기본연구보고서 청진지역직 교류변환설비설치및송배전현대화협력사업추진방안연구 김경술

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2 기본연구보고서 청진지역직 교류변환설비설치및송배전현대화협력사업추진방안연구 김경술

3 연구책임자 : 선임연구위원 김경술 외부위탁기관 : 한국전기연구원

4 1990.,,...,,,,... 6, 요약 i

5 .. 300MW.,.. 50Hz 60Hz 60Hz. load island.,. 1)., 50/60Hz 1) , Inter Rao UES 50Hz. 300MW, 500MW. ii

6 ., (load island ),,., 500kV, 380km Lodability. 100km., $1.6~1.8., (N-1) Criteria 2) 2 600~1000MW,., (N-1) Criteria... 50Hz 60Hz 60Hz.,., 60Hz 50Hz.. 2) 1. (N-1) Criteria, - 2.,. 요약 iii

7 .,, 220kV 110kV. 3.3kV, 110/220V,.. (3.3kV ) 20% 50% kV 120MVA 3). 154kV 60MVA 40MVA. 154kV 120MVA, 40MVA 4-Bank, 1-Bank (MW/km 2 ), 196( /km 2 ) 4.5(MW /km 4 ). 31, ( ) 3) 피상전력 유효전력 무효전력, Vector, 유효전력 피상전력 역률 iv

8 . (1 ) (2 ) 20% (3 ) 40% < 요약표 1> 대안별 500MW 공급시청진인근지역계통계획요구설비량 (1 ) (2 ) (3 ) (km2) 21,739 3,510 1, kV (MVA) 1, kV ( ) kV (C-km) kV (C-km) 4,149 2,912 2,601. CIGRE WG DC. 요약 v

9 < 요약표 2> 북한 - 러시아전력연계망연계방식별투자비비교 (1$=1000 원 ) A C D C 500kV AC 12.3 /km, 175km 2, kV AC 210 /, kV DC 9.84 /km, 175km 1, kV DC ( ) $180/kW, 900 2,573 2,622 D C - B T B 500kV AC 12.3 /km, 175km 2, kV-BTB ( ) $90/kW, kV AC 210 /, ,813,. < 요약표 3> 청진인근지역송배전설비비용 ( 억원 ) (1 ) (2 ) (3 ) k V 1,071 (11.44 ) 906 (9.68 ) 824 (8.8 ) 93.6 / k V 1,713 (420 C-km) 1,200 (294 C-km) 1,073 (263 C-km) 8.16 /km k V 2,655 (4,149 C-km) 1,864 (2,912 C-km) 1,665 (2,601 C-km) 0.64 /km 1 5,439 3,970 3,562 vi

10 -. - -,,., AC DC., - DC - -. DC 4),., 50Hz AC DC. AC, 2,573 DC DC 2,622. AC AC, AC 500MW 4) 1 3 ( ),,, 3. 요약 vii

11 DC Hz. ( 0.5Hz ),,. 50Hz,,,. load island viii

12 ,.., 50Hz., 50Hz 60Hz., 450.,.,,., 40%., 154kV, 154kV, 22.9kV 요약 ix

13 3,562..,,..,.,,,..,.. 4,,. x

14 ..,,......,. 요약 xi

15 ,.,, , 1. xii

16 ,.,,,... 요약 xiii

17 .,. xiv

18 Electric power condition in North Korea still remains as in the early 1990s. Thus, it is the greatest barrier in restoring North Korean economy. Old power generation facilities are excessively used without adequate maintenance. Adverse circumstances also persist where various parts and materials including fuels for power generation are not sufficiently provided. Power supply in Pyongyang is maintained at a certain level through comprehensive control. However, power circumstance in the rural area is known to be extremely poor that it is impossible to conduct regular economic activities. In realistic terms, obtaining the way to improve and settle current circumstance domestically and independently seems impossible for North Korea. Because most of the elements in the electric system, including power generation, transmission, distribution, transformation and conversion facilities, are old, overall remodelling or restoration of the facilities will require capital in astronomical figures. Since almost all of the power generation facilities are built by the support from China and former-soviet Union, North Korea has no experience in constructing large power generation plant. Also, it is difficult for the country to locally produce and supply parts needed for operate Abstract i

19 and maintenance. The improvement of North Korean power system requires solution from the outside since internal solution is difficult to find. North Korea has consistently attempted to induce foreign capital and technology by, for instance acquiring light-water reactor through the Six Party Talks and requesting support from the South Korean government. However, no visible outcome is accomplished. Under such circumstances, Korea-Russian Electric Grid Connection Project suggests huge opportunity to the North Korean power sector. Russian power company is suggesting to provide 300MW of electricity to North Korea as transit fee for the powerline that runs from Russia to South Korea. The amount is sufficient to at least improve the power condition in the Northeastern region of North Korea, north of Choengjin (or Cheongjin). Contrary to import and foreign aid, this is a supreme opportunity by which North Korea can legitimately acquire electric power. Nonetheless, the project includes several issues that we must be concerned about. Rated frequency for Russian power is 50Hz. Whereas rated frequency of North Korean power is 60Hz. Due to the difference, it must be converted into 60Hz and be integrated into North Korean power system. Regardless, the negotiation between North Korea and Russia is settling on a method which will seclude Cheongjin area from the North Korean system without converting frequency and managing the region as, so-called, "load island" of power provided by Russia. ii

