. 45 1,258 ( 601, 657; 1,111, 147). Cronbach α=.67.95, 95.1%, Kappa.95.,,,,,,.,...,.,,,,.,,,,,.. :,, ( )

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1 . 45 1,258 ( 601, 657; 1,111, 147). Cronbach α=.67.95, 95.1%, Kappa.95.,,,,,,.,...,.,,,,.,,,,,.. :,, ( )

2 ,. (, 2011),, %, 4 (20.3%). 1985, 5 (39.0%), 4 (25.3%) (29.5%), ) (24.3%), 1 (23.9%) (4.8%) 2 (10.5%), ,,,. (, 2011), (23.9%) (1.2%) (74.9%), %, 1 (17.5%), 3 (6.1%), 4 (0.1%) 1) %, %, % , 1 (4.8%) (1.5%) (93.7%) %, 3 (16.5%), 1 (8.3%), 4 (0.5%) , 2, 68.5% 51.3% (16.5%), (17.5%), 3 6.1% , , 3. 2), ,,., 2) %, %, %, %, %, %, %.

3 ..,,. (Kim & Park, 2000),.,.,. (, ), (,,, ), (, ) (,,,, ). (, 1996),. (,,, 2009, 2011;,,, 2009),,,,. (,,,, 2014;,,,, 2014;,,,, 2015), ,.,,.. Lee, Park, Kim Song (2014), 40.7%, 30%...

4 ,,, Ahn, Park Kim(2012). 49.0%, (24.2%).. Han, Park Kim(2010),,.,,.,,,.,,, Ahn, Park Kim(2013) Han, Park Kim(2010).,.. Lee, Park Kim(2011),,,.,.. (2009).,... (2007),,. (2007),,. (2005).,,,,.,..,.

5 . (, 2009),.. (2002),.,.,..,, (2015),,,.,.,,,,,,..,..,, (2000),,. /.,.,.,,,,.,.,,,.,,,.,,.,.

6 ,,,,.,.,.,,.,,. 3 (,, ).,,,, 1 1,258. 1,111, :1, , ,258 (, 2011), (2 51.3%, 3 6.1%). 601, , 45.70, %, %, %, %, %, % %, %, %, 40 2/3, 50, 30, , , , , 58.9%, 13.1%, 25.4%, 2.7%.

7 ., 41.5%, 22.7%, 31.5%, 4.3%..,,. 2,...,. /,.. 4 (,,, ). 6, 5.,,,,. (1999) 6 (α=.93),. (2008) α=.94, α=.95 ( 2 ). (1999) 6.,. 2 α =.88. (2006) 6 (α=.83).,, (2015) (2006) α=.87.. α=.86 ( 2 ).. 7 3) α=.60 3) : ( ) 1.. ( ) 2.. ( - ) 3.. ( - ) 4.. ( ) 5..

8 Cronbach α , 7, 6 α=.67 ( 2 ). 6 ( : ( - ) 6.. ( - ) 7.. ) 3, 6 ( : ) ,. Bandura(1995) (Resiliency of self-efficacy) 7 (1997) α=.91. (2014) 6 5, α=.83, α=.89. (2014),, α =.89 ( 2 )..?. 6, 2 α=.88..?. 6, α=.84 ( 2 ). (2009)

9 15. (2009) α=.88, (2011) α=.91, α=.90 ( 2 ).,,,, 5., (2009)., (2009) 3 α =.90. 3, α=.85 ( 2 ). (,,,, 2014; α=.90). 3 ( : ), α=.86 ( 2 ). 100 %....,. (1), (2), (3) 3.., (, ),,.,,.,,,.. 1 1, ,,,..., ,730, 404, 13, 1,313.

