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1 Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society Vol. 17, No. 10 pp , ISSN / eissn 장세홍, 김동희 * 전남대학교체육교육과 Effects of Elbow Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury on Differences in Maximal Isometric Strength of Upper body in Young Baseball Pitchers Sehong Jang, Donghee Kim * Department of Physical Education, Chonnam National Univerisy 요약투수들의경기력은야구경기에서아주중요한역할을하는데많은투수들은염좌인대손상등많은상해에시달린다. 이러한이유는한관절을움직일때사용되는주요한두가지근육의근력차이가클수록부상의위험성이높아지기때문이다. 하지만이와관련된연구는미비한실정이다. 따라서본연구는야구선수들을대상으로팔꿈치안쪽곁인대통증이있는선수들과통증이없는선수들의투구동작에관련된최대등척성수축력의차이를알아보고자하였다. 실험기간은 2 주간으로모든실험참가자들의측정이실시되었다. 실험참가자들 (n=36) 은통증이있는통증군 (n=18) 과통증이없는정상군 (n=18) 으로나뉘어최대등척성수축력을어깨관절안쪽과바깥돌림근, 팔꿉굽힘근과폄근, 손목굽힘근과폄근에서측정하였고그후근육그룹간근력의차이를계산하였다. 모든데이터는 SPSS 18.0 을이용하여서독립 t-test 를이용하여서분석되었다. 연구결과는통증군의바깥돌림근 (p = 0.035), 팔꿉굽힘근 (p=0.031), 팔꿉폄근 (p=0.041) 은정상군보다유의하게낮았고손목폄근 (p=0.047) 은정상군보다유의하게높았다. 그리고통증군의어깨관절안쪽과바깥돌림근 (p = 0.008), 팔꿉관절굽힘근과폄근 (p = 0.002), 손목관절의굽힘근과폄근의 (p = 0.032) 최대등척성수축력의차이가정상군보다유의하게높게나타났다. 연구결과통증군의최대등척성수축력의차이가높게나타나서부상이발생한다고보고하였다. 그러므로이러한근력의불균형문제를해결한다면부상에서회복하고더불어경기력향상을이룰수있게된다고사료된다. Abstract Many pitchers suffer from various types of injury (distortion, sprain and so on). The rate of injury is increased if there are differences in strength between the extensor and flexor muscles when a joint movement is performed with maximum speed. However, there has been insufficient research into the injury caused by strength differences between the extensor and flexor muscles. Thus, the purpose of the study was to examine the effects of elbow ulnar collateral ligament injury on the maximal isometric strength in young baseball pitchers. The data collection was conducted for 2 weeks. The subjects (n=36) who participated in this study were placed into either the injury group (n = 18, IG) or normal group (n = 18, NG). The maximal isometric strength for the pectoralis major (PM), infraspintus (I), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB), flexor carpi radialis (ECR) and extensor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles were determined by an isometric strength machine (K-DFX) and then the differences in strength were calculated by muscle group. All of the data were analyzed by SPSS 18.0 with the independent t-test. In the results, the maximal isometric