20 This study was conducted to analyze the above-mentioned issues, to provide alternatives, and, in the process, to design and suggest electricity cooperation between South and North Korea in Northeast Korean region. Some issues related to North Korea Russia electric power line connection were analyzed. First of all, since North Korea and Russia have different rated frequency (60Hz and 50Hz each), the delivery of power by alternating current method is questionable in terms of rationality. If Cheongjin area is secluded from the North Korean system, transferred into the Russian system, this is deemed unreasonable. Secondly, loadability issue exist in 500kV, 380km alternating current transmission line. Generally, transmitted quantity of alternating current decreases significantly when the transmission line is longer than 100km. Thirdly, the estimate for power interconnected network construction provided to Russia ($160~180 million) is substantially underestimated. Fourthly, when applying (N-1) Criteria, transmitted quantity must be twice of the amount actually needed (600~1000MW), thus, will increase economic burden. Consequently, evaluation on the application of (N-1) Criteria focused on technical and economical aspect is required. When receiving condition of Cheongjin area, which will be the receiving spot of Russian power, was analyzed, the result was Abstract iii

21 extremely inferior. Since rated frequency of North Korea and Russia is 60Hz and 50Hz each, it must be converted into 60Hz in Cheongjin. However, such current converting facility requires huge costs. It is known that North Korea does not have plans to install current converting facility. In such case, 50Hz power will be supplied into a power system, set for 60Hz frequency. Such measure could lead to critical problems in the mid and long-term. Required transmission and distribution facility in Cheongjin and neighboring areas is evaluated. Due to the limited availability of detailed data, it is impossible to establish detailed system plans immediately. Therefore, required transmission and distribution facility is evaluated, focusing on the overarching design of the system plan. Standard capacity of 120 MVA seems reasonable for the 154kV substation constructed near Cheongjin area. Main transformer capacity of 154kV substation in North Korea was decided as 40MVA which was widely used in South Korean distribution system instead of the current 60MVA. Such decision was made after considering low load density in North Korea, efficiency in power supply, and the simplicity in supplying transmission and distribution equipments. In such case, standard capacity of 154kV substation in Cheongjin area will be 120MVA, which sets 40MVA 4-Bank as standard with 1-Bank as a spare set in case of facility failure. Load density in North Korea is 0.023(MW/km 2 ), and population iv

22 density is 196(person/km 2 ). Therefore, population load density is 4.5(MW person/km 4 ). Since load density and population density in South Korea are each about 31 times and 2.54 times that of the North, population load density which multiplies load density with population density, of the South is about 78 times that of the North. Three cases are premised for the estimate of needed facilities in Cheongjin region, and required data were calculated accordingly. (Option 1) Apply current load density in North Korea (Option 2) Assume average load density in North Korea in the future as 20% level of South Korea (Option 3) Assume average load density in North Korea in the future as 40% level of South Korea <Table 1> Required System Plan Facility for Cheongjun Region for Each Option (when 500MW is applied) Required Facility Categories (Option 1) (Option 2) (Option 3) Notes Supply Area (km 2 ) 21,739 3,510 1, kV Transform Capacity (MVA) 154kV Substation Quantity (unit) 154kV Transmission Line (C-km) 22.9kV Distribution Line (C-km) 1, ,149 2,912 2,601 Same for plans 1 through 3 Abstract v

23 Needed investment for North Korea-Russia power interconnected network by connection method is calculated. Individual investment by unit is based on DC Convertor Cost data released by CIGRE WG 14.20, investment and loan unit cost by KEPCO, and other supplementary materials. Investment cost needed for transmission and distribution system modernization of Cheongjin and neighboring areas is evaluated by each option. <Table 2> Comparison of North Korea-Russia Power interconnected network by Connection Method (1$=KRW1000) AC Connection DC Connection DC-BTB Connection Category 500kV AC Power Line 500kV AC Substation 500kV DC Power Line 500kV DC Convertor (each end) 500kV AC Power Line 500kV-BTB Convertor (Chongjin) 500kV AC Substation Unit Price & Characteristics 1.23 billion/km, 175km 21 billion/per unit, 2 units billion/km, 175km $180/kW both end, both end 1.23 billion/km, 175km $90/kW one end, one end 21 billion/per unit, one unit Investment billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion 21 billion vi

24 <Table 3> Transmission and Distribution Facility Cost for Chongjin and Neighboring Areas (one hundred million won) Category (Option 1) (Option 2) (Option 3) Notes 154kV Substation billion (11.44 units) 90.6 billion (9.68 units) 82.4 billion (8.8 units) 154kV billion 120 billion billion Power (420 C-km) (294 C-km) (263 C-km) Line 22.9kV billion billion billion Power (4,149 C-km) (2,912 C-km) (2,601 C-km) Line Total billion 397 billion billion 9.36 billion/unit billion/km 2 lines billion/km 1 line Direct current connection method is suggested as an option. This is to be negotiated between North Korea and Russian. Thus, it is an issue not easy for us to be involved at this stage. Nevertheless, considering the sound development of the Korean electric power industry until even after the unification in the future and also the Northeast Asian Power Network which connects South and North Korea and Russia, we observe the issue worthy enough to request relevant policy review to both North Korea and Russia. Firstly, technical issues from above-mentioned AC connection method can largely be complemented when replaced with DC Abstract vii

25 connection method. Secondly, DC interconnected network between North Korea and Russia can be potentially utilized as a part of the Northeast Asian Power Network which connects the Koreas and Russia. This is because the technical features of DC transmission method enable gradual buildup depending on the demand and multi-switching network connection, and also because the Northeast Asian network must pass through North Korea. Thirdly, DC connection method is more reasonable than supplying 50Hz Russian AC power in terms of the electric power industry, considering the unification of Korean power industry in the future, demand creation of South Korean heavy electric machine industry, and the simplicity in the supply of transmission and distribution equipments. In terms of interconnected network construction costs, AC network will cost power line and substation construction will cost KRW billion in total. In contrast, power line and convertor construction for DC network will cost KRW billion in total. Thus, there seems to be almost no difference between the two. Although it appears that AC network is slightly more advantageous in costs, in fact AC network requires additional voltage compensation equipment and the actual transmission quantity is unlikely to reach 500MW due to intrinsic quality of AC transmission. Thus, we conclude that DC transmission is indeed more economical. Current converting facility installation support project in Cheongjin viii

