2021 학년도 EBS 수능특강영어독해연습 01 강 논리적관계파악 추론적이해 Œ VOCABULARY MACRO READING Ž READING COMPREHENSION MICRO READING REVIEW

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1 2021 학년도 EBS 수능특강영어독해연습 01 강 논리적관계파악 추론적이해 Œ VOCABULARY MACRO READING Ž READING COMPREHENSION MICRO READING REVIEW

2 [ 에이든노트 ] 전략과전술 : EBS VOCABULARY [ 01강 01번 ] establish 규명하다 origin 기원 probable ( 어떤일이 ) 있을 [ 사실일 ] 것같은, 개연성있는 prosodic 운율적인 exchange 대화 foster 촉진하다, 발전시키다 bond 유대, 인연 capacity 능력 conceptual 개념적인 convey 전달하다 retain 유지하다 significance 중요성 cement 강화하다 accustomed to ~ 에익숙한 liable to ~ 하기쉬운 predominantly 대개, 대부분 communal 공동의 ritual 의식 warfare 전쟁 accompaniment 수반되는것 adjunct 부속물, 부가물 ceremony 의식 occasion 행사 collective 집단적인 play ~ 한역할을하다 [ 01강 02번 ] admit 인정하다 recognize 인식하다 fallibility 불완전함, 실수할수있음 infallibility 무과실성, 절대확실 characteristic 특징 separate ~ from... ~ 을 와구별하다 adequate 그만그만한, 그만하면괜찮은 strive 노력하다 recover from ~ 로부터회복하다 failing 결함 significant 중요한 preconcept and postconcept mapping ( 어떤단원학습 ) 이전과이후의개념도작성하기 exercise ( 특정한목적을위한 ) 활동 gap 공백, 틈 persist 계속존재하다 invoke ( 생각등을 ) 불러내다 translate into 결과로 ~ 을낳다 odd 이상한 suspect ~ 하지않을까하고생각하다 enhance 향상시키다 assessment 평가 clear up ~ 을해결하다 confusion 혼란 impeccability 완전무결 potential 잠재적인 affluence 풍족, 부유 reflect 반영하다 ameliorate 개선하다 [ 01강 03번 ] extend 확장되다 beyond ~ 저편에 [ 너머 ] local 국지적인 insight 통찰력 craft 기교 in part 부분적으로 mindful of ~ 을유념하는 be challenged to ~ 하도록요구되다 perspective 관점 document 기록 concept 개념 article 논문, 기사 technical 전문적인 establish 정하다 mood 분위기 tone 어조 artful 솜씨좋은 rhetorical 수사적효과를노린 the Declaration of Independence 미국독립선언서 hold ( 신념 의견등을 ) 가지다 self-evident 자명한 endow 부여하다 inalienable 빼앗을수없는 pursuit 추구 subtly 미묘하게 shift 바꾸다 acknowledge 인정하다 seemingly 겉보기에 profoundly 대단히, 극도로, 깊이 analysis 분석 interpretation 해석 format 구성방식 [ 01강 04번 ] ethics 윤리 ( 학 ) primarily 주로 concerned with ~ 에관심있는 description 서술, 묘사, 기술 ( 記述 ) anthropology 인류학 sociology 사회학 justification 정당성, 정당화 moral 도덕적인 principle 원칙 take note of ~ 을주목하다 variation 차이, 변화 claim 주장하다 a matter of ~ 의문제 customary 관습적인 relative to ~ 에관하여 particular 특정한 valid 타당한 hold 가지고있다, 보유하다 approved 입증된, 인가된 disapproved 입증되지않은 rationally 이성적으로, 합리적으로 justifiable 정당한, 타당한 illusion 환상 examine 조사 [ 검토 ] 하다 consideration 사려, 숙고, 고려사항 [ 01강 05번 ] destructiveness 해로움 idealize 이상화하다 presentation 공개, 제시 twofold 두부분 [ 요소 ] 으로된, 이중적인 glowing 찬란한, 찬사로가득한 status update 상태업데이트 jugis flawed 결함있는 judge 판단 [ 심판 ] 하다 self-worth 자존감 in comparison to ~ 와비교해서 put forth ~ 을제시하다 pretend to ~ 인척하다 made-up 꾸며낸 performance 수행, 성과 self-esteem 자존감 fake ~ 인척하다 nonword 존재하지않는단어 portray 묘사하다, 보여주다 tangible 분명히실제하는, 유형의 genuine 진짜인 unobtainable 얻을 [ 손에넣을 ] 수없는 grounded in ~ 에기초가있는, ~ 에근거를둔 convince 납득시키다, 설득하다 to the eye 표면상은, 겉으로보기에는 positivity 확신, 적극성, 명확한것 2

3 [ EBS ] 2021 학년도수특영독 [ 01강 06번 ] quality 특징 induction 유도 generate 만들다 contrasting 대조적인 contrast 대조적인사람 [ 것 ] obvious 분명한 intensify 강화하다 perception 인식 halo 후광 formulate 형성하다 concept 개념 dredge up ~ 을떠올리다 cannot help but ~ ~ 하지않을수없다 forbid 금지하다 forbid A to B A가 B하는것을막다 entertain ( 생각 희망 감정등을 ) 품다 taboo 금기 instantly 즉각적으로 spark 촉발하다 corresponding 상응하는 vacillation 동요, 흔들림 predispose ~ to... ~ 에게영향을주어... 하게하다 assumption 추정, ( 권력 책임의 ) 인수 [ 장악 ] evoke ( 감정 기억 이미지를 ) 떠올려주다 [ 환기시키다 ] elicit ( 정보 반응을어렵게 ) 끌어내다 acquire 습득하다, 획득하다 advanced 선진의, 고급 [ 상급 ] 의 explicitly 명쾌하게 [ 01강 07번 ] bottlenose dolphin 병코돌고래, 큰돌고래 second only to ~ 에버금가는 ratio 비율 apparently ~ 인듯하게, 겉으로보기에 ~ 이게 outdo 능가하다 cooperative 협력 [ 협동 ] 하는 cooperation 협렵 [ 협동 ] convey 전하다, 전달하다 incentive 동기, 유인, 자극 cheat 속이다, 사취하다 undermine 서서히약화시키다, 손상시키다 end up ~ing 결국 ~ 하게되다 inferior 질이낮은, 열등한 superior 우세한, 우월한 outcome 결과 face 직면하다 school ( 물고기 ) 떼 encircle 에워 [ 둘러 ] 싸다 take turns 교대로 ~ 하다 coordination 조직화 prevail 우세하다, 유행하다 flock 떼 [ 무리 ], 모이다 jostle 거칠게밀치다 [ 떠밀다 ] amass 모으다, 축적하다 swarm 떼 [ 무리 ] 를지어다니다 disperse 흩어지다, 해산하다 suppress 참다 [ 억누르다 ], 억제하다 [ 01강 08번 ] colleague 동료 illusion 착각, 환상 reveal 나타내다, 드러내다 make sense of ~ 을이해하다 scatter 뿌리다, 흩뜨려놓다 cluster 모이다, 무리를이루다 array 배열, 정렬 evolve 진화하다, 점진적으로변하다 ease 쉬움, 용이함 inclined 경향을보이는 jugis at the drop of a hat 즉각, 주저하지않고 ultrasound 초음파구조분석 fetus 태아 deity 신 parade 과시하다, 뽐내며보여주다, ~ 로통하다, ~ 인것처럼보이게만들다 divine 신의, 신성한 attentive 주의 [ 귀 ] 를기울이는, 배려하는 on the ball 일이어떻게돌아가는지훤히알다 [ 사정을꿰고있다 ] unenlightened 무지한, 미개의 surroundings 환경 [ 01강 09번 ] skeptic 회의론자 contentment 만족, 자족 cling to ~ 에매달리다 comforting 위로가되는 admirable 존경스러운, 감탄할만한 the supernatural 초자연적인존재 [ 현상 / 것 ] ultimate 궁극적인 conventional 전통적인, 인습적인 conception 개념 stretching 신축, 늘어남 be mirrored by ~ 와유사하다 baboon 개코원숭이, 비비 fable 꾸며낸이야기, 우화 baggage 낡은생각 [ 인습 ], 짐 self-importance 자존, 자만 nothing but ~ 에불과한, 그저 ~ 일뿐인 intellectual 지적인 elated 마냥행복해하는 [ 신이난 ] gloomy 우울한 vivacious 명량한, 쾌활한 astonished 깜짝 [ 크게 ] 놀란 hang onto(= keep = retain) ~ 을유지하다 strip away 제거하다 reinforce 강화하다, 보강하다 release 해방하다, 놓아주다 nothing more than ~ 에불과한, ~ 에지나지않은 [ 01강 10번 ] advance 발전, 진보 synthesize 종합하다 fragmented 단편적인, 분열된 Dane 덴마크사람 electric current 전류 surround 둘러싸다 magnetic field 자기장 wind 감다 live 전류가흐르는 electromagnet 전자석 string 현, 줄 vibrate 진동하다 attach 붙이다 membrane 얇은막 trace ( 선 무늬등을 ) 긋다 [ 그리다 ], 추적하다 orderly 정돈된, 질서있는 assorted 여러가지의 scattered 흩어진 diverse 다양한 affiliated 소속된, 연계된 disjointed 일관성이없는 disciplined 훈련받은, 잘통솔된 combine 결합하다 3