10 ,. 2, 3,,. 1, , , , 60 5, ,302, (, ) 44, 1,258..,.,,., ,,..,,. (, ). 95.1%. Kappa.95,.75(, 2010)..,,,, χ 2. SPSS 19.0.,,,,., 9 0.7%,. χ , p<.05 p= ,

11 χ (%) (%) (%) 35 ( 3.2) 7 ( 4.8) 42 ( 3.4) 577 (52.2) 92 (62.6) 669 (53.4) 444 (40.1) 42 (28.6) 486 (38.8) 50 ( 4.5) 6 ( 4.1) 56 ( 4.5) 1106 (100.0) 147 (100.0) 1253 (100.0) χ 2 =8.16, df=3, p=.043.,,,,,,,..,, 90%,., 1.8%, 0.1%.,, (,,,, ) (,, ). 4. χ 2, p<.05.., /3. χ (%) (%) (%) 198 (17.9) 19 (12.9) 217 (17.3) 813 (73.5) 116 (78.9) 929 (74.1) 95 ( 8.6) 12 ( 8.2) 107 ( 8.5) 1106 (100.0) 147 (100.0) 1253 (100.0) χ 2 =2.40, df=4, p= , 1.,. 4,309,300, 4,405, , t- (t=-.37, p>.05). 4. χ 2 5. p<.05,. / (25.1%), /, /, 25%. /, /, 10 15%.

12 χ (%) (%) (%) / 275 (25.2) 29 (20.1) 304 (24.6) / 144 (13.2) 25 (17.4) 169 (13.7) / 269 (24.7) 41 (28.5) 310 (25.1) / 266 (24.4) 28 (19.4) 294 (23.8) / 137 (12.6) 21 (14.6) 158 (12.8) 1091 (100.0) 144 (100.0) 1235 (100.0) χ 2 =5.39, df=4, p= %, 0.2%.,.,,, χ 2. 6, p< , 10 1, χ (%) (%) (%) 112 (10.2) 13 ( 8.9) 125 (10.0) 971 (88.0) 131 (89.7) 1102 (88.2) 20 ( 1.8) 2 ( 1.4) 22 ( 1.8) 1103 (100.0) 146 (100.0) 1249 (100.0) χ 2 =.39, df=2, p=.824 χ (%) (%) (%) 596 (54.1) 78 (53.4) 674 (54.0) 505 (45.9) 68 (46.6) 573 (46.0) 1101 (100.0) 146 (100.0) 1247 (100.0) χ 2 =.03, df=1, p=.872., r=.54., ,, 50%. χ 2 p< %.. 8.,,,,

13 (%) M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) 3.66(.97) 3.77(1.01) 3.82(.89) 3.54(1.03) 3.67(.97) 3.73(.70) 3.92(.77) 3.61(.75) 3.88(.65) 3.75(.71) 3.86(.69) 4.01(.65) 3.82(.71) 3.93(.67) 3.88(.69) 2.39(.64) 2.50(.61) 2.44(.66) 2.37(.63) 2.40(.64) 3.57(.67) 3.77(.67) 3.68(.66) 3.51(.68) 3.59(.67) 3.51(.70) 3.67(.79) 3.52(.69) 3.54(.73) 3.53(.71) 3.30(.65) 3.44(.65) 3.35(.66) 3.29(.65) 3.32(.65) 3.50(.60) 3.63(.66) 3.51(.60) 3.53(.62) 3.52(.61)..,.. 9. p< ,.,. p<.001 ( 9 ). 8,,. p<.01 ( 9 ). 8. p<.05 ( 9 ). 8.,,..,

14 SS df MS F (1) (2) *** (1) (2) (1) *** (2) *** (1) (2) (1) ** (2) (1) (2) (1) * (2) (1) (2) * p<.05, ** p<.01, *** p<.001,.,. 10., p<.01. 8,. p<.05 ( 10 ). ( 8 ). p<.05 ( 10 ). ( 8 ).,,.., ,.

15 SS df MS F (1) ** (2) ** (1) (2) (1) * (2) (1) (2) (1) * (2) (1) (2) (1) * (2) (1) (2) * p<.05, ** p<.01 (%) M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) 3.36(.79) 3.50(.79) 3.43(.80) 3.32(.78) 3.37(.79) 2.97(.83) 3.31(.80) 3.00(.84) 3.02(.83) 3.01(.84) 2.43(3.64) 4.31( 5.97) 2.99( 4.42) 2.33( 3.59) 2.66( 4.04) 2.16(4.85) 12.50(17.12) 4.05( 9.22) 2.75( 6.93) 3.39( 8.16) 5.27(8.27) 14.56(26.98) 6.40(13.93) 6.42(11.05) 6.41(12.57) , 2.66%. 3.39, ,

