12 한국심리학회지 : 발달 한국발달심리학회

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1 12 한국심리학회지 : 발달 한국발달심리학회

2 12 * 12.,,,..., ,.. *,, ( ) (NRF-2012-S1A3-A ). :,, 50 ( )

3 ...., (e.g.,,, 2008; Luo & Baillargeon, 2005; Woodward, 1998; Woodward & Guajardo, 2002). Woodward(1998) 6 (encode). Woodward., ( / ), ( / )., /,, /., / /,..,,. Luo Baillargeon(2005) (one-object condition)., A, B A (agency) 5

4 A B., A A. B A, A ( ) B ( )., A., A B. A A, B A. (Woodward & Guajardo, 2002) Woodward Guajardo(2002). 9..,, (,, 2008;,,, 2012)..., (declarative) (imperative) (Tomasello, Carpenter & Liszkowski, 2007).

5 (interrogative) (Begus & Southgate, 2012).,?. 18 (Song, Onishi, Baillargeon, & Fisher, 2008) A 2 A B B. 1 A 2 B.. 12 (Behne, Liszkowski, Carpenter, & Tomasello, 2012).., 12., (Woodward & Guajardo, 2002). (Sodian & Thoermer, 2004; Woodward & Guajardo, 2002).,..,, (Sodian & Thoermer, 2004). Sodian Thoermer 12,,. A, B A A. B,, B (

6 ) A B ( ).,,., 12 (Phillips., Wellman, & Spelke, 2002). Phillips (Sodian & Thoermer, 2004). (Carpenter, Nagell, & Tomasello, 1998) 12 (Phillips et al., 2002),.. (Phillips et al., 2002; Sodian & Thoermer, 2004),.,? -, -..,. (Cannon & Woodward, 2012; Kim & Song, in press). Woodward(1998) A, B A. (Kim & Song, in press) (Cannon & Woodward, 2012). Woodward(1998).

7 B.,, A., 6, 11 A, , (Woodward & Guajardo, 2002). 12. ( ) ( )....., (association). (,, 2008; Kim & Song, in press; Luo & Baillargeon, 2005). A., A. A A A, A, B. - - A - - B. - -,

8 ( 12, : 12 10, : ). 12, 12. 5, (1), (1), (1), (1) (1).,.. 1,. 6, 1, 1. Kim Song(in press).,, 3... (, ). 20.5cm, 13cm, 18cm, 18cm. 70.5cm, 6. 5cm. (4 ) (2 ) (4 ).,. 10 1),., 6 2). 1) (2008) ( ). 2) (4 ) (2 ) 6. 6,

9 TV (LG LCD) 100cm. (PANASONIC NV-GS300GD).... (1/30 ). (preferential looking paradigm),,, (,, 2011; Fernald, Zangl, Portillo, & Marchman, 2008).,. 2 6, 91%. 40. ( - -, - - )

10 (, ) (Fs < 1). - - (, ), (F(1,22) = 1.67, p =.21)., (M =.64, SD =.36) (M =.44, SD =.38) - -. Woodward Guajardo(2002). 12 9, , , (M =.81, SD =.19) (M =.44, SD =.38) - - (F(1,19) = 7.20, p <.05). - - (t(8) = 4.99, p =.001), - - (t(11) =.55, p =.594). 9, , (Ws = 100, p <.05) , 12 4 (X 2 (1) = 9.69, p <.01).

11 ... 1,,. (,, ),, (Fs < 2.42, ps >.13), (, ; ) ( - -, - - ; ), (Fs < 1) ,. - - (, ; ) (, ; ), (F(1,19) < 7.46, p <.05). (F(1,19) (0.28) (0.28) (0.50) (0.25) (0.58) (0.37) (0.20) (0.36) (0.32) (0.26) (0.30) (0.39) (0.47) (0.37) (0.55) (1.88) (1.75) (2.37) (2.34) (0.69) (0.51) (1.15) (0.67) (0.63) (1.18)

12 = 2.50, p = 0.13) (M =.54, SD =.25) (M =.81, SD =.19) (t(8) = 2.87, p <.05), (M =.48, SD =.25) (M =.44, SD =.38) (t(11) =.28, p =.79) ,. 6, 11 (Cannon & Woodward, 2012; Kim & Song, in press). Sodian Thoermer(2004),. Sodian Thoermer 12 ( : ) ( : ).. Sodian Thoermer.,. (Kim & Song, in press). Sodian Thoermer(2004). Sodian Thoermer,,, 12., Sodian Thoermer (,, ) ( ),. 12

13 . Phillips (2002). Phillips 3, 4 14, Phillips / (Carpenter et al., 1998) , - -, (,, 2008; Luo, 2011; Luo & Baillargeon, 2005; Luo & Baillargeon, 2007; Luo & Jonhson, 2009) ,. Kim Song(in press) ( ) A, B B A

14 A, B. A A, B. Kim Song..,., (first-person experience) (Meltzoff, 2007; Woodward, 2005).,. (Sommerville, Woodward, & Needham. 2005; Woodward & Guajardo, 2002). (Kanakogi & Itakura, 2011). 6 4.,. 12.,? (Biro, Csibra, & Gergely, 2007; Csibra, 2008). 6 ( ) 6 (Biro & Leslie, 2007). 7 (,,, 2012)..

