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1 Transactions of KSAE, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp (2017) Copyright C 2017 KSAE / pissn / eissn DOI 구동계진동초기성능확보를위한시스템단위개선연구 국종영 * ㆍ유상헌ㆍ임동화ㆍ이태훈ㆍ유승완 현대자동차상용해석팀 A Research on Securing Initial Performance of Vibration Caused by Driveline Jongyoung Kuk * Sangheon Ryu 1) Donghwa Lim Teahoon Lee Seungwan Yu Commercial Vehicle CAE Team, Hyundai Motors Company, 150 Hyundaiyeonguso-ro, Namyang-eup, Hwaseong-si, Gyeonggi Korea (Received 10 March 2017 / Revised 27 March 2017 / Accepted 4 April 2017) Abstract : In commercial vehicles such as frame-based mid-size trucks, it is easy to reduce vibration caused by driveline with the cab mount system. There are no critical driveline vibration problems associated with these vehicles up to now. However, in the case of a similar grade of monocoque type mini-bus, there are no effective vibration isolation components such as a cab mount. Vibration caused by driveline is quite a complex problem to understand in terms of which part governs the phenomenon and how the problem can be solved. Thus, we have to manage the design factor about the driveline and mount system strictly at the early stage of vehicle development. Low frequency vibration caused by the driveline system is investigated in this study. We created the CAE driveline model and analyze low frequency vibration. Then contribution analysis about each design factor of driveline and mount system is performed. Finally, we can obtain the optimized design factor for a driveline system of a mini-bus, which is verified by the vehicle test results. Key words : Driveline( 구동계 ), Low frequency vibration( 저주파진동 ), Propeller shaft( 프로펠러축 ), Engine key on off( 엔진시동 ), Vibration isolation( 진동절연 ) Nomenclature 1) : inertia matrix : stiffness matrix : generalized displacement matrix : external force vector : frequency 1. 서론일반적인상용차의개발컨셉은하나의차종에서다양한파생차개발및화물적재타입에대응하기 * Corresponding author, 위하여전방엔진후륜구동타입의구동계를많이적용하고있다. 상용차의대표적인차종인트럭및트랙터의경우, 프레임구조위에구동계가장착되는구조거의대부분을설계에적용한다. 따라서구동계에서발생하는진동에대하여캡마운트와같은절연수단을통한효과적인진동저감이가능하였고심각한수준의구동계진동을제외하고는현재까지개발된차종에서큰문제가되었던경우는그리많지않았다. 상기와같은전통적인상용차량컨셉과는달리신규개발하여출시된소형버스의경우중량저감과경제성확보차원에서일체형모노코크바디구 360