4 [ 에이든노트 ] 전략과전술 : EBS [ 01강 11번 ] vigorous 활발한, 원기왕성한 reliable 믿을만한, 신뢰성있는 admission 인정, 허용 phenomenon 현상 avoidance 회피 reflex 반사작용, 반사행동 obvious 확실한, 명백한 sensation 감각, 지각 attach 연관짓다, 붙이다 limb 팔다리, 큰가지 sophisticated 정교한, 고도로세련된 entirely 완전히, 전적으로 jugis instinctively 본능적으로 anatomy 해부학적구조, 해부학 ancestor 조상 be capable of ~ 할능력이있는 realm 영역, 부분 ignorant 무지한, 무식한 competent 능숙한, 만족할만한 prove 입증하다 [ 비연계 ] mug 머그잔 logo 상징, 로고 participant 참가자 option 선택권 identical 동일한 prefer 더좋아하다, 선호하다 strategically 전략적으로 presumably 추측건대, 아마도 frame 표현하다, 틀을잡다 compensating 보상의 quote 값을매기다 median 평균의, 중간값의 [ 01강 12번 ] in regard to ~ 에관해서, ~ 와관련하여 countless 셀수없이많은, 무수한 avenue 수단, 방법, 가로수길 depict 표현하다, 묘사하다 auditory 청각의 equitable 공평한, 공정한 multicultural 다문화의 ensure 반드시 ~ 하게하다 heritage ( 국가사회의 ) 유산 expose 경험하게하다, 노출시키다 holistic 총체적인, 전체론적인 draw upon ~ 을이용하다 build upon ~ 을발전시키다, ~ 을기반으로하다 engage 끌어들이다, 종사시키다 passion 열정 interaction 상호작용 address 다루다, 연설하다 analysis 분해, 분석 overload 지나치게많음, 과부하 4

5 [ EBS ] 2021 학년도수특영독 MACRO READING [ 01강 01번 ] 음악의기능 n music : a way of communicating feelings and cementing bonds between individuals, especially in group situations predominantly a group activity [ 01강 02번 ] 교사의불완전함 n we aren t perfect as teachers constantly strive to recover from those failings is significant [ 01강 03번 ] 어휘의선택 n vocabulary knowledge extends beyond the local meaning of a sentence or paragraph seemingly small word choices can profoundly affect the analysis and interpretation of a reading [ 01강 04번 ] 도덕의 ( 사회적 ) 상대성 n ethics deals with the justification of moral principles no moral principle can be valid except in the societies in which it is held to search for an objective, or rationally justifiable, ethics is to search for what is, in fact, an illusion [ 01 강 05 번 ] 소셜미디어와자존감 n when people portray their life as better than it actually is on social media = may actually make them feel worse about themselves [ 01 강 06 번 ] 상반된것을떠올리는두뇌의특징 n a quality of the human brain - how something positive generates a contrasting negative image in our mind [ 01 강 07 번 ] 병코돌고래의신뢰성 n when there is an incentive to cheat - the benefits from coordination would be lost [ 01강 08번 ] 보이는것을구조화하려는마음의속성 n the clouds turn into faces and animals - mind has evolved to organize and see structure - the ease with which we see faces in particular inclined to see supernatural characters at the drop of a hat 5

6 [ 에이든노트 ] 전략과전술 : EBS [ 01 강 09 번 ] 인류가만든형이상학의낡은생각버리기 n contentment is possible without the need to cling to comforting beliefs [ 01 강 10 번 ] 흩어져있는아이디어를종합한발명 n science and human invention - important advances resulting from synthesizing previously fragmented ideas [ 01강 11번 ] 뇌해부학적구조와인식 n octopuses and squid have entirely different brain anatomies from ourselves capable of learning and memorizing facts for months if they are to be included in the realm of conscious beings, this indicates that consciousness does not depend upon a particular type of brain anatomy [ 01 강 12 번 ] 다문화자료를도입하는전체론적인음악교실수업 n important to include an equitable balance of multicultural materials in the classroom to ensure that each child s heritage is represented and all children are exposed to the heritage of other cultures 6

7 [ EBS ] 2021 학년도수특영독 READING COMPREHENSION 1. [ 01 강 01 번 ] 다음빈칸에들어갈말로가장적절한것은? 1) It will never be possible to establish the origins of human music with any certainty; however, it seems probable that music developed from the prosodic exchanges between mother and infant which foster the bond between them. From this, it became a form of communication between adult human beings. As the capacity for speech and conceptual thought developed, music became less important as a way of conveying information, but retained its significance as a way of communicating feelings and cementing bonds between individuals, especially in group situations. Today, we are so accustomed to considering the response of the individual to music that we are liable to forget that, for most of its history, music has been predominantly a group activity. Music began by serving communal purposes, of which religious ritual and warfare are two examples. It has continued to be used as an accompaniment to ; as an adjunct to social ceremonies and public occasions. 1 storytelling 2 collective activities 3 prosodic exchanges 4 communicating feelings 5 religious rituals and warfare [ SUMMARY ] n the origins of human music - music developed from the prosodic exchanges between mother and infant which f 2) the b 3) between them a way of communicating feelings and c 4) bonds - especially in group situations predominantly a g 5) activity [ VOCABULARY ] establish origin probable prosodic exchange foster bond capacity conceptual convey retain significance cement accustomed to liable to predominantly communal ritual warfare accompaniment adjunct ceremony occasion collective play Historically music played an important roll of conveying information, however, as humans developed the capacity for speech conveying information through music became less important, but music still retains its importance of conveying feelings and forming bonds between individuals. [ TRANSLATION ] n 인간의음악의기원을확실하게규명하는것은절대가능하지않겠지만, 음악은엄마와아기사이의유대 를촉진하는그들사이의운율적대화에서생겨났을것으로보인다. 이로부터그것은어른이된인간사이의의사소통의한형태가되었다. 말과개념적사고를할수있는능력이발달함에따라음악은정보를전달하는방법으로덜중요해졌지만, 개인간의, 특히집단적인상황에서감정을전하고유대관계를강화하는방법으로서그것의중요성을유지했다. 오늘날우리는음악에대한개인의반응을고려하는데너무나익숙해서대부분의음악의역사에서음악이대개집단적인활동이었음을잊기쉽다. 음악은공동의목적에이바지함으로써시작되었고, 종교의식과전쟁이그것의두가지사례이다. 음악은집단적인활동에수반되는것으로, 즉사회적의식과공적인행사의부속물로계속이용되었다. 1) 2 2) foster 3) bond 4) cementing 5) group 7