26 region and transmission and distribution facility modernization support project in Cheongjin and neighboring areas are suggested as South-North Korea energy cooperation project, related to the Russian power supply in Cheongjin region. These two projects aim at assisting necessary technical investment in Cheongjin and neighboring areas so that the electric power received from Russia is utilized in a standard and efficiency manner. Since there are limits when these projects are promoted individually, joint-promotion of the projects in a package is preferred. It is because facility that converts Russian standard power into North Korean standard power, and improvement of the infrastructure that will minimize loss by efficiently transmitting and distributing the converted power is required simultaneously. In the correlation between frequency change and load, most power system in the world only regulates change within certain level (for instance, less than 0.5Hz). Regulation regarding significantly differing frequency as in Cheongjin is not existent and this is because such change of frequency is by far out of the norm. Supply of 50Hz power to Cheongjin region will clearly result in problems such as the overheating of transmission and distribution equipments and load equipments, increased loss, declining efficiency and curtailing the life-cycle of the equipments. Also extensive confusion is highly likely when transferring Cheongjin region back to the North Korea system. Despite these facts, if the negotiation between North Korea Abstract ix

27 and Russia continues in the current path, and if Cheongjin region is excluded from North Korean system to become a load island which will use Russia power, there is need to seek countermeasures in terms of the technology. When no change is made between the North and Russian negotiation, the only preventive technical measure available is to install current conversion facility in Cheongjin region, thus facilitate the use by converting 50Hz power into 60Hz. It is possible to review the current conversion facility installation project in Cheongjin region with South Korean capital and technology as a part of South-North Korean energy cooperation project. Estimated investment for this project is around KRW 45 billion. Transmission and distribution facility modernization support project in Cheongjin and neighboring areas is suggested as an policy option for South-North Korean energy cooperation. This is to support modernizing transmission and distribution facility in Cheongjin and neighboring areas where Russian power would be supplied. It includes investment and technical cooperation project which contains facility construction. Estimated investment for the project can be substantially different depending on the modernization level. The study presents and recommends an evaluation which assumes future population load density of Cheongjin and neighboring areas as 40% of that of South Korea. In such case, estimated investment for the project is KRW billion in total, to newly construct 154kV transmission line, 154kV substation and 22.9kV distribution line. x

28 Utilizing government financial resources is recommended to procure for the current conversion facility installation support project in Cheongjin region and transmission and distribution facility modernization support project in Cheongjin and neighboring areas. This is a result of considering the facts that the project itself involves inter-governmental agreements, relates to Korea-Russia power interconnecting project, contributes to securing base in South-North economic cooperation, and contains feature as a preliminary investment preparing the unification. Since both of the cooperation projects are related to investing in power infrastructure establishment, we can apply the general opinion that the government should be responsible for establishing social infrastructure. Improved power infrastructure in the region can contribute to significantly improving conditions in other inter-korean economic cooperation projects such as the construction of South Korean complex in Najin-Sunbong Special district, investment in Chongjin and Gimchek industrial areas, expanded natural resources exploration in Dancheon district. Under the circumstances, utilization of government resources is viewed more adequate than private investment. In addition, procurement via government resources utilization is deemed reasonable considering the cooperation project as a preliminary investment, preparing for unification. In terms of the type of government resource to be uses, South-North Cooperation Fund seems appropriate. Abstract xi

29 Two options are available for investment recovery measure. A direct measure is to recover investment by imposing power infrastructure fee to foreign companies entering the power-supplied region. Also an indirect measure is to receive forms of rights or interest other than electric power fee and to recover investment by using such return. Direct measure will be applied to the beneficiaries of the project except for North Korean consumers. Imposing a charge for electric power use can be reviewed. In case of South-North power cooperation project in Cheongjin region, the Korean government will be to investor. However, actual beneficiary will include North Korean people and companies, and foreign companies that will enter the region and take advantage of the power infrastructure. With an exception of North Korean people and businesses, foreign companies in the region can be categorized as targets for electric power charge. Realistic method is to impose pro-rated electric charge to all foreign companies operating in the region including Korean companies. Imposing a kind of "power infrastructure charge" also pro-rated in parallel to electric charge is recommended. By negotiating with North Korean government, this measure focuses on Korea to impose electric charge and infrastructure charge until investment is fully recovered. When principal investment is collected, infrastructure charge will be eliminated and North Korean government will continue to collect electric charge. xii

30 Indirect recovery measure focuses on recovering principal investment by acquiring other forms of rights and interest. This measure could bring in greater economic effect and also the ripple effect compared to direct recovery measure. Thus, it is expected to be strategically advantageous in mid to long-term. As an indirect recovery measure, designating a South Korean exclusive business area in Najin-Sunbong Free Trade Zone, securing port development rights in Najin, and linking to tourism business in northeast North Korea are recommended. The study aims at evaluating the potential arrangement regarding Russian power supply to Cheongjin region as transit charge of power interconnection network between Korea and Russia. It also targets at designing and presenting related South-North Korean energy cooperation project. First expected outcome of this project is to find cooperative projects between South-North Korea to secure better power infrastructure in Cheongjin and its neighboring areas. It will also assist in preventing the Cheongjin region from being incorporated into the Russia power system. The second expected outcome of this project is to assist in successful development of Najin-Sunbong Special Zone by improving power infrastructure in Cheongjin and neighboring areas. Also, it is expected that the project will contribute to forming the base for our companies to promote economic cooperation in the region. Third expected outcome of this project is that it will provide threshold for multifaceted economic Abstract xiii

31 cooperation project in northeast area of North Korea by linking the investment recovery measures with other South-North economic cooperation projects. xiv