2 구동계진동초기성능확보를위한시스템단위개선연구 조가적용되었다. 모노코크바디의적용에따라유사한구동계배치의다른당사차량보다대형의차급인관계로설계초기단계부터구동계유발진동의문제발생가능성이제기되었으며그에따라구동계자체및그를지지하는전달계에대한각인자들에대하여초기단계성능검토가필요하였다. 일반적으로구동계시스템은초기레이아웃및특성치설정에따른성능변화가다른파트에비해더욱명료하게나타난다. 특히시작차제작이이루어진단계에서는구동계유발진동문제발생시시스템거동특성에따른각인자간의복잡한상호작용으로인하여문제분석이어렵다. 또한샤시시스템의특성상레이아웃변경제약이큰관계로후행성능개선에타분야대비많은비용과시간이소모된다. 이러한이유로과거로부터구동계유발진동에대한연구는활발히진행되고있으며특히후륜구동승용차량중심으로연구들이진행되어왔다. 구동계의인자별특성에기인한시스템최적화에대한연구, 1) 구동계를지지하는전달계의주파수분석및영향도검토, 2,3) 유한요소모델을통한굽힘진동에대한검토및최적화, 4) 상태공간방정식에기반한 1D 시뮬레이션을통한구동계분석, 5,6) 구동계비틀림진동에대한다물체동역학해석, 7,8) 시험적모드분석을통한구동계진동기여도분석, 9-11) 클러치특성최적화에의한소음저감 12) 등여러연구가이루어지고있다. 다만지금까지의연구는구동계또는전달계에대한분석이각각독립적으로행해지고있으며상호간의영향도를다룬연구는많이행해지지않고있다. 본연구는소형버스개발단계에서주로저주파영역에초점을맞추어설계초기단계성능확보를목적으로지지계및전달계를포함한구동계시스템분석을진행하고이를통하여인자별기여도분석및최적화를통하여진동소음성능을개선하였다. 2. 본론 2.1 구동계시스템모델링 엔진가진모델및시동특성최적화구동계시스템의가진원으로서엔진가진모델링을수행하였다. 또한구동계저주파진동항목중설 Fig. 1 Engine and engine mounting model Fig. 2 Engine pressure graph 계초기단계에서반드시확보해야하는기초성능중하나인아이들및시동특성최적화를위하여대표적인지지계인엔진마운트에대한최적화를진행하였다. 전체적인엔진및엔진마운트의모델은 Fig. 1과같으며 Fig. 2에나타난 rpm별실린더내부폭발압력으로구동하여토크및가진성분의입력조건을발생시키도록모델링하였다. 연구차량은기존차량과동일한엔진을사용하나신규변속기및엔진장치가적용되었으며그에따라엔진마운트시동특성의과도응답최적화를진행하였다. 일반적으로시동진동의경우기하학적측면에서 TRA(Torque roll axis) 과 ERA(Elastic roll axis) 를일치시키는것으로저감할수있다. 일반적인엔진마운트시스템의가진시의모델링은식 (1), (2) 와같은형태의수식으로표현된다. 13) (1) (2) Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, Vol. 25, No. 3,

3 Jongyoung Kuk Sangheon Ryu Donghwa Lim Teahoon Lee Seungwan Yu 외부에서가진할때나타나는시스템의응답모드인물리적인모드 는식 (3) 과같다. (3) TRA와 ERA의방향벡터가일치한다면고유모드와유사한거동을하게되고식 (4) 를만족하게된다. (4) 일반적으로식 (4) 의좌변의경우커플된상태가대부분이므로방정식을만족하는해를찾기어려운경우가대부분이다. 그러나식을만족시킬수있는가장근접한 값을구하게되면디커플링된상태즉가진입력벡터에하나의모드가지배적으로거동하는상태를만들어낼수있다 ) 실제엔진마운트의 ERA의경우엔진마운트의기하학적배치와방향별강성의비율에따라변화하게되며해당인자의튜닝을통하여 TRA와 ERA 가일치하도록하는최적화를진행하게된다. 최적화해석을수행하여엔진마운트 TRA/ERA의결과는 Fig. 3과같으며, Fig. 3에서보이는바와같이레이아웃및강성치등의제약에의하여 TRA/ERA가일치하지는않는다. 그러나, 최적화결과를적용시 Fig. 4와같이초기컨셉대비약 50 % 의시동시의진동이저감되었다 구동계모델링구동계시스템모델링의경우초기설계구상단계에서확보가능한데이터를기반으로모델링을진행하였다. MSC/ADAMS를기반으로하여주로 50 Hz이하저주파진동에대한해석에적용할수있도록질량및관성모멘트를갖는강체요소로서모델링을진행하였다. 구동계전체의가진원으로서앞서시동특성최적화를수행한파워트레인모델을적용하고클러치및플라이휠에대한비선형거동특성및트랜스미션내부의비틀림특성모사를위한모델을추가하였다. 동력전달계로서프로펠러샤프트, 액슬디퍼런셜기어, 하프샤프트, 휠, 타이어모델로구동계시스템을모델링한다. 한편지지계로엔진마운트, 센터베어링, 쇽업소버, 서스펜션등의모델을추가하였으며특히서스펜션의경우판스프링거동을나타낼수있도록강체요소와부시의이산모델을적용하여저주파에서의주요탄성거동을모사할수있도록모델링하였다. 또한시스템경계조건은샤시다이나모상태에서구동하는것과유사한상태의경계조건을부여하였다. 이에대한해석모델링은 Fig. 5에나타내었다. Fig. 3 Optimization results for TRA and ERA Fig. 5 Modeling of the driveline Fig. 4 Reaction force at key on before and after optimization Table 1 Abbreviation description in Fig. 5 RHM/LHM Engine mounting at RH/LH TRM Transmission mounting CB Center bearing mounting LEAF RH/LH FR LEAF RH/LH RR SHOCK RH/LH Leaf spring mounting at RH/LH in rear wheel front Leaf spring mounting at RH/LH in rear wheel rear Shock absorber mounting at RH/LH 362 한국자동차공학회논문집제 25 권제 3 호, 2017