16 SS df MS F (1) * (2) (1) (2) (1) *** (2) (1) (2) * p<.05, *** p<.001. p<.05, ( 11 ). p<.001, ( 11 ).,. 13,,. p<.001, ( 11 ). 4 5%, 2 3%. p<.001 ( 13 ). 11,,. 13, ,.,. p<.001 ( 13 ) , 5 6 ( 11 ).,,.. 2,

17 SS df MS F (1) *** (2) (1) (2) (1) *** (2) *** (1) (2) *** (1) *** (2) (1) (2) *** p<.001 4, 15.,,.,,. 14., 34.4%, (18.0%), (11.1%), (11.0%) 10%. (9.4%),,,. 10 1, 3..

18 (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (34.4) 150(31.2) 189(34.9) 339(33.1) 30(40.0) 30(49.2) 60(44.1) 226(19.5) 91(18.9) 104(19.2) 195(19.1) 13(17.3) 18(29.5) 31(22.8) 66( 5.7) 22( 4.6) 31( 5.7) 53( 5.2) 9(12.0) 4( 6.6) 13( 9.6) 59( 5.1) 18( 3.7) 32( 5.9) 50( 4.9) 3( 4.0) 6( 9.8) 9( 6.6) 30( 2.6) 11( 2.3) 14( 2.6) 25( 2.4) 4( 5.3) 1( 1.6) 5( 3.7) 18( 1.6) 8( 1.7) 8( 1.5) 16( 1.6) 1( 1.3) 1( 1.6) 2( 1.5) (18.0) 84(17.5) 106(19.6) 190(18.6) 11(14.7) 8(13.1) 19(14.0) 149(12.9) 64(13.3) 68(12.5) 132(12.9) 10(13.3) 7(11.5) 17(12.5) 26( 2.2) 13( 2.7) 13( 2.4) 26( 2.5) ( 1.6) 3(.6) 14( 2.6) 17( 1.7) - 1( 1.6) 1(.7) 16( 1.4) 4(.8) 11( 2.0) 15( 1.5) 1( 1.3) - 1(.7) (11.1) 53(11.0) 59(10.9) 112(10.9) 9(12.0) 8(13.1) 17(12.5) 34( 2.9) 16( 3.3) 13( 2.4) 29( 2.8) 4( 5.3) 1( 1.6) 5( 3.7) 29( 2.5) 9( 1.9) 18( 3.3) 27( 2.6) 1( 1.3) 1( 1.6) 2( 1.5) 25( 2.2) 9( 1.9) 12( 2.2) 21( 2.1) 3( 4.0) 1( 1.6) 4( 2.9) 24( 2.1) 12( 2.5) 10( 1.8) 22( 2.2) - 2( 3.3) 2( 1.5) 17( 1.5) 7( 1.5) 6( 1.1) 13( 1.3) 1( 1.3) 3( 4.9) 4( 2.9) (11.0) 69(14.3) 49( 9.0) 118(11.5) 6( 8.0) 4( 6.6) 10( 7.4) ( 9.4) 47( 9.8) 59(10.9) 106(10.4) 2( 2.7) 1( 1.6) 3( 2.2) 60( 5.2) 32( 6.7) 26( 4.8) 58( 5.7) 2( 2.7) - 2( 1.5) 49( 4.2) 15( 3.1) 33( 6.1) 48( 4.7) - 1( 1.6) 1(.7) 6. 62( 5.3) 26( 5.4) 30( 5.5) 56( 5.5) 4( 5.3) 2( 3.3) 6( 4.4) 35( 3.0) 15( 3.1) 17( 3.1) 32( 3.1) 2( 2.7) 1( 1.6) 3( 2.2) 27( 2.3) 11( 2.3) 13( 2.4) 24( 2.3) 2( 2.7) 1( 1.6) 3( 2.2) 7. 62( 5.3) 26( 5.4) 24( 4.4) 50( 4.9) 8(10.7) 4( 6.6) 12( 8.8) 30( 2.6) 10( 2.1) 14( 2.6) 24( 2.3) 3( 4.0) 3( 4.9) 6( 4.4) 18( 1.6) 9( 1.9) 6( 1.1) 15( 1.5) 3( 4.0) - 3( 2.2) 14( 1.2) 7( 1.5) 4(.7) 11( 1.1) 2( 2.7) 1( 1.6) 3( 2.2) 8. 26( 2.2) 11( 2.3) 14( 2.6) 25( 2.4) 1( 1.3) - 1(.7) 9. 35( 3.0) 15( 3.1) 12( 2.2) 27( 2.6) 4( 5.3) 4( 6.6) 8( 5.9) 11(.9) 4(.8) 5(.9) 9(.9) 1( 1.3) 1( 1.6) 2( 1.5) 8(.7) 5( 1.0) 1(.2) 6(.6) 1( 1.3) 1( 1.6) 2( 1.5) 8(.7) 2(.4) 5(.9) 7(.7) 1( 1.3) - 1(.7) 8(.7) 4(.8) 1(.2) 5(.5) 1( 1.3) 2( 3.3) 3( 2.2) 1159(100.0) 481(100.0) 542(100.0) 1023(100.0) 75(100.0) 61(100.0) 136(100.0)