32 AC ~ 40. ~ 42 차례 i

33 4 AC AC 46. AC DC Load Island 76. Load Island ii

34 < 2-1> 4 < 2-2> 8 < 2-3> - 14 < 2-4> DC ± 500kV 2 Bi-pole 17 < 2-5> 18 < 2-6> 19 < 3-1> 24 < 3-2> 32 < 3-3> 32 < 3-4> 33 < 3-5> (GW) 38 < 3-6> 2020 ( / ) 39 < 4-1> 48 < 4-2> AC DC 52 < 5-1> 58 < 5-2> (2010 ) 61 < 5-3> (2010 ) 62 < 5-4> (2009 ) 62 < 5-5> 500MW 68 차례 iii

35 < 5-6> - (1$=1000 ) 70 < 5-7> CIGRE WG14.20 HVDC 71 < 5-8> < 5-9> - (1$=1000 ) 73 < 5-10> ( ) 74 < 6-1> 81 < 6-2> 82 < 6-3> (1$=1000 ) 89 < 6-4> 93 < 6-5> 94 < 7-1> 95 < 7-2> 100 iv

36 [ 2-1] 19 [ 2-2] ( ) 20 [ 3-1] / 30 [ 3-2] 34 [ 3-3] 35 [ 3-4] 37 [ 3-5] 38 [ 3-6] IPS of Far East 40 [ 3-7] - 41 [ 3-8] 43 [ 4-1] HVAC 47 [ 4-2] (DC ) 48 [ 4-3] BTB-DC(Back-To-Back DC) 54 [ 4-4] PTP-DC(Point-To-Point DC) 54 [ 5-1] 62 [ 6-1] 78 [ 6-2] (2 ) 83 [ 6-3] 84 [ 6-4] 91 [ 7-1] 103 [ 7-2] 105 차례 v

37

38 1990.,,....,,,.,.. 6, 제 1 장서론 1

39 .. 300MW.., Hz 60Hz. 50Hz 60Hz load island.,.,. 2

40 가. 남 북 러전력계통연계사업의추진배경..,,,,,..,, ,558 TOE 1,360. 제 2 장남 북 러전력계통연계사업의개요 3

41 ..,.,. < 표 2-1> 발전단가구성요소의한 러상대적비교.,,. -. 4

42 ,,,..., (kw).,.,. 제 2 장남 북 러전력계통연계사업의개요 5

43 , ( ),..., (Ash)...., node. 6

44 ., HVDC / (AC/DC).,,,,,,,..,,, 제 2 장남 북 러전력계통연계사업의개요 7

45 ..,. 7. < 표 2-2> 후쿠시마원전사고로인한일본에너지공급설비피해개요 : GW ( 12%) 140 b/d ( 31%),, 3 LNG % 2 17, 1, 2, 3, ( )

46 , 10 4 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 ( ),. 2,. 5).,,,.,,. 30%., 5), 제 2 장남 북 러전력계통연계사업의개요 9

47 ...,,,,,,...,..,,,,,. 10

48 .,,, ,,. (HVDC, High Voltage Direct Current).. 제 2 장남 북 러전력계통연계사업의개요 11

49 .....,,,....,,.,. 12

50 나. 남 북 러전력계통연계사업의추진경과 91, ),,,.,, ),, 제 2 장남 북 러전력계통연계사업의개요 13

51 < 표 2-3> 한 - 러계통연계추진경과 ( ) - -, MOU - MOU - : , : 10-3 (09.8~10.5) :,, - Action Plan ( ) - - MOU, ( : ) - KEPCO CEO - -, ( ) -, - ( ) -,, , (MOU). 6 Inter Rao UES 2 - MOU,

52 Action Plan, - MOU,.,., , 3.., 제 2 장남 북 러전력계통연계사업의개요 15

53 가. 송전전력량및송전방법 4,000MW.,. 500kV (HVDC).. 500kV 3. (HVDC) (AC). 1m.,. 나. 송전선로및경과지개요 1 7) 500kV DC 2 Bi-pole 7) -, 1,,

54 . < 표 2-4> DC ± 500kV 2 Bi-pole 송전선로설계조건 DC ± 500kV 2Bi-pole ACSR 480mm2(C) x 6B HSTACIR 410mm2(C) x 2B x 2 OPGW 200mm2 x 1 (m) (m) 400kN x 3 300kN x 2 210kN x 2 500m 850m : 3, : -, 1,, ,,. 4 1, 2, 3, 4.,, 제 2 장남 북 러전력계통연계사업의개요 17

55 . < 표 2-5> 송전선로주요경과지현황 ,009 1,070 1, : 18

56 : : : < 표 2-6> 경과지별제원현황 765kV 345kV 253km 253km 253km 253km 741km 802km 642km 621km 15km 15km 120km 46km 1,009km 1,070km 1,015km 920km ,482 1,604 1,284 1, ,108 2,140 2,030 1,840 [ 그림 2-1] 송전선로주요경과지 제 2 장남 북 러전력계통연계사업의개요 19

57 1000km, 2100., 3, 4 (DMZ),. [ 그림 2-2] 한 러전력망경과지 ( 선정안 ) : 20

58 (, ) ~ ~ ~ 1. 다. 전력공급원.... 라. 북한경과비용.. 제 2 장남 북 러전력계통연계사업의개요 21

59 Inter Rao UES kV 300MW. 500MW. Load Island. (50Hz) (60Hz) 50Hz.. 마. 계통연계소요비용 1,491. 1Km (ESI, Energy System Institute) NEAREST. 22

60 - 150KM, - 1,200Km,..,,,. NEAREST GTMax. 제 2 장남 북 러전력계통연계사업의개요 23

61 가. 북 러전력망연계제안배경 < 표 3-1> 러시아가지원한북한의주요발전시설 (kw) 100 ' '72 1, '76 2, ' '65 1, 66 2, , , `90 20 '76 1, 77 2, : 295 kw.,, 24