8 [ 에이든노트 ] 전략과전술 : EBS 2. [ 01 강 02 번 ] 다음빈칸에들어갈말로가장적절한것은? 6) [ VOCABULARY ] admit recognize fallibility infallibility characteristic separate ~ from... adequate strive recover from failing significant preconcept and postconcept mapping exercise gap persist invoke translate into odd suspect enhance assessment clear up confusion impeccability potential affluence reflect ameliorate As much as we want to believe that students learn everything we try to teach, we must admit that we aren t perfect as teachers. In fact, recognizing our fallibility is said to be one characteristic that separates great teachers of diverse students from those teachers who are just adequate. Recognizing that you can make mistakes as a teacher and constantly strive to recover from those failings is significant. If you use preconcept and postconcept mapping exercises with your students and you discover that some of the gaps appearing at the beginning persisted until the end, then you have a couple of ways of responding. One thought that too many teachers invoke is that the kids were lazy and didn t care. But for teachers who are able to accept their, the disappointment about the results translates into clearly identified areas for improvement. As odd as this may sound, when you suspect that you have the potential to enhance your teaching, assessment results can help clear up any confusion about where you might begin to make changes. 1 infallibility 2 impeccability 3 potential fallibility 4 affluence of knowledge 5 responsibility in maintain their image [ SUMMARY ] n we aren t p 7) as teachers recognizing our f 8) - separates great teachers from those teachers who are just a 9) constantly strive to r 10) from those f 11) is significant - accept their 12) - identified areas for i 13) If a teacher is able to admit and identify that they aren't perfect and students test results reflect the teacher's ability, then these results can be used to identify where that teacher can ameliorate. [ TRANSLATION ] n 학생들이우리가가르치려고애쓰는모든것을배운다고믿고싶은만큼이나우리는자신이교사로서완 6) 3 7) perfect 8) fallibility 9) adequate 10) recover 11) failings 12) potential fallibility(= 잠재적인불완전함 ) 13) improvement 벽하지않다는것을인정해야한다. 사실우리의불완전함을인식하는것이다양한학생들을가르치는위대한교사를겨우그만그만한교사와구별하는한가지특징이라고한다. 교사로서실수할수있고그결함으로부터회복하기위해끊임없이노력할수있다는것을인식하는것이중요하다. 만약학생들과 ( 어떤단원학습 ) 이전과이후에학생이지닌개념도작성하기활동을이용하고처음에나타난일부공백이끝까지계속존재한다는것을알게된다면, 여러분이반응하는두어가지방식이있다. 아주많은교사가불러내는한가지생각은아이들이게을렀고신경을쓰지않았다는것이다. 그러나자신의잠재적인불완전함을받아들일수있는교사의경우에는그결과에대한실망은분명하게확인된개선할영역을결과로낳는다. 이상하게들릴지도모르지만, 여러분의가르치기를향상시킬가능성이있지않을까하고생각할때, 평가결과는어디서변화를주기시작해야할지에관한혼란을해결하는데도움이될수있다. 8

9 [ EBS ] 2021 학년도수특영독 3. [ 01 강 03 번 ] 다음빈칸에들어갈말로가장적절한것은? 14) Vocabulary knowledge extends beyond the local meaning of a sentence or paragraph; it provides insight into how the text works more broadly. The craft and structure of a text is understood in part by being mindful of the choices the writer. Students are challenged to view the text as a whole in order to understand the perspectives of the writer, as in a historical document, or the concepts related in a scientific article or technical reading. Writers establish mood and tone by the artful selection of words and phrases and link them to rhetorical purposes, especially in history. For instance, consider the use of the word their in the first sentence of the Declaration of Independence: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed, by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. Their, not the. One word subtly shifts the meaning to acknowledge the existence of more than one belief system. Seemingly small word choices can profoundly affect the analysis and interpretation of a reading. 1 made in their childhood 2 makes in word selection 3 makes in formatting the text 4 makes when selecting a publisher 5 made in selecting the words for the title [ SUMMARY ] n vocabulary knowledge - e 15) beyond the local meaning of a sentence or paragraph - provides insight into how the text works more b 16) view the text as a w 17) to understand the perspectives of the writer writers establish mood and tone by the a 18) selection of words seemingly s 19) word choices can p 20) affect the analysis and interpretation of a reading [ VOCABULARY ] extend beyond local insight craft in part mindful of be challenged to perspective document concept article technical establish mood tone artful rhetorical the Declaration of Independence hold self-evident endow inalienable pursuit subtly shift acknowledge seemingly profoundly analysis interpretation Vocabulary knowledge provides insight into how the text works more broadly, however being mindful of the vocabulary choices the writer makes is also important in understanding the text as a whole. format [ TRANSLATION ] n 어휘지식은문장이나문단의국지적인의미를넘어확장되며, 그것은더포괄적으로글이작동하는방식 에대한통찰력을제공한다. 글의기교와구조는부분적으로단어를고를때글쓴이가하는선택을유념함으로써이해된다. 학생들은역사의기록에서처럼글쓴이의관점을이해하거나과학논문이나전문적인서적에서관련된개념을이해하기위해글을전체적으로볼것이요구된다. 글쓴이는단어와구절을솜씨좋게선택함으로써분위기와어조를정하고그것들을수사학적인목적에연결시키는데, 특히역사에서그러하다. 예를들어, 미국독립선언서의첫문장에있는 their 라는단어의사용에대해생각해보라. 우리는다음과같은진실이자명하다는생각을갖고있는데, 모든인간은평등하게창조되었고 그들의 창조주가그들에게어떤빼앗을수없는권리를부여했으며이런권리중에는삶, 자유그리고행복추구가있다. (Creator 앞에 ) the 가아니라 their 이다. 하나의단어가신앙체계가하나뿐인게아니라여럿존재한다는것을인정하도록미묘하게의미를바꾼다. 대수롭지않아보이는단어선택이어떤읽을거리의분석과해석에대단히영향을미칠수있다. 14) 2 15) extends 16) broadly 17) whole 18) artful 19) small 20) profoundly 9

10 [ 에이든노트 ] 전략과전술 : EBS 4. [ 01 강 04 번 ] 다음빈칸에들어갈말로가장적절한것은? 21) [ VOCABULARY ] ethics primarily concerned with description anthropology sociology justification moral principle take note of variation claim a matter of customary relative to particular valid hold approved disapproved rationally justifiable illusion examine consideration Ethics itself is not primarily concerned with the description of the moral systems of different societies. That task, which remains on the level of description, is one for anthropology or sociology. In contrast, ethics deals with the justification of moral principles (or with the impossibility of such a justification). Nevertheless, ethics must take note of the variations in moral systems, because it has often been claimed that this variety shows that morality is simply a matter of what is customary and that it thus is always relative to particular societies. According to this view, no moral principle can be valid. Words such as good and bad just mean, it is claimed, approved in my society or disapproved in my society, and so to search for an objective, or rationally justifiable, ethics is to search for what is, in fact, an illusion. 1 in just one particular society 2 when examined within it society 3 within the society in which it is held 4 except in the societies in which it is held 5 when the variations in moral systems have been taken into consideration [ SUMMARY ] n ethics deals with the justification of moral principles morality - simply a matter of what is c 22) - always relative to p 23) societies no moral principle can be valid 24) to search for an objective, or rationally justifiable, ethics is to search for what is, in fact, an i 25) Ethics is the justification of what is right and wrong, good or bad. However, ethics must consider the differences in moral systems, as these differences shows morality is a matter of what is accepted. Yet, what is acceptable is always relative to particular societies. [ TRANSLATION ] n 윤리학자체는각각다른사회의도덕체계를서술하는것에주된관심이있는게아니다. 서술수준에남 21) 4 22) customary 23) particular 24) except in the societies in which it is held(= 그것을보유한사회이외에서는 ) 25) illusion 아있는그과제는인류학이나사회학을위한과제이다. 그와대조적으로윤리학은도덕적원칙의정당성 ( 또는그런정당화의불가능성 ) 을다룬다. 그럼에도불구하고, 윤리학은도덕체계안에서의차이를주목해야하는데, 왜냐하면이다양함은도덕이그저관습적인것의문제이고그래서그것이항상특정한사회와관련이있다는것을보여준다고흔히주장되었기때문이다. 이견해에따르면, 어떤도덕적원칙도그것을보유한사회이외에서는타당할수없다. 선한 그리고 악한 과같은단어는 내가속한사회에서인정되는 또는 내가사는사회에서인정되지않는다는 것을의미할따름이고, 그래서객관적인, 즉이성적으로정당화할수있는윤리를찾는것은사실상환상을찾는것이라고주장된다. 10

