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1 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Feb.; 26(2), ISSN (Print)ISSN X (Online) Generation of ISAR Image for Realistic Target Model Using General Purpose EM Simulators 김석니키틴콘스탄틴 가민호 Seok KimKonstantin NikitinMin-ho Ka 요약 SAR., SAR(Synthetic Aperture Radar) S/W,. EM(Electro Magnetic) simulator., (inverse synthetic aperture radar),., (target recognition). Abstract There are many research works on the SAR image generation using EM(Electro Magnetic) simulation. Particularly, there are several dedicated S/Ws for SAR image generation and analysis. But, most of them are not available to the public due to the reason for defense and security. In this paper, we describe the generation of ISAR images for a realistic target model using the general purpose EM simulator like FEKO. This method can benefit us many advantages like building the database of many targets for target recognition with cost-and-time effective way. Key words: SAR, CAD, FEKO. 서론.,.,., X-, (seismic waves).,,,, IT (NIPA-2014-H ). (School of Integrated Technology, Yonsei University), Manuscript received October 8, 2014 ; Revised January 28, 2015 ; Accepted February 5, (ID No ) Corresponding Author: Min-ho Ka ( c Copyright The Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science. All Rights Reserved. 189

2 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 26, no. 2, Feb , SAR ISAR. CAD(Computer Aided Design) (Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar) EM simulation. Xpatch [3], Epsilon [2] S/W, S/W,. EM simulator. [10] CAD PO UTD HRRP, [11] bistatic SAR. FEKO [1], RCS(Radar Cross Section), HRRP(High Range Resolution Profile), ISAR.. EM Simulation (scattering characteristics), Maxwell (analytical solution) (numerical solution). MoM(Method of Moment) [7], FDTD(Finite Difference Time Domain) [8], FEM(Finite Element Method), FMM (Fast Multipole Method), EM PO(Physical Optics) [9], GO(Geometric Optics), UTD(Uniform Theory of Diffraction). FEKO MoM, FEM, MLFMM (Multi-Level Fast Multipole Method), PO/GO, UTD. FEKO CST Microwave Studio(MWS) EM simulator VIRAF EM ISAR., CST MWS, FEKO. RCS VIRAF(VIRtual Aircraft Framework) SBR(Shooting and Bouncing Rays), RCS, ISAR.. Target Response Analysis, (dimension) 4, RCS(0D), HRRP(1D), ISAR (2D/3D), EM simulator CAD model. 3D. 3-1 RCS RCS Radar Cross Section,, [12]. EM simulation E-field, RCS [6]. (1), scattered electric field, incident electric field,., RCS monostatic RCS, RCS bistatic RCS. monostatic. 190

3 3-2 HRRP HRRP profile 1D, [4]. EM simulation 1 E-field.,, E-field IDFT (Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform), [6].,,, Hamming, Kaiser-Bessel IDFT [13]. (2), E-field,,,. HR- RP(High Range Resolution Profile) HRRS(High Range Resolution Signature) [4]., (Target Identification Target Recognition). 3-3 ISAR 영상 ISAR (2D) 2, (range) (cross-range). (ISAR) range-doppler domain range/cross-range domain [6]. monostatic ISAR, bistatic ISAR. look angle (, ). look angle( target aspect angle), ISAR [6]. (3), scattered electric field, (spatial domain) 2D,, wave number. look angle, ISAR [6]. cos sin,, look angle. wave number, look angle. Simpson rule [14],., Polar Reformating [6] ISAR., IDFT IDFT. (interpolation). ISAR. m ax (4) m ax (5) 191

4 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 26, no. 2, Feb , (frequency step),,,., ISAR m ax. m ax (6),, look angle (angle step), (cross-range direction), look angle interval.,. 그림 1. Fig. 1. Target model. (7), (cross-range resolution). (8). Simulation Results 4-1 Setup, FEKO EM simulator v6.3, Microsoft Windows 7 Professional(64 bit), Intel Xeon CPU E GHz, 64 GB RAM. 4-2 Target Model 6.5 m, 6 m 3 ( 0.5 m). Z, range, Y, cross-range. X, Z X. 10 GHz( GHz), 1 GHz, (linear polarization), look angle MHz, FEKO PO ("Large PO" ) EM simula- 그림 2. electric field( ) (=10, =110) Fig. 2. Electric field of the target model. tion, ( (PEC, Perfectly Electric Conductor).). 9 (mesh : 4,1430). PO, FDTD MoM,. FEKO EM, ffe. ffe, E-field

