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1 w CAD/CAM wz 13«1y pp w v X3D w l xv *, **, w *** An Underwater Simulator Using X3D and a Motion Chair in a Multi-channel Display Room Pilwon Hur*, Jeongsam Yang** and Soonhung Han*** ABSTRACT 5 hyg u q s p yuxu g qg hqig q r u i rupq ugxu g p u uyupg u s q Ttq qr q gu u s g rust q t yg q ˆq hyg u q u ˆq uy g 6qig q hyg u q u ˆq q q uˆq g p tg qsu gx g p qy gx xuyu g u GSG pqxu s g p Suy xg u ig hq g s p gx q g uˆq B qˆq g tq q u u s GS qy r hyg u q sq q gxx q q q uˆq i yyq iugx r g q g p pqpuig qp tg p g q tuit ig q tq g rust q gwq hxq ˆu u tq qi qp xgiq g p tq gu tqy qxˆq p u s xuyu qp uyq x 5x yg GS qy tgˆq x qitg qxpu xg qy tuit qp iq tq q q r uyyq uˆq q 5 tq hxqy u tg yg tq q sq q uy xg ig tg px hq qp g g u qs g qp qy T xˆq tq q hxqy X!8 g xg r yu pq q pq g p q g pg p s g tui ruxq r yg u qp u t tq sq q gx q P7 T u i qg q uyyq uˆq q y x uitg qx pu xg qy g p g y u itgu g q gxx BF5RTC u qp u qs g qu puˆup gxi y q r tq uy xg 5xx r tq qg qˆq uruqp t stq q uyq Key words : Modeling and simulation, Motion chair, Multi-channel, underwater vehicle, X3D 1. w w k» t w»» ù, œ» ƒ w k,» w. w» k w w, w z w q w e. w w j z w. w kš z w y ö w», z ***University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ***, z, w lœw *** z, KAIST» œw - nš : : z ƒ j. w, w ƒ šƒ š, w, š z ù w x. w w z y ƒ x w ã š, w w M&S(Modeling and Simulation). w w w ù š, w š g w d w. M&Sƒ j v w. ù w ww ƒ, y zvw w ƒ š, w kš x w. y M&S w ƒ ww w. ù l 45

2 46 xv,, w w z [1] w ƒ.» w M&S ƒ y w šƒ n w, y w» w w ƒ v w». w w l w» w p w ƒ v w,. w w w w rw y. (1) šƒ l» w M&S ƒ y, w ƒ v s ƒ y l wš, (2) ƒ y ƒ y wì, w š, (3) y l ƒ w v j w, l yy k mw l w.. 2 w, ƒ y w ƒ y, z w M&S w w. 3 l w fs p mww» w, œm v j HLA(High level architecture)», v w. 4 icave y w w l wš, l w xw ƒ y w» w ƒ y 3 ƒ y ƒ yw» w w v wš š, ƒ y w» w w v q s š. OpenGL Direct3D (Low level) v, DDI(Device drive interface) v w ƒà w»,, v w y w x ù y v w. Java» w v JOGL(Java bindings for OpenGL API) C» v OpenGL Java w w, OpenGL v w w. JOGL w OpenGL Direct3D v p. wr, Vega, Java3D, OSG(Open Scene Graph) š (High level) v ƒ y w ƒ y. Vega OpenGL» nk Performer» w k ƒ y nk. Christianson Vega Java3D w w ƒ y w n w [2]. Vega v s š šƒ, (Scene) w v (Frame rate) Java3D w. Java3D v s š w, Vega. Java3D» ƒ y w» w v, OpenGL» Java» nk», v s ƒx ƒ y w ƒ y. v OpenGL d x Java3D, ƒ v w v» š v (Scene graph) w w, g» w. v w,, š w d x ùkü w, yù r w w. Salisbury ƒ y w Java3D w [3]. ù OpenGL ƒ w Java3D w» w, w ù w w ƒ. w OpenGL v w, v ù» Java w ƒ. p Java k, Java3D k š v (building) w, Garbage xkƒ. Java ƒ (Java virtual machine) Garbage collection ww Garbage. Garbage collection w. OSG OpenGL» 3D v nk w. OSG Vega

