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1 Regular Paper 602 J. Korean Inst. Electr. Electron. Mater. Eng. Vol. 30, No. 9, pp September 2017 DOI: ISSN (Print), (Online) 스마트팩토리구축을위한다중무선통신컨트롤러개발 오재준 1, 최성주 2, 김진사 3,a 1 한국기술교육대학교메카트로닉스공학과 2 한국기술교육대학교기계공학부 3 조선이공대학교메카트로닉스과 Development of Multiple Wireless Communication Controller for Smart Factory Construction Jae-Jun Oh 1, Seong-Ju Choi 2, and Jin-Sa Kim 3,a 1 Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education (KOREATECH), Cheonan 31253, Korea 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education (KOREATECH), Cheonan 31253, Korea 3 Department of Mechatronics, Chosun College of Science & Technology, Gwangju 61453, Korea (Received July 28, 2017; Revised August 6, 2017; Accepted August 8, 2017) Abstract: Due to recent industry 4.0, manufacturing has changed a lot. In particular, it is necessary to control the controller and controller of the control system, to communicate various production information and measurement information, and to produce a database in accordance with the flexible production for a small quantity of various items, and to manage the trend of major parts of production facilities. In this paper, we developed a multiple wireless communication controller for small scale control system for smart factory by applying XBee and microcomputer. This controller is cheap and easy to build multi-radio communication environment of 1: N and can control and monitor control system. In addition, we tested multiple wireless communication controllers by using signal processing device and C++, and constructed network, control, and database for mechanism module, and confirmed effectiveness for industrial application. Keywords: Wireless communication, Controller, Network, XBee, Mechanism 1. 서론 인더스트리 4.0은독일의국가과학기술육성정책인하이테크전략 2020의일환으로 2012년추진된제조업혁신정책으로사물인터넷과같은최첨단 ICT와제조업의융합을통한 제조업의완전한자동생산체계를구축 a. Corresponding author; Copyright 2017 KIEEME. All rights reserved. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 하고모든생산과정이최적화 됨을의미한다 [1]. 이를위해 PLC (programmable logic controller) 는정해진시간의제약안에서생산설비제어프로그램에따른실행결과값을도출해야하는실시간성과설치, 구성, 공정변경이용이한특징을가진다. 또한기존릴레이제어반대비높은경제성을가진 PLC와필드버스기술또는 WPAN (wireless personal area network), WLAN (wireless local area network) 의무선통신기술을접목시키기위한연구가활발히이루어지고있다 [2-7]. 하지만, PLC의장점과필드버스및무선통신기술에도불구하고스마트팩토리를위한소규모제어시스템을구