strengths in the IG for the I (p=0.035), BB (p=0.031) and TB (p=0.041) were significantly lower than those in the NG, while that for the ECR (p=0.047) was significantly greater. In addition, the differences of the maximal isometric strength between the PM and I (p = 0.008), BB and TB (p = 0.002), and FCR and ECR (p = 0.032) in the IG were significantly greater than those in the NG. In conclusion, the differences in muscle strengths of the subjects in the IG were greater than those in the NG, which suggests that they might have a higher injury rate in the future. However, they might be able to recover from their injury and achieve better performance if the differences in strength were reduced by training. Keywords : elbow injury, baseball, pitchers, maximal isometric strength, strength differences * Corresponding Author : Donghee Kim(Chonnam National University) Tel: Received August 4, 2016 Revised (1st September 27, 2016, 2nd October 4, 2016) Accepted October 7, 2016 Published October 31,

2 1. 서론야구경기에서던지기동작은야수의송구 (throwing) 와투수의투구 (pitching) 으로나눌수있으며, 특히투수의능력은야구팀의승패를결정하는큰역할이될수있다 [1]. 투수들은직구나커브와같이공의속도나구질을다르게하기위해서각각다른팔동작으로투구를해야한다 [2]. 즉, 원하는구질을얻기위해서는팔동작이다양한방법으로다르게행해져야한다는것이다 [2]. 투구시공속도의전체 40% 는하체의스텝과몸통동작에의해발생되고, 나머지부분은어깨와팔꿈치관절에의해발생된다 [3]. 공을던질때에다리 ( 발목관절, 무릎관절, 고관절 ) 에서몸통으로전해질때최고속도를이루고, 몸통에서상지 ( 어깨관절, 팔꿉관절, 손목관절 ) 로전해질때는다리에서전해져온몸통의최고속도는감속하고상지부에서는최고속도를이루면서공을던지게된다 [4]. 하지만이러한과정에서에너지가충분하지않은상태에서공의속도를빠르게유지하고자하면어깨와팔꿈치에무리가될수있다고한다 [5]. 이러한이유로투수가빠르고다양한투구를할때팔과어깨가매우중요하다는것을제시할수있을것이라생각된다. 야구선수들중에서도투수라는포지션은스포츠손상이가장많이발생되고있으며 [6], 그중어깨와팔꿈치부상은다양한연령대의투수들에게자주발생되는부상이다 [2]. 특히투구동작중가속기 (acceleration), 감속기 (deceleration) 에서발생되는외반력 (valgus force) 과신전력 (extensir strength) 이팔꿉관절의손상을유발하는원인이될수있다 [7-9]. 가속기에팔꿉관절에서최대내측외반력이발생되고이후팔꿉관절을빠르게신전시키고자할때신전속도에비례하는큰전단력이작용하고, 감속기에서는감속이제대로이루어지지않게되면팔꿉관절의과신전손상이발생된다 [7-9]. 이중에서성장기야구선수들에게는팔꿉관절의방사선학적이상소견이 74% 정도관찰되었고, 이상소견의대부분은내측상과골단 (medial epicondyle) 에서많이출현한다고하였으며 [10]. 소년기야구선수들중에서비투수군과투수군을비교하여볼때, 팔꿉관절의동통, 굴곡구축의증상이더나타난다고하였고 [11], 고등학교야구투수들의 58% 가팔꿈치안쪽통증을경험한다고보고하였다 [12]. 야구투수들의팔꿈치안쪽통증은대부분염좌나팔꿈치안 쪽곁인대 (ulnar collateral ligament, UCL) 의파열등이원인이되고 [12]. 투수들에게서발생되는상해의종류로는근육, 인대의상해가대표적이며, 인대손상이 33.33% 로높게나타난다고한다 [6]. 팔꿈치안쪽곁인대손상은투구유형, 투구수, 경기횟수등에의한팔꿈치자체의병적상태및부하외에여러신체분절과그에따른다양한원인이밀접한연관성을갖는다 [13]. 