4 A Research on Securing Initial Performance of Vibration Caused by Driveline Fig. 5에표시된위치에서의반력으로검토를하였으며, Fig. 5의약어를 Table 1에표시하였다. 2.2 구동계시스템해석 비틀림진동주요인자선정모델링된구동계시스템을통하여부밍등에영향을미치는저주파비틀림진동에대한검토를먼저진행하였다. 이러한저주파비틀림진동의경우주로클러치또는 DMF(Dual mass flywheel) 의비선형거동특성에크게좌우되며그외에도프로펠러사프트, 하프샤프트와같은주요구동토크전달요소의특성역시영향을미치게된다. 14) 먼저전체구동계시스템에서 50 Hz 이하의진동영역에서주로영향을미치는요소에대한검토를실시하였다. 순수한비틀림특성만을검토하였을때의비틀림모드에대한거동특성을 Fig. 6에나타내었다. 각주파수별로거동에크게영향을미치는요소들에대하여살펴보면, 7 Hz 대역에서디퍼런셜기어와직결된하프샤프트의비틀림거동이나타나고있으며 24 Hz대역에서 DMF의비틀림거동이확인되었으며 54 Hz대역의경우클러치의비틀림거동이주로영향을미치는것으로분석되었다. 따라서클러치및 DMF와하프샤프트가저주파대역에서주로영향을미치는것으로볼수있으며각요소별특성인자변화에따른구동계비틀림거동특성을검토하기로한다 클러치및 DMF 특성검토 Fig. 7에클러치와 DMF 특성변화에따른지지계의응답크기를나타내었다. DMF의경우단가가상당이높은관계로원가절감에대한요구가강하게제기되어 Trial Car단계에적용하여시험진행예정인고가사양의 DMF와동등수준의특성을확보하는것을목표로하였다. 설계허용범위내의클러치히스테리시스및 DMF의작동각에따른강성변화가주요변경인자이며엔진마운트, 센터베어링, 현가계와같은지지계에서의진동응답을검토하였다. 검토결과클러치의히스테리시스값이클수록, DMF의강성값이낮을수록지지계에전달되는진동레벨이작아짐을확인할수있었다. 특히클러치및 DMF의조합특성으로최적화진행시고가사양 DMF와유사한진동레벨특성을나타내는것이확인되었다. Fig. 8에엔진 rpm별구동계비틀림가진에따른각가속도분포를확인한결과를나타내었다. 기존동급차량개발시의경험에의하면스플라인부또는기어부의래틀노이즈저감을위해서변속기측입력부의각가속도값이 500 rad/s 2 미만이되도록규제하고있다. 클러치의히스테리시스증대및 DMF 강성저감튜닝후에도비틀림각가속도의최대피크치는 350 rad/s 2 의동등수준으로설계목표를만족하였으며주파수의경우초기보다약간낮아진것을확인할수있었다. Fig. 6 Then main factor of the torsional behavior Fig. 7 Reaction force at each mounting position according to clucth and DMF characteristics Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, Vol. 25, No. 3,

5 국종영ㆍ유상헌ㆍ임동화ㆍ이태훈ㆍ유승완 Fig. 8 Angular acceleration according to clutch and DMF characteristics Fig. 10 Angular acceleration according to half-shaft characteristics 프로펠러 샤프트/하프샤프트 특성 검토 지지계 부시 특성에 따른 진동 레벨 검토 프로펠러 샤프트 및 디퍼런셜 기어와 맞물려있는 차체에 전달되는 진동의 절연은 궁극적으로 지지 하프샤프트의 특성을 검토하였다. 두 요소의 강도 계의 부시에서 상당 부분을 담당하게 된다. 따라서 및 굽힘 모드, 레이아웃 측면의 설계 허용 범위 내 여러 군데의 지지계 중 어느 곳이 취약한지 또는 부 비틀림 특성의 최대값 및 최소값의 범위를 선정하 시 특성변화에 따른 진동 저감의 민감도가 어떠한 였다. Fig. 9에 해당 각각의 인자 변화에 따른 응답 지를 알아보는 것은 구동계 동력 전달 인자의 최적 특성을 검토한 결과를 나타내었다. 프로펠러 샤프 화만큼이나 중요하다 할 수 있겠다. Fig. 11에 각 지 트의 경우 큰 변화가 없는 것으로 나타나며 주로 영 지계의 부시 특성별 마운트 응답을 나타내었다. 