2 전기전자재료학회논문지, 제 30 권제 9 호 pp , 2017 년 9 월 : 오재준등 603 축할경우컨트롤러의높은비용, 모듈형 PLC 사용에따른큰부피, PLC 제조회사마다다른프로그램개발환경, PLC 네트워크구축을위한고가의통신카드취부와이기종컨트롤러제어등의어려움이발생한다. 또한스마트팩토리구축을위해서는데이터베이스생성이필수적이다. 따라서본논문에서는스마트팩토리구축을위해다양한컨트롤러간의연계를위한범용프로토콜적용, 1:N의네트워크구축, 제어프로그램과데이터베이스생성이가능한다중무선통신컨트롤러를개발하여스타네트워크를구성하고메커니즘모듈제어및데이터베이스를생성함으로써스마트팩토리구축을위한컨트롤러의유효성을확인하고자한다. 2. 실험방법 2.1 무선통신기술표준비교및선정 WPAN은제한된전력으로데이터를전송하고필요한어플리케이션을무선으로연결하기위한저렴하고사용이용이한무선통신기술표준이다. 표 1은 IEEE 802 에서분류되는대표적인근거리통신기술인 ZigBee, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi를비교하였다. 다중무선통신컨트롤러는 IEEE 의물리계층과 MAC계층에준거하여개발된 ZigBee 기술표준을적용하였다. 표 2는 ZigBee의주파수대역별특징이며, 그림 1은 ZigBee의 stack 구조이다. 네트워크구축을위한 ZigBee의구성요소는그림 2에나타내었다 [8-10]. 개발된다중무선통신컨트롤러의주파수는 2.4 GHz 대역을사용하고각각의구성요소는 ZigBee coordinator 의역할을수행할수있도록하였다. Table 1. Wireless communication technology standard comparison of IEEE 802. Classification Frequency ZigBee ( ) 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, 868 MHz Bluetooth ( ) Wi-Fi (802.11b) 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz Modulation DSSS FHSS DSSS/CCK Data rate Transmission distance Network configuration 250 Kbps, 40 Kbps, 20 Kbps 1 Mbps, 732 Kbps 11 Mbps 10~75 m 10~100 m 60~90 m Mesh, Star, Cluster tree Mesh Point-to-Point Network size 65,536 7 <10 Channel band 600 KHz, 2 MHz, 5 MHz 1 MHz 22 MHz Transmit power -4~20 dbm 0~20 dbm 0 dbm Waiting time 30 ms 10 s 3~5 s Chip set cost Lowness Height Lowness Importance Applications Communication reliability, cost Monitoring, control Convenience Cable replacement Table 2. Characteristics of ZigBee by frequency band. Communicati on speed Web, , video Classification 2.4 GHz 915 MHz 868 MHz Data rate 250 Kbps 40 Kbps 20 Kbps Channel 11~ DSSS 32 - chip PN code 15 - chip PN code Symbol rate 62.5 Ksym/s 40 Ksym/s 20 Ksym/s Chip rate 2.0 Mchips/s 600 Kchips/s 300 Kchips/s Sensitivity -85 dbm - - Fig. 1. Stack structure of ZigBee. Transmit power 0d Bm (1 mw)

3 604 J. Korean Inst. Electr. Electron. Mater. Eng., Vol. 30, No. 9, pp , September 2017: J.-J. Oh et al. 2.3 다중무선통신컨트롤러미들웨어설계 다중무선통신컨트롤러는그림 4와같이 XBee의 ID 설정에따라 2⁵ 개의그룹과각그룹마다 2⁴ 개의컨트롤러를확장하여네트워크를구성할수있도록미들웨어를설계하였다. 그림 5에는설계한미들웨어의신호흐름을나타내었다. Fig. 2. Network configuration of ZigBee. 2.2 XBee 무선모듈규격 IEEE 에기반한 XBee는무선통신네트워크를구성할수있다. sleep모드에서는 10 ua 이하의전력강하를지원한다. 표 3은적용된 XBee의규격이며, 그림 3에 XBee의내부데이터흐름을나타내었다 [8,11]. Table 3. Specification of XBee. Fig. 4. Network configuration of multiple wireless communication controllers. Specification XBee Indoor/Urban range up to 100 ft. (30 m) Outdoor RF line-of-sight range up to 300 ft. (100 m) Transmit power output (software selectable) 1 mw(0 dbm) RF data rate 250,000 bps Serial interface data rate (software selectable) Supply voltage 1200~ bps (non-standard baud rates also supported) 2.8~3.4 V Transmit current 45 ma (3.3 V) Idle/Receive current 50 ma (3.3 V) Operating frequency ISM 2.4 GHz Fig. 3. Internal data flow diagram of XBee. Fig. 5. Middleware signal flow of multiple wireless communication controller.