62 IS MW NPT( ) (440MW). NPT 제 3 장북. 러 AC 계통연계구상의분석 25

63 , ,, , ' ', 9 ( ), ` ',., , ( ). 26

64 (Vostokenergo) 2-4%, ( ) 8),, , ,, ( ), 4 9) Vostokenergo 30~50 kw 8) 60Hz 50Hz BTB(Back-To-Back). 9) (RFA) ( ) 제 3 장북. 러 AC 계통연계구상의분석 27

65 ,, 500kV. 10) , Ilya Klebanov ,,, 2008.,,,,, 250km, 130km, 380km ). 28

66 ,., , , 제 3 장북. 러 AC 계통연계구상의분석 29

67 ... [ 그림 3-1] 러시아의중국 / 북한전력망연계계획 30

68 나. 청진지구개요 ( )..,.,. 10 t, ( ).,,.,., kw 4 20 kw 제 3 장북. 러 AC 계통연계구상의분석 31

69 . 35. < 표 3-2> 선봉화력발전소의설비현황및노후도평가 ( kw, ) ( kw) ( kw) 1~ x x : 5 kw 3 15 kw, 1~2 1984, ~27. < 표 3-3> 청진화력발전소의설비현황및노후도평가 ( kw, ) ( kw) ( kw) 1~ x x : 32

70 ,000kVA 22 1,243 kwh.,.. < 표 3-4> 서두수수력발전소의설비현황및노후도평가 ( kw) ( kw) 제 3 장북. 러 AC 계통연계구상의분석 33

71 [ 그림 3-2] 청진및인근지역입지도 220kV 110kV. 34

72 [ 그림 3-3] 북한전력계통추정도 /,,. 제 3 장북. 러 AC 계통연계구상의분석 35

73 다. 러시아극동전력산업개요 (FEFD, Far Eastern Federal District) ( 36.4%) 646 ( 4.6%).,,,,,,,. IPS of Far East,, 9GW,.,,...,.,.,. 36

74 ,. 11) 2020 Max Case 997 kwh, Base Case 740 kwh. Base Case GW GW. [ 그림 3-4] 러시아전체및극동러시아전력수요전망 (General Scheme-2020) 11) General Scheme-2020 Economic Research Institute, FEB, RAS 제 3 장북. 러 AC 계통연계구상의분석 37

75 [ 그림 3-5] 극동러시아발전설비용량전망 GW, < 3-5> 12) < 표 3-5> 극동러시아의연대별신규발전설비용량전망치 (GW) /. 12) General Plan for Electric Power Industry up to

76 ,,, GW / / < 3-6>,. < 표 3-6> 2020 년까지동부러시아지역개발가능발전설비 ( 수력 / 조력 ) (MW) ( kwh) < > Nizhne-Boguchany HPP Motyginsk (Nizhne-Angara)HPP Evenkiya HPP Telmama HPP Moksk HPP Ivanovsk HPP Tyva HPP < > Nizhne-Bureya HPP Gramatukhinsk HPP South-Yakutian HPPs, including Sredne0Uchur HPP Uchur HPP Kankunsk HPP Nizhne-Timpton HPP Olekma HPP Nizhne-Olekma HPP Verkhne-Aldan HPP Penzhinsk TPP Tugur TPP HPP( ) TPP( ) 제 3 장북. 러 AC 계통연계구상의분석 39

77 [ 그림 3-6] IPS of Far East 내부소지역계통구성도 가. 기존블라디보스토크 ~ 청진전력계통연계제안 2001 ~ AC( ) ( ) 300~500MW 50Hz. 300MW 40

78 (20 kw) (15 kw), 500MW 55. [ 그림 3-7] 블라디보스토크 - 청진전력망연계제안의개요 1.6 ~1.8, 3~4 8~10.,. 1,, 제 3 장북. 러 AC 계통연계구상의분석 41

79 .,. 나. 크라스키노 ~ 청진전력계통연계제안 ~, HVDC - 500kV AC 300MW ~ 380km ~ 175km AC. (HVDC) (AC). 1m.,. 42

80 Inter Rao UES , Hz 500MW. [ 그림 3-8] 북 러전력망연계노선도 핫 크라스키 4 5 k ~ 210km 500kV AC. PTP(Point to Point) HVDC 제 3 장북. 러 AC 계통연계구상의분석 43

81 AC. 380km 175km. 45km, 130km.,... 60Hz 50Hz. 50Hz 60Hz, load island.. 44

82 .. 175km.., 50Hz,. 제 3 장북. 러 AC 계통연계구상의분석 45

83 가. 북 러 AC 전력계통연계의문제점. 50/60Hz.. 500kV 380km Loadability 13). 100km 13) ( ),.,,. AC ( ). Loadability Curve. 46

84 . 300~500MW 380km. DC AC. [ 그림 4-1] 송전거리에따른 HVAC 송전용량감소예시 제 4 장북 러 AC 계통연계구상의문제점및대안분석 47

85 < 표 4-1> 송전거리에따른교류송전선로의송전용량예시 (kv) (ACSR) (MW) 50km 80km 120km 200km 300km 400km [mm2] 6 7,000 7,000 5,700 4,100 3,200 2, [mm2] 4 2,000 1,600 1, [mm2] 2 1,000 1,000 1, [ 그림 4-2] 열용량과보상설비 (DC 포함 ) 에따른송전능력향상효과 $1.6~1.8., 500kV 380km 48

86 ~500MW, (N-1) Criteria 14). 300~500MW 15~25 kwh. (annual capacity factor) 57%.,,. 1 (N-1) Criteria. - (N-1) Criteria 2 600~1000MW,. (N-1) Criteria.,, 14) 1. (N-1) Criteria, - 2.,. 제 4 장북 러 AC 계통연계구상의문제점및대안분석 49

