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1 Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI: ICT * Exploring the Relationships between College Students ICT Self-efficacy and their Perceptions of Flipped Learning Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between college students ICT self-efficacy and their perceptions of flipped learning in higher education. Method: For this purpose, this study conducted an orientation for introducing the concepts and process of flipped learning to 120 students in the courses of Educational Technology, D university, Busan city. In addition, this study administered the students perception test of flipped learning and the test for assessing their ICT self-efficacy, and analyzed the data. Results: From the results, first, there was significantly positive relationship between college students perception of flipped learning and their ICT self-efficacy. Specifically, there were significantly positive relationship between preference toward online class as one sub-area of the perception of flipped learning and self-directed learning based ICT self-efficacy as one sub-area of ICT self-efficacy. Second, the college students perception of flipped learning could be explained by the variables of self-directed learning based ICT self-efficacy and scaffolding based ICT self-efficacy significantly. Third, there were positive relationships between the level of the students experiences of the course including discussion, and the levels of self-directed learning based ICT self-efficacy and scaffolding based ICT self-efficacy. Conclusion: The overall results imply that colleges should offer their students with individualized and specialized programs and instructional design for supporting their flipped learning activities by considering the level of learning experiences of discussion and the level of ICT self-efficacy. Key words : flipped learning, ICT self-efficacy, self-directed learning based ICT self-efficacy, scaffolding based ICT self-efficacy *. Corresponding Author: Park, Young-Hee. Dong-A University, Graduate School of Education, Nakdong-Daero, 550 beon-gil Saha-gu, Busan, Korea.

2 ..,..,,..,,. (flipped learning), (Bergmann & Sams, 2012; Reeve & Tseng, 2011).,, (, ),,..,, (, 2014).,.,,..,, (,, 2015), (, 2015;, 2016)... ICT ICT

3 . ICT ICT, (, 2008; Compeau & Higgins 1995; Torkzadeh, Pelughoeft, & Hall, 1999). ICT (,,, 2010;,, 2001;, 1998;,, 2004).,,,, ICT. ICT,. ICT,., ICT (,, 2016)., ICT.. 1. ICT? 2. ICT? 3. (, (LMS),, )? 4. (, (LMS),, ) ICT? 5.?

4 ., (, 2015)., 1:1,,, (blended learning) (, 2014).,, (,, 2014)..,., (, 2015).,,,,.,, (Reeve & Tseng, 2011),, (, 2015)., Hamdan, McKnight, McKnight Arfstrom(2013) 4, 1) (flexible environment), 2) (authentic task) (learning culture), 3) (the intended learning content), 4) (professional educator). 4., (2013),,,,.

5 ...,, MOOC, (LMS).. (face to face) (Bergmann & Sams, 2012)., (2016),,.,,.,,,., (2015) 4 MOOC.., (2014).,,,. (2015).... Enfield(2013).,,.,

6 .,, (, 2017;, 2016)., Strayer(2012).,,. Roach(2014) Texas Tech University %, 94%.. (November & Mull, 2012),... Kim, Kim, Khera Getman(2014) USC(University of Southern California) 115. (Engineering), (Social Studies), (Humanities) 3 (Learner Presence), (Cognitive Presence), (Student Centeredness), (Teaching Presence), (Social Presence),., 25%..., 85%..,,,..

7 ICT (Young, 1996)., ICT,, (, 2004).,., ICT (, 2011). ICT.,, ICT (,, 2016)., ICT. ICT,,., ICT., (1999) 90.,. (2001) 3 78 ICT ICT., ICT., (2012) 213 ICT,,., ICT, ICT.. ICT,.

8 . 1) 연구대상자의배경변인별특성 4 D 120. < III-1>. 80.8%(97 ) %, %, %. D (LMS), %, %, 15.0%, 7 3.3% %, %, %, 1.7% %, %, %.,,,,. n % (LMS) 1~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

9 1) 플립러닝에대한인식 Johnson(2013). 17, Likert 5 ( 1 5 ).,,,,,., (Cronbach s α=.87). 2) ICT 자아효능감 ICT Holden Rada(2011) ICT, (2016). ICT 10, Likert 5 ( 1 5 ). ICT (Cronbach s α=.94). ICT. < III-2>. ( ) Cronbach s α 1 17(17).87 ICT 1 10(10).94,., [ III-1]..

