Original Article Fam. Environ. Res. Vol.52, No.4, August 2014: ISSN (Print) ISSN X(Onl

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1 Original Article Fam. Environ. Res. Vol.52, No.4, August 2014: ISSN (Print) ISSN X(Online) 초등학생의자아존중감이학교생활적응에미치는영향 : 또래애착의매개효과를중심으로 권혜진 1 성미영 2 1 나사렛대학교아동학과 2 서경대학교아동학과 The Effects of Children s Self-Esteem on Their School Adjustment: Focusing on the Mediation of Peer Attachment Hye Jin Kwon 1 Mi Young Sung 2 1 Department of Child Studies, Nazarene University, Cheonan; 2 Department of Child Studies, Seokyeong University, Seoul, Korea Family and Environment Research Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of children s self-esteem on their school adjustment, focusing on the mediation of peer attachment. A total of 2,200 3rd grade children from the third Korea Child- Adolescent Panel Survey participated in this study. The instruments used in this study were the Self-esteem Scale, Peer Attachment Scale, and School Adjustment Scale. The collected data were analyzed by using a Student s t-test, Pearson s partial correlation, simple regression, and hierarchical multiple regression with SPSS ver software. The main results of this study are as follows: first, the boys had higher self-esteem, peer attachment, and school adjustment scores than the girls. Second, there was a significant positive correlation between children s self-esteem and peer attachment as well as a significant positive correlation between children s self-esteem and school adjustment. Further, there was a significant positive correlation between children s peer attachment and school adjustment. Finally, children s self-esteem exerted positive effects on their peer attachment, and children s peer attachment had a positive influence on their school adjustment. The effect of children s self-esteem on their school adjustment was partially mediated by their peer attachment. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the relationships between children s self-esteem and school adjustment may be mediated by their peer attachment. Keywords school adjustment, self-esteem, peer attachment Received: December 24, 2013 Revised: February 5, 2014 Accepted: February 21, 2014 This article was presented as an oral session at the Korea Child-Adolescent Panel Survey Symposium in Corresponding Author: Mi Young Sung Department of Child Studies, Seokyeong University, 124 Seokyeong-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul , Korea Tel: Fax: 서론 초등학교입학은아동기의가장중요하고의미있는생활사건이다. 