A S tudy on the Dev elopment of Ex c lus iv e S ens or for Dete cting the Hy draulic Cy linder S troke

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1 A S tudy on the Dev elopment of Ex c lus iv e S ens or for Dete cting the Hy draulic Cy linder S troke

2 A bs tract / / C196KC 24 4 Prototype Configuration 26

3 4.1 LVDT Configuration A ppendix 43

4 A Study on the Development of Exclusive Sensor for Detecting the Hydraulic Cylinder Stroke Han Lee Department of Control & Instrumentation Engineering, Graduate School, Korea Maritime University Abstract In order to compris e a basic closed- loop control system for hydraulic systems it is necess ary to detect the pis ton rod s troke of hydraulic cylinder. T here are many conventional type s ensors w hich have been applied to detect the dis placement of cylinders. Several types of LVDT s and magnetic sens ors are representative illustrations of them. How ever, they cannot reveal the original performance normally or they cannot be applied at all w here the operating circums tance of cylinders is beyond specifications of sensors. Especially, for the purpose of detecting the s trokes of cylinders mounted on heavy equipments, a s pecial exclusive s ensor must be used. Becaus e the operating circumstances of heavy equipments are so s evere that general purpose sens ors cannot endure s uch circums tance as a shock and a residual vibration induced by rough w orks

5 In the conclusion, an exclusive sens or mus t be developed to detect the strokes of hydraulic cylinders of heavy equipments. In this thesis, an exclus ive method for detecting the piston rod s troke for heavy equipments is sugges ted, w hich adopts a remote detecting technique using optical sens ors and optical fibers. T o do this, firs t of all, a kind of s cale treatment of pis ton rod is required and it is also proposed here. An entire implementation procedure of the proposed exclusive sens or is explained concretely. A prototype of the sens or is resulted from the procedure. And then, s everal experiments using the prototype are ex ecuted for verifying the effectivenes s of the sug gested method and the poss ibility of the remote detection. Finally, the conclusion is demons trated bas ed on the experimental results

6 1..,.. N S... A/D

7 housing (Heat source).., 1 (Bucket) (Residual vibration), housing [1]... ( ) Kayaba[1], [2],., housing

8 [3]., prototype prototype, 5 prototype

9 1.1 T able 1.1 Performance comparison of sensors Operating Specs. Vibration T emp. Sens ors (G) ( ) Heavy Equipment G above JC40S Potentio - meter L V D T Hall Sens or Encoder Resolver Shock Sensing Resolution Accuracy (G) Time 120G 1mm below above [COPAL G 100G 0.05% (Japan)] LP- 100FP [MIDORI G 50G 1% (Japan)] LP- 10FBS- 3 [MIDORI (Japan)] G 50G 1% GYMT C- 11 less than [SANT EST G 20G 0.01%FS (Japan)] 1kHz BT L- A [BALLUFF G 12bit 2kHz (Germany)] AQLT [Data Instrument G 50G 0.05% (America)] KSSC- 050 [Kayaba G 90G 0.5mm (Japan)] T S ,000 [T AMAGAWA G 100G Pulses (Japan)] 200 sec A2- E2 [U.S Digital G 100G 10000rpm (America)] CE- 65- S ISI (T R Electronic (Germany)] G 100G 6000rpm T S2013N94E % [T AMAGAWA G 100G 30 msec Pulses for 180 (Japan)] - 4 -

10 , [3].,,,.. [4] (Piston rod part), (Fiber sensor part), / (Up/dow n counter part), - 5 -

11 (Data processing part), (Output part). 2.1 Figure 2.1 A basic configuration diagram of sensor for remote stroke detection - 6 -

12 ,,... Hunger, Al2O3, , - 7 -

13 , , ,

14 2.3.3,,. 2.4 / 2 /. [5]. CPU. 2.5, /.,. CPU - 9 -

15 . 2.6., (Indicator) LCD (Bar)

16 3 3.1.,..,. Fe++ Cl Hunger Al2O3-11 -

17 ......,

18 3.1 Figure 3.1 A Process of scaling piston rod

19 3.1 (Hunger ) Photo 3.1 Ceramic- coated hydraulic cylinder(hunger Co.) 3.2 (Hunger ) Photo 3.2 Process of ceramic coating on piston rod(hunger Co.)