3 v X3D w l 47 Performer ww» š, w t C++»», v s ƒ w,» ƒ yƒ. w v w, v s ƒ y w. v w VRML97 t 3D ƒ y s. Li p w» ƒ x l w [4]. ƒ y s VRML w š, w EAI(External authoring interface) w. Roberts w y ƒ ƒ y w [5]. ù VRML v w w wš, v w ¾ ƒ š», VRML q j»ƒ j. š y w y w». t SEDRIS l w l š», y l w yw txw w, l s y. y SEDRIS w l w y w [6]. l w y l ƒ w» w SEDRIS, SEDRIS 3D l ƒ y w», ƒ w SEDRIS» w. Web3D f w VRML y X3D(Extensible 3D) XML» w VRML l txw [18,21,22]. VRML97 yy ƒ wš, XML» w», w yƒ ƒ w. w MPEG4 t y œw. š v w ƒ ƒ y, l p x x q š q ƒ w, w ƒ [7]. w w X3D ƒ y w w š [8-11]. ƒ y v w v q s X3D w, OpenGL ù JOGL d v ƒ w w Java3D x Xj3D w, ƒ v s l xw. 2.2 z M&S z, p j ƒ l» w SIMNET(Simulator networking) w [12]. p j xk SIMNET z mw, xw ù xw ƒ y œw. SIMNET» DIS (Distributed interactive simulation), SIMNET ƒ ƒ ƒ w, SIMNET [13] p j ƒ y w. ù DISƒ ƒ š qk(packet) w» w, l j r w. w» DMSO(Defense modeling and simulation office) DIS wš, w l y (Interoperability), fs p (Reuse) ƒ w HLA(High level architecture) w [14,15]. HLA z w w,» vp, IEEE 1516 t. HLA l y š, l ü š [16]. HLA Ÿ w y w l y yy ƒ š ¼ w mw w. w HLA» l wz ƒ l w» š,» fs p w» w v j z HLA e wš, x SIMNET DIS v HLA [16] yw ƒ w š. y w l w» w HLA w. 3. v 3.1 l w l w» w

4 48 xv,, w Fig. 1. Structure of integrated simulation system. ƒ Federate Federate š, w. mw l w» w, 7 IP PC j l (Clustering)w. Fig. 2 w w e q w ¾ w z, w ù w» w l v. Fig. 2. Work process of integrated simulator., y w fs p y w HLA v j w. l Fig. 1, 3 Federate ( l,, v ) š, Federate, IEEE1516 t RTI (Run-time infrastructure) mw. 3 Federate RTI mw l Federation, RTI Federate y»y v w y w. ƒ 3.2 w Federation l l ƒ y w l w m w w w. e p w w e w. w p ¾ w j» w, p w w p ¾ ü. š l, w x e e w z, ƒ y w. Fig. 2 Motion cue ƒ y Visual cue mw q w z, w e w» w p w. p m w ƒ, wƒ, p. ƒ wƒ w w, w e w

5 v X3D w l 49. p p, p»(event handler) mw f. ˆ w e, HLA/RTI mw ƒ y Fig. 2(b) l w ƒ,»», p, w. w x ƒ wš, vl(washout filter) mw ƒ w yw. w, ù» z ƒw, ˆ (Superposition) w ƒ k. 2 (Roll, Pitch) t xw w. COM1 sp 4800 bps Baud rate RS232C m v mg w. w» w p j qk. qk xkƒ 40 4D FE 7F 0A , ƒ x e ƒ». j (Check sum) 14 7 p w ùkü yƒ y w, 7 p w » 14ƒ. ³ v s wù 2, Sway, Heave, Surge, Yaw txw w», w x w w» w vl w. vl v s p txw w, v s w ƒƒ d l(actuator) ƒ w, w. 2, d l z ƒ w, v s» ùkü.» ww w w vl., l e f = ma w w š ƒ w, ƒ txw. ù 2 z ùký, x ùkü w», ƒ txw. ƒ w,» w. x ƒ, ƒ w ù w, kš ù., ƒ ùkü x ƒ ƒ w w, w» ö w š, x ƒ ƒ j w, w» j ö w., x ƒ j»» ùkü. z w ƒw. œ z k, kš Á., z w txw» w,»., j»» ùkü. j» w. = m---- v2 (1) r», m: k v: w w w r: w z vl z w»», w k k (Fig. 2(b) ). Heave ƒ w, q Heave Roll Pitch, ƒ z» w,. w x ƒ,,», Roll Pitch ƒ tx w š, mw Roll Pitch ƒ ƒ y ƒ y l mw w e y ƒ y w. Fig. 2(c) w e Multi-channel manager