11 [ EBS ] 2021 학년도수특영독 5. [ 01 강 05 번 ] 다음빈칸에들어갈말로가장적절한것은? 26) The destructiveness of idealized social media presentation is twofold. When people read the glowing status updates of others, they are likely to feel worse about their own flawed lives, especially if they are the type of people who tend to judge their self-worth in comparison to others. In addition, when people put forth a version of themselves that is, they can actually feel bad about themselves. In one study, some college students had to pretend to understand made-up words (e.g., besionary) to complete a test, while others did not. Afterward, both groups were praised for their performance. The praise raised the self-esteem of those who did not have to fake understanding of nonwords, but lowered the self-esteem of the students who pretended to understand them. In other words, when people portray their life as better than it actually is on social media, all of the likes they get for their status updates and pictures may actually make them feel worse about themselves. 1 tangible 2 not genuine 3 unobtainable 4 grounded in reality 5 convincing to the eye [ SUMMARY ] n the destructiveness of idealized social media presentation is t 27) 1. when people read the g 28) status updates of others = feel w 29) about their own flawed lives 2. when people put forth a version of themselves that is 30) = feel b 31) about themselves when people p 32) their life as b 33) than it actually is on social media = may actually make them feel w 34) about themselves [ VOCABULARY ] destructiveness idealize presentation twofold glowing status update jugis flawed judge self-worth in comparison to put forth pretend to made-up performance self-esteem fake nonword portray tangible genuine unobtainable grounded in convince to the eye positivity When people portray their life as being better than it is on social media platforms, all of the positivity they receive through "likes" may in fact make them feel worse about themselves and their current situation. [ TRANSLATION ] n 이상화된소셜미디어의 ( 자기 ) 공개가가지는해로움에는두가지측면이있다. 다른사람들의찬란한상태업데이트를읽을때사람들은자신의결함있는삶에대해더좋지않게느낄가능성이있는데, 특히그들이남과비교해서자신의자존감을판단하는경향이있는유형의사람인경우에그러하다. 게다가사람들은진짜가아닌자신의모습을제시할때자신에대해실제로좋지않게느낄수있다. 한연구에서일부대학생들은시험을끝마치기위해, 꾸며낸단어 ( 예를들면, besionary) 를이해하는척해야했던한편, 다른대학생들은그럴필요가없었다. 그후에두집단모두그들의수행에대해칭찬을받았다. 그칭찬은존재하지않는단어를이해하는척할필요가없었던학생들의자존감은높였지만, 그것을이해하는척했던학생들의자존감은낮추었다. 달리말하자면, 사람들이소셜미디어에서자신의삶을실제있는그대로보다더낫게보여줄때그들의상태업데이트와사진에대해그들이받는모든 좋아요 는사실상그들이자신에대해더좋지않게느끼게만들지도모른다. 26) 2 27) twofold 28) glowing 29) worse 30) not genuine(= 진짜가아닌 ) 31) bad 32) portray 33) better 34) worse 11

12 [ 에이든노트 ] 전략과전술 : EBS 6. [ 01 강 06 번 ] 다음빈칸에들어갈말로가장적절한것은? 35) [ VOCABULARY ] quality induction generate contrasting contrast obvious intensify perception halo formulate concept dredge up cannot help but ~ forbid forbid A to B entertain taboo instantly spark corresponding vacillation predispose ~ to... assumption evoke elicit acquire advanced explicitly A quality of the human brain is known as induction, how something positive generates a contrasting negative image in our mind. This is most obvious in our visual system. When we see some color red or black, for instance it tends to intensify our perception of the opposite color around us, in this case, green or white. As we look at the red object, we often can see a green halo forming around it. In general, the mind operates by contrasts. We are able to formulate concepts about something by. The brain is continually dredging up these contrasts. What this means is that whenever we see or imagine something, our minds cannot help but see or imagine the opposite. If we are forbidden by our culture to think a particular thought or entertain a particular desire, that taboo instantly brings to mind the very thing we are forbidden. Every no sparks a corresponding yes. We cannot control this vacillation in the mind between contrasts. This predisposes us to think about and then desire exactly what we do not have. 1 others assumptions 2 evoking an elicit response 3 becoming aware of its opposite 4 acquiring advanced technologies 5 explicitly stating what it is we see [ SUMMARY ] n a q 36) of the human brain - induction = how something positive generates a c 37) negative image in our mind the mind operates by c 38) - able to formulate concepts about something by 39) - whenever we see or imagine something, our minds cannot help but see or imagine the o 40) p 41) us to think about and then desire exactly what we do not have The human brain is focused on opposites that when we are told we are not allowed something our brain makes us desire that which we cannot have. [ TRANSLATION ] n 인간두뇌의한가지특징은 유도, 즉긍정적인어떤것이그와대조적인부정적인이미지를우리의마음 35) 3 36) quality 37) contrasting 38) contrasts 39) becoming aware of its opposite(= 그것의정반대인것을의식하는것 ) 40) opposite 41) predisposes 속에만들어내는방식이라고알려져있다. 이것은우리의시각체계에서가장분명하다. 우리가어떤색깔, 예를들면빨간색이나검은색을볼때그것은우리주변에있는정반대색에대한우리의인식을강화하는경향이있는데, 이경우에는녹색이나흰색이다. 빨간색인대상을볼때우리는흔히녹색후광이그것의주변에형성되고있는것을볼수있다. 일반적으로마음은대조되는것들에의해작동한다. 우리는어떤것에대한개념을그것의정반대인것을의식하게됨으로써형성할수있다. 두뇌는지속적으로이런대조되는것들을떠올리고있다. 이것이의미하는것은우리가어떤것을보거나상상할때마다우리의마음은정반대인것을보거나상상하지않을수없다는것이다. 우리의문화가특정한생각을하거나특정한욕망을품지못하게금지한다면그금기는즉각적으로우리에게금지된바로그것을마음속에떠올리게한다. 모든금지는그에상응하는허용을촉발한다. 우리는마음속에서대조적인것들사이의이런동요를제어하지못한다. 이것은우리에게영향을주어우리가가지지않은바로그것에관하여생각하고, 그다음에그것을갈망하게한다. 12

13 [ EBS ] 2021 학년도수특영독 7. [ 01 강 07 번 ] 다음빈칸에들어갈말로가장적절한것은? 42) The bottlenose dolphin is second only to humans in the ratio of brain size to body size, and dolphins apparently outdo humans in some cooperative games. The discussions of cartels and the prisoner s dilemma convey the value and difficulty of cooperation among players when there is an incentive to cheat. Individual cartel members undermine cooperative strategies by selling more than they should, hoping nobody will notice. Firms that can t cooperate on pricing or environmental strategies end up taking actions with inferior outcomes. Dolphins face similar dilemmas. When eating from a school of fish, dolphins encircle the fish and take turns eating, one dolphin at a time. There is an incentive for the circling dolphins to cheat by eating while on duty. However, if a significant number of dolphins followed that incentive, the fish would and the benefits from coordination would be lost. In reality, the trustworthiness of on-duty dolphins prevails to benefit all of dolphin society. 1 flock 2 jostle 3 amass 4 swarm 5 disperse [ SUMMARY ] n when there is an i 43) to c 44) - u 45) cooperative strategies - can t cooperate end up taking actions with i 46) outcomes - the b 47) from coordination would be lost Humans are not as capable as dolphins when it comes to suppressing the desire to cheat to gain an advantage. [ VOCABULARY ] bottlenose dolphin second only to ratio apparently outdo cooperative cooperation convey incentive cheat undermine end up ~ing inferior superior outcome face school encircle take turns coordination prevail flock jostle amass swarm disperse suppress [ TRANSLATION ] n 병코돌고래는몸크기에대한뇌크기의비율에서인간에버금가고, 돌고래는몇몇협동적게임에서인간 을능가하는듯하다. 카르텔과죄수의딜레마에대해논하는것은속이고자하는동기가있을때참여자들사이에서협동의가치와어려움을전한다. 개개의카르텔구성원들은아무도알아차리지않기를바라면서자기들이팔아야할것보다더많이팖으로써협동전략을서서히약화시킨다. 가격책정이나환경전략에서협동할수없는회사들은결국질이낮은결과를얻는행동을하게된다. 돌고래도비슷한딜레마에직면한다. 물고기떼를잡아먹을때, 돌고래들은물고기를에워싸고한번에돌고래한마리씩교대로먹는다. 원을그리며도는돌고래들이임무를수행하고있는동안먹이를잡아먹음으로써속이려는동기가있다. 하지만만약상당수의돌고래들이그런동기를따르면, 물고기는흩어질것이고조직화로부터얻는이익은사라질것이다. 실제로는임무를수행하고있는돌고래의신뢰성이우세하여돌고래사회의모두에게이익이된다. 42) 5 43) incentive 44) cheat 45) undermine 46) inferior 47) benefits 13