19 ,.,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,.,. (11.5%), (7.4%),. (14.3%). 15., (28.6%),, 20%., 14%,,,,.,,,,..,,..,,,,,,,,.,,,.,,. 16., (31.4%) 10 3, (26.4%).,, 10%

20 (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (28.6) 117(26.4) 162(30.5) 279(28.6) 23(30.3) 16(25.8) 39(28.3) 113(10.2) 35( 7.9) 60(11.3) 95( 9.8) 8(10.5) 10(16.1) 18(13.0) 84( 7.6) 32( 7.2) 41( 7.7) 73( 7.5) 8(10.5) 3( 4.8) 11( 8.0) 33( 3.0) 11( 2.5) 18( 3.4) 29( 3.0) 2( 2.6) 2( 3.2) 4( 2.9) 32( 2.9) 14( 3.2) 18( 3.4) 32( 3.3) ( 2.8) 18( 4.1) 11( 2.1) 29( 3.0) 2( 2.6) - 2( 1.4) 25( 2.2) 7( 1.6) 14( 2.6) 21( 2.2) 3( 3.9) 1( 1.6) 4( 2.9) (22.8) 111(25.1) 113(21.3) 224(23.0) 17(22.4) 12(19.4) 29(21.0) 231(20.8) 102(23.0) 103(19.4) 205(21.0) 16(21.1) 10(16.1) 26(18.8) 12( 1.1) 6( 1.4) 4(.8) 10( 1.0) 1( 1.3) 1( 1.6) 2( 1.4) 10(.9) 3(.7) 6( 1.1) 9(.9) - 1( 1.6) 1(.7) (14.1) 84(19.0) 55(10.4) 139(14.3) 9(11.8) 9(14.5) 18(13.0) 66( 5.9) 31( 7.0) 29( 5.5) 60( 6.2) 3( 3.9) 3( 4.8) 6( 4.3) 45( 4.0) 31( 7.0) 8( 1.5) 39( 4.0) 3( 3.9) 3( 4.8) 6( 4.3) 21( 1.9) 9( 2.0) 9( 1.7) 18( 1.8) 1( 1.3) 2( 3.2) 3( 2.2) 16( 1.4) 12( 2.7) 2(.4) 14( 1.4) 2( 2.6) - 2( 1.4) 9(.8) 1(.2) 7( 1.3) 8(.8) - 1( 1.6) 1(.7) (14.0) 44( 9.9) 94(17.7) 138(14.2) 7( 9.2) 11(17.7) 18(13.0) 69( 6.2) 18( 4.1) 44( 8.3) 62( 6.4) 3( 3.9) 4( 6.5) 7( 5.1) 28( 2.5) 10( 2.3) 15( 2.8) 25( 2.6) 1( 1.3) 2( 3.2) 3( 2.2) 27( 2.4) 7( 1.6) 14( 2.6) 21( 2.2) 2( 2.6) 4( 6.5) 6( 4.3) 26( 2.3) 9( 2.0) 16( 3.0) 25( 2.6) - 1( 1.6) 1(.7) 6(.5) - 5(.9) 5(.5) 1( 1.3) - 1(.7) 5. 91( 8.2) 37( 8.4) 40( 7.5) 77( 7.9) 8(10.5) 6( 9.7) 14(10.1) 50( 4.5) 17( 3.8) 26( 4.9) 43( 4.4) 4( 5.3) 3( 4.8) 7( 5.1) 28( 2.5) 12( 2.7) 11( 2.1) 23( 2.4) 3( 3.9) 2( 3.2) 5( 3.6) 13( 1.2) 8( 1.8) 3(.6) 11( 1.1) 1( 1.3) 1( 1.6) 2( 1.4) 6. 61( 5.5) 16( 3.6) 39( 7.3) 55( 5.6) 3( 3.9) 3( 4.8) 6( 4.3) 34( 3.1) 6( 1.4) 24( 4.5) 30( 3.1) 1( 1.3) 3( 4.8) 4( 2.9) 12( 1.1) 3(.7) 8( 1.5) 11( 1.1) 1( 1.3) - 1(.7) 10(.9) 4(.9) 5(.9) 9(.9) 1( 1.3) - 1(.7) 5(.4) 3(.7) 2(.4) 5(.5) ( 3.2) 17( 3.8) 12( 2.3) 29( 3.0) 5( 6.6) 2( 3.2) 7( 5.1) 8. 35( 3.1) 15( 3.4) 14( 2.6) 29( 3.0) 3( 3.9) 3( 4.8) 6( 4.3) 15( 1.3) 5( 1.1) 7( 1.3) 12( 1.2) 1( 1.3) 2( 3.2) 3( 2.2) 10(.9) 4(.9) 3(.6) 7(.7) 2( 2.6) 1( 1.6) 3( 2.2) 10(.9) 6( 1.4) 4(.8) 10( 1.0) (.4) 2(.5) 2(.4) 4(.4) 1( 1.3) - 1(.7) 3(.3) 2(.5) 1(.2) 3(.3) (.2) - 1(.2) 1(.1) 1( 1.3) - 1(.7) 1112(100.0) 443(100.0) 531(100.0) 974(100.0) 76(100.0) 62(100.0) 138(100.0)