투구시저하된제구력, 감소된구속, 관절의통증등은관절의불안정성과근육의불균형이원인이되어유발될수있는문제들이며 [14], 특히투구시에발휘되는근력은단축 (concentric) 과신축 (eccentric) 을하는두가지근육의조화를통하여발휘되는데 [15] 이근력의발현의정도가경기력을결정하는데중요한역할을한다고보고하고있다 [16]. 또한한관절을움직일때작용하는두가지근육군의근력차이가클수록상대적으로약한근육에서부상이발생될수있다고한다 [17]. 이처럼팔꿈치안쪽곁인대손상및통증을호소하는투수들에게근육의불균형은근력발휘시에중요한영향을미친다. 하지만기존연구로는팔꿈치안쪽곁인대손상군과비손상군의어깨돌림근의상대적근력차이 [18] 와팔꿈치손상팔과손상되지않은팔의근력차 [19] 를보고한연구가있다. 그리고팔꿉관절내측부통증과안정성에손목근력의중요성을제시한연구 [20] 뿐이다. 그래서팔꿈치안쪽곁인대손상투수들의근력에대한불균형에관한기존연구는미비한실정이다. 따라서본연구는주니어 ( 초, 중, 고등학생 ) 투수선수들을대상으로팔꿈치안쪽곁인대통증을호소하는통증군과정상군의어깨관절, 팔꿉관절, 손목관절과같은상지관절에서팔꿈치손상을많이발생시키는투구동작구간 ( 감속기 ~ 가속기 ) 의팔움직임과관련된대표적인근육들의최대수의적등척성수축력의차이를알아보고자한다. 2. 연구방법 2.1 연구대상본연구는초. 중. 고등학교야구부내에서투수선수대상으로실시하였다. 연구대상자선정기준으로는본연구에영향을주는약물을복용하지않은자, 또한팔꿈 629

3 한국산학기술학회논문지제 17 권제 10 호, 2016 치안쪽곁인대이외의다른근골격계질환의증상을호소하는투수는이실험에서제외하여총 36명의투수과실험에참가하였다. 실험참가자들에게본연구의목적을충분히설명하고동의를구하였다. 평소팔꿈치안쪽곁인대부위의부상경력이있거나불편감및통증을호소하고, 팔꿈치밖굽이스트레스테스트 (valgus stress test) 를통해통증이있는투수 18명을통증군 (Injury group(ig)) 으로팔꿈치안쪽곁인대부위의부상경력이나통증이없고동일한테스트를통해통증이없는투수 18명을정상군 (Normal group (NG)) 으로나뉘었다. 대상자들의일반적특성은 <Table 1> 과같으며, 동질성검정을통해두군은유사한일반적특성을가진것으로나타났다. 2.2 연구설계및절차실험기간은 2주간으로모든대상자들이실험에관련된동의서작성과측정을실시하였다. 모든대상자들에게실험을실시하기전에실험의목적을설명하고동의를얻었으며, 실험측정시주의해야될사항들을충분히전달한후에최대수의적등척성수축력을측정하였다. 최대수의적등척성수축력은근력측정기 (K-DFX) 는고정틀에고정시킨후에측정하였다. 어깨관절에서는안쪽돌림근 (Pectoralis major) 과바깥돌림근 (Infraspinatus), 팔꿉관절에서는팔꿉굽힘근 (Biceps brachii) 과팔꿉폄근 (Triceps brachii), 손목관절에서는 손목굽힘근 (Flexor carpi radialis), 손목폄근 (Extensor carpi radialis) 의최대수의적등척성수축력을측정하였고, 측정을위한자세및동작은 <Table 2> 와같다. 5초동안최대수의적등척성수축동작을실시한후 30초휴식을 1세트로하여총 3세트를반복측정하여얻은최대수의적등척성수축력의평균값을수집하였고, 각관절의두근육들의근력차를계산하였다. 2.3 자료처리본연구의수집된자료들은 SPSS version 18.0을이용하여통계분석을실시하였다. 대상자들의일반적인특성은동질성검정을위해 independent t-test를실시하였고, 두그룹의최대등척석수축력의차이를비교하기위해서 kologorov-smirnov 검정을통해정규성을가정하여 independent t-test를실시하였다. 모든통계분석에서유의성을검정하기위하여유의수준 α=0.05로설정하였다. 3. 연구결과 3.1 각그룹에근육별최대수축력모든근육의최대수축력을그룹간비교를하여바깥돌림근 (t=4.945, p=0.035), 팔꿉굽힘근 (t=6.248, p=0.031), 팔꿉폄근 (t=4.491, p=0.041), 손목폄근 (t=-0.439, p=0.047) 으로그룹간에유의한차이를보였다 <Table 3>. Table 1. Subject Characteristics Variables IG (n = 18) NG (n = 18) t Age (years) ± ± Height (cm) ± ± Weight (kg) ± ± Mean ± SD, IG; injury group, NG; normal group Table 2. Position and Motion for Measuring Maximal Isometric Strength Pectoralis major Muscles Position Motion Set degree of elbow at 90 and back side of hand toward interior Intorsion of shoulder Infraspinatus Set degree of elbow at 90 and back side of hand toward exterior Extorsion of shoulder Elbow Extensor Set degree of elbow at 90 Elbow extension Elbow Flexor Lay down and set shoulder at 90 Elbow flexion Extensor Carpi Radialis Set degree of elbow at 90 and palm toward bottom Carpi Extension Flexor Carpi Radialis Set degree of elbow at 90 and palm toward top Carpi Flexion 630