14 [ 에이든노트 ] 전략과전술 : EBS 8. [ 01 강 08 번 ] 다음빈칸에들어갈말로가장적절한것은? 48) [ VOCABULARY ] colleague illusion reveal make sense of scatter cluster array evolve ease inclined jugis at the drop of a hat ultrasound fetus deity parade divine attentive on the ball unenlightened surroundings As my colleague Richard Gregory has argued, illusions like the missing-square pattern reveal that the mind is not. Our minds are actively trying to make sense of the world by thinking of the best explanation. For example, if someone took a handful of coffee beans and scattered them across a table in front of you, you would immediately see patterns. Some beans would instantly cluster together into groups as you simply looked at the array. Have you ever watched the clouds on a summer s day turn into faces and animals? You can t stop yourself because your mind has evolved to organize and see structure. The ease with which we see faces in particular has led to the idea that we are inclined to see supernatural characters at the drop of a hat. Each year some bagel, muffin, burnt toast, potato chip, or even ultrasound of a fetus showing the face of some deity is paraded as evidence for divine miracles. 1 lazy 2 attentive 3 on the ball 4 unenlightened 5 concerned with its surroundings [ SUMMARY ] n illusions like the missing-square pattern reveal that the mind is not 49) - our minds are a 50) trying to make sense of the world by thinking of the best explanation the clouds turn into faces and animals - mind has e 51) to organize and see s 52) - the ease with which we see faces in particular i 53) to see supernatural characters at the drop of a hat The human mind is constantly trying to make sense of the randomness in the world this is because our minds have evolved to organize and see structure. [ TRANSLATION ] n 내동료 Richard Gregory 가주장해왔듯이, 사라진사각형무늬와같은착각은마음이게으르지않다는 48) 1 49) lazy(= 게으른 ) 50) actively 51) evolved 52) structure 53) inclined 것을나타낸다. 우리의마음은가장나은설명을생각해서세상을이해하려고적극적으로노력하고있다. 예를들어, 만약누군가가커피콩을한움큼집어여러분앞에있는테이블위에뿌리면, 여러분은즉시무늬를보게될것이다. 여러분이단순히그배열을볼때일부의콩이즉시함께모여집단을이룰것이다. 여러분은여름날의구름이얼굴과동물로변하는것을본적이있는가? 여러분의마음은구조를구성하고보도록진화해왔으므로여러분은자신을막을수없다. 우리가특히얼굴을쉽게보기때문에우리는즉각적으로초자연적인인물들을보는경향이있다는생각에이르렀다. 해마다어떤신의얼굴을보여주는어떤베이글, 머핀, 탄토스트, 감자칩, 혹은태아의초음파까지도신의기적에대한증거로과시된다. 14

15 [ EBS ] 2021 학년도수특영독 9. [ 01 강 09 번 ] 다음빈칸에들어갈말로가장적절한것은? 54) As the ancient skeptics taught, contentment is possible without the need to cling to comforting beliefs. As proof, we have the example of David Hume, who lived an entirely admirable life without any belief in the supernatural. His personal example shows that nobody need feel because life has no ultimate purpose, or because conventional conceptions of moral responsibility are built on foundations of sand. So what if our fine feelings and intellectual achievements are just the stretching and turning of so many springs or wheels, or our value systems are mirrored by those of chimpanzees and baboons. Our feelings are no less fine, and our values no less precious because the stories we have traditionally told ourselves about why we hold them turn out to be fables. In discarding the metaphysical baggage with which the human race bolstered its youthful sense of self-importance, Hume taught us that we throw away nothing but a set of intellectual chains. 1 elated 2 gloomy 3 surprised 4 vivacious 5 astonished [ SUMMARY ] n c 55) is possible without the need to cling to c 56) beliefs in d 57) the metaphysical baggage with which the human race bolstered its youthful sense of self-importance = we throw away nothing but a set of i 58) chains [ VOCABULARY ] skeptic contentment cling to comforting admirable the supernatural ultimate conventional conception stretching be mirrored by baboon fable baggage self-importance nothing but intellectual elated gloomy vivacious astonished hang onto(= keep = retain) strip away reinforce release nothing more than Happiness is possible without the need to hang onto comforting beliefs, if we follow the example set by David Hume and strip away the things that reinforce the sense of self-importance in the human race we release ourselves from nothing more than a set of intellectual chains. [ TRANSLATION ] n 고대회의론자들이가르쳤듯이, 만족은위로가되는믿음에매달리지않아도가능하다. 그증거로, 우리는 초자연적인존재에대한어떠한믿음도없이완전히존경스러운삶을살았던 David Hume의사례를가지고있다. 그의개인적인사례는삶이궁극적인목적을가지고있지않다고해서, 혹은도덕적책임의전통적인개념이모래의기초위에세워졌다고해서아무도우울하게느낄필요가없다는것을보여준다. 그래서우리의섬세한감정과지적성취가단지너무도많은스프링이나바퀴의신축과회전이라한들, 혹은우리의가치체계가침팬지와개코원숭이의가치체계와흡사한들무슨상관인가. 우리가우리의감정이나가치관을유지하는이유에대하여우리스스로에게전통적으로말해왔던이야기들이꾸며낸이야기로판명되었다고해서우리의감정이덜섬세한것도아니고가치관이덜소중한것도아니다. Hume은우리에게인류가그어린자존감을지지했던형이상학적인낡은생각을버릴때, 우리는한낱일련의지적사슬에불과한것을버린다고가르쳤다. 54) 2 55) contentment 56) comforting 57) discarding 58) intellectual 15

16 [ 에이든노트 ] 전략과전술 : EBS 10. [ 01 강 10 번 ] 다음빈칸에들어갈말로가장적절한것은? 59) [ VOCABULARY ] advance synthesize fragmented Dane electric current surround magnetic field wind live electromagnet string vibrate attach membrane trace orderly assorted scattered diverse affiliated disjointed disciplined combine The history of science and human invention is full of examples of important advances resulting from synthesizing previously fragmented ideas. One such process began in 1820 when a Dane, H. C. Oersted, discovered that a wire carrying an electric current was surrounded by a magnetic field. In 1825 an Englishman, W. Sturgeon, wound a live wire around an iron bar and created an electromagnet. In 1859 a German pianist and scientist, H. von Helmholtz, discovered he could make piano strings vibrate by singing to them. Later a Frenchman, L. Scott, attached a thin stick to a membrane. When he spoke to the membrane, the other end of the stick would trace a record of his voice sounds on a piece of smoked glass. In 1874 a Scotsman from Canada, working in Cambridge, Massachusetts, put these elements into one instrument. The instrument was the telephone and the man was Alexander Graham Bell. 1 unfinished 2 orderly and assorted 3 scattered and diverse 4 connected and affiliated 5 disjointed and disciplined [ SUMMARY ] n science and human i 60) - important advances resulting from s 61) p 62) f 63) ideas put these 64) elements into one instrument - the telephone Many important advances in science and human invention have come from combining previous discoveries. [ TRANSLATION ] n 과학과인간발명의역사는전에는단편적이었던아이디어를종합한결과로생긴중요한발전의사례로 59) 3 60) invention 61) synthesizing 62) previously 63) fragmented 64) scattered and diverse(= 흩어져있고다양한 ) 가득하다. 그런과정하나가덴마크인 H. C. Oersted가전류를흐르게하는전선이자기장으로둘러싸인다는것을발견했던 1820년에시작되었다. 1825년영국인 W. Sturgeon은쇠막대둘레에전류가흐르는전선을감아서전자석을만들어냈다. 1859년에독일의피아니스트이자과학자인 H. von Helmholtz는피아노현을향하여노래를부름으로써그것들을진동시킬수있다는것을발견했다. 후에프랑스인 L. Scott 는가느다란막대를얇은막에붙였다. 그가얇은막에말할때막대기의반대편끝은연기로그을린유리판에그의음성을선으로기록하곤했다. 1874년에 Massachusetts 주의 Cambridge 시에서일하는캐나다출신의스코틀랜드사람이흩어져있는다양한이요소들을모아하나의도구를만들었다. 그도구가전화기였으며그남자는 Alexander Graham Bell이었다. 16

17 [ EBS ] 2021 학년도수특영독 11. [ 01 강 11 번 ] 다음빈칸에들어갈말로가장적절한것은? 65) There have been vigorous arguments among biologists about whether complicated goal-directed behaviour among higher mammals is reliable evidence for their consciousness. Indeed the admission of consciousness into animal research is quite a recent phenomenon. Injury-avoidance behaviour is often based on reflexes, and it is not completely obvious that the inner sensation of pain must be attached to it. Even in our own case pain is often felt only after the limb has been moved away. Again, many birds build sophisticated nests entirely instinctively, and may or may not be of what they are doing. At the other end of the animal kingdom octopuses and squid have entirely different brain anatomies from ourselves and our common ancestor probably had no brains at all. Nevertheless they are capable of learning and memorizing facts for months. If they are to be included in the realm of conscious beings, this indicates that consciousness does not depend upon a particular type of brain anatomy. 1 familiar 2 ignorant 3 informed 4 conscious 5 competent [ VOCABULARY ] vigorous reliable admission phenomenon avoidance reflex obvious sensation attach limb sophisticated entirely jugis instinctively anatomy ancestor be capable of realm ignorant competent [ SUMMARY ] prove n - whether complicated goal-directed behaviour among higher mammals is reliable evidence for their c 66) - the admission of consciousness into animal research - many birds build sophisticated nests entirely instinctively, and may or may not be 67) of what they are doing - octopuses and squid have entirely d 68) brain anatomies c 69) of learning and memorizing facts for months if they are to be included in the r 70) of conscious beings, this indicates that consciousness does not depend upon a p 71) type of brain anatomy As the introduction of consciousness into animal research is recent, biologists cannot agree on what behaviors are reliable evidence to prove the existence of consciousness. [ TRANSLATION ] n 생물학자들사이에서고등포유동물들사이의복잡한목표지향적행동이그것들이의식이있다고믿을 만한증거인지에관한활발한논쟁이있었다. 사실동물연구에서의식을인정하는것은꽤최근의현상이다. 부상-회피행동은흔히반사작용에근거하며, 통증이라는내적감각이틀림없이그것과연관되어있다는것은완전히확실하지는않다. 우리자신의경우에서조차도, 통증은흔히팔다리가잘린 후 에야비로소느껴진다. 게다가많은새는완전히본능적으로정교한둥지를짓는데, 자기들이하고있는것을의식할수도있고의식하지않을수도있다. 동물세계의다른쪽끝의문어와오징어는우리자신과는완전히다른뇌의해부학적구조를가지고있고, 우리의공통된조상은아마도뇌가전혀없었을것이다. 그런데도그들은사실을배우고몇달동안기억할수있다. 만약그것들이의식적인존재의영역에포함된다면, 이것은의식이특정한유형의뇌의해부학적구조에달려있지않다는것을보여준다. 65) 4 66) consciousness 67) conscious(= 의식하는 ) 68) different 69) capable 70) realm 71) particular 17