87 . load island 50Hz,,... (load island), load island. - AC, DC..,. AC DC 50

88 . HVAC(High Voltage Alternating Current) HVDC(High Voltage Direct Current) - HVDC : Conventional Type - HVDC : New-HVDC,. -, AC. AC DC. (AC DC ) (Reactive power requirements) (Protection system, fault clearing times) (Frequency control reserve requirements) (Quality of supply) / (Commissioning/testing & periodic performance testing) DC. AC DC < 4-2>. 제 4 장북 러 AC 계통연계구상의문제점및대안분석 51

89 < 표 4-2> AC 및 DC 연계방안평면적비교 AC DC, 300~500km 50km,, 500km 100km ( ), ( ) :, : : 95% (- + ) (, ) :, : :,,, / DC HVDC 52

90 -,. -,.,,. -, AC DC, - DC - -. DC 15),.,. 50Hz AC DC. DC 15) 1 3 ( ),,, 3. 제 4 장북 러 AC 계통연계구상의문제점및대안분석 53

91 BTB(Back-To-Back) 16) PTP(Point-To-Point) - DC PTP-DC. DC AC BTB AC DC. [ 그림 4-3] BTB-DC(Back-To-Back DC) 직류연계방식 [ 그림 4-4] PTP-DC(Point-To-Point DC) 직류연계방식 16) BTB-DC 1 AC DC DC AC AC, PTP-DC DC AC DC DC AC DC. 54

92 -.,,.,.. 제 4 장북 러 AC 계통연계구상의문제점및대안분석 55

93 ~ AC DC DC 250kV 500kV. 250kV 500kV.,,. ~ ~ ~ 1.. -,,.,. 56

94 .., 154kV 22.9kV. Win-Win,.. - (N-1) Criteria. - (N-1) Criteria 500MW,., kV 22.9kv,,., 2 75%. 제 5 장북 러전력계통연계망및청진계통설비계획평가 57

95 . 11/110kV 22.9/154kV.. 1. < 표 5-1> 남북한송배전계통전압표준화방안별비교분석 (1 ) 11/110kV (2 ) 22.9/154kV / (110/22.9kV ) ( ) & / (2 ). 58

96 500MW AC ( DC ) 154kV.,.. 154kV 120MVA 17). 154kV 180(MVA), 120MVA. 154kV 60MVA (Main Transformer) 4-Bank, 1-Bank 60MVA 3-Bank 180MVA. 1 2-Bank,. 154kV 60MVA 40MVA. 154kV, 17) 피상전력 유효전력 무효전력, Vector, 유효전력 피상전력 역률 제 5 장북 러전력계통연계망및청진계통설비계획평가 59

97 . 154kV 120MVA, 40MVA 4-Bank, 1-Bank., ,341 kwh, 71,308MW, 154kV 101MW. 154kV 154kV (C-km/MW), 22.9kV 3.238(C-km/MW) (MW/km 2 ), 497( /km 2 ) 354(MW /km 4 )., kwh 95% 18) 2,823MW (MW/km 2 ), 196( /km 2 ), 4.5(MW /km 4 ). 31, ), 100%. 95%. 60

98 부하인구밀도지수 명 전력부하밀도 인구밀도명 ( 5-1) < 표 5-2> 남한송배전전력설비비율고찰 (2010 년실적치 ) 154kV (MW) k V (MW) 53, kV 85(MW) 63, kV 101(MW) 154kV (C-km) 154kV ( ) 154kV (MVA) 22.9kV (C-km) (%) 20, , , kV 154kV (C-km/MW) 154kV 192(MVA) 154kV kV 22.9kV 3.238(C-km/MW) 제 5 장북 러전력계통연계망및청진계통설비계획평가 61

99 < 표 5-3> 남한의부하인구밀도지수 (2010 년 ) (GWh) 434,160 (MW) 71, %( + ) (km 2 ) 100, (MW/km 2 ) 497( /km 2 ) 354(MW /km 4 ) < 표 5-4> 북한의부하인구밀도지수 (2009 년 ) (GWh) 23,500 ( ) (MW) 2,823 95% (km 2 ) 122, (MW/km 2 ) 196( /km 2 ) 4.5(MW /km 4 ) [ 그림 5-1] 남북한부하인구밀도지수비교 62

100 500MW kV, 154kV (C-km), 22.9kV (C-km). 3 ( ). (1 ), (2 ) 20%, (3 ) 40%. 40% 제 5 장북 러전력계통연계망및청진계통설비계획평가 63

101 (2 ) (3 ), /., (2 ), 1 (3 ). (1 ) (2 ) 20% (3 ) 40% 3 500MW. (km 2 ) 500MW. 40% (3 ) 1,755(km 2 ), 20% (2 ) (1 ) 3,510(km 2 ) 21,739(km 2 ). (3 ) 1/5. 64

102 안 공급가능면적 북한피크부하 남한부하밀도 ( 5-2) 154kV (MVA) 19), 154kV. 154kV ), ). 500MW 1,056(MVA). 최대공급전력 비동시피크부하당변전용량배수 안 변전용량 역률 ( 5-3) 154kV 1 (MVA), 19) (MVA). 20) ( ) 1MW 1.902MVA ( ) 21) , 0.9. 제 5 장북 러전력계통연계망및청진계통설비계획평가 65

103 (km 2 ). 1056MVA 1 154kV 120MVA 8.8. 안 변전소기본개수 ( 5-4) 8.8, 2.5 (3 ) 31 (1 ). 40% (3 ) 8.8., 20% (2 ) (1 ).,. (2 ) 1.1, (3 )