4 Table 3. Maximal Isometric strength for 6 muscles in each group Muscles IG (n = 18) NG (n = 18) t p Pectoralis Major (N) ± ± Infraspinatus (N) ± ± Biceps Brachii (N) ± ± Triceps Brachii (N) ± ± Flexor Carpi Radialis (N) ± ± Extensor Carpi Radialis (N) ± ± Mean ± SD, IG; injury group, NG; normal group 3.2 어깨관절의안쪽돌림근과바깥돌림근의최대등척성수축력차이비교어깨관절의안쪽돌림근과바깥돌림근의최대등척성수축력의차는통증군에서는 7.522± 4.369N, 정상군에서는 4.074±4.665N이다. 두그룹간의평균차이는통계적으로유의한차이를보였다 (t=2.859, p=0.008)<figure 1>. Fig. 2. Differences of Maximal Isometric Strength between biceps brachii and triceps brachii Fig. 1. Differences of Maximal Isometric Strength between pectoralis major and infraspinatus muscles in shoulder 3.4 손목관절의굽힘근과폄근의최대등척성수축력차이비교손목관절의굽힘근과폄근의최대등척성수축력의차는통증군에서는 8.702±3.924N, 정상군에서는 6.289±2.290N 이다. 두그룹간의평균차이는통계적으로유의한차이를보였다 (t=2.253, p=0.032) <Figure 3>. 3.3 팔꿉관절의굽힘근과폄근의최대등척성수축력차이비교팔꿉관절의굽힘근과폄근의최대등척성수축력의차는통증군에서는 4.698±2.135N, 정상군에서는 2.743±1.211N 이다. 두그룹간의평균차이는통계적으로유의한차이를보였다 (t= 3.381, p=0.002)<figure 2>. Fig. 3. Differences of Maximal Isometric Strength between extensor and flexor carpi 631

5 한국산학기술학회논문지제 17 권제 10 호, 논의본연구는주니어투수선수들중에서팔꿈치안쪽곁인대통증을호소하는통증군과정상군을대상으로팔꿈치손상의발생율이높은투구동작구간 ( 감속기 ~ 가속기 ) 에서많이발생되는어깨관절의내쪽과바깥돌림근, 팔꿉관절의굽힘, 폄근, 손목관절굽힘근과, 폄근의최대등척성수축력과근육간에차이를알아보았다. 본연구에서이용한등척성수축력의차이는어깨바깥돌림근과어깨안쪽돌림근의상대적근력비율과상대적근력차이를통해팔꿈치안쪽곁인대손상에미치는영향을알아본연구에서활용한방법을토대로실시하였다 [18]. 또한흔히등속성수축을사용하여근력을평가하는것에비해본연구에서는등척성수축을통해발생되는근력을평가하였는데, 이는등속성, 등척성근력평가의연관성을알아본연구 [20-22] 에서두측정평가도구를사용한결과유사한결과를얻어등속성근력평가와등척성근력평가의연관성이입증되었기때문에손쉽게사용할수있는최대등척성근력평가를사용하게되었다. 본연구에서최대등척성근력에서통증군의어깨바깥돌림근, 팔꿉굽힘근, 팔꿉폄근이정상군비하여통계적으로유의하게낮고그리고반대로통증군의손목관절폄근이통계적으로유의하게높은것은팔꿈치손상으로인하여어깨근육과팔근육에근력이약화된상태에서강하게볼을던지기위하여손목을과다하게사용한결과로사료된다. 이로인하여본연구의결과는어깨, 팔꿈치, 손목의근육간에서통증군의근력의차이가정상군보다더많다고제시되었다. 기존연구에서팔꿈치안쪽곁인대손상군과비손상군의어깨돌림근의상대적근력차이를비교하였는데손상군의어깨바깥돌림근과어깨안쪽돌림근의근력차이가더크게나타났다 [18]. 또한팔꿈치손상을가진야구선수들의등속성근력의비율을알아본연구에서는팔꿉관절의폄근인위팔세갈래근의수축에대한팔꿉관절의굽힘근인위팔두갈래근의비율이높게되면팔꿈치손상이발생된다고보고하였으며 [23], 야구의투구동작시감속구간에서위팔세갈래근의과도한수축력은팔꿉관절의손상을일으킨다고한다 [7-9]. 투구동작구간중가속구간에서팔꿈치안쪽곁인대의손상이있는선수와손상이없는선수들을비교해본결 과손목관절굽힘근과폄근의근활성도차이가나타났다고한다 [24]. 