It was quite amazing to me, too. He s never even boiled an egg before. Answer : ( ) Lisa Tom 416 VISION

67 English Linguistics 13. Depth of word knowledge refers to a learner s knowledge of the different aspects of a given word. This knowledge has to do with extent of knowledge of the following categories: pronunciation and orthography; morphological properties; syntactic properties and collocations; ( ) including connotations, polysemy, antonvmy, and synonymy; register: and frequency. A key concept in this notion of vocabulary depth is that as the word is known in a deeper manner, then the more words that are associated with that word are also known. It is also congruent with the view that lexical depth is incremental and there are degrees of word knowing. Knowledge of vocabulary is multidimensional, encompassing various types of knowledge. The relationships between words are connected on different dimensions. Words may be related thematically (book- journal- manuscript), phonologically ( ), morphologically (indemnification- notification- intensification), conceptually ( ), and sociolinguistically ( ) among others. The number of relations that are established between words is in part a function of the number of exposures to a word providing a variety of information about the item. Understanding the richness of these connections represents the depth of knowledge of a particular word. (a) dude- guy- man (b) dock- sock- rock (c) pan- pot- steamer Answer : semantics b c a Appendix

68 Activity: Paying Attention Draw arrows from the verb to show who or what experiences the feeling described by the verb in the sentences. Use a dictionary to check the meanings of any verbs you do not know. Examples: Sometimes people like dogs. (unmarked) Examples: Sometimes people please dogs. (marked) (1) Mary worries her mother. (2) Cats bother Mary. (3) Dolores mourns her father. (4) People prefer dogs. (5) Sometimes men disgust women. (6) Poor people envy rich people. This activity focuses students attention on the experiencer in sentences containing both unmarked and marked psychological (psych) verbs. In this case the input is written so as to allow time for students to reflect on the sentences. This activity uses a ( ) technique. That is, it seeks to make students aware of the grammatical difference between psychological verbs such as like and please. It can be extended by other consciousness-raising activities. For example, students might be asked to classify the verbs in the sentences they are exposed to into two groups according to whether the experiencer is the grammatical subject or object. The teacher might also like to provide an explicit explanation of the difference between the two verb groups. Answer : 418 VISION

69 English Linguistics type of psych verb example unmarked marked consciousness-raising mourn, prefer, envy worry, bother, disgust 18. The problem posed by indirect speech acts is the problem of how it is possible for the speaker to say one thing and mean that but also to mean something else. The problem is made more complicated by the fact that some sentences seem almost to be conventionally used as indirect requests. For a sentence like Call you pass me the salt?, it takes some ingenuity to imagine a situation in which its utterance would not be a ( ). Here is a short list of some of the sentences that could quite standardly be used to make requests and other directives such as orders. These sentences naturally tend to group themselves into certain categories. Group 1 Sentences concerning the hearer s ability to do something: Can you pass me the salt? Are you able to reach the book on the top shelf? Group 2 Sentences concerning the speaker s wish or want that the hearer will do something: I would like you to go now. I would appreciate it if you would get off my foot. Group 3 Sentences concerning the ( ) doing something: Would you kindly get off my foot? Aren t you going to eat your cereal? Appendix

70 03 Group 4 Sentences concerning the hearer s desire or willingness to do something: Would you be willing to do this for me? ( ) Group 5 Sentences concerning reasons for doing something: It might help if you shut up. It would be a good idea if you left town. Answer : (1) request, (2) hearer s, (3) Would it be convenient for you to visit me tomorrow? 19. Nominalization has the effect of changing the categorial status of the verb destroyed into the noun destruction, of the noun phrase the enemy into the prepositional phrase by the enemy, and of the noun phrase the city into the prepositional phrase of the city in (1) below. (1) a. They reported that the enemy had destroyed the city. b. They reported the destruction of the city by the enemy. Not all grammatical functions of the sentence need be realized in derived nominals, as in (2a), and the grammatical function expressed by an of-phrase can be marked by a genitive noun, as in (2b). Occasionally, a specific preposition selected by a derived noun must be used, as in (3). (2) a. the destruction of the city b. the city s destruction 420 VISION