21 (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (31.4) 150(31.7) 170(31.8) 320(31.8) 21(26.9) 18(30.0) 39(28.3) 160(14.0) 67(14.2) 78(14.6) 145(14.4) 9(11.5) 6(10.0) 15(10.9) 54( 4.7) 22( 4.7) 27( 5.1) 49( 4.9) 3( 3.8) 2( 3.3) 5( 3.6) 47( 4.1) 16( 3.4) 27( 5.1) 43( 4.3) - 4( 6.7) 4( 2.9) 44( 3.8) 18( 3.8) 17( 3.2) 35( 3.5) 4( 5.1) 5( 8.3) 9( 6.5) 37( 3.2) 17( 3.6) 16( 3.0) 33( 3.3) 3( 3.8) 1( 1.7) 4( 2.9) 17( 1.5) 10( 2.1) 5(.9) 15( 1.5) 2( 2.6) - 2( 1.4) (26.4) 139(29.4) 130(24.3) 269(26.7) 19(24.4) 14(23.3) 33(23.9) 107( 9.3) 41( 8.7) 45( 8.4) 86( 8.5) 13(16.7) 8(13.3) 21(15.2) 57( 5.0) 28( 5.9) 25( 4.7) 53( 5.3) 3( 3.8) 1( 1.7) 4( 2.9) 56( 4.9) 25( 5.3) 30( 5.6) 55( 5.5) - 1( 1.7) 1(.7) 49( 4.3) 28( 5.9) 17( 3.2) 45( 4.5) 2( 2.6) 2( 3.3) 4( 2.9) 18( 1.6) 7( 1.5) 8( 1.5) 15( 1.5) 1( 1.3) 2( 3.3) 3( 2.2) 15( 1.3) 10( 2.1) 5(.9) 15( 1.5) (13.4) 56(11.8) 84(15.7) 140(13.9) 10(12.8) 4( 6.7) 14(10.1) 73( 6.4) 28( 5.9) 41( 7.7) 69( 6.9) 3( 3.8) 1( 1.7) 4( 2.9) 37( 3.2) 11( 2.3) 20( 3.7) 31( 3.1) 5( 6.4) 1( 1.7) 6( 4.3) 26( 2.3) 10( 2.1) 13( 2.4) 23( 2.3) 1( 1.3) 2( 3.3) 3( 2.2) 18( 1.6) 7( 1.5) 10( 1.9) 17( 1.7) 1( 1.3) - 1(.7) (10.5) 42( 8.9) 51( 9.6) 93( 9.2) 16(20.5) 11(18.3) 27(19.6) 49( 4.3) 17( 3.6) 20( 3.7) 37( 3.7) 8(10.3) 4( 6.7) 12( 8.7) 37( 3.2) 13( 2.7) 17( 3.2) 30( 3.0) 3( 3.8) 4( 6.7) 7( 5.1) 21( 1.8) 6( 1.3) 8( 1.5) 14( 1.4) 4( 5.1) 3( 5.0) 7( 5.1) 13( 1.1) 6( 1.3) 6( 1.1) 12( 1.2) 1( 1.3) - 1(.7) (10.1) 58(12.3) 50( 9.4) 108(10.7) 6( 7.7) 2( 3.3) 8( 5.8) 36( 3.1) 19( 4.0) 17( 3.2) 36( 3.6) ( 2.7) 17( 3.6) 9( 1.7) 26( 2.6) 4( 5.1) 1( 1.7) 5( 3.6) 20( 1.7) 11( 2.3) 7( 1.3) 18( 1.8) 1( 1.3) 1( 1.7) 2( 1.4) 15( 1.3) 6( 1.3) 8( 1.5) 14( 1.4) 1( 1.3) - 1(.7) 14( 1.2) 5( 1.1) 9( 1.7) 14( 1.4) ( 6.6) 20( 4.2) 44( 8.2) 64( 6.4) 4( 5.1) 8(13.3) 12( 8.7) 47( 4.1) 12( 2.5) 28( 5.2) 40( 4.0) 2( 2.6) 5( 8.3) 7( 5.1) 19( 1.7) 6( 1.3) 10( 1.9) 16( 1.6) 2( 2.6) 1( 1.7) 3( 2.2) 10(.9) 2(.4) 6( 1.1) 8(.8) - 2( 3.3) 2( 1.4) 7. 18( 1.6) 8( 1.7) 5(.9) 13( 1.3) 2( 2.6) 3( 5.0) 5( 3.6) 9(.8) 3(.6) 2(.4) 5(.5) 1( 1.3) 3( 5.0) 4( 2.9) 6(.5) 3(.6) 2(.4) 5(.5) 1( 1.3) - 1(.7) 3(.3) 2(.4) 1(.2) 3(.3) (100.0) 473(100.0) 534(100.0) 1007(100.0) 78(100.0) 60(100.0) 138(100.0)