6 50 xv,, w w 4 PC Image generator ƒƒ s p(viewpoint) wì ƒ yƒ ƒ w. w ƒ y xw» w, X3D v(scene graph) wš, v x g w. ù X3Ds 3D x ƒ š š, v w» w swwš. X3D v ã» w VRML EAI(External authoring interface)» SAI(Scene access interface) w. SAI Web3D f X3D v ã w API (Application programming interface) [17].. šƒ l ƒ y w w œw, Multi-processor Multi-pipeline w PC w, p j PC j l w z»y w v w. ƒƒ PC ƒ y w v ww z, ƒƒ v»y w w. Fig. 4 w w w, wù ƒ y Viewing frustum y Viewing frustum. y wù ùkü» w, Viewing frustum ƒ z g s p w v w. Fig. 4. Concept of synchronization in a double-channel display. Viewing frustum w ƒ z j» w, Fig. 5 wù y š ƒ w, Aspect ratio y ƒ ùký. Fig. 3. Process to dynamically change X3D scene graph using SAI. Fig. 3 l m w w e HLA/RTI m w X3D, X3D v Scene graph builder mw v yw., X3D Xj3D mw y ƒ y š, Scene graph builder SAI w X3D v ã. 3.3 v»y ƒ y œ j» w, wù PC w y ƒ yw l w resolution width Aspect ratio resolution height a 2l tanθ tanθ b 2l tanφ tanφ (2) PC ƒ w w š, j ƒ ¼ w š» Aspect ratio w., θ φ. y l š w, w w θ φ w. a 2l tanθ θ tan 1 a l φ tan 1 tanθ Aspect ratio (3)

7 v X3D w l 51 yw w. w,, š ƒ e FOM tx. 3.2 w 3 Federate ƒ FOM sw w, w e ƒ š l SM_Info. ù Federate l ƒ y l, l (publish)w SM_Info l l (subscribe) w, ƒ y œ v ƒ. Fig. 5. Variables to derive conditions for synchronization of multi-channel display system. FOV(Field of view, ƒ) (2) (3) w θ φ ƒ 2 tx. Field of view 2 min( θφ, ) (4) w FOV ƒ y l k z, s p θ j z g wù y. j l PC»y x w» w p j»y qk ƒƒ PC w w. ƒ y ü ƒ ƒ ewš», RTI w ƒ š ƒ ƒ w TCP(Transmission control protocol) ù UDP(User datagram protocol) w. ù»yw w ù w w qk, TCP w ƒ UDP w. 3.4 Federate y w Federate Federation w. Federate y w» w HLA FOM (Federation object model) w, Federation Federate œ w w d w., w Federate Federate Federation š ƒ w, w Federate Federate e Fig. 6. UML diagram for object and interaction. Fig. 6(a) FOM j, š j UML(Unified modeling language) txw. HLA j ObjectRoot j l» privilegetodeleteobject. Federate l k. ƒ y. Fig. 6(b) FOM Interaction j. SimulationEnds j w. SimulationEnds j ƒ Manager j, HLA» œw j. l SimulationEnds Interaction w,