104 안변전소필요개소 안변전소필요개소 안변전소필요개소 안변전소필요개소 ( 5-5) ( 5-6) 154kV 154kV. 154kV 154kV (C-km/MW), 22.9kV 3.238(C-km/MW). 1., 154kV ACSR 410(mm 2 ) 2-Bundle 400(MVA), ACSR 160(mm 2 ) 10(MVA). 2,.., 154kV,. 북한의필요송배전선로긍장 남한부하밀도 남한의단위부하당송배전선로긍장실적치 북한부하밀도 ( 5-7) 제 5 장북 러전력계통연계망및청진계통설비계획평가 67

105 500MW 154kV (1 ) 420(C-km), (2 ) 294(C-km), (3 ) 263(C-km). 22.9kV (1 ) 4149(C-km), (2 ) 2912(C-km), (3 ) 2601(C-km). 안 북한의 송전선로필요긍장 ( 5-8) 안 북한의 배전선로필요긍장 ( 5-9) 500MW < 5-5>. < 표 5-5> 각대안별 500MW 공급시청진인근지역계통계획요구설비량 (1 ) (2 ) (3 ) (km2) 21,739 3,510 1, kV (MVA) 1, kV ( ) kV (C-km) kV (C-km) 4,149 2,912 2,601 68

106 -. - AC DC, 154kV 154kV 22.9kV. CIGRE WG DC. < 5-6>. < 5-6> 80%. 80%,. 2 1 (C-km) kV 500MW AC 154kV 345kV 80%. 500kV 500MW 154kV, 345kV, 제 5 장북 러전력계통연계망및청진계통설비계획평가 69

107 < 표 5-6> 북한 - 러시아연계망및청진인근지역송배전설비투자비단가 (1$=1000 원 ) A C 500kV AC 12.3 /km 2 154, 345kV 80% 500kV AC 210 / 154 GIS, 345kV GIS 80% D C DC-B T B 500kV DC 9.84 /km 2 500kV AC 75% 500kV DC CIGRE 500kV Monopole $180/kW ( ) 154, 345kV 500kV AC 12.3 /km 2 80% 500kV-BTB $90/kW CIGRE BTB ( ) 500kV-AC 154 GIS, 345kV 210 / ( ) GIS 80% 154kV AC 93.6 / GIS 80% 154kV AC 8.16 /km kV AC 0.64 /km 1 80% 154kV 345kV., DC CIGRE WG kV 500MW Monopole, 500kV DC 500kV AC 80%. 80% DC, AC 80%. DC-BTB BTB 70

108 , AC CIGRE WG14.20 BTB AC 1. < 표 5-7> CIGRE WG14.20 HVDC 연계비용일람표 Valve Groups Convertor Transformers DC Switchyard & Filtering AC Switchyard & Filtering Control/Pr./c omm Civil/Mech. Works Back-To-Back Monopole Bipole Bipole Bipole 500Kv ±500kV ±500kV ±600kV MW 1000MW 2000MW 3000MW MW MW % % % % % % Aux.power Project/Admin Total per kw $130 $90 $180 $170 $145 $150 제 5 장북 러전력계통연계망및청진계통설비계획평가 71

109 < 표 5-8> 2011 년한전투융자단가 [ ] 765kV GIS 1,770 Bank Bank kV km ACSR480*6B 57 GIS( ) 311(98) 345kV GIS( 331(150) Bank GIS( GIS) 71(78) 345kV 154kV 154kV 22.9kV km ACSR480*4B 20.6 km XLPE2000 (, ) 24.1(60,113) GIS( ) 74(43) GIS( ) 98(98) km ACSR480*2B 10.2 km XLPE2000 (,, ) 12.1(11,54,93) km ACSR AW-OC km XLPE325( ) 4.5 ) 2 - < > km - 175km. - AC 500kV 72

110 ., AC BTB-DC DC-BTB 2,813. BTB AC DC,. BTB-DC. AC 2,573 DC 2,622., AC, AC 500MW DC. < 표 5-9> 북한 - 러시아연계망투자비비교 (1$=1000 원 ) AC DC DC- BTB 500kV AC 12.3 /km, 175km 2, kV AC 210 /, kV DC 9.84 /km, 175km 1, kV DC ( ) $180/kW, kV AC 12.3 /km, 175km 2, kV-BTB ( ) $90/kW, kV AC 210 /, ,573 2,622 2,813 제 5 장북 러전력계통연계망및청진계통설비계획평가 73

111 (1 ) 5,439, (2 ) 3,970, (3 ) 3, % (3 ). < 표 5-10> 청진인근지역송배전설비비용 ( 억원 ) (1 ) (2 ) (3 ) 154kV 1,071 (11.44 ) 906 (9.68 ) 824 (8.8 ) 93.6 / 154kV 1,713 (420 C-km) 1,200 (294 C-km) 1,073 (263 C-km) 8.16 /km kV 2,655 (4,149 C-km) 1,864 (2,912 C-km) 1,665 (2,601 C-km) 0.64 /km 1 5,439 3,970 3,562 74

112 제 6 장남북협력사업의설계 75

113 .. 가. Load Island 화의문제점분석 50Hz 60Hz. 60Hz 50Hz,.. 50Hz.. 50Hz, 60Hz. 76

114 . 60Hz ( ) 50Hz.,., Dynamic.,.,,. (60Hz). < 6-1>. 제 6 장남북협력사업의설계 77

115 특성때문에정상상태주파수오차발생 1.Droop(R) 값이적을수록주파수변화에민감하므로 2.R 변화량이커짐 주파수제어유리 (Iso) ΔPVALVE 3.R 값이클수록주파수변화에둔감하므로 ΔPVALVE Governer Turbine Generator Power 보일러 ΔP System 정격주파수유지동작 계통특성으로인한정상상태주파수에라를조정 1. 연계선로조류를일정한값으로유지 ( 단일계통에서는해당없슴 ) 2. 단계 ( 부하예측을포함한연료주입량변동으로발전기출력조정 ) : 수십분단위 > <ELD 단기부하예측에따른경제급전실시 1. [ 그림 6-1] 전력계통의주파수제어개념도 변화량이적음 주파수제어불리 (Droop) 1/R ΔFuel VALVE <AGC 단계 (ΔP 조정으로단기적인발전기출력조정 ) : 수분단위 > VALVE 3. 각발전기의출력을가능한경제적으로배분 Hz 22) 23) 60Hz,. ( ) < 6-1>,. 22),,.,,,. 23).,,. 78