유치원과어린이집의교육과정과생활과는질적으로다른세계인초등학교에서의적응은아동기의중요한발달과업중하나라고할수있다. 가정에서학교로생활무대의중심이이전되면서학교는아동기의가장중요한사회화의장이된다. 아동의초등학교생활적응은아동기뿐만아니라이후청소년기의학교적응, 청년기와성인기의사회적적응, 직업적적응의토대가된다 [2, 19, 28]. 아동기의학교생활부적응은중 고등학교생활뿐만아니라이후성인기의부적응으로까지이어질수있음이밝혀짐에따라아동기와청소년기의학교적응의중요성이근래에와서더욱부각되고있다. 학교에서얼마나잘적응하느냐는그들의개인적인발달뿐만아니라건강한사회구성원으로성장할수있는관건이될수있다. Copyright 2014 by the Korean Home Economics Association 395

2 권혜진 성미영 적응은인간이일상생활의요구나도전에대처하는심리적과정과결과 [34] 이므로, 학교생활적응이란학생이학교생활에서발생하는요구와도전에적절하게대처하는심리적과정및결과라고할수있다. 학교생활적응은아동과청소년이학교환경의요구에따라자신을변화시키기도하고개인의욕구충족을위해환경을변화시키기도하는적극적과정이다. 이러한과정속에서학교환경과개인사이에균형이이루어지고 [18], 학교생활참여를편안하게느끼고성공적으로참여한다면적응에성공했다고볼수있다 [19]. 최근연구들은학교생활적응과관련하여학업적응이외의다양한측면을고려하려는경향을보이고있는데학업성취와함께교사관계, 학교규칙준수, 또래관계, 학교생활과환경에대한긍정적태도 [5, 23] 등을함께살펴봄으로써학교생활적응의구성개념을폭넓게다루고있다. 본연구에서활용하는한국아동 청소년패널조사 2010의 3차년도데이터에서의학교생활적응은학습활동적응, 학교규칙적응, 교우관계적응, 교사관계적응으로구분하여살펴보고있어학교생활적응의다양한측면을고려하는최근의연구경향과부합한다. 아동기의학교생활적응이안정적특성을나타내는것으로알려지면서초등학생의학교생활적응에대한연구가활발해지고있다 [12, 20, 22, 27]. 특히본연구에서연구대상으로선정한초등학교 3학년시기는유아교육과정과의연계차원에서통합교과로운영되었던초등학교 1, 2학년교육과정에서벗어나서개별학습과목별교과과정으로운영되는시기에해당하며, 영어교육이정식교과에포함되어있어학업에대한부담이증가되고학업성취가가시화되는시기이다. 이처럼학업에대한부담이증가되고학업성취가가시화됨에따라이시기초등학생은학교생활에적응하는데어려움을보일가능성이크다. 초등학교 3학년은학교학습과사회생활에필요한최소한의기초학력이형성되는시점이며, 동시에기초학력의부재로인한학습결손의누적효과가비교적크게발생하는시점 [21] 이란점에서 2002년부터매해초등학교 3학년을대상으로국가수준기초학력진단평가를시행하고있다 [14]. 이러한진단평가결과로인해아동은자신의평가결과와또래의평가결과를비교하게되고이로인해교우관계나교사와의관계에서어려움을경험하게될수있어학교생활적응에어려움이발생할가능성이높아진다. 따라서본연구에서는초등학교 3학년아동의학교생활적응에초점을두고관련변인을탐색하고자한다. 이제까지국내외에서진행되어온학교생활적응에대한연구들은크게아동의개인변인 ( 성, 연령, 학업성적, 자아개념등 ) 과환경변인 ( 가족구조, 가족기능, 부모자녀의사소통, 부모양육태도, 어머니의취업여부, 부모연령, 교육수준, 가정소득등 ) 이학교생 활적응과어떠한관계가있는지를살펴보는연구들이었다 [20]. 아동이성장함에따라부모의영향력보다는가정외부의영향력이더강해져서학교생활적응에환경변인보다는아동의개인변인의영향이더강한것으로나타났고, 그중에서도개인의내적요인인자아존중감이학교생활적응에중요한변인 [16, 24, 27, 37] 으로보고되었다. 자아존중감은자기자신을가치있고긍정적인존재로평가하는개념이다. 이것은목표를성취하거나과제를성공적으로완수함으로써형성된다. 자신의가치와능력을긍정적으로평가한다면자아존중감이높다고할수있다 [17]. 특히학령기는근면성을획득하는시기로근면성획득을통해아동은학교에서학업과제를수행하고또래및교사와원만한관계를이루어나간다. 이시기의아동은자신의일을잘해내려고노력하며이때성공적인경험을하게되면근면성이발달하여유능감을경험하게되지만, 반대로실패를경험할경우에는열등감을초래하여자신을쓸모없는사람으로여기게되므로자아존중감의발달역시학령기의매우중요한발달과업이다. 자아존중감은개인의삶에전반적인영향을미치는자기의총체적인측면 [32] 이며상대적으로안정적변인이다. 자아존중감은학교생활적응에서중요할뿐만아니라 [13, 27, 31], 성인이되었을때사회에잘적응하는데도영향을미치는것으로나타나서자아존중감은개인적응력의중요한개인심리적변인 [6, 33] 이며, 긍정적인자기평가와심리적적응은관련성이있는것으로나타났다 [7]. 이러한선행연구결과에근거하여초등학교 3학년아동의자아존중감은학교생활적응에영향을줄것으로예측할수있다. 학령기아동의자아존중감수준은유아기에비해조금더낮아지는것으로보고되고있다 [10]. 초등학교환경에서는또래와여러가지활동을함께하게됨에따라명백한비교평가를계속경험하게되므로아동에게계획적이고보편적인사회적비교가중요해진다 [30]. 학령기아동은자신을다른아동들과비교하거나자신이소속된사회적집단에따라정의하기시작한다 [8]. 이에따라아동은자신이할수있는것이나할수없는것에대해이야기하기보다는다른사람과비교해볼때자신이더잘할수있는것또는더잘하지못하는것에대해생각하는경향이증가한다. 초등학생이소속된대표적인사회적집단은학교이며특히학교에서동년배또래와의비교를통해자아존중감이발달한다. 따라서학령기아동의자아존중감은또래관계와의관련성속에서탐색될필요가있다. 자아존중감은자신에대한정신적표상이나조직화된기대에해당되므로개인의애착체계와높은상관을가진요인 [11] 이라는점에서자아존중감과또래애착과의관련성을살펴볼필요가있다. 특히본연구의대상인초등학교 3학년시기는 396 Vol.52, No.4, August 2014:

3 초등학생의자아존중감이학교생활적응에미치는영향 : 또래애착의매개효과를중심으로 학업성취결과가진단평가등의방식으로가시화되는시점이어서아동의자아존중감의변화가나타날것으로예측되며, 이와함께자아존중감이또래애착에영향을미치는지탐색해보고자한다. 아동이성장하면서최초의애착대상인부모로부터자신의가족체계외부의개인들과밀접한유대를발달시켜나가게되고, 아동의개인적관계망에서또래는점점더핵심적역할을담당하게된다. 또래는애착대상으로서사회적, 정서적지지의영향력을행사하는자원이며 [36], 부적응상황에서보호적기능을할수있다 [4]. 또래와의관계의질은안전기지의발달에영향을주어또래를인적지지의원천으로느끼고그들과어려움을공유할수있기때문에보호적기능을하는것으로볼수있다 [26]. 또한또래와안정적애착관계를형성한경우타인과긍정적상호작용을하고사회적유능성을발휘하는능력을보였다 [9]. 이러한선행연구에근거해볼때또래애착은학교환경에서발생하는아동의적응문제에보호적기능을할것으로예측해볼수있다. 이상에서살펴본선행연구결과에의하면아동의자아존중감은또래애착에영향을미치고학교생활적응에도영향을미칠것으로가정된다. 아동의자아존중감과학교생활적응 [5, 7, 33], 그리고또래애착과학교생활적응 [4, 9, 15, 35, 36] 의관련성에관한연구결과를토대로할때, 아동이자신을가치있고긍정적인존재로평가할경우또래와도안정적인애착을형성할것이며이는학교생활적응에도영향을미칠것이다. 따라서또래애착은학교환경에서아동이보다긍정적으로적응하는데있어안전기지역할을담당함으로써아동의개인내적변인인자아존중감이학교생활적응에미치는영향을매개할것으로예측된다. 이처럼아동의자아존중감이학교생활적응과관련이있으며 [5, 7, 33], 또래애착이학교생활적응과관련이있다는연구 [4, 9, 35, 36] 를통해볼때, 자아존중감이높을수록또래애착에정적영향력을미침과동시에학교생활적응에도정적영향력을미칠것으로예측되고, 다른아동에비해또래애착이높은아동은상대적으로학교생활에잘적응할것으로예측된다. 즉, 자아존중감이높은아동이또래애착이높을것이고궁극적으로학교생활에잘적응할것이다. 아동의자아존중감이학교생활적응과관련되어있다는선행연구결과에근거하여이연구에서는아동의자아존중감과학교생활적응과의관계에서또래애착이매개역할을담당하는지확인하고자하였다. 본연구에서는개인내적특성인자아존중감이학교생활적응에미치는영향과함께아동의자아존중감이관계적요인인또래애착에영향을미치는지탐색해보고자한다. 또한자아존중감이학교생활적응에영향을미치는과정에서관계적요인인또래애착 이어떠한역할을하는지도알아보고자한다. 이상에서살펴본바와같이아동의자아존중감과또래애착, 학교생활적응의관계등에관한선행연구에근거해볼때아동의또래애착은아동의자아존중감과학교적응과의관계를매개할것으로가정해볼수있다. 즉아동의자아존중감은또래애착에영향을미치고자아존중감은학교생활적응에영향을미치며또래애착은자아존중감이학교생활적응에미치는영향을매개할것으로예측된다. 따라서이연구에서는 Baron 과 Kenny [3] 의매개변인탐색을위한전략즉, 첫째, 독립변인이매개변인에유의한영향을미쳐야하며, 둘째, 독립변인이종속변인에유의한영향을미쳐야하며, 셋째, 독립변인통제시매개변인이종속변인에유의한영향을미쳐야하며, 종속변인에대한독립변인의효과가매개변인통제시사라지거나감소해야한다는조건에근거하여먼저아동의자아존중감이또래애착에미치는영향을, 다음으로자아존중감이학교생활적응에미치는영향을함께살펴본다. 이와더불어아동의자아존중감과또래애착이학교생활적응에유의한영향을미치는지살펴봄으로써아동의학교생활적응에대한자아존중감의영향력이또래애착에의해매개되는지를살펴보고자하였다. 이를확인하기위해다음과같이연구문제를선정하였다. 연구문제 1. 아동의자아존중감은또래애착에유의한영향을미치는가? 연구문제 2. 아동의자아존중감은학교생활적응에유의한영향을미치는가? 연구문제 3. 아동의학교생활적응에미치는자아존중감의영향은또래애착통제시유의한가? 연구방법 1. 연구대상이연구에서는한국청소년정책연구원이종단연구를목적으로전국의아동과청소년을모집단으로하여조사한한국아동 청소년패널조사 2010의 3차년도자료중초등학교 3학년아동의자료를사용하였다. 2,200명의초등학교 3학년학생중남학생이 1,134명 (51.5%), 여학생이 1,066명 (48.5%) 이었다. 2. 연구도구 1) 자아존중감한국아동 청소년패널조사 2010의 3차년도자료중자아존중 Vol.52, No.4, August 2014:

4 권혜진 성미영 감과관련된 5문항 ( 예, 나는나에게만족한다 ) 을분석에사용하였는데, 이는 Rosenberg [29] 의자아존중감척도를번안하여고려대학교부설행동과학연구소에서사용한척도이다. 각문항은 전혀그렇지않다 를 4점, 매우그렇다 를 1점으로하는 4점 Likert형척도이며, 역문항은코딩변경하여점수가낮을수록자아존중감수준이높은것을의미한다. 자아존중감척도의신뢰도는 a=.732로양호하였다. 2) 또래애착한국아동 청소년패널조사 2010의 3차년도자료중또래애착과관련된 6문항을분석에사용하였는데, 이는 Armsden과 Greenberg [1] 가제작한애착척도 (Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, IPPA) 총 25문항중하위영역별로중복되는문항을제외하고의사소통 ( 예, 내친구들은내가말하는것에귀를기울인다 ), 신뢰 ( 예, 내친구들은나를잘이해해준다 ), 소외 ( 예, 나는친구들과함께있어도외롭고혼자라는느낌이든다 ) 의하위영역별 2개씩 6개문항으로구성한척도이다. 각문항은 전혀그렇지않다 를 4점, 매우그렇다 를 1점으로하는 4점 Likert형척도이며, 역문항은코딩변경하여점수가낮을수록또래애착수준이높은것을의미한다. 또래애착척도의신뢰도는 a=.751로양호하였다. 3) 학교생활적응한국아동 청소년패널조사 2010의 3차년도자료중학교생활적응과관련된 20문항을분석에사용하였는데, 이는 Min [25] 이초등학생용으로제작한학교생활적응척도의문항을수정 보완한척도이다. 학교생활적응의하위영역은학습활동 ( 예, 학교수업시간이재미있다 ), 학교규칙 ( 예, 학교물건을내것처럼소중히사용한다 ), 교우관계 ( 예, 우리반아이들과잘어울린다 ), 교사관계 ( 선생님을만나면반갑게인사한다 ) 로구분되며, 각하위영역은 5 문항으로구성되었다. 각문항은 전혀그렇지않다 를 4점, 매우그렇다 를 1점으로하는 4점 Likert형척도이며, 역문항을코딩변경하여점수가낮을수록학교생활적응수준이높은것을의미한다. 학교생활적응척도의신뢰도는 a=.872로양호하였다. 3. 분석방법수집된자료는 SPSS ver (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) 프로그램을이용하여분석하였으며, 통계방법으로는빈도, 백분율, Pearson의적률상관계수, 단순회귀분석, 위계적중다회귀분석이사용되었다. Table 1. Differences among Self-esteem, Peer Attachment, and School Adjustment according to Sex Variable Boys Girls M (SD) t Self-esteem 8.77 (2.74) 8.20 (2.63) *** Peer attachment (3.14) (3.03) *** School adjustment (7.66) (6.16) *** *** p<.001. 연구결과및해석 1. 성별에따른아동의자아존중감, 또래애착, 학교생활적응의차이성별에따라아동의자아존중감, 또래애착, 학교생활적응에차이가있는지를살펴보기위해 t검증을실시한결과, Table 1에서와같이아동의자아존중감, 또래애착, 학교생활적응은성별에따라유의한차이가있는것으로나타났다 (t=4.937, 7.105, , p<.001). 2. 아동의자아존중감, 또래애착, 학교생활적응의관계아동의자아존중감, 또래애착, 학교생활적응의관계를살펴보기위해상관관계분석을실시한결과, Table 2에서와같이아동의자아존중감은또래애착, 학교생활적응과유의한정적관계가있는것으로나타났다 (r=.495,.507, p<.001). 또한아동의또래애착은학교생활적응과유의한정적관계가있는것으로나타났다 (r=.496, p<.001). 3. 아동의또래애착에대한자아존중감의영향아동의또래애착에대한자아존중감의영향을알아보기위해아동의자아존중감을독립변인으로, 아동의또래애착을종속변인으로하는단순회귀분석을실시하였다. 그결과, Table 3에서와같이아동의자아존중감은또래애착 (b=.495, p<.001) 에유의한정적인영향을미치며, 또래애착을 24.5% 설명하는것으로나타났다. 즉, 아동의자아존중감수준이높을수록아동의또래애착수준도높은것으로나타났다. 이러한결과는 Baron 과 Kenny [3] Table 2. Correlations among Self-esteem, Peer Attachment, and School Adjustment Variable Self-esteem Peer attachment School adjustment Self-esteem Peer attachment.495 *** - - School adjustment.507 ***.496 *** - *** p< Vol.52, No.4, August 2014:

5 초등학생의자아존중감이학교생활적응에미치는영향 : 또래애착의매개효과를중심으로 Table 3. Effects of Self-esteem on Peer Attachment and School Adjustment Independent Peer attachment School adjustment Learning activity School rules Peer relationship Relationship with teachers variable b β R 2 F b β R 2 F b β R 2 F b β R 2 F b β R 2 F b β R 2 F Constant Self-esteem *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** p<001. 의매개효과검증을위한첫번째조건즉, 독립변인이매개변인에유의한영향을미쳐야한다는조건을충족한다. 4. 아동의학교생활적응에대한자아존중감의영향아동의학교생활적응에대한자아존중감의영향을알아보기위해아동의자아존중감을독립변인으로, 아동의학교생활적응을종속변인으로하는단순회귀분석을실시하였다. 그결과, Table 3에서와같이아동의자아존중감은학교생활적응 (b=.507, p<.001) 에유의한정적영향을미치며, 학교생활적응에대한설명력은 25.7% 인것으로나타났다. 즉, 아동의자아존중감수준이높을수록아동의학교생활적응수준도높은것으로나타났다. 이러한결과는 Baron 과 Kenny [3] 의매개효과검증을위한두번째조건즉, 독립변인이종속변인에유의한영향을미쳐야한다는조건을충족한다. 학교생활적응의하위영역중학습활동에대해아동의자아존중감이미치는영향을알아보기위해아동의자아존중감을독립변인으로, 아동의학습활동을종속변인으로하는단순회귀분석을실시하였다. 그결과, Table 3에서와같이아동의자아존중감은학습활동 (b=.451, p<.001) 에유의한정적영향을미치며, 학습활동에대한설명력은 20.4% 인것으로나타났다. 즉, 아동의자아존중감수준이높을수록아동의학습활동수준도높은것으로나타났다. 이러한결과는 Baron 과 Kenny [3] 의매개효과검증을위한두번째조건즉, 독립변인이종속변인에유의한영향을미쳐야한다는조건을충족한다. 학교생활적응의하위영역중학교규칙에대해아동의자아존중감이미치는영향을알아보기위해아동의자아존중감을독립변인으로, 아동의학교규칙을종속변인으로하는단순회귀분석을실시하였다. 그결과, Table 3에서와같이아동의자아존중감은학교규칙 (b=.380, p<.01) 에유의한정적영향을미치며, 학교규칙에대한설명력은 14.5% 인것으로나타났다. 즉, 아동의자아존중감수준이높을수록아동의학교규칙수준도높은것으로나타났다. 이러한결과는 Baron과 Kenny [3] 의매개효과검증을위한두번째조건즉, 독립변인이종속변인에유의한영향을미 쳐야한다는조건을충족한다. 학교생활적응의하위영역중교우관계에대해아동의자아존중감이미치는영향을알아보기위해아동의자아존중감을독립변인으로, 아동의교우관계를종속변인으로하는단순회귀분석을실시하였다. 그결과, Table 3에서와같이아동의자아존중감은교우관계 (b=.443, p<.001) 에유의한정적영향을미치며, 교우관계에대한설명력은 19.6% 인것으로나타났다. 즉, 아동의자아존중감수준이높을수록아동의교우관계수준도높은것으로나타났다. 이러한결과는 Baron 과 Kenny [3] 의매개효과검증을위한두번째조건즉, 독립변인이종속변인에유의한영향을미쳐야한다는조건을충족한다. 학교생활적응의하위영역중교사관계에대해아동의자아존중감이미치는영향을알아보기위해아동의자아존중감을독립변인으로, 아동의교사관계를종속변인으로하는단순회귀분석을실시하였다. 그결과, Table 3에서와같이아동의자아존중감은교사관계 (b=.353, p<.001) 에유의한정적영향을미치며, 교사관계에대한설명력은 19.6% 인것으로나타났다. 즉, 아동의자아존중감수준이높을수록아동의교사관계수준도높은것으로나타났다. 이러한결과는 Baron 과 Kenny [3] 의매개효과검증을위한두번째조건즉, 독립변인이종속변인에유의한영향을미쳐야한다는조건을충족한다. 5. 아동의학교생활적응에대한자아존중감과또래애착의영향아동의자아존중감과또래애착이학교생활적응에미치는영향을알아보기위해, 아동의자아존중감과또래애착을독립변인으로, 아동의학교생활적응을종속변인으로하는위계적중다회귀분석을실시하였다. 위계적중다회귀분석을실시하기에앞서독립변인들간의다중공선성의가능성여부를파악하기위해공차한계 (tolerance) 와분산팽창요인 (variation inflation factor, VIF) 지수를살펴본결과, 학교생활적응에대한자아존중감과또래애착의공차한계는.76, VIF지수는 1.32의분포를보여독립변인간다중공선성의위험은배제된것으로볼수있다. Table 4에서보듯이, 아동의학교생활적응에대한자아존중감 Vol.52, No.4, August 2014:

6 권혜진 성미영 Table 4. Hierarchical Multiple Regression: Effects of Self-esteem and Peer Attachment on School Adjustment Independent variable School adjustment Learning activity School rules Peer relationship Relationship with teachers Step 1 Step 2 Step 1 Step 2 Step 1 Step 2 Step 1 Step 2 Step 1 Step 2 b β b β b β b β b β b β b β b β b β b β Self-esteem *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** Peer attachment *** *** *** *** *** R F *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** p<001. 