18 [ 에이든노트 ] 전략과전술 : EBS 12. [ 01 강 12 번 ] 다음빈칸에들어갈말로가장적절한것은? 72) [ VOCABULARY ] in regard to countless avenue depict auditory equitable multicultural ensure heritage expose holistic draw upon build upon engage passion interaction address analysis overload The cultural area is where the sky is truly the limit in regard to music. There are countless examples. Music is a wonderful avenue to introduce cultures from around the world. The many recordings depicting the traditional music of each culture are readily available for teachers to add to their collection. Also, musical recordings of the various instruments from countries around the world provide children with an auditory and visual. It is important to include an equitable balance of multicultural materials in the classroom to ensure that each child s heritage is represented and all children are exposed to the heritage of other cultures. Today the holistic classroom method draws and builds upon what the child already knows, engaging the child since one learns best when passion and interaction are at play and also addressing the needs of the whole child. Learning begins with the whole, progresses through to analysis of the parts, and finishes full circle with the whole picture. 1 overload 2 experience 3 understanding 4 emotional response 5 representation of culture [ SUMMARY ] n musical recordings of the various instruments from countries around the world - provide children with an auditory and visual 73) important to include an e 74) balance of multicultural materials - to ensure that each child s h 75) is represented and all children are e 76) to the heritage of other cultures learning begins with the whole, progresses through to analysis of the p 77), and finishes full circle with the w 78) picture Music plays an important role in exposing people to different cultures around the world. [ TRANSLATION ] n 문화의분야는음악에관해서는사실하늘이한계인곳이다. 셀수없이많은사례가있다. 음악은전세 72) 5 73) representation of culture(= 문화의표현 ) 74) equitable 75) heritage 76) exposed 77) parts 78) whole 계의문화를소개하는훌륭한수단이다. 각문화의전통음악을표현하는많은기록물은교사들이자신들의수집품에추가할수있도록쉽게구할수있다. 또한, 세계각국의다양한악기들의음악녹음자료는아이들에게문화의청각적그리고시각적표현을제공한다. 반드시각아이들의문화유산이표현되고모든아이들이다른문화의유산을경험하도록하기위해교실에공평한균형있는다문화자료를포함하는것이중요하다. 오늘날총체적교실기법은아이가열정과상호작용이작용하고있을때가장잘배우기때문에그아이를끌어들이고또한전인적인아이의요구사항을다루면서그아이가이미알고있는것을이용하고발전시킨다. 학습은 전체 로시작하여부분을분해하는데까지계속진행되어한바퀴완전히돌아 전체 그림으로끝난다. 18

19 [ EBS ] 2021 학년도수특영독 13. [ 비연계 ] 다음글의내용을한문장으로요약하고자한다. (A) 와 (B) 에들어갈말로 가장적절한것을적으시오. 79) [ VOCABULARY ] mug logo participant option identical prefer strategically presumably frame compensating quote median * 출처 : In one well-known study, Kahneman and colleagues presented a coffee mug with a university logo to one group of participants ( sellers ) and told them the mug was theirs to keep, then asked these participants whether they would sell the mug back to them at various prices. A second group of participants ( choosers ) were told that they could have the option of receiving an identical mug or an amount of money and asked which they preferred at various prices. Although both groups were placed in strategically identical situations (walk away with a mug or money), the sellers, who presumably framed the choice as a loss of a mug against a compensating gain of money, quoted a median price of $7.12, whereas the choosers, who presumably framed the choice as a gain of a mug against a gain of money, quoted a median price of $3.12. People set a (A) price for a compensation for a loss than a payment for a product, which reflects the tendency of people adding more value to their (B). [ SUMMARY ] n sellers - given a mug than given a choice to sell it vs. choosers - given a choice between receiving the mug or an amount of money they think it is a 80) for the product sellers set a 81) price than the choosers = people tend to add more value to their 82) [ TRANSLATION ] n 소유자와선택자가매기는사물의가치 = loss aversion( 손실회피 ) 잘알려진한연구에서 Kahneman과그의동료들은한그룹의참가자들 ( 판매자들 ) 에게어느대학의로고가그려진커피머그잔을제공하면서그들에게그머그잔이그들의소유물건이되었다고말한다음, 이참가자들에게다양한가격으로그머그잔을그들에게되팔지여부를물었다. 두번째그룹의참가자들 ( 선택자들 ) 은그들이동일한머그잔을받거나또는일정한금액을받는것에대한선택권을가질수있다는말을들은후그들이다양한가격에서어느선택을더선호하는지를질문받았다. 두그룹모두전략적으로동일한상황 ( 머그잔을갖고가느냐또는돈을갖고가느냐 ) 에놓였을지라도, 판매자들은추측컨대그선택을머그잔분실대금전적보상이익으로표현하여평균적으로가격을 7.12달러로매겼고, 그반면에선택자들은추측컨대그선택을머그잔획득대금전적이익으로표현하여평균적으로가격을 3.12달러로매겼다. 79) (A) higher (B) possessions 80) appropriate 81) higher 82) possessions 19

20 [ 에이든노트 ] 전략과전술 : EBS MICRO READING [ 01 강 01 번 ] 음악의기능 establish 규명하다 origin 기원 probable ( 어떤일이 ) 있을 [ 사실일 ] 것같은, 개연성있는 prosodic 운율적인 exchange 대화 foster 촉진하다, 발전시키다 bond 유대, 인연 capacity 능력 conceptual 개념적인 convey 전달하다 retain 유지하다 significance 중요성 cement 강화하다 accustomed to ~ 에익숙한 liable to ~ 하기쉬운 predominantly 대개, 대부분 communal 공동의 ritual 의식 warfare 전쟁 accompaniment 수반되는것 collective 집단적인 adjunct 부속물, 부가물 ceremony 의식 occasion 행사 play ~ 한역할을하다 1 [ 영작 ] 가 S It V will never be C possible / 진 S [ to establish the origins of human music with any certainty ]; / however, 가 S it V seems C probable / 진 S [ that(= 접속사 ) S' music V' developed { from the prosodic exchanges / between mother and infant } / { which(= the prosodic exchanges) foster the bond between them(= mother and infant) } ]. 절대가능하지않을것이다 / 인간의음악의기원을확실하게규명하는것은 / 하지만, (~ 인 ) 것으로보인다 / 음악은운율적대화에서생겨났을것으로 / 엄마와아기사이의 / [ 빈칸 ] 그들사이의유대를촉진하는 2 From this(= the prosodic exchanges between mother and infant), / it(= music) became a form of communication / between adult human beings. 이로부터 / 그것은의사소통의한형태가되었다 / 어른이된인간사이의 n [ NOTE ] 시간이흘러도유대관계를강화하는중요기능은유지함! 3 As the capacity for speech and conceptual thought developed, / S music V 1 became C less important / [ as a way of conveying information ], / but V 2 retained O its(= music s) significance / [ as a way of communicating feelings and cementing bonds between individuals, / especially in group situations ]. 말과개념적사고를할수있는능력이발달함에따라 / 음악은덜중요해졌다 / 정보를전달하는방법으로 / 하지만 [ 빈칸 / 어휘 ] 그것의중요성을유지했다 / 개인간의감정을전하고유대관계를강화하는방법으로서 / 특히집단적인상황에서 4 [ 영작 ] Today, / S we V are so accustomed to considering O the response of the individual to music / [ that(= 접속사 = 결과부사절 ) S' we V' are C' liable to forget / { that(= 접속사 ), < for most of its history >, S'' music V'' has been predominantly C'' a group activity } ]. 오늘날 / 우리는음악에대한 [ 빈칸 ] 개인의반응을고려하는데너무나익숙해서 / 우리는 [ 어휘 ] 잊기쉽다 / 대부분의음악의역사에서음악이대개집단적인활동이었음을 5 S Music V began / by serving communal purposes, / [ of which(= communal purposes) S' religious ritual and warfare V' are C' two examples ]. 음악은시작되었다 / [ 어휘 ] 공동의목적에이바지함으로써 / 종교의식과전쟁이그것의두가지사례이다 6 It(= music) has continued to be used / as an accompaniment to collective activities; / as an adjunct to social ceremonies and public occasions. 그것 ( 음악 ) 은계속이용되었다 / [ 빈칸 / 어휘 ] 집단적인활동에수반되는것으로 / 즉, 사회적의식과공적인행사의부속물로 [ MAIN IDEA ] Historically music played an important roll of conveying information, however, as humans developed the capacity for speech conveying information through music became less important, but music still retains its importance of conveying feelings and forming bonds between individuals. 20