가 향을 미치는 인자는 하프샤프트로 강성이 낮을수록 장 큰 레벨의 진동 응답이 발생하는 곳은 좌우 관계 가진성분이 낮아짐을 알 수 있었다. 한편 비틀림 진 없이 후륜 서스펜션의 전방 아이부의 부시에서 발 동 측면에 서도 하프샤프트의 강성이 낮아짐에 따 생하고 있는 것으로 확인되었으며 해당 부위에 -50 라 각가속도 수준이 떨어짐을 확인할 수 있었다. 이 % 강성의 부시를 적용했을 시 약 30 % 수준의 진동 를 Fig. 10에 나타내었다. 레벨이 저감되는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 한편 센터 Fig. 9 Reaction force at each mounting position according to shaft(propeller and half) characteristics Fig. 11 Reaction force at each mounting position according to transmission system bush characteristics 364 한국자동차공학회논문집 제25 권 제3 호, 2017

6 구동계 진동 초기성능 확보를 위한 시스템 단위 개선 연구 베어링의 경우 진동 레벨 자체는 낮은 것으로 보 었다. 도출된 최적안에 대한 응답 검토 결과 엔진 이나 부시 특성에 따른 민감도는 높은 것으로 나타 마운트 부위의 약간의 응답 레벨 증가를 제외하고 나고 있다. 는 전체적으로 진동 레벨이 감소하였음을 알 수 있 었으며 특히 후방 서스펜션 부의 진동 응답이 크게 2.3 최적화 및 실차 실험 확인 감소한 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 한편 각가속도 특성 측면에서도 초기 사양 대비하여 감소된 것을 확인 인자별 기여도 분석 및 최적안 앞서 2.2절에서 검토한 각 인자별 특성 검토 결과 클러치, DMF, 하프샤프트가 저주파 진동에 주로 영향을 미치는 인자라는 것을 알 수 있었다. 또한 전달계 측면에서도 각 부시별 기여도의 검토를 통 하여 후륜 서스펜션의 전방 아이부의 기여도가 큰 것을 알 수 있었다. 이들 인자의 조합으로 이루어진 최적안 적용시의 응답을 Fig. 12와 Fig. 13에 나타내 할 수 있었으며 설계 목표를 만족하는 것으로 나타 나고 있다 실차 실험 확인 개선된 내용을 바탕으로 실차 적용시의 실험 검 증을 실시하였다. 해석을 통해 도출된 최적안에서 하프샤프트를 제외한 클러치 히스테리시스 증대 및 DMF의 저감안과 후방 서스펜션 및 센터 베어링 부 시의 특성값에 대하여 설계 적용이 가능한 것으로 확인되었다. 해당 최적안이 적용된 차량에 대하여 실차 평가를 실시하였으며 Fig. 14에 초기 사양 및 최적안 적용 전후의 실험 결과를 나타내었다. 측정 주파수 구간은 0 Hz ~ 100 Hz사이로서 3000 rpm 까 지의 가속 조건으로 실험을 진행하였으며 응답은 운전석 부위의 가속도 값을 측정하였다. 기존안대 비 최적안 적용 결과 C2성분으로 인한 응답이 크게 감소한 것을 확인할 수 있었고 기타 차수 성분에 대 해서도 진동 레벨 저감 효과가 나타나는 것을 확인 Fig. 12 Reaction force at each mounting position between baseline and optimization case Fig. 13 Angular acceleration between baseline and optimization case 할 수 있었다. Fig. 14 Experimental result between baseline and optimization case Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, Vol. 25, No. 3,

7 Jongyoung Kuk Sangheon Ryu Donghwa Lim Teahoon Lee Seungwan Yu 3. 결론 본연구에서는개발차량의설계초기단계에서확보가능한컨셉데이터로초기구동계성능을확보하기위한저주파진동영역에대한해석및최적화를진행하였으며아래와같은결론을도출할수있었다. 1) 설계초기단계에서파워트레인시스템에대한저주파거동특성인시동특성최적화수행을하였다. 2) 구동계모델구축및해석을통하여구동계, 전달 / 지지계에대한인자별특성검토를통하여각각의기여도확인하였다. 3) 확보된기여도를바탕으로최적안도출및진동저감레벨확인하였다. 4) 실차시험확인으로최적안적용시성능확인및구축된해석프로세스유효성검증완료하였다. 