8 52 xv,, w w ƒ y Federate w. Federation w, Federation w Federate ƒ w,, l Federate w e, š p w, ƒ y Federate w. RTI. Fig. 7 Federation w 3 Federate, UML Sequence diagram ùkü. l w ( e,, p ) p w, RTI Update_Attribute_Values w w, RTI RTI w, p w» w Federate RTI Reflect_Attribute_ Values+ w w.» +»y RTI ƒ y w Callback w. w 7 PC ( l 1, 1 š ƒ y 5 ) ƒ e. ƒ y w ew 5 PC X3D j w w w v (Slave) PCƒ 4, š PC w ƒƒ X3D wù j»y w, w l(master) PC. PC ve Projector.»y w l PC 100M Bps Ethernet LAN mw, ƒƒ PC»y qk w. ƒƒ PC 1024Ü 1536 w ƒ, y 4096Ü1536 w ƒ. Fig. 7. Sequence diagram for transferring message between federates through RTI. 4. l x x 4.1 icave l X3D w l, Fig. 8 w w» ƒ x l icave» xw [20,23]. icave l 1900Ü1400 mm j» j 4, v l 8. v lƒ w j w ƒƒ n. Fig. 8. Virtual environment of icave. 4 PC 1 l PC w p j v mg UDP w. PC p j w» w TCP, p j ƒ w w qk w e» ƒ. UDP PC w», qk w š ƒ ì. ù UDP qk ü z qk w

9 다채널 디스플레이에서 X3D와 모션체어를 이용한 수중운동체 시뮬레이터 쓰지 않기 때문에, TCP/IP에 비해 속도 면에서 빠르 다는 장점을 가진다. 수중운동체 시뮬레이션 시스템 에서는 슬레이브 PC들과 마스터 PC가 근거리 네트워 크 상에 존재하므로, UDP의 패킷 손실이나 도착 순 서의 뒤바뀜 등은 거의 일어나지 않는다. 따라서 속도 에서 우위를 가지는 UDP를 사용하였다. 4.2 구현환경 잠수함 시뮬레이터를 구현하기 위해서, X3D 포맷 기반의 다채널 디스플레이를 적용하였고, 이를 모션 플랫폼의 하나인 저가형 2자유도의 모션체어와 연동 하여 운동감을 추가하였다. HLA프레임워크의 연동을 위하여 MAK社의 MAK RTI를 사용하였다. Table 1 은 구현 환경에 대하여 보여준다. System environment Operating system Windows XP SP2 HLA/RTI MAK RTI (C++) Software X3D SDK Xj3D Toolkit (Java) side: UDP Network protocol Viewer Federate: RTI VGA card Nvidia GeForce 6600 CPU Intel P4, 3.0GHz RAM 1GB Microsoft SideWinder Hardware Input device Precision 2 Joystick channel icave Virtual environment 8(Fig. 8) Motion chair 2 DOF Joychair[24] Table 1. Fig. 9. Result of integration of X3D multi-channel display, motion platform and HLA/RTI. Fig. 9는 icave 시스템을 기반으로 구현된 다채널 의 수중운동체 시뮬레이터를 보여 준다. 이 시뮬레이 53 터는 잠수함의 가속과 감속이 가능하고, 여러 가지 뷰 포인트를 설정할 수 있기 때문에, 다양한 각도에서의 잠수함 시뮬레이션을 실현할 수 있다. 또한 잠수함이 움직임에 따른 선형 가속도, 원심력, 잠수함의 기울어 짐, 어뢰 폭발후의 진동을 모션체어를 통해서 표현할 수 있다. 4.3 실험 본 논문에서 구현된 다채널의 수중운동체 시뮬레이 터에 적용할 시나리오는 다음과 같다. 부산항 앞 바다에 잠수함 한 척과 적함 한 척이 멀리 떨어져 있다. 아군은 적군 잠수함의 위치를 파악한 후, 적이 어 뢰의 사정 거리 안에 들어올 때까지 적군의 잠수 함에 접근한다. 어뢰에 목표를 설정한 후 어뢰를 발사한다. 발사된 어뢰가 적함과 충돌 시 모션체어의 진동 과 화면 떨림 발생한다. 위 시나리오에 대한 시뮬레이터의 실험 장면은 YouTube( VcuSE)에 동영상이 올려져 있다. 본 논문에서 제안한 방법과 고가의 상업용 툴인 Paradigm의 Vega, 그리고 중저가의 상업용 툴인 Right Hemisphere의 Deep Exploration CAD Edition에 대해, 4가지 항목(프레임 율, 파일의 크기와 로딩 시간, 개방성, 이미지 품질)을 비교 평가를 하였다. 프레임율의 비교 Table 2는 시뮬레이션을 위한 가상의 공간을 구성 하는 5개의 3D 형상(부산 내륙지형, 부산 해저지형, 잠수함, 어뢰, 부산 바다)에 대해, 카메라의 위치를 임 의로 지정한 네 가지 뷰포인트(Viewpoint 1~4)에서의 프레임율을 비교한 것이다. 이 3D 형상들을 Xj3D를 이용해서 표현하는 경우와, Deep Exploration을 이용 해서 표현하는 경우를 비교한 결과는, 첫 번째 뷰포 인트(Viewpoint 1)을 제외하고는 비슷한 성능을 보 였다. 다른 뷰포인트(Viewpoint 2~4)와 비교해서, Occlusion culling 기법에 의해 상대적으로 적은 개수 의 폴리곤이 가시화되는 Viewpoint 1에서, Xj3D가 Deep Exploration 보다 프레임율이 높은 이유는, 공개된 프 로젝트로 개발된 Xj3D가 성능이 우수하기 보다는, 기 본적인 쉐이딩이나 랜더링의 기능들에 초점을 두고 개발되었기 때문에 랜더링 속도가 빠른 것으로 판단 된다. 폴리곤의 개수가 많았던 Viewpoint 2, 3, 4에서 한국CAD CAM학회 논문집 제 13 권 제 1 호 2008년 2월