본연구의결과에서도위의선행연구에서제시한바와같이유사하게정상군보다통증군에서어깨관절안쪽돌림근과바깥돌림근의최대등척성수축력의차이, 팔꿉관절에서의팔꿉관절굽힘근과폄근의최대등척성수축력의차이, 손목관절에서도손목관절손목굽힘근과손목폄근의최대등척성수축력의차이가더크게나타났다. 팔꿈치안쪽곁인대의주행방향과일치되거나근접해있는근육은팔꿉관절의안정성에기여하는매우중요한구조물이다 [18]. 손목의굴곡력, 신전력, 악력은팔꿉관절의안정성에기여하는근육으로써, 팔꿈치안쪽곁인대재건술후재활운동시에매우중요하게여겨진다 [25]. 그리고투구동작에서후기거상기에서가속기구간은최대바깥돌림한후에안쪽돌림하는힘이발생하는구간으로이시기에팔꿈치안쪽곁인대에많은부하가발생되기때문에팔꿈치안쪽곁인대의안정성은어깨회전힘과깊은관련성이있다 [18]. 이는가속구간때에어깨안쪽돌림근 ( 큰가슴근, 큰원근, 넓은등근 ) 의동심수축과함께안쪽돌림의감속을위한바깥돌림근 ( 가시아래근, 작은원근 ) 의편심수축이함께일어나게되고 [26], 이러한어깨돌림근에의해어깨뿐만아니라인접해있는팔꿉관절의안정성과운동성도제공할수있다 [18]. 즉, 어깨안쪽돌림근과바깥돌림근의근력의불균형은팔꿈치안쪽의외반장력을증가시켜팔꿈치안쪽손상을유발시킬수있는확률이높을것으로생각된다. 본연구에서통증군은 valgus test를통해팔꿈치안쪽곁인대에통증을호소하는투수들을배치하였는데, 이는팔꿈치주변의근육들의불균형이발생된상태에서반복적인투구동작으로인해팔꿈치의외반력의증가로인해안정성의감소와함께통증이유발된것으로사료된다. 근육이불균형이발생되면올바른자세를유지할수없을뿐만아니라관절운동학측면에서운동의역기능과병리현상을유발시킬수있다고했으며 [27], 서로길항작용을하는근육들간의근력차이가크게발생될수록상대적으로약한근력을가진근육에서부상이발생될수있는위험율이높아진다고한다 [28]. 선행연구에서이지환 [18] 의연구를보면어깨돌림근근력차이는손상군이 63.9N 비손상군이 37N이여서손상군이유의하게차이가많았고, Garrison et al.[19] 에서 632

6 팔꿈치손상팔과다치지않은팔을비교하여서팔꿈치내전과외전에서손상된팔의근력이손상이되지않은팔에비하여통계적으로유의하게약하였다. 이러한선행연구결과는본연구결과와유사함을보기옥있다. 이러한결과가의미하는바는근수축력의차이의줄임은부상의위험을예방할수요인이될수있을것이며, 근력차이불균형적인문제를제거함으로써부상을회복할수있는요인도될수있을것으로생각된다. 본연구의제한점은팔꿈치안쪽곁인대통증을호소하는투수선수들을대상으로상지근육의근력차를본연구들이많지않아본연구의결과를직접적으로비교하여설명할선행연구들이많지않았다는점이다. 그리고주니어선수들을대상으로하였기때문에본연구의결과를프로선수들을포함한야구선수전체를대상으로확대해석하기에는어려운점이있다. 5. 결론및제언 본연구는주니어 ( 초, 중, 고등학생 ) 투수선수들중에서팔꿈치안쪽곁인대통증을호소하는통증군과정상군의상지근육들의근력차이를알아보고자하였다. 연구결과 IG의바깥돌림근, 팔꿉굽힘근, 팔꿉폄근이근력이 NG에비하여약하였고, 반대로손목폄근의근력은 IG가높았다. 또한어깨안쪽돌림근과바깥돌림근의근수축력의차, 팔꿉굽힘근과폄근의근수축력의차, 손목굽힘근과폄근의근수축력의차는정상군보다통증군에서큰수축력의차이를보였다. 따라서본연구의결과는팔꿈치안쪽곁인대를유발할수있는원인중에하나로써부상예방을위한훈련시에참고할수있을것이며, 이러한근력의차이를훈련프로그램에적용하여근육간의불균형을해소함으로써선수재활에이용하여보다좋은훈련프로그램을설계할수있을것이며, 재활프로그램연구의기초자료로써활용되어보다긍정적인효과에관한연구할수있는바탕이되기를기대한다. References [1] Wonhwan Bae. study of biomechanical factors affecting the ball velocity and the ball control during overarm pitch in baseball. Doctoral Dissertation Kyungpook National University, [2] Dongjun Lim,. Kinematic Characteristics of the upper limb segment of College baseball pitchers pitching a fast ball and curve ball. Master Thesis Konkuk University, [3] Hoshikawa, T., and S. Toyoshima. "Contribution of body segments to ball velocity during throwing with non-preferred hand," Biomechanics VB, pp , 1976 [4] Son Hyun-soo. three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the upper body during the straight-ball pitches. Master