71 English Linguistics (3) a. The war was widely opposed. b. wide opposition ( ) the war The nominalization process allows several simple sentences to be combined into one, and increases the density of information transmitted. (4) a. Dr. Manning discovered something. b. Bacteria exist in the mouth. c. This is what Dr. Manning discovered. d. Someone reported this event last month. (5) ( ) discovery of ( ) in the mouth was reported last month. The four sentences in (4) are condensed into one, reducing the number of words from twenty one to fifteen, but at the expense of introducing the abstract noun discovery and increasing the syntactic complexity of the resulting sentence in (5). Answer : to Dr. Manning s the existence of Bacteria Appendix

72 The rules of word stress placement in English are complex and have exceptions, but some information such as the grammatical category of the word, the number of syllables the word has, and the phonological structure of those syllables is important in stress placement. Consider the following stress placement rules: (1) In three-syllable verbs, if the final syllable is strong, then it is stressed; if the final syllable is weak, then it is unstressed, and stress is placed on the preceding syllable if that syllable is strong. (2) In three-syllable nouns, if the final syllable is weak, or ends with [ ], then it is unstressed; if the syllable preceding this final syllable is strong, then that middle syllable stressed; if the second and third syllables are both weak, then the first syllable is stressed. Note: A strong syllable has a rhyme which either has a syllable peak which is a long vowel or diphthong, or a vowel followed by a coda (i.e., one or more consonants). Weak syllables have a syllable peak which is a short vowel, and no coda unless the syllable peak is[ ]. (a) bonanza (b) resurrect (c) cinema (d) remember (e) embroider (f) algebra (g) entertain (h) aroma 422 VISION

73 English Linguistics : (1) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (2) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) : b, g : d, e : a, h : c, f 15. X-bar theory is a very simple and general theory of phrase structure. Using only three rules, this theory accounts for the distinction between adjuncts, complements, and specifiers. (1) a. Specifier rule : XP (YP) X b. Adjunct rule : XX (ZP) or X(ZP) X c. Complement rule : X X (WP) X is a head, WP is a complement. ZP is an adjunct, and YP is a specifier. Let us think, here, about differences between the complement and adjunct rules. Because the complement rule introduces the head, the complement will always be adjacent to the head. Or more particularly, it will always be closer to the head than an adjunct. This is seen in the following tree: (2) NP D the N N PP N book PP of poems with a red cover Appendix

74 03 Since the adjunct rule takes an X level category and generates another X category, it will always be higher in the tree than the output of the complement rule. Since lines can t cross, this means that complements will always be lower in the tree than adjuncts, and will always be closer to the head than adjuncts. (a) It is very interesting and of great help. (b) The flower moved of itself and with elegance. (c) She likes the book of poems and from The MIT Press. (d) I read the book of poems with a red cover and with a blue spine. : : ( ) : (c) typecomplement adjunct (conjunction). 424 VISION

75 English Linguistics 17. All languages modify complicated sequences in connected speech in order to simplify the articulation process. The main function of most of the adjustments in English is to promote the regularity of English rhythm-that is, to squeeze syllables between stressed elements and facilitate their articulation so that regular timing can be maintained. Specifically, the following optional phonological processes frequently occur in connected speech in North American English: (1) Alveolar stops are assimilated in place of articulation to following bilabial or velar stops across word boundaries. (2) Oral alveolar stops are pronounced as a flap after a stressed vowel and before an unstressed vowel. (3) Oral alveolar stops are deleted if they are central in a sequence of three consonants. (a) He has a green car. (b) Please send Susan a box of chocolates. (c) Would you care for a bit of cheese? (d) I met Bob yesterday. : green ( ) send Susan ( ) bit of ( ) met Bob ( ) Appendix

76 A word is not a simple sequence of morphemes. It has an internal structure. For example, the word unsystematic is composed of three morphemes: un-, system, and -atic. The root is system, a noun, to which we add the suffix -atic resulting in an adjective, systematic. To this adjective, we add the prefix unforming a new adjective, unsystematic. The hierarchical organization of words is most clearly shown by structurally ambiguous words. Consider the word unbuttonable. The two meanings of the word correspond to different structures, as follows: (1) Adjective (2) Adjective un ( ) ( ) able ( ) able un ( ) button button The ambiguity of this word arises because the prefix un- can combine with different grammatical categories. adjective, verb : not able to be buttoned verb, verb : able to be unbuttoned 426 VISION