20 , mm 0.5mm,.,. 1ms

21 NPN Figure 3.2 Amplifier circuit,

22 Figure 3.3 A setting method of optic fiber head. A B 90,. 1mm 0.5mm A B 90 /

23 Output of chrome scale Output of ceramic scale 3.4 F igure 3.4 Output of optic fiber amplifier for chrome and ceramic scales,

24 3.3 / 2 90 A B / A, B A B. 0.5mm A. 3.5 A,B Figure 3.5 Shapes of A and B phase for stroke increasing direction

25 3.6 B A B. 3.6 A,B Figure 3.6 Shapes of A and B phase for stroke decreasing direction A B /

26 / 4 / 3.7 A B 2mm 4 1/4 [5]. 1mm 0.5mm, /4 Figure 3.7 Counting method of scales by 1/4 partition of one period

27 3.3.3 / 3.8 / NEC PD , CPU. 350ns 8 low high / PD4701 Figure 3.8 Block diagram of up/dow n counter PD

28 3.3.4 / 3.9 A B, 90 /. high low. 3.9 A B Figure 3.9 A phase and B phase signal outputted from optic fiber amplifiers

29 3.4 80C196KC C196KC C196KC[6]. LCD C196KC Figure 3.10 T he schematic diagram for data processing using 80C196KC

30 Figure 3.11 Flow chart of data processing

31 4 Prototy pe Config uration 4.1 LVDT LVDT, S A N T E S T LV DT GYMT C- 11- A S- D SANT EST LVDT T able 3.1 Characteristics of SANT EST LVDT A rticles N onlinearity Res olution H y s teres is S am pling frequency Output s ig nal (v oltag e) Output s ig nal (current) S upply voltag e Operating T em p. V ibration S hock S pecifications 0.05% below 0.01% below 0.01% below 1kH z s tandard 0-10V or 10-0V 4-20m A or 20-4m A +15V 5% P robe / Controller G M ax 20G M a x

32 4.2 Config uration 4.1 prototype, 4.1 prototype.,,,, /,., SANT EST LVDT

33 4.1 prototype Figure 4.1 Configuration diagram of a prototype developed in this thesis

34 Piston rod Optic fiber head LVDT Am p LVDT Controller Data processing board 4.1 prototype Photo 4.1 Developed prototype for remote detection of stroke

35 mm, / Optic Fiber head Scaled piston rod 4.2 Photo 4.2 Real setting betw een scaled piston rod and optic fiber head

36 C196KC, LVDT. LCD LVDT 10. LVDT Controller LCD Display Optic fiber A mp. Data Processing Board C196KC Photo 4.3 Data processing board using 80C196KC

37 5,.. LVDT LVDT mm 0.5mm,

38 (a) In case of increasing the stroke

39 (b) In case of decreasing the stroke 5.1 LVDT Figure 5.1 Output comparison of the stroke sensor w ith LVDT

40 LVDT. LVDT AD LVDT.. (a) In case of increasing the stroke

41 (b) In case of decreasing the stroke 5.2 LVDT Figure 5.2 Relation betw een the stroke sensor and LVDT for verifying the linearity

42 (a) LVDT. 5.3 (b) LVDT. 0.2mm. 0.5mm LV DT A D LVDT. (a) (b)

43 (a) Output of the stroke sensor w ith LVDT for verifying the bidirectional repeatability (b) Error of stroke sensor and LVDT 5.3 Figure 5.3 Output comparison of the stroke sensor w ith LVDT for verifying the bidirectional repeatability

44 6., prototype.,...,, 1mm 0.5mm. prototype,

45

46 [1],,, ( ), [2] S. Y. Yang, M. C. Lee, M. H. Lee, "Measuring Sys tem for Development of Stroke- Sensing Cylinder for Automatic Ex cavator," IEEE T rans on Industrial Electronics, vol. 45, no. 3, pp , June [3],, no. 4,, pp , [4], FA 2,, PP , [5],, no. 3 P A R T -,, pp , [6], M ICR O CON T R OLLE R 80196,, [7],,,, 10, pp.61-76, [8] S. Y. Yang, M. C. Lee, M. H. Lee, and S. Arimoto, "Development of digital stroke s ensing cylinder and its performance evaluation," Robotica, vol. 14, pt. 6, pp ,

47 [9] M. C. Lee, M. H. Lee, Y. J. Choi, S. Y. Yang and K. S. Yoon, "On Development of Stroke Sensing Cylinder for Automatic Excavator," Proc. of the IEEE ISIE ' 95, vol. 1 of 2, pp , [10],,,, 98, pp ,

48 Appendix prototy pe A.1 80C196KC

49 A.2 A/ D

50 .,,., 2,,,,,.,,..,