과또래애착의영향을살펴보면, 1단계분석에서학교생활적응에대한자아존중감의영향은또래애착의영향력을통제한 2단계분석에서감소 (b=.506 b=.345) 한것으로나타났으며, 자아존중감을통제했을때또래애착의영향은유의한것으로나타났다 (b=.326, p<.001). 학교생활적응에대한설명력은자아존중감변인만이투입된경우 25.6% 에서또래애착변인이추가투입된경우 33.6% 로향상되었다. 이는 Baron 과 Kenny [3] 가제시한부분매개관계가이루어지기위한세번째조건즉, 독립변인통제시매개변인이종속변인에유의한영향을미쳐야하며, 종속변인에대한독립변인의효과가매개변인통제시감소해야한다는조건을충족하는결과로써, 아동의또래애착은아동의자아존중감과학교생활적응간의관계를부분매개하고있음을보여준다. Table 4에서보듯이, 아동의학습활동에대한자아존중감과또래애착의영향을살펴보면, 1단계분석에서학습활동에대한자아존중감의영향은또래애착의영향력을통제한 2단계분석에서감소 (b=.499 b=.346) 한것으로나타났으며, 자아존중감을통제했을때또래애착의영향은유의한것으로나타났다 (b=.208, p <.001). 학습활동에대한설명력은자아존중감변인만이투입된경우 20.2% 에서또래애착변인이추가투입된경우 23.4% 로향상되었다. 이는 Baron과 Kenny [3] 가제시한부분매개관계가이루어지기위한세번째조건즉, 독립변인통제시매개변인이종속변인에유의한영향을미쳐야하며, 종속변인에대한독립변인의효과가매개변인통제시감소해야한다는조건을충족하는결과로써, 아동의또래애착은아동의자아존중감과학습활동간의관계를부분매개하고있음을보여준다. Table 4에서보듯이, 아동의학교규칙에대한자아존중감과또래애착의영향을살펴보면, 1단계분석에서학교규칙에대한자아존중감의영향은또래애착의영향력을통제한 2단계분석에서감소 (b=.380 b=.296) 한것으로나타났으며, 자아존중감을통제했을때또래애착의영향은유의한것으로나타났다 (b=.169, p <.001). 학교규칙에대한설명력은자아존중감변인만이투입된경우 14.4% 에서또래애착변인이추가투입된경우 16.6% 로향상되었다. 이는 Baron과 Kenny [3] 가제시한부분매개관계가이루어지기위한세번째조건즉, 독립변인통제시매개변인이종속변인에유의한영향을미쳐야하며, 종속변인에대한독립변인의효과가매개변인통제시감소해야한다는조건을충족하는결과로써, 아동의또래애착은아동의자아존중감과학교규칙간의관계를부분매개하고있음을보여준다. Table 4에서보듯이, 아동의교우관계에대한자아존중감과또래애착의영향을살펴보면, 1단계분석에서교우관계에대한자아존중감의영향은또래애착의영향력을통제한 2단계분석에서감소 (b=.528 b=.409) 한것으로나타났으며, 자아존중감을통제했을때또래애착의영향은유의한것으로나타났다 (b=.241, p <.001). 교우관계에대한설명력은자아존중감변인만이투입된경우 27.9% 에서또래애착변인이추가투입된경우 32.3% 로향상되었다. 이는 Baron과 Kenny [3] 가제시한부분매개관계가이루어지기위한세번째조건즉, 독립변인통제시매개변인이종속변인에유의한영향을미쳐야하며, 종속변인에대한독립변인의효과가매개변인통제시감소해야한다는조건을충족하는결과로써, 아동의또래애착은아동의자아존중감과교우관계간의관계를부분매개하고있음을보여준다. Table 4에서보듯이, 아동의교사관계에대한자아존중감과또래애착의영향을살펴보면, 1단계분석에서교사관계에대한자아존중감의영향은또래애착의영향력을통제한 2단계분석에서감소 (b=.360 b=.247) 한것으로나타났으며, 자아존중감을통제했을때또래애착의영향은유의한것으로나타났다 (b=.230, p <.001). 교사관계에대한설명력은자아존중감변인만이투입된경우 13.0% 에서또래애착변인이추가투입된경우 17.0% 로향상되었다. 이는 Baron과 Kenny [3] 가제시한부분매개관계가이루어지기위한세번째조건즉, 독립변인통제시매개변인이종속변인에유의한영향을미쳐야하며, 종속변인에대한독립변 400 Vol.52, No.4, August 2014:

7 초등학생의자아존중감이학교생활적응에미치는영향 : 또래애착의매개효과를중심으로 인의효과가매개변인통제시감소해야한다는조건을충족하는결과로써, 아동의또래애착은아동의자아존중감과교사관계간의관계를부분매개하고있음을보여준다. 결론및논의 이연구에서는먼저초등학교 3학년아동의자아존중감이또래애착에미치는영향을, 다음으로자아존중감이학교생활적응에미치는영향을함께살펴보고자하였다. 이와더불어아동의학교생활적응에대한자아존중감의영향력이또래애착에의해매개되는지를살펴보고자하였다. 이를위해한국아동 청소년패널조사 2010의 3차년도자료중초등학교 3학년아동 2,200명의자료를사용하여분석한결과다음과같은결론을도출하였다. 첫째, 아동의또래애착에대한자아존중감의영향을살펴본결과, 아동의자아존중감은또래애착에정적인영향을미쳐서아동의자아존중감이높을수록아동의또래애착수준도높은것으로나타났다. 