77 English Linguistics 19. Adopting the concepts of traditional grammar, we can say that subjects of finite clauses have Nominative Case and that NPs that are complements of prepositions or verbs appear in the Accusative. Let us postulate that there is a universal requirement that all overt NPs must be assigned abstract Case to satisfy the Case filter. (1) Case Filter Every overt NP must be assigned abstract Case. To pass the Case filter NPs must be assigned Case by Case assigners such as a finite Tense, a transitive verb, a preposition, or a prepositional complementizer for. (The prepositional complementizer can appear in the infinitival clause to assign Accusative Case, since infinitival to can t assign Case to the overt subject of an infinitival clause.) (2) a. He likes her. b. She moved toward him. c. For her to like him is surprising. (a) It is likely Mary to be innocent. (b) I persuaded him to go to college. (c) She believes sincerely that he is smart. (d) I don t know whether John to go to the party. (e) She seems to me to be intelligent. (a), (d) Mary John Appendix

78 To a large extent, the acquisition of negative sentences by second language learners follows a path that looks nearly identical to the stages for first language acquisition. What is different, however, is that second language learners from different first language backgrounds behave somewhat differently within those stages. In the first stage, the negative element (usually no or not ) is typically placed before the verb or the element being negated. Often, it occurs as the first word in the utterance because the subject of the sentence is not there. For example, No bicycle. No have any sand. I not like it. No is preferred by most learners in this early stage, perhaps because it is the negative form that is easiest to hear and recognize in the speech they are exposed to. In the next stage, no and not may alternate with don t. However, don t is not marked for person, number, or tense and it may even be used before modals like can and should. For example, ( ). Next, learners begin to place the negative element after auxiliary verbs like are, is, and can. But at this stage, the don t form is still not fully analyzed, as shown in the example, ( ). Finally, do is marked for tense, person, and number, and most interlanguage sentences appear to be just like those of the target language. For instance, ( ). For some time, however, learners may continue to mark tense, person, and number on both the auxiliary and the verb, as in the example, ( ). This sequence of stages is descriptive of the second language development of most second language learners. (a) I didn t went there. She doesn t wants to go. (b) It doesn t work. We didn t have supper. (c) You can not go there. He was not happy. She don t like rice. (d) He don t like it. I don t can sing. (d) (c) (b) (a) 428 VISION

79 Appendix 02 기출문제 2013 년 2 차 03. Read <A> and <B> and follow the directions. [25points] A noun phrase can have one or multiple modifiers. The modifiers can precede or follow the noun, and the modification can be restrictive or nonrestrictive. Restrictive modifiers serve to identify the entity that the noun phrase refers to by providing information to narrow down the reference. On the other hand, nonrestrictive modifiers do not serve for identification, since their head noun is viewed as unique or as a member of a class that has been independently identified. The modifiers simply provide additional information about the head. The relative clauses in (1a) and (1b) are restrictive and nonrestrictive, respectively. In formal writing, (1b) is slightly unacceptable, and it is indicated with #. (1) a. John introduced me to the writer who sat behind me. b. #John introduced me to his mother who sat behind me. (2) Picture-A Picture-B A B Ted Baker 1 who explored many remote places wrote a lot of travel books. In his 2 brilliant last book, he described the lifestyle of the people on an islet 3 he visited with his beautiful wife. The islet has an active volcano, and the people deify it. Every year they sacrifice a 4 young girl to this volcano 5 of great value to them. In addition to the cherished volcano, since chimpanzees 6 who share 99 percent of our DNA exhibit behaviors similar to humans, the islanders consider them special creatures. Holding the belief 7 that the creatures are their guardians sent from God, the people revere the chief of the island 8 who can communicate with chimpanzees. Note : Some punctuation marks have intentionally been left out of this passage. 526 VISION 영어학개론

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