21 [ EBS ] 2021 학년도수특영독 [ 01 강 02 번 ] 교사의불완전함 1 As much as S we V want to believe / O [ that(= 접속사 ) S' students V' learn O' everything { ( that = everything ) we try to teach } ], S we V must admit O [ that(= 접속사 ) S' we V' aren t C' perfect { as teachers } ]. 우리가믿고싶은만큼이나 / 학생들이우리가가르치려고애쓰는모든것을배운다고 / 우리는인정해야한다 / 자신이교사로서완벽하지않다는것을 [ 글의순서 A ] : 사실 = 재진술 ( 강조-부연설명 ) [ NOTE ] 1 교사로서완벽하지않다는것을인정 = 2 불완전함을인식 3 실수만회가능인식중요! 2 [ 영작 ] In fact, S [ recognizing our fallibility ] / V is said to be one characteristic / [ that(= one characteristic) separates { great teachers of diverse students } from { those teachers < who are just adequate > } ]. 사실 / 우리의불완전함을인식하는것이 / 한가지특징이라고한다 / 다양한학생들을가르치는위대한교사를겨우그만그만한교사와구별하는 3 S [ Recognizing { that(= 접속사 ) S' you V' 1 can make O' mistakes < as a teacher > and V 2 constantly strive to recover < from those failings > } ] / V is C significant. 교사로서실수할수있고그결함으로부터 [ 어휘 ] 회복하기위해끊임없이노력할수있다는것을인식하는것이 / 중요하다 [ 글의순서 B ] : 만약 = 예시-부연설명 [ NOTE ] 4 실수 / 결함발견시 2가지반응 5 반응 1(= 실수인정 X) 6 반응 2(= 실수인정 O) 4 If S you V use O preconcept and postconcept mapping exercises [ with your students ] / and S you V discover / O [ that(= 접속사 ) S' some of the gaps { appearing at the beginning } / V' persisted { until the end } ], / then S you V have O a couple of ways of responding. 만약학생들과 ( 어떤단원학습 ) 이전과이후에학생이지닌개념도작성하기활동을이용하고 / 알게된다면 / 처음에나타난일부공백이 / 끝까지계속존재한다는것을 / 여러분이반응하는두어가지방식이있다 n [ NOTE ] 반응 1 [ 문장삽입 ] admit 인정하다 recognize 인식하다 fallibility 불완전함, 실수할수있음 characteristic 특징 separate ~ from... ~ 을 와구별하다 adequate 그만그만한, 그만하면괜찮은 strive 노력하다 recover from ~ 로부터회복하다 failing 결함 significant 중요한 preconcept and postconcept mapping ( 어떤단원학습 ) 이전과이후의개념도작성하기 exercise ( 특정한목적을위한 ) 활동 gap 공백, 틈 persist 계속존재하다 invoke ( 생각등을 ) 불러내다 potential 잠재적인 translate into 결과로 ~ 을낳다 odd 이상한 suspect ~ 하지않을까하고생각하다 enhance 향상시키다 assessment 평가 clear up ~ 을해결하다 confusion 혼란 reflect 반영하다 ameliorate 개선하다 5 S One thought [ that(= one thought) too many teachers invoke ] V is C [ that(= 접속 사 ) S' the kids V' 1 were C' lazy and V' 2 didn t care ]. 아주많은교사가불러내는한가지생각은 / 아이들이게을렀고신경을쓰지않았다는것이다 [ 글의순서 C ] : 그러나 = 대조사례 6 [ 영작 ] But for [ teachers { who are able to accept their potential fallibility } ], / S the disappointment [ about the results ] / V translates into O clearly identified areas [ for improvement ]. 그러나자신의 [ 빈칸 ] 잠재적인불완전함을받아들일수있는교사의경우에는 / 그결과에대한실망은 / 분명하게확인된 [ 어휘 ] 개선할영역을결과로낳는다 [ MAIN IDEA ] If a teacher is able to admit and identify that they aren't perfect and students test results reflect the teacher's ability, then these results can be used to identify where that teacher can ameliorate. 7 [ As odd as this may sound ], / [ when S you V suspect O { that(= 접속사 ) S' you V' have O' the potential < to enhance your teaching > } ], / S assessment results V can help ( O ) OC [ clear up any confusion / { about < where(= 의문사 ) S' you V' might begin to make O' changes > } ]. 이상하게들릴지도모르지만 / 여러분의가르치기를향상시킬가능성이있지않을까하고 [ 어휘 ] 생각할때 / [ 의미 ] 평가결과 (= 불완전함을인정하고받아들인결과 ) 는혼란을해결하는데도움이될수있다 / 어디서변화를주기시작해야할지에관한 n [ NOTE ] preconcept and postconcept mapping : concept mapping은 개념도만들기 활동을말한다. concept map은 개념도 를말하고어떤주제에대한지식을체계적으로정리하여보여주는일종의 인식의지도 이다. preconcept and postconcept mapping은어떤단원에서다룰주제에관해수업이전에가지고있던개념도만들기와그단원에서다룬주제에관해수업이끝난후에갖게된개념도만들기활동을말한다. 21

22 [ 에이든노트 ] 전략과전술 : EBS [ 01 강 03 번 ] 어휘선택 extend 확장되다 beyond ~ 저편에 [ 너머 ] local 국지적인 insight 통찰력 craft 기교 in part 부분적으로 mindful of ~ 을유념하는 be challenged to ~ 하도록요구되다 perspective 관점 document 기록 concept 개념 article 논문, 기사 technical 전문적인 establish 정하다 mood 분위기 tone 어조 artful 솜씨좋은 rhetorical 수사적효과를노린 the Declaration of Independence 미국독립선언서 hold ( 신념 의견등을 ) 가지다 self-evident 자명한 endow 부여하다 inalienable 빼앗을수없는 pursuit 추구 subtly 미묘하게 shift 바꾸다 acknowledge 인정하다 seemingly 겉보기에 profoundly 대단히, 극도로, 깊이 analysis 분석 interpretation 해석 1 [ 영작 ] S Vocabulary knowledge V extends [ beyond the local meaning of a sentence or paragraph ]; / S it V provides O insight [ into { how(= 의문사 ) S' the text V' works < more broadly > } ]. 어휘지식은문장이나문단의국지적인의미를넘어확장된다 / 그것은 [ 어휘 ] 더포괄적으로글이작동하는방식에대한통찰력을제공한다 2 The craft and structure of a text is understood in part / by being mindful of the choices [ ( that = the choices ) the writer makes / in word selection ]. 글의기교와구조는부분적으로이해된다 / 글쓴이가하는선택을유념함으로써 / [ 빈칸 ] 단어를고를때 3 [ 영작 ] Students are challenged to view the text as a whole / [ in order to understand { the perspectives of the writer, / as in a historical document }, / or { the concepts < related in a scientific article or technical reading > } ]. 학생들은글을전체적으로볼것이요구된다 / 글쓴이의관점을이해하기위해서 / 역사의기록에서처럼 / 혹은과학논문이나전문적인서적에서관련된개념을 ( 이해하기위해 ) 4 S Writers [ V establish O mood and tone { by the artful selection of words and phrases } ] / and [ V link O them { to rhetorical purposes }, { especially in history } ]. 글쓴이는단어와구절을 [ 어휘 ] 솜씨좋게선택함으로써분위기와어조를정하고 / 그것들을수사학적인목적에연결시키는데, 특히역사에서그러하다 n [ NOTE ] 4 단어및구절의선택이분위기를바꿈 5 부연설명 = [ 문장삽입 ] 6, 7 their 설명 5 For instance, / consider the use of the word their / [ in the first sentence of the Declaration of Independence ]: / S We V hold O these truths OC to be self-evident, / [ that(= 동격 = these truths) S' (= O') all men V' are created OC' equal ], [ that(= 동격 = these truths) S' they V' are endowed, { by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights } ], [ that(= 동격 = these truths) among these(= certain inalienable Rights) V' are S' Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness ]. 예를들어 / their 라는단어의사용에대해생각해보라 / 미국독립선언서의첫문장에있는 / 우리는다음과같은진실이자명하다는생각을갖고있다 / 모든인간은평등하게창조되었고 / 그들의 창조주가그들에게어떤빼앗을수없는권리를부여했으며 / 이런권리중에는삶, 자유그리고행복추구가있다 6 Their, not the. the 가아니라 their 이다 [ MAIN IDEA ] Vocabulary knowledge provides insight into how the text works more broadly, however being mindful of the vocabulary choices the writer makes is also important in understanding the text as a whole. 7 One word(= their) subtly shifts the meaning / [ to acknowledge the existence of more than one belief system ]. 하나의단어가미묘하게의미를 [ 어휘 ] 바꾼다 / 신앙체계가하나뿐인게아니라여럿존재한다는것을인정하도록 8 [ 영작 ] S [ Seemingly small word choices ] V can profoundly affect O the analysis and interpretation of a reading. 대수롭지않아보이는단어선택이 [ 어휘 ] 대단히영향을미칠수있다 / 어떤읽을거리의분석과해석에 22