10 , ICT.,,,,.,,.,,.,, D., ICT.,,,. 1., ICT 2. : ICT 7.,, SPSS/Win ICT Mplus 6.11(Muthén & Muthén, 2010)..,., (Exploratory Factor Analysis: EFA) (Confirmatory Factor Analysis: CFA). Cronbach s α., ICT.,, (LMS),,

11 (One-way ANOVA), (Scheffe).,, (LMS),, ICT (One-way ANOVA), (Scheffe). (enter) (Multiple regression analysis). IV. ICT (EFA) (CFA) (Kline, 2005). 1) 플립러닝에대한인식척도 Johnson(2013). 4. 2, 7, 4, (ps <.001). < IV-1>. 2) ICT 자아효능감척도 Holden Rada(2011) ICT, (2016). ICT 2. ICT 4 ICT 6. < IV-1> (ps <.001).

12 ( ) (M) (SD) (range) (β) Cronbach s α (2) 4.,. 11. ( ) , , (7) 3.,. 5.,. 12., , , (4) , (2) 6.,

13 ( ) ( ) (M) (SD) (range) (β) Cronbach s α ICT (4) ( ) , ICT (6) 8. ( ) < IV-1>.

14 (skewness) (kurtosis). < IV-1> , <3.0, <7.0 (Kline, 2005)... < IV-2>. < IV-2>.07 rs.94. ICT (r=.20, p.01). ICT (r=.22, p.05), ICT (r=.16, p.05)., ICT (r=.22, p.05). ICT (r=.20, p.05) ICT (r=.21, p.05) ** **.50 ** **.51 **.35 ** **.41 **.51 **.36 ** ICT.20 * * ICT.22 *.22 * ** ICT * **.70 * * p <.05, ** p <.01

15 , (LMS),, < IV-3>. M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) (2.02) 24.60(4.62) 13.86(2.41) 7.46(1.30) 51.60(7.60) (2.05) 23.73(5.30) 13.79(3.26) 6.93(1.77) 50.09(9.74) (1.77) 24.26(4.47) 12.42(3.02) 7.21(1.64) 49.23(8.66) F (LMS) 5.33(2.05) 24.55(5.33) 13.27(3.02) 6.61(1.94) 49.77(10.55) (2.07) 23.58(5.04) 13.39(3.23) 7.07(1.68) 49.72(9.48) (1.31) 24.84(3.76) 13.21(3.08) 7.68(1.33) 50.94(5.51) (1.50) 26.50(5.56) 12.75(2.98) 7.00(1.41) 51.50(10.63) F (1.41) 23.00(1.41) 15.50(.70) 8.50(2.12) 52.00(4.24) (2.10) 22.67(5.18) 12.67(3.26) 6.74(1.57) 47.47(9.25) (1.77) 25.44(3.92) 13.44(3.04) 7.13(1.69) 51.81(8.94) (1.93) 24.92(5.21) 14.40(2.79) 7.72(1.69) 52.56(8.12) F * * Scheffe > > (1.60) 23.00(3.89) 12.50(3.72) 6.33(1.50) 47.00(8.39) (1.82) 23.00(5.53) 13.14(3.00) 6.80(1.91) 48.33(9.46) (2.00) 24.32(4.83) 13.41(3.15) 7.21(1.62) 50.54(9.05) F * p <.05

16 < IV-3>, 2 3, 4.. (LMS) < IV-3>.. (LMS). < IV-3>, (F=2.729, p.05)., (F=2.885, p.05)..., (LMS),, ICT < IV-4>. ICT 2 3, 4 ICT. ICT. (LMS) ICT < IV-4>. ICT. ICT (LMS). ICT , (F=5.244, p.05)., ICT , (F=3.381, p.01). ICT , 4 6

17 24.52 (F=5.244, p.01). ICT < IV-4>. ICT., ICT (F=3.543, p.05). ICT ICT M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) (2.77) 25.80(3.52) 37.93(5.82) (2.83) 25.26(3.88) 37.25(6.15) (2.05) 26.02(3.17) 38.50(4.93) F ( LMS) 11.77(2.96) 24.72(4.67) 36.50(7.24) (2.65) 25.56(3.31) 37.54(5.45) (1.70) 26.00(3.65) 39.15(5.16) (1.25) 28.25(2.87) 41.50(3.87) F (.00) 26.00(2.82) 39.00(2.82) (2.18) 25.27(2.74) 37.21(4.45) (3.10) 24.52(4.49) 36.10(7.22) (2.10) 27.92(2.81) 41.44(4.05) F * ** ** Scheffe 7 > > 4 6, 7 > > 4 6, 7 > (2.22) 25.83(2.56) 38.00(4.51) (3.05) 25.09(2.73) 35.95(5.18) (2.39) 25.69(3.82) 38.17(5.84) F * Scheffe 7 > * p <.05, ** p <.01