4 전기전자재료학회논문지, 제30권 제9호 pp , 2017년 9월: 오재준 등 2.4 다중 무선통신 컨트롤러 제작 605 (b) 다중 무선통신 컨트롤러는 그림 6과 같이 8개의 블록 으로 설계하였고, MICOM부의 기본 클럭은 16 MHz인 PIC18F6520을 사용하였다. 전원부는 DC 24 V를 입력 받아 DC 10 V, DC 5 V 및 DC 3.3 V를 생성하여 공급 하도록 하였다. 또한, 다이오드를 활용하여 역방향 전 원 투입에 따른 문제점을 고려하였다. 무선통신부는 XBee UART (universal asynchronous receiver (c) (d) transmitter)의 RS-232 통신 표준에 따라 start bit (low), 8 data bits, stop bit(high)로 구성하였고 전송 속도는 9600 bps이다. 디지털 입력부는 포토커플러를 사용하고 디지털 출력부는 달링턴 접속의 드라이버 IC (e) 를 활용하여 그림 7과 같이 회로를 설계하였다. (g) (f) (h) Fig. 7. Total circuit schematic. (a) MICOM section, (b) power regulator section, (c) wireless communication section, (d) digital input section, (e) digital output section, (f) differential analog & load cell input section, (g) digital analog converter section, and (h) expandable temperature sensor section. 그림 8은 완성된 다중 무선통신 컨트롤러의 외형이 Fig. 6. Block diagram of multiple wireless communication controller. 다. XBee ID와 그에 따른 컨트롤러 ID를 설정할 수 있 는 딥스위치를 구성하였다. (a) Fig. 8. The appearance of multiple wireless communication controller.

5 606 J. Korean Inst. Electr. Electron. Mater. Eng., Vol. 30, No. 9, pp , September 2017: J.-J. Oh et al. 3. 결과 및 고찰 3.1 RS-232 통신 시험 본 논문에서는 개발한 다중 무선통신 컨트롤러의 데 이터 송수신을 시험하기 위해 그림 9와 같이 UART의 RS-232 통신 표준에 의한 함수를 프로그램하고 GUI (graphical user interface)를 통해 확인하였다. 시험결과 COM포트 3번에서 RS-232 통신 신호가 확 인되었다. 이는 설정 채널에 따른 XBee ID와 다중 무선 통신 컨트롤러가 통신 표준에 따라 정상 작동함을 알 수 있다. Fig. 10. Network configuration test of multiple wireless communication controller. (a) void CIoTedu1Dlg::OnSendData(BYTE id, BYTE cmd, BYTE data) { BYTE send_data[6]; CString str_id, str_data, str; send_data[0] = (BYTE)0xaa; send_data[1] = (BYTE)(id); send_data[2] = (BYTE)(cmd); send_data[3] = (BYTE)(0xff & data); send_data[4] = '\0' m_comm->writecomm(send_data, 4); } Fig. 11. Controller response time according to input command. (b) 레이의 동작시간 등을 포함한 결과이며, 각 그룹별 컨트 롤러의 데이터 입 출력이 정상 작동함을 알 수 있다. Fig. 9. RS-232 communication test of UART. (a) Functions for sending and receiving data and (b) RS232 communication test. 3.3 다중 무선통신을 활용한 메커니즘 모듈 제어 스마트팩토리 구축을 위한 소규모 제어시스템의 적용 시험을 위해 산업현장의 생산설비에서 사용하는 픽&플 3.2 스타 네트워크 구성 시험 레이스, 캠 리프터, 체인 리프터 메커니즘 모듈을 제작 하였다. 픽&플레이스 메커니즘 모듈은 실린더 조합에 개발된 컨트롤러는 스타 네트워크를 구성하고 그림 의해 상하 이송, 회전, 그립이 가능하고 캠 리프터와 체 10과 같이 XBee ID는 0, 1, 2 그룹, 컨트롤러 ID는 각 인 리프터 메커니즘 모듈은 모터의 회전운동으로 인한 그룹마다 설정하였다. 그리고 제어 PC에서 XBee ID 그 상하 이송이 가능하다. 룹별로 1 word를 명령하고 high에서 low로 변경되는 시점에 각 1 bit를 10 ms 간격으로 저장하였다. 데이터 분석 결과 그림 11과 같이 24~48 ms의 응답 시간을 확인하였다. 이는 디지털 출력부에서 사용한 릴 픽&플레이스 메커니즘 모듈은 입력신호 6개, 출력신 호 6개, 캠 리프터와 체인 리프터 메카니즘 모듈은 각각 입력신호 7개, 출력신호 2개로 구성되어 있다. 각 메커니즘 모듈은 XBee ID 0, 1, 2 그룹, 컨트롤러