23 [ EBS ] 2021 학년도수특영독 [ 01 강 04 번 ] 도덕의 ( 사회적 ) 상대성 1 Ethics itself(= 강조 ) is not primarily concerned with / the description of the moral systems of different societies. 윤리학자체는주된관심이있는게아니다 / 각각다른사회의도덕체계를서술하는것에 2 S That task, [ which(= that task) remains on the level of description ], V is C one for anthropology or sociology. 그과제는 / 서술수준에남아있는 / 인류학이나사회학을위한과제이다 3 In contrast, / ethics deals with / the justification of moral principles / (or with the impossibility of such a justification). 그와대조적으로 / 윤리학은다룬다 / 도덕적원칙의정당성 / ( 또는그런정당화의불가능성을 ) 4 [ 영작 ] Nevertheless, / S ethics V must take note of O the variations [ in moral systems ], / because 가 S it V has often been claimed 진 S [ that(= 접속사 ) this variety shows { that(= 접속사 ) S' morality V' is simply C' a matter of < S'' what V'' is C'' customary > } and { that(= 접속사 ) S'' it thus V'' is always C'' relative to particular societies } ]. 그럼에도불구하고 / 윤리학은도덕체계안에서의차이를주목해야한다 / 왜냐하면흔히주장되었기때문이다 / 이다양함은보여준다고 / 도덕이그저관습적인문제이고 / 그래서그것이항상 [ 어휘 ] 특정한사회와관련이있다는것을 5 [ 영작 ] According to this view, / S no moral principle V can be C valid / [ except in the societies { in which(= the societies) S' it(= moral principle) V' is held } ]. 이견해에따르면 / 어떤도덕적원칙도타당할수없다 / 그것을보유한사회이외에서는 ethics 윤리 ( 학 ) primarily 주로 concerned with ~ 에관심있는 description 서술, 묘사, 기술 ( 記述 ) anthropology 인류학 sociology 사회학 justification 정당성, 정당화 moral 도덕적인 principle 원칙 take note of ~ 을주목하다 variation 차이, 변화 claim 주장하다 a matter of ~ 의문제 customary 관습적인 relative to ~ 에관하여 particular 특정한 valid 타당한 hold 가지고있다, 보유하다 approved 입증된, 인가된 disapproved 입증되지않은 rationally 이성적으로, 합리적으로 justifiable 정당한, 타당한 illusion 환상 6 S Words [ such as good and bad ] V just mean, [ it is claimed ], C approved [ in my society ] or C disapproved [ in my society ], and so S [ to search for an objective, or rationally justifiable, ethics ] V is C [ to search for { S' what V' is, < in fact >, C' an illusion ]. 선한 그리고 악한 과같은단어는의미할따름이다 / 그것은주장된다 / 내가속한사회에서인정되는 또는 내가사는사회에서인정되지않는다는 것을 / 그래서 [ 빈칸 ] 객관적인, 즉이성적으로정당화할수있는윤리를찾는것은 / 사실상 [ 어휘 ] 환상을찾는것이라고 [ MAIN IDEA ] Ethics is the justification of what is right and wrong, good or bad. However, ethics must consider the differences in moral systems, as these differences shows morality is a matter of what is accepted. Yet, what is acceptable is always relative to particular societies. 23

24 [ 에이든노트 ] 전략과전술 : EBS [ 01 강 05 번 ] 소셜미디어와자존감 destructiveness 해로움 idealize 이상화하다 presentation 공개, 제시 twofold 두부분 [ 요소 ] 으로된, 이중적인 glowing 찬란한, 찬사로가득한 status update 상태업데이트 jugis flawed 결함있는 judge 판단 [ 심판 ] 하다 self-worth 자존감 in comparison to ~ 와비교해서 put forth ~ 을제시하다 genuine 진짜인 pretend to ~ 인척하다 made-up 꾸며낸 performance 수행, 성과 self-esteem 자존감 fake ~ 인척하다 nonword 존재하지않는단어 portray 묘사하다, 보여주다 positivity 확신, 적극성, 명확한것 1 S The destructiveness [ of idealized social media presentation ] V is C twofold. 이상화된소셜미디어의 ( 자기 ) 공개가가지는해로움은두가지측면이있다 n [ NOTE ] ~ 할때 = 부연설명 = 예시 [ 측면 ] 1 2 [ 영작 ] [ When S people V read O the glowing status updates of others ], / S they V are likely to feel C worse / [ about their own flawed lives ], / especially if S they V are C [ the type of people { S' who(= people) V' tend to judge O' their self-worth < in comparison to others > } ]. 사람들이다른사람들의 [ 어휘 ] 찬란한상태업데이트를읽을때 / 그들은더좋지않게느낄가능성이있는데 / 자신의결함있는삶에대해 / 특히그들이남과비교해서자신의자존감을판단하는경향이있는유형의사람인경우에그러하다 n [ NOTE ] 게다가 = ~ 할때 = 예시 [ 측면 ] 2 = [ 문장삽입 ] 4 연구에서 ~ = 부연설명 = 예시 3 In addition, / when S people V put forth O [ a version of themselves { that(= a version of themselves) is not genuine } ], / S they V can actually feel C bad about themselves. 게다가 / 사람들은 [ 빈칸 / 어휘 ] 진짜가아닌자신의모습을제시할때 / 자신에대해실제로좋지않게느낄수있다 4 In one study, / S some college students V had to pretend to understand O made-up words (e.g., besionary) / [ to complete a test ], / while S others V did not ( have to pretend to understand made-up words to complete a test ). 한연구에서 / 일부대학생들은꾸며낸단어 ( 예를들면, besionary) 를이해하는 [ 어휘 ] 척해야했다 / 시험을끝마치기위해 / 다른대학생들은그럴필요가없었던한편 5 Afterward, both groups were praised for their performance. 그후에두집단모두그들의수행에대해칭찬을받았다 6 [ 영작 ] S The praise V 1 raised O the self-esteem of those [ who(= those = students) did not have to fake understanding of nonwords ], / but V 2 lowered O the self-esteem of the students [ who(= students) pretended to understand them(= nonwords) ]. 그칭찬은존재하지않는단어를이해하는척할필요가없었던학생들의자존감은높였다 / 그러나그것을이해하는척했던학생들의자존감은 [ 어휘 ] 낮추었다 n [ NOTE ] in other words = 다시말해 : 재차언급 (= 재진술 ) = 강조효과 = 글을읽는사람들이꼭이해했으면하는내용이라는 signal!!! = 중심내용! 7 [ 영작 ] In other words, / when S people V portray O [ their life { as better than S' it(= their life) V' actually is < on social media > } ], / S [ all of the likes { ( that = all of the likes ) they get for their status updates and pictures } ] / V may actually make O them OC [ feel worse about themselves ]. 달리말하자면 / 사람들이소셜미디어에서자신의삶을실제있는그대로보다 [ 어휘 ] 더낫게보여줄때 / 그들의상태업데이트와사진에대해그들이받는모든 좋아요 는 / 사실상그들이자신에대해 [ 어휘 ] 더좋지않게느끼게만들지도모른다 [ MAIN IDEA ] * 출처 : When people portray their life as being better than it is on social media platforms, all of the positivity they receive through "likes" may in fact make them feel worse about themselves and their current situation. 24