15 9 (Kim & Song, 2014). 9, (,, ) ,..,...., (2008) : 7,9. (3), , (2011). (3), ,, (2012) 7. 5(1), Begus, K., & Southgate, V. (2012). Infant pointing serves an interrogative function. Developmental Science, 15, Behne, T., Liszkowski, U., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2012). Twelve-month-olds' comprehension and production of pointing. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30, Biro, S., Csibra, G., & Gergely, G. (2007). The role of behavioral cues in understanding goal-directed actions in infancy. Progress in Brain Research, 164, Biro, S., & Leslie, A. M. (2007). Infants perception of goal-directed actions: Development through cue-based bootstrapping. Developmental Science, 10, Cannon, E. Woodward, A., Gredebäck, G., von Hofsten, C., & Turek, C. (2012). Action production influences 12-month-old infants' attention to others' actions. Developmental Science, 15, Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and

16 communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63(4, Serial No. 255). Csibra, G. (2008). Goal attribution to inanimate agents by 6.5-month-old infants. Cognition, 107, Fernald, A., Zangl, R., Portillo, A. L., & Marchman, V. A. (2008). Looking while listening: Using eye movements to monitor spoken language comprehension by infants and young children. In I. Sekerina, E.M. Fernández, & H. Clahsen (Eds.), Developmental psycholinguistics: On-line methods in children s language processing (pp ). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Kanakogi, Y., & Itakura, S. (2011). Developmental correspondence between action prediction and motor ability in early infancy. Nature Communications, 2, 341. Kim, E., & Song, H. (2014, March). Nine-month-old Infants Can Predict Others Goal-directed Pointing with Behavioral Cues. Poster presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, Berlin, Germany. Kim, E., & Song, H. (in press). Six-Month-Olds Actively Predict Others' Goal-Directed Actions. Cognitive development. Luo, Y. (2011). Three-month-old infants attribute goals to a non-human agent. Developmental Science, 14, Luo, Y., & Baillargeon, R. (2005). Can a self-propelled box have a goal? Psychological reasoning in 5-month-old infants. Psychological Science, 16, Luo, Y., & Baillargeon, R. (2007). Do month-old infants consider what objects others can see when interpreting their actions? Cognition, 105, Luo, Y., & Johnson, S. C. (2009). Recognizing the role of perception in action at 6 months. Developmental Science, 12, Meltzoff, A. N. (2007). The like me framework for recognizing and becoming an intentional agent. Acta Psychologica, 124, Phillips, A. T., Wellman, H. M., & Spelke, E. S. (2002). Infants' ability to connect gaze and emotional expression to intentional action. Cognition, 85, Sodian, B., & Thoermer, C. (2004). Infants understanding of looking, pointing, and reaching as cues to goal-directed action. Journal of Cognition and Development, 5, Sommerville, J. A., Woodward, A. L., & Needham, A. (2005). Action experience alters 3-month-old infants' perception of others' actions. Cognition, 96, B1-B11. Song, H., Onishi, K. H., Baillargeon, R., & Fisher, C. (2008). Can an agent s false belief be corrected by an appropriate communication? Psychological reasoning in 18-month-old infants. Cognition, 109, Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., & Liszkowski, U. (2007). A new look at infant pointing. Child Development, 78, Woodward, A. L. (1998). Infants selectively encode the goal object of an actor's reach. Cognition, 69, Woodward, A. L. (2005). The infant origins of

17 intentional understanding. In R. V. Kail (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (pp ). New York: Academic Press. Woodward, A. L., & Guajardo, J. J. (2002). Infants understanding of the point gesture as an object-directed action. Cognitive Development, 17, : : :

18 Twelve-month-old infants' ability to predict the goals of others' pointing actions Eun Young Kim Hyun-joo Song Department of Psychology, Yonsei University The current research investigated whether 12-month-old infants can predict the goals of others' pointing actions before the onset of the actions. Infants participated in three types of trials: familiarization, pretest-display, and test trials. In the two-object condition, infants watched an actor repeatedly point to one of two objects during familiarization trials. During the pretest-display trial, the locations of the two objects were switched. During the test trial, the actor simply sat between the objects. The procedure for the one-object condition was identical except that there was only one object during the familiarization trials. In the two-object condition, the infants who could produce pointing actions looked longer at the prior-goal object than at the non-prior-goal object; whereas infants in the one-object condition did not. The current findings demonstrated that 12-month-old infants could anticipate an actor's goal using information regarding the goal of previous pointing actions. Key words : action prediction, psychological reasoning, pointing, social cognition in infancy