Thesis Yonsei University, [5] Dun, Shouchen, et al. "Biomechanical comparison of the fastball from wind-up and the fastball from stretch in professional baseball pitchers," The American journal of sports medicine, vol. 36, no. 1, pp , [6] Jungsu Yoon. A Study on Sport Injuries of the Baseball Player s Position. Master Thesis KooKmin University, [7] Andrews, J. R. "Bony injuries about the elbow in the throwing athlete," Instructional course lectures, vol. 34, pp [8] Indelicato, Peter A., et al. "Correctable elbow lesions in professional baseball players: a review of 25 cases," The American journal of sports medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp , DOI: [9] Tullos, Hugh S., Joe W. King. "Lesions of the pitching arm in adolescents," JAMA, vol. 22, no. 2, pp DOI: [10] Churlhong Chun, A radiological study of the elbow in young baseball players. Master Thesis Chonnam National University, [11] Kwang Hoe Kim, Il Yong Choi, Chul Soo Sung. A Clinical Study of Baseball Player s Elbow in Adolescents. The Journal of the Korean orthopaedic association, vol. 17, no. 3, pp , [12] Dun, Shouchen, et al. "A biomechanical comparison of youth baseball pitches is the curveball potentially harmful?," The American journal of sports medicine, vol. 36, no. 4, pp DOI: [13] Lyman, Stephen, et al. "Effect of pitch type, pitch count, and pitching mechanics on risk of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers," The American journal of sports medicine, vol. 30, no. 4, pp , [14] Jewoon Lee. The strength characteristics of internal and external rotator muscles in high school baseball players. Master Thesis Chungnam National University, [15] Seroyer ST, Nho SJ, Bach BR, Bush-Joseph CA, Nicholson GP, Romeo AA. The kinetic chain in overhand pitching: its potential role for performance enhancement and injury prevention. Sports Health, vol. 2, no. 2, pp , DOI: [16] Yun Young Kim, Sung Won Youn. Relationship of each Body Segment Isokinetic Strength and Throwing Speed in Softball Pitchers. Korean journal of sport science, vol. 17, no. 3, pp ,