향후강체모델에서유연체모델로의모델링기법향상및차체모델통합으로보다넓은범위의주파수범위에대응할수있는해석기법의개발을진행할예정이다. References 1) T. Wellmann and K. Govindswamy, Aspects of Driveline Integration for Optimized NVH Vehicle, SAE , ) G. Steyer, M. Voight and Z. Sun, Balancing Competing Design Imperatives to Achieve Overall Driveline NVH Performance Objectives, SAE , ) C. H. Lee, C. W. Park, K. C. Seo and Y. I. You, A Study of NVH Phenomena in Driveline caused by Vibration Characteristics of Propeller Shaft, KSAE Fall Conference Proceedings, pp , ) C. Lange, Vehicle Driveline Investigations: Applications of Computer Analysis Based on Operating Mode Shape Analysis OMS, Mode Shape Analysis and Substructure Calculations, SAE , ) O. M. Garcia and K. Kargar, Simulation Tool for Transmission and Driveline Systems Design, SAE , ) B. Findeisen, M. Schwalbe, N. Gunther and L. Stiegler, NVH Optimization of Driveline with Mathematical Optimization Methods, SAE , ) Y. F. Xia, J. Pang, C. Hu, C. Zhou and C. Wu, Multi-Body Dynamic Analysis of Driveline Torsional Vibration for an RWD Vehicle, SAE , ) E. O. Choi, B. M. Ahn, D. P. Hong and T. J. Chung, A Study on the Design of Propeller Shaft for Reduction of Torsional Vibration, Transactions of KSAE, Vol.7, No.7, pp , ) K. Govindswamy, M. Hueser, T. D Anna, P. Diemer and C. Roxin, Study of Low-Frequency Driveline Clunk During Static Engagements, SAE , ) D. H. Lim, T. H. Lee, S. M. Lim, S. D. Ahn and C. G. Lee, A Study on the Low Speed Driveline Booming of Semi-bonnet Commercial Van, KSAE Spring Conference Proceedings, pp , ) K. J. Kim, H. J. Ju, Y. H. Lee, D. S. Bae, C. W. Sung, Y. N. Baik and I. S. Sohn, Modeling and CAE Simulation of Chassis Driveline Test Bench for Vehicle NVH Improvement, Transactions of KSAE, Vol.17, No.1, pp , ) Y. Shigetaro, M. Masashi and U. Osamu, Reduction of Transmission Idle Noise by Optimizing Clutch Twisting Characteristics, MAE Technical Report, Vol.1, No.9, pp.38-47, ) T. S. Jeong and R. Singh, Aanlytical Methods of Decoupling the Automotive Engine Torque Roll Axis, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol.234, No.1, pp , ) J. F. Hu and R. Singh, Improved Torque Roll Axis Decoupling Axiom for a Powertrain Mounting System in the Presence of a Compliant Base, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 331, No.7, pp , ) N. Akio, Dynamics Handbook Motion, Vibration and Control, Asakura, 한국자동차공학회논문집제 25 권제 3 호, 2017

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