또래애착에대한자아존중감의설명력은 24.5% 로나타나서아동이자기자신을가치있고긍정적인존재로평가할수록또래와의정서적유대감에도더강한영향력을행사함을확인할수있었다. 이처럼자아존중감은자신에대한정신적표상이나조직화된기대에해당되므로개인의애착체계와높은상관을가진요인 [11] 임을이연구의결과를통해다시한번확인해볼수있다. 학령기아동은자신을다른아동들과비교하거나자신이소속된사회적집단에따라정의하기시작하므로 [8] 자기스스로자신에대해평가하기보다타인의평가에비추어자신을평가함으로써아동의자아존중감이형성된다고볼수있다. 따라서자아존중감수준이높은아동은또래와안정적인애착을형성하는경향성이더강하게나타나는것으로해석해볼수있다. 둘째, 아동의자아존중감은학교생활적응에정적영향을미쳐서아동의자아존중감수준이높을수록아동의학교생활적응수준이높은것으로나타났고, 아동의학교생활적응에대한자아존중감의설명력은 25.7% 였다. 아동의자아존중감은학교생활적응의하위영역에도정적영향을미쳐자아존중감수준이높을수록아동의학습활동, 학교규칙, 교우관계, 교사관계수준이높은것으로나타났고, 아동의학습활동, 학교규칙, 교우관계, 교사관계에대한자아존중감의설명력은각각 20.4%, 14.5%, 19.6%, 12.5% 로나타났다. 이러한결과는개인의내적요인인자아존중감이학교생활적응에중요한변인 [16, 24, 27, 37] 이라는선행연구의결과를지지 한다. 자아존중감은개인의적응력에있어중요한심리적변인이자개인의삶에전반적인영향을미치는자기의총체적인측면에해당하고, 학교생활적응에서뿐만아니라이후의사회적응에있어서도중요한요인이라는점을고려해볼때자아존중감수준이낮은아동의경우자아존중감향상프로그램에참여하도록함으로써이들의자아존중감수준을향상시켜줄필요성이제기된다. 셋째, 아동의또래애착은자아존중감과학교생활적응간의관계에서매개변인으로서의역할을담당하여아동의학교생활적응에대한자아존중감의영향은아동의또래애착에의해부분적으로매개되는것으로나타났다. 이는아동의자아존중감이또래애착에영향을미치고학교생활적응에영향을미치며, 학교생활적응에대한자아존중감의영향력이또래애착의영향으로인해완전히사라진것이아니라자아존중감의영향력이감소하여여전히학교생활적응에영향을미치고있음을의미한다. 자아존중감과학교생활적응의하위영역간의관계에서도매개변인으로서의역할을담당하는것으로나타나서자아존중감과학습활동, 자아존중감과학교규칙, 자아존중감과교우관계, 자아존중감과교사관계간의관계에서매개변인으로서의역할을담당하였다. 그결과아동의학교생활적응의하위영역에대한자아존중감의영향은또래애착에의해부분적으로매개되는것으로나타났다. 이러한결과는또래와안정적애착관계를형성한아동의경우타인과긍정적으로상호작용하고사회적유능성을발휘한다 [9] 는선행연구결과와일맥상통한다. 애착대상으로서또래가사회적, 정서적지지의영향력을행사하는자원 [36] 이고, 부적응상황에서보호적기능 [4] 을할수있다는점을고려해볼때또래와의안정적인정서적유대감은아동의학교생활적응에서보호적기능을담당하는것으로해석해볼수있다. 또한이연구의결과는또래애착이학교환경에서아동이보다긍정적으로적응하는데있어안전기지역할을담당하고있음을보여준다. 아동은먼저부모와애착을형성한이후자신의가족체계외부의개인과밀접한유대를발달시켜나가게되는데, 가족체계외부의개인중아동에게중요한개인은바로또래이다. 또래와얼마나안정적이고원만한관계를형성하는지, 그리고이에근거하여안정된애착관계를형성하는지는초등학교저학년아동의학교생활적응에있어안전기지역할을담당한다는점을이연구의결과를통해확인할수있다. 초등학교저학년아동이또래를자신의중요한사회적지지원으로인식하고자신의어려움을또래와공유할수있다면이들의학교생활은보다안정적일것으로예측된다. 결론적으로, 아동은자신을가치있고긍정적인존재로평가하고, 이러한자기평가에근거하여학습활동에적극적으로참여하 Vol.52, No.4, August 2014:

8 권혜진 성미영 고, 학교규칙을준수하며, 또래및교사와원만한관계를유지하게된다. 이러한과정이지속적으로반복됨으로써아동의자아존중감이학교생활적응에영향을미친다고볼수있다. 그리고아동의자아존중감과학교생활적응간의관계를또래애착이부분적으로매개하여영향력을행사하는것으로판단된다. 끝으로본연구의제한점을살펴보고이를근거로후속연구를위한다음과같은제언을할수있다. 먼저, 본연구에서는초등학교 3학년아동을대상으로이들의학교생활적응에영향을미치는개인내적변인인자아존중감에만초점을두었으나, 초등학생의학교생활적응에영향을미치는요인으로학습습관과같은학업성취와관련된변인의영향력도무시할수없을것으로판단된다. 따라서후속연구에서는초등학생의학교생활적응에영향을미치는요인으로학업성취와관련된변인을투입하여그영향력을살펴볼필요성이제기된다. 다음으로, 적응의문제는특히전이기에있는아동이가장어려움을겪는문제중하나이므로후속연구에서는연구대상을초등학교 1학년, 중학교 1학년과같이학교전이기에있는아동으로선정하여학교전이기아동의학교생활적응에대해살펴볼필요가있다. 이러한제한점에도불구하고선행연구들이주로아동의자아존중감과학교생활적응, 또래애착과학교생활적응에만초점을두었다는점을보다확장하여초등학교 3학년아동의학교생활적응에영향을미치는개인내적요인으로자아존중감을, 외부환경요인으로는또래애착을선정하고, 자아존중감과학교생활적응간의관계에서또래애착이담당하는매개적역할을규명하고자시도하였다는점에서이연구의의의를찾을수있다. 