5 4-3 RCS E-field (magnitude). (9), RCS. (10), =1016, =110. =10, =110 RCS HRRP 3 IDFT, 4, look angle HRRP. Kaiser- Bessel. peak(a), peak(b) peak(c) ( 그림 4. HRRP(look angle) Fig. 4. HRRP of the target model. 3 )., HRRP target aspect angle., (scattering point) 1(1D)., 4 (a), 40 db. 4-5 ISAR 영상 look angle, db 그림 3. RCS (=10, =110) Fig. 3. RCS of the target model. 그림 5. ISAR Fig. 5. ISAR image of the target model. 193

6 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 26, no. 2, Feb ISAR 5. Kaiser- Bessel. 4 look angle HRRP look angle 1016, look angle 1D IDFT 5. 5, ISAR., ISAR, (scattering point) 2(2D).. 결론 EM simulator FEKO, CAD model,., RCS (0-D), HRRP (1-D), ISAR (2-D)..,,,, PO.,,.,, EM simulation S/W (target signature),. PO ISAR. 감사의글 (13-DU-EE-11), LTCC SAR. References [1] EM Software & Systems-S.A. (Pty) Ltd., FEKO User s Manual, [2] S. H. W. Simpson, P. Galloway, and M. Harman, "Application of epsilon a radar signature prediction and analysis tool", International Radar Symposium IRS 98, [3] D. Andersh, J. Moore, S. Kosanovich, D. Kapp, R. Bhalla, R. Kipp, T. Courtney, A. Nolan, F. German, J. Cook, and J. Huges, "Xpatch 4: The next generation in high frequency electromagnetic modeling, and simulation software", IEEE Radar Conference, pp , [4] Donald R. Wehner, High-Resolution Radar (2nd Ed.), Artech House, [5] D. Mensa, High Resolution Radar Cross Section Imaging, Artech House, [6] Caner Ozdemir, Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging with MATLAB Algorithms, Wiley, [7] Walton C. Gibson, The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics, Champman and Hall/CRC, [8] A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (3rd Ed.), Artech House, [9] W. B. Gordon, "Far-field approximations to the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz representations of scattered fields", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, pp , [10] S. Kashyap, J. Stanier, G. Painchaud, A. Louie, "Radar response of missile-shaped targets", Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, [11] A. K. Mishra, B. Mulgrew, "Database generation of bistatic ground target signatures", IEEE/ACES International Conference on Wireless Communications and Applied Computational Electromagnetics, [12] M. Skolnik, Radar Handbook (3rd Ed.), McGraw Hill,

7 범용 전자기파 시뮬레이터를 이용한 사실적 표적 모델에 대한 역합성 개구면 레이다 영상 합성 [13] V. K. Ingle, J. G. Proakis, Digital Signal Processing using MATLAB, Brooks/Cole, [14] O. A. Yakimenko, Engineering Computations and Modeling in MATLAB/SIMULINK, AIAA, 김석 가민 호 년 2월: 한국항공대학교 항공전자공 학과 (공학사) 2000년 2월: 한국항공대학교 항공전자공 학과 (공학석사) 2006년 11월 현재: 삼성탈레스 종합연구 소 전문연구원 2013년 3월 현재: 연세대학교 글로벌융 합공학과 박사과정 [주 관심분야] SAR/ISAR, 전자기파 수치해석, 레이다 신호처 리, 적응 신호처리, 능동 위상 배열 레이다 시스템, 레이다 시 스템 설계 1998 Konstantin Nikitin 년 연세대학교 전자공학과 (공학사) 년 연세대학교 전자공학과 (공학석 사 년 모스크바에너지공대 전자전파공 학과 (공학박사) 1997년 2000년: 국방과학연구소 2002년 2011년: 한국산업기술대학교 교 수 2011년 현재: 연세대학교 글로벌융합공학과 교수 [주 관심분야] 레이다 설계, 영상레이다 등 1989 : 1991 : ) 1997 : 년 1998 : Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Applied Mathematics and Physics (Engineer-Physicist) 2002 : Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Radio Engineering Including Navigation, Radar, and Television Systems (Ph.D). 년 년 현재 연세대학교 글로벌융합기술원 연구원 2013 : [주 관심분야] Radar Signal Processing, Radar Hardware Design 195