22 ,.,,,.,.,,.,,.,.,,,,.,,,.. ( 3 ). ( 4 ), ( 5 ), ( 6 ) ( 7 ).,,,.,.... ( 10 ),,,, ( 8 )., (2005)..,, ( 8 )

23 .,.,,, ( 11 ), ( 12 ).,.. (2007).,. ( 14 ), ( 15 ), ( 16 ). 10 3,. (Yi & Nauck, 2006). (,,,, 2014).. 16, (31.4%), (10.5%), (6.6%). 2 1.,.,,..,.. (2004) (,,, ).,. ( 12 ).

24 ( 1 ).,..,,,,,,,, ( 15 )... (2015). (2002),.,. (,,, 2009, 2011;,,, 2009), (,,,, 2014;,,,, 2014;,,,, 2015).,.. (Georgas, Berry, Vijver, Kagitcibasi & Poortinga, 2006).. (Kim, Yang & Hwang, 2006)..., 1,258, 1, ,., ( 14, 15, 16 )

25 ,.,.,,..,., ,. 2009, ,.,.,,...,,,,,.,.,.....

26 ,,.,..,.. (,,,, 2014;,,,, 2014), (,,, 2011;,,, 2009)..,.,,, (Ahn, Park & Kim, 2013; Han, Park & Kim, 2010).,,, (2009),,.,,, (2011). 50,.,,.,. ( 14 )..,,,,,.,, ,

27 (, 2011).. 1..,.,. (, 2008), (,,,,, 2009).,, (2013),,..,.., , ( 14 ).., ,,..,.,,,,

28 ,.,,,, (2011).. (3), , (1999)., :,,,. (1), ,,,, (2009).,,. (1), (2009). :. (1), (1997)..,,,. :.., (2006). :. (3), , (2008).,. (4), , (2009).,, :? (1), , (2011). :,. (1), ,, (2009).. (2), ,, (2011). :,,,. (4), ,,, (2014). :. (10), ,,, (2014). :. (3), ,, (2009). :. (3), , (2014). :,,. (4), ,,, (2015).

29 . (3), ,,, (2015).. (2), (2008).,. (4), (2010).. :. (2000). :,. (2), 1 42., (2002).. (2), (2005).. (4), ,,, (2013). :. (1), (2004).., (1996). : -., (2007).. (2), (2009).. (2), (2011) :. Ahn, J. Y., Park, Y. S., & Kim, U. (2012). Conception of taking care of elderly parents among elementary school, middle school, high school and university students. Paper presented at the International Conference of AAICP, p. 4. December, Malaysia. Ahn, J. Y., Park, Y. S., & Kim, U. (2013). Indigenous psychological analysis of taking care of elderly parents among Koreans. Paper presented at the International Conference of AAICP, p August, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Bandura, A. (1995). Manual for the construction of self-efficacy scales. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, Stanford University, USA. Georgas, J., Berry, J. W., van de Vijver, F. J. R., Kagitcibasi, C., & Poortinga, Y. H. (2006). Families across cultures: A 30-nation psychological study. Cambridge University Press. Han, K. H., Park, Y. S., & Kim, U. (2010). Taking care of elderly parents. Paper presented at the International Conference of AAICP. p July Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Kim, U., & Park, Y. S. (2000). Confucianism and family values: Their impact of educational achievement in Korea. Freie Universitat Berlin, Institut fur Allgemeine Padagogik. Zeitschrift fur Erziehungs-wissenschaft, 3(2), Kim, U., Yang, K. S., & Hwang, K. K. (2006), Indigenous and cultural psychology: Understanding