10 54 xv,, w Table 2. Comparison of experiment results Xj3D (X3D) Vega (Open Flight) Deep Exploration (Open Flight) Viewpoint 1 30 fps 18 fps 11 fps Frame per Viewpoint 2 10 fps 12 fps 10 fps second Viewpoint 3 8 fps 24 fps 8 fps Viewpoint 4 10 fps 24 fps 9 fps Loading time 30 seconds 80 seconds 20 seconds Openness Cost Free More than $20,000 $1,495 Platform Image quality Platform independent Win, Linux, SGI Irix (All versions for each operating system should be purchased) Objects at a distance are frequently flickering due to low precision (16bit) of z-buffer. However, it can be solved by separating boundary surfaces to some extent. Windows Objects at a distance are less frequently flickering due to relatively high precision (24bit or more) of z-buffer. Due to antialiasing, scenes are rendered with high quality at the cost of performance. Xj3D v Deep Exploration w. w, Vega v Xj3D w. Vega ü ƒ LOD(Level of detail) w, x w y t w, w v w s š (Polygon)» q j» Table 2 Xj3D 30, Vega 80, Deep Exploration 20 y w. q j». Table 3 3 q s w w 3D x j» w, X3Dƒ VRML ù Deep Exploration Open Flight q j»ƒ. X3D VRML Encoding w», X3Dƒ VRML y q ƒ. ù Open Flight, X3Dƒ Open Flight y q Table 3. Comparison of file size (unit: Kbyte) Open Xj3D(X3D) VRML 3D models Flight ASCII Binary ASCII Binary Pusan terrain 14,887 1,347 27,395 12,598 Pusan underwater terrain ,602 1,222 Submarine , Torpedo N/A Pusan sea surface ƒ š w». (Binary) x k X3D q j» Open Flight, Open Flight ü X3D x ƒ š». Deep Exploration ü y š w», w 3D x Open Flight q Vega X3D 2003 ISO t k š, v p xk š. Xj3D X3D ƒ yw v, ƒ w (Table 2 š). X3D v s w, Vega Windows, Linux, SGI Irix» v s. yy š, ƒƒ v s w w w. w Deep Exploration Windows y ƒ w ƒ y t Table 2 t w w, p Xj3D Vega ƒ y ƒ À (Flickering) w. À w ƒ œ ù. w ƒ¾ w x ùkù. û ƒ ù», ƒ y f