116 유효전력 주파수 ( 6-1), : : / : : 3, -. ( ).,. 60Hz 50Hz 20%,,.,.. ( ),. 50Hz. ( ) IT, AC/DC 제 6 장남북협력사업의설계 79

117 . AC/DC AC DC. AC 50Hz AC. 50Hz.,,,. 2,,,.. 50Hz,. 50Hz..,,. 80

118 < 6-1>,,. < 표 6-1> 발전설비부위별주파수저하한도 58, 58.5, 59 Hz 57.5, 58.2* Hz * (PWR) 57.0 Hz (,BWR) 57.1 Hz Hz,.. 50Hz. < 6-2>. 제 6 장남북협력사업의설계 81

119 < 표 6-2> 주파수변동이전력기기에미치는영향 V/Hz 5%. ± 10% V/Hz, ± 5% % (GIS ) (GIS ) CT/PT 5%. ± 10% 2kHz % ± 5% 20%. 110%. 20% 135% ( 10 ) ± 5% V/Hz 48-62Hz. Gap 50/60Hz, 50Hz 60Hz., 82

120 50Hz., AC.. A, B. [ 그림 6-2] 연계계통조류와주파수변동 (2 계통모델 ) B A A,, B A. A, A B. < 6-3>., A 1 3, B 2 4. 제 6 장남북협력사업의설계 83

121 .. [ 그림 6-3] 연계선조류편차와주파수편차의관계... 84

122 , 50Hz AC 60Hz., (KS C ) ± 5%. - ( 183, ) 제 6 장남북협력사업의설계 85

123 : JIS, JEC, JEM ± 5 % : JEIDA ± 1 % - NEMA MG : Part 20 Induction Machine : ± 5 % : Part 21 Synchronous Machine :± 5 % - IEC (Compatibility level 8. Power Frequency variation) : 1Hz. - IEEE Std : 60Hz ± Hz, ± 0.5 Hz. : - 40 ( ) : ± 0.3 Hz. - : 0.3Hz. - North American Power System : capacity emergency. EPRI 86

124 (EPRI EL-976, "A study of interconnected Power Systems Operation at below normalfrequency", 1979),,, North American Power System ±0.5Hz ( Hz). 나. 직교류변환설비설치의필요성 ( 0.5Hz ).,. 50Hz., 50Hz,,. AC., Load Island, 제 6 장남북협력사업의설계 87

125 ... 50Hz.,., 50Hz.,., 50Hz 60Hz. 88

126 가. 청진지역직교류변환설비설치협력사업설계. AC,. 5 3 BTB-DC 450. < 표 6-3> 청진지역직교류변환설비투자비평가 (1$=1000 원 ) 500kV-BTB ( ) $90/kW 450 제 6 장남북협력사업의설계 89

127 나. 청진인근지역송배전설비현대화협력사업.,, 220kV 110kV..,, 220kV.., 154kV kV 220kV 154kV, 66kV. 3, 4,,. 90

128 ... ( ). [ 그림 6-4] 북한의송변전설비모습 6~20kV 110~ 380V. 220/380V km,. 제 6 장남북협력사업의설계 91

129 ,,. 6~10kV,.. 6~10kV 20kV... +6%, -13%, ±5%,..,. 92

130 < 표 6-4> 북한전력계통특성분석 : 220kV, 110kV, 66kV : 3.3kV, 110/220V -, - (3.3kV ) - 2~3m (, ) :, : ( 180V, 50Hz ) : 20% 50% [ ( 07.1)] : 4% -, - - -,. 5. 1, 제 6 장남북협력사업의설계 93

131 . 5, %. 2 3, %. 3, ,, 2,. < 표 6-5> 청진인근지역송배전설비투자비 ( ) 154kV kV 263 C-km 1, kV 2,601 C-km 1,665 3,562 94

132 .,,.. < 표 7-1> 남북전력협력사업의수익구도 30 kw 제 7 장남북협력사업추진방안 95

133 ..,,,..., Hz 96

134 load island 50Hz. 60Hz kV, 11kV. 154kV, 22.9kV... 4,,... 제 7 장남북협력사업추진방안 97

135 .,,.....,.,.,,.. 가. 직접적인회수방안 98

136 .,,..,....,.,.... 제 7 장남북협력사업추진방안 99

137 . < 표 7-2> 청진지역남북전력협력사업수익구도.. 나. 간접적인회수방안.,. 100

138 km ,, , 3., EU 제 7 장남북협력사업추진방안 101

139 .,..,

140 . 3.. [ 그림 7-1] 나진항부두개발현황 :, 제 7 장남북협력사업추진방안 103

141 .,,. TKR-TSR.. 3, 1....,.. 104

142 [ 그림 7-2] 나진항전경... 3.,. 제 7 장남북협력사업추진방안 105

143 ,.,,,.. 106

144 ,, (Inter Rao UES, ), ,. Inter Rao UES 300MW (MOU) , 제 8 장결론 107

145 ... load island, 100km, (n-1) criteria., 50Hz 60Hz %. 3, ,,, 108

146 ..,,, 제 8 장결론 109

147 110

148 참고문헌 111

149

150