이처럼아동의자아존중감, 또래애착, 학교생활적응간의관계를규명함으로써자아존중감의영향력이또래애착의영향력을통해아동의학교생활적응에영향을미친다는점을확인할수있었다. Declaration of Conflicting Interests The authors declared that they had no conflicts of interests with respect to their authorship or the publication of this article. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Korea Nazarene University Research Grants References 1. Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16(5), Bagwell, G. L., Newcomb, A. F., & Bukowski, W. M. (1998). Preadolescent friendship and peer rejection as predictors of adult adjustment. Child Development, 69(1), Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), Choi, M. K., & Doh, H. S. (2000). Influences of victimization by peers on the self-esteem of adolescents: The role of attachment and friendship. Koran Journal of Child Studies, 21(3), Chung, O. B. (2006). Social and Emotional Development. Seoul: Hakjisa. 6. Chung, T. S. (2011). A study on the relationships between the school adaptability of students in the educational welfare policy and the related variables (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Korean National University of Education, Cheongwon, Korea. 7. Colvin, C. R., Block, J., & Funder, D. C. (1995). Overly positive selfevaluations and personality: Negative implications for mental health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(6), Damon, W., & Hart, D. (1988). Self Understanding in Childhood and Adolescence. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 9. Gorrese, A., & Ruggieri, R. (2012). Peer attachment: A meta-analytic review of gender and age differences and associations with parent attachment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(5), Harter, S. (1999). The Construction of the Self: A Developmental Perspective. New York, NY: Guilford Press. 11. Jang, H. S. (1998). The mediating roles of self-image and self-esteem in relations between attachment and hope. The Korean Journal of the Human Development, 5(1), Keum, J. H. (2012). The casual relationship between school adjustment, career maturity, socio-economic status and parents attachment of elementary school students. Studies on Korean Youth, 23(3), Kim, S. H. (2010). The determinants of general self-esteem in adolescents: The influences of self-perceived competence and social supports. The Korean Journal of the Human Development, 17(4), Vol.52, No.4, August 2014:

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