18 ... 1) 플립러닝에대한인식 ICT ICT ICT. < IV-5>, ICT 2 ICT ICT (F=3.20, p.05), 5.2%. ICT ICT ICT. Β(SE) β t R² AdjR² F ICT * p <.05, ** p < (5.89) 6.77 ** ICT ICT.79(.45) (.32) * 2) 플립러닝에대한인식의하위요인 3 1), 2), 3), 4) ICT ICT ICT. < IV-6>. (1) ICT

19 ICT. < IV-6>, ICT 2 ICT ICT (F=3.32, p.05), 5.4%., ICT (β=.28, p.05). Β(SE) β t R² AdjR² F ICT 4.04(1.26) 3.20 ** ICT ICT.21(.09) *.04(.06) * ICT ICT 21.78(3.21) 6.78 *** ICT ICT.48(.24) (.17) (2.04) 4.24 *** ICT ICT.03(.15) (.11) ICT 5.42(1.10) 4.92 *** ICT ICT.05(.08) (.06) * p <.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001 (2) ICT ICT. < IV-6>, ICT 2 ICT ICT (F=2.27, p.05).

20 (3) ICT ICT. < IV-6>, ICT 2 ICT ICT (F=2.72, p.05). (4) ICT ICT. < IV-6>, ICT 2 ICT ICT (F=1.47, p.05)...,., ICT.,, ICT. ICT,, (2010),, (2001), (2004)., ICT., ICT,,., ICT.,.

21 ., ICT 2 ICT ICT. (, 2017;, 2016)., (, 2015).,, ICT.,, ICT.,,,, ICT,.,,, ICT,,.,.,, 2 3, 4.,,,,.,. (in-class).,,,,., ICT.,

22 , 2 3,4 ICT,., ICT,, ICT,., ICT 2 ICT ICT., ICT ICT. ICT., ICT ICT,, ICT.,,,.,,,,.,, MOOC,. (2015). Flipped Learning. (2), doi: /jkase (2015). MOOC.. (2008)

23 ,, (2010).. (9), (2015)... (2017).. (1), , (2001). ICT. (4), (2016). < > (2015).. (6), 5-38., (2016).,. (1), , (2016). :. (1), , (2015). (Flipped Classroom). (1), , (2014). (Flipped Learning). (4), (2014). flipper classroom.. (2014). :. (1999)... (2013). (Flipped Learning). The Journal of Digital Policy & Management, 11(12), (2014). (Flipped classroom) :. (2), , (2016).,,. (4), , (2012).,,. (3), (2004).,

24 LMS. (4), (2016). (flipped learning) :. (1), , (2016).,. (4), (2011)... (2017).. (4), , (2004). ICT,. (2), , (2015). flipped learning. (2), (2015)... (2016).. (4), Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. International Society for Technology in Education. Compeau, D., & Higgins, C. (1995). Computer self-efficacy: development of a measure and initial test. MIS Quarterly, 19, doi: / Enfield, J. (2013). Looking at the impact of the flipped classroom model of instruction on undergraduate multimedia students at CSUN. TechTrends, 57(6), doi: /s Hamdan, N., McKnight, P., McKnight, K., & Arfstrom, K. M. (2013) A review of flipped learning. Flipped Learning Network. Holden, H., & Rada, R. (2011). Understanding the influence of perceived usability and technology self-efficacy on teachers technology acceptance. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(4), doi: / Johnson, G. B. (2013). Student perceptions of the Flipped Classroom. Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia. doi: / Kim, M. K., Kim, S. M., Khera, O., & Getman, J. (2014). The experience of three flipped classrooms in urban university : an exploration of design principles. Internet and Higher Education, 22, doi: /j.iheduc

25 Kline, R. B. (2005). Principle and practice of structural equation modeling(2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus. Los Angeles: Muthén and Muthén. November, A., & Mull, B. (2012). Flipped learning: A response to five common criticisms. e School News. Retrieved June, 3, 2015, from teaching-and-learning-articles/flipped-learning-a-response-to-five-common-criticisms-article/ Reeve, J., & Tseng, M. (2011). Agency as a fourth aspect of student engagement during learning activities. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(4), doi: /j.cedpsych Roach, T. (2014). Student perceptions toward flipped learning: New methods to increase interaction and active learning in economics. International Review of Economics Education, 17, Strayer, J. F. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learning Environments Research, 15(2), doi: /j.iree Torkzadeh, R., Pelughoeft, K., & Hall, L. (1999). Computer self-efficacy, training effectiveness and user attitudes: An empirical study. Behavior& Information Technology, 18(4), doi: / Young, J. D. (1996). The effect of self- regulated learning strategies on performance in learner controlled computer- based instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 44(2), doi: /bf : / : / :

26 ICT : ICT. :, 4 D 120., ICT,. :,, ICT.,, ICT., ICT 2 ICT ICT., ICT ICT ICT. :, ICT.

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