6 전기전자재료학회논문지, 제 30 권제 9 호 pp , 2017 년 9 월 : 오재준등 607 ID는각그룹마다 0으로설정하여스타네트워크를구성하였다. 그리고그림 12와같이 C++ 을사용하여 GUI 를구현하고그림 13과같이제어하였다. 또한, 그림 14 와같이캠리프터와체인리프터메커니즘모듈의상하변위를 0.5s 간격으로데이터베이스를생성하고그래프로확인하여컨트롤러의유효성을확인하였다. (a) (b) Fig. 14. Lift displacement of cam and chain mechanism module. (a) Lift displacement of cam lifter mechanism module and (b) lift displacement of chain lifter mechanism module. 4. 결론 Fig. 12. GUI implementation for control and monitoring of mechanism modules. Fig. 13. Mechanism module control using multiple wireless communication controllers. 본논문에서는스마트팩토리구축을위한소규모제어시스템의다중무선통신컨트롤러를개발하였다. 개발된컨트롤러는스타네트워크를구성하여제어명령에따른출력신호를 10 ms의간격으로저장하고분석한결과 24~48 ms 내의응답시간이발생하였다. 그리고 3 가지의메커니즘모듈을제작하고네트워크를구성하여다중무선통신으로제어하였다. 또한, 캠리프터와체인리프터메커니즘모듈의상하변위를 0.5 s 간격으로데이터베이스를생성하고모니터링하여컨트롤러의유효성을확인하였다. 본논문에서개발한다중무선통신컨트롤러는저비용, UART의 RS-232의통신표준으로인한다양한컨트롤러간의연계성, XBee 사용과미들웨어설계를통한 1:N의다중무선통신환경구축, C++ 사용으로인한쉬운 GUI 구현과데이터베이스생성이가능하다. 향후산업현장생산설비의실질적인적용에따른효과성과고객수요에대한빅데이터분석을연계하여모듈단위의유연하고자율제어가가능한생산체계구축을위해지속적인연구가필요할것으로생각한다.

7 608 J. Korean Inst. Electr. Electron. Mater. Eng., Vol. 30, No. 9, pp , September 2017: J.-J. Oh et al. REFERENCES [1] J. H. Kwon and S. B. Lee, Koreanische Zeitschrift fuer Wirtschaftswissenschaften, 34, 37 (2016). [DOI: /KDGW ] [2] S. S. Ahn and M. S. Kim, The Magazine of the IEEK, 2016, 2056 (2016). [3] H. J. Moon, A. Pal, K. C. Kim, and B. S. Ryuh, Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, 2016, 212 (2016). [4] S. Y. Kim, I. C. Lim, and S. H. Kim, J. Korean Inst. Intell. Syst., 26, 195 (2016). [5] Ying, Shiyan, Zhou, Zeyu, Mei, and Yimin, Journal- Zhejiang University of Technology, 45, 153 (2106). [6] C. Carmona, B. Alorda, L. Gracia, C. Perez-Vidal, and A. Salinas, Undersea Hyperb. Med., 44, 243 (2017). [7] C. Alexandre Gouvea da Silva, E. Leonardo dos Santos, A. Christian Krainski Ferrari, and H. Tertuliano dos Santos Filho, IEEE America Latina. Revista, 15, 935 (2017). [8] I. M. Kim, A Study on Sensing System for the Risk Management with XBee, p. 21, Changwon University, Changwon (2012). [9] I. Y. Jo, Korean J. Air-Cond. Refrig. Eng., 2006, 183 (2006). [10] S. Y. Lee, J. H. Kim, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Im, M. K. Oh, and Y. S. Hong, Communications of the Korean Institute of Information Scientists and Engineers, 34, 157 (2007). [11] K. H. Lee, A Study on the Location Estimate using XBee in building, p. 16, Changwon University, Changwon (2015).

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