11 v X3D w l 55 f, ƒ. ƒ v w z- buffer Depth w, v w, ƒ ƒ w, Hidden Surface Removal Occlusion Culling w. w ƒ ƒ» À x ù. Deep Exploration Xj3Dù Vega w À w. Deep Exploration Xj3Dù Vega z-buffer w». À w w» w w, w l ƒ Vega ù Xj3D g w w w». À û ƒ ù, w û. w û x ww À. Vega Vega Marine swwš, w q ƒ e ùký š, ùký. n wš ü x, w x š z w, y w z ý. 5.» l šƒ ƒ y n w w, l w» w p w,, w y ƒ û. w ƒ y w š». š y mww» w. w w w» w, v s š t X3D w, PC j l w w w š, w ƒ y v s w. w,, p, ƒ y y Federate z mww» w HLA/RTI w. x l w w y w ƒ y w x w. šƒ ƒ y n y w l, xw l w, j. w ƒ y v s w, y k. w w w w y w. wz w w» w ewš, w ³ l w, HLA w ù x q w., ƒ y œ t w ƒ l w, y w v j MAK RTI w. XMSF(Extensible modeling and simulation framework) Web» w Web-Enabled RTI wš, y w ƒ w [19]. wz MAK RTI Web-Enabled RTI w, y w v j ƒ l ƒ w. py l SM-11 /» w p j» ƒ w w. š x 1. Brutzman, D., Zyda, M., Pullen, M. and Morse, K., XMSF Overview, Progress Examples and Exercise Planning, XMSF JFCOM Workshop, Virginia, USA, ( html#jfcomworkshopmay2003) 2. Christianson, B., Comparison of Vega and Java3D in A Virtual Environment Enclosure, Master s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, March Salisbury, C. and Farr, S., Web-Based Simulation visualization Using Java3D, Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Winter Simulation, pp ,

12 56 xv,, w Li, Y., Brodlie, K. and Phillips, N., Web-based VR Training Simulator for Percutaneous Rhizotomy, in Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 2000 edited by JD Westwood, HM Hoffman, GT Mogel, RA Robb and D Stredney, IOS Press, pp , Robert, J. and Knight, R., Multiple Window Visualization on the Web Using VRML and the EAI, Proceedings of the 7th UK VR-SIG Conference, pp , y, SEDRIS w l y w, w wz, 14 «, 2y, pp , Blais, C., Brutzman, D., Horner, D. and Nicklaus, S., Web-Based 3D Technology for Scenario Authoring and Visualization: The SAVAGE Project, Proceedings of the 2001 Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC), Orlando, Florida, Blais, C., Brutzman, D., Weekley, J. and Harney, J., Emerging Web-based 3D Graphics for Education and Experimentation, Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) 2002, Florida, December Sims, E., Reusable, Lifelike Virtual Humans For Mentoring and Role-Playing, Computers & Education, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp , z, X3D ƒ y y ƒ w y, 30z w wz w z, pp , k, X3D w Humanoid» w, w w m wz ww z, pp , Singhal, S. and Zyda, M., Networked Virtual Environments: Design and Implementation, Addison- Wesley, New York, Judith, D. and Frederick, K., Creating Computer Simulation Systems - An Introduction to the High Level Architecture, Prentice Hall, Ping, I., High Level Architecture Performance Measurement, Master s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Jack Ogren, EAGLE and the High Level Architecture, DMSO. 16. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office: High Level Architecture, hla/, The Xj3D Project, The Web3D Consortium: X3D Specification, / Extensible Modeling and Simulation Framework (XMSF), html, Kim, Y., Yang, J. and Han, S., A Multichannel Visualization Module for Virtual Manufacturing, Computers in Industry, Vol. 57, No. 7, pp , xv, X3D ƒ y v s w HLA» mw, w, KAIST, xv, w, l» X3D ƒ y, w wz 2006 w z, pp , ½,, w, ƒ œ w PC j l» p ƒ y x, w» wz A, 30«, 3y, pp , Contech Inc.: Joychair simulator,

13 v X3D w l 57 x v 2004 w w» œw w 2006 w w»» œw 2006 ~x University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Human Dynamics and Control Lab, PhD Candidate : Human postural control, Effect of visual information on the stability of postural control, Application of virtual reality (VR) to Biomechanics w w w»» œw, International Journal of CAD/ CAM( r y wš ¾ STEP l ( z w z( z, STEP, ƒ x, x CAD. ac.kr, yr w 1990 w 1991 û w» œw w 1997 w w»» œw 2004 w w»» œw 1997 ~2000 š» 2002 Clausthal Univeristy of Technology (Germany) Visiting scholar 2001 ~2005 ( ) t q 2005 ~2006 University of Wisconsin-Madison Postdoctoral associate 2006 ~x w lœw : Product data quality (PDQ), Product data exchange (PDE), Product data management (PDM), Geometric modeling, Virtual manufacturing

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