7 한국산학기술학회논문지제 17 권제 10 호, 2016 [17] Park, Ju-Yong. The Study about Cause of Sports Injury For each position of baseball Community. Master Thesis Mokpo National University, [18] Lee Ji-Hwan. The Effects of Difference in Relative Muscular Strength of Shoulder Rotators on Elbow Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury in Baseball Pitchers. Master Thesis Yong In University, [19] Garrison JC, Johnston C, Conway JE. Baseball Players with Ulnar Collateral Ligament Tears Demonstrate Decreased Rotator Cuff Strength Compared to Healthy Controls. Int J Sports Phys Ther, vol. 10, no. 4, pp , [20] Yonghwan Han. The effects of wrist muscular strength on pain and stability of mediale elbow joint domestic amateur baseball players. Master Thesis Kookmin University, [21] Lord, Janet P., et al. "Isometric and isokinetic measurement of hamstring and quadriceps strength," Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil, vol. 73, no. 4, pp , DOI: [22] Folland, Jonathan P., et al. "Strength training: Isometric training at a range of joint angles versus dynamic training," Journal of sports sciences, vol. 23, no. 8, pp , DOI: [23] Lin, Yin-Chou, et al. "Functional isokinetic strength ratios in baseball players with injured elbows," Journal of sport rehabilitation, vol. 19, no. 1, pp DOI: [24] Glousman, Ronald E., et al. "An electromyographic analysis of the elbow in normal and injured pitchers with medial collateral ligament insufficiency," The American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 20, no. 3, pp , DOI: [25] Lim Seung-Ki. Effects of rehabilitation exercise after ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction in baseball players. doctoral dissertation chung ang university, [26] Glousman, Ronald. "Electromyographic analysis and its role in the athletic shoulder," Clinical orthopaedics and related research, vol. 288, pp DOI: [27] Bae, Sung-Soo, Kim, Byung-Jo,Lee, Keun-Heui. A Study of Muscle Imbalance of Head, Cervical and Shoulder Region. The journal of Korean society of physical therapy, vol. 13, pp , [28] Jong Ha Lee. Sports injury and rehabilitation. Journal of coaching development, vol. 24, no. 2, pp 장세홍 (Se-Hong Jang) [ 정회원 ] < 관심분야 > 운동생리학, 운동처방, 운동재활 2007 년 2 월 : 전남대학교일반대학원체육학과 ( 체육학석사 ) 2012 년 2 월 : 전남대학교일반대학원체육학과 ( 체육학박사과정수료 ) 1997 년 1 월 ~ 현재 : 기아타이거즈트레이너차장 김동희 (Dong-Hee Kim) [ 정회원 ] < 관심분야 > 운동생리학, 운동영양학, 운동처방 1982 년 2 월 : 전남대학교일반대학원체육학과 ( 체육학석사 ) 1993 년 2 월 : 고려대학교일반대학원체육학과 ( 체육학박사 ) 1983 년 5 월 ~ 현재 : 전남대학교사범대학체육교육학과교수 634

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