30 people in context. New York: Springer. Lee, S. M., Park, Y. S., & Kim, U. (2011). Taking care of elderly parents: Comparison of the perception between working women and housewives. Paper presented at the International Conference of AASP. p. 30. July Kunming, China. Lee, S. M., Park, Y. S., Kim, U., & Song, O. R. (2014). The perception of taking care of elderly parents among Korean high school students. Paper presented at the International Conference of AAICP, p January, Surakarta, Indonesia. Yi, C. & Nauck, B. (2006). Gender, marriage and family support in East Asian families. Current sociology, 54(2), Monograph 1. Sage publications. : : :

31 Adults perception of elderly parents care and related variables in family structures Young-Shin Park Jung-Hee Kim Sung-Sook Jeon Inha University, Dept. of Education The purpose of this research is to investigate adult s perception of elderly parents care and differences of related variables between family structures. There were 1,258 participants(age 45; male=601, female=657; 1,111=nuclear, 147=extended). The measures yielded Cronbach α=.67.95, inter-judger reliability= 95.1%, Kappa=.95. The results showed that, first, there were no significant differences between two family structures in terms of SES excepting academic career. Second, there were significant differences between two family structures in family relation, psychological characteristics. That is, adults in the extended family, versus those in the nuclear family, provide greater emotional support to children, sacrificed more towards children, and have greater expectations for children supporting them when they retire. Also, adults in the extended family displayed greater self-efficacy and happiness. Third, there were significant differences between two family structures in caring for elderly parents. Adults in the extended family apportioned a greater parent's allowance, and more number of meals with parents, and spent more time talking with parents, and displayed greater degree of filial piety and more caring behavior towards parents. Fourth, as for the perception of caring for elderly parents according to family structure, when adults were asked about the best way to care for parents, the most frequent response was providing a peace-of-mind for parents. As for the most difficult aspect of caring for parents, differences in opinions followed by financial difficulty were the most. As for the best aspects of caring for parents, the most frequent responses were good for children's upbringing and family harmony. Based on the results, suggestions for further research have been discussed. Key words : Family structure, nuclear family, extended family, perception of elderly parents care, behavior of elderly parent care.

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