1 33 3, pp. 524~535 (2014) ( ) ( ) The Effects of Creative Hands-on Activities using Effective Microorganisms on Elementary School Students Environmental Literacy Hwang, Young-Ho Park, Jae-Keun (Seoul Siheung Elementary School) (Gyeongin National University of Education) ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to develop the creative hands-on activities using EM (effective microorganisms) that can enhance the environmental literacy of learners, and to examine the effect of its application. The program was composed of 10 sessions, including biological knowledge and ecosystem status of microorganisms, practical activities that stimulate the environmental behavior and emotion of elementary school students, and career design related to their aptitude and occupation in future. This program can also be connected to the domains of creative hands-on activities, that is, career activities, club activities, self-regulated activities and voluntary service activities. In this study, two classes of 3th grades of elementary school in Seoul were selected and divided into two groups. The experimental group to undergo the program of creative hands-on activities using EM showed higher environmental literacy than the control group. In the concrete, it is proven that this program contributed to the improvement of learners' environmental emotion, skill, and behavior. When interviewed with experimental group, we found that sustained EM hands-on activities were conducted in collaboration with their families, and they became more aware of the utilities of EM and could participate in the activities more interestingly. In conclusion, the creative hands-on activities program was very effective and helped elementary students to change their environmental literacy in positive ways. Key words : effective microorganisms, environmental literacy, creative hands-on activities program I., (Lee et al., 2012), (Chung et al., 2012; Jang, 2009). (Lee & Choi, 2010; Palmer, 2002; Stables & Bishop, 2001; UNESCO, 2005).,,,,
2 < > :,,., (Ko et al., 2012; Lee et al., 2012; Nam & Lee, 2010; Stables & Bishop, 2001)., (Kaplowitz & Leucine, 2005), (Kim & Lee, 2010).,,,.,., (EM; Effective Microorganisms, EM ),. EM,,,,, 1983 ( ), (Ann et al., 2010; Cho et al., 2010).,, (Kang, 2008). EM, (Kim & Kim, 1999; Cho et al., 2010)., EM, ,, 2 (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, 2009).,.,, (MEST, 2010a,b)., (Chung et al., 2012; MEST, 2009). (Jung & Kwon, 2010), (Kim et al., 2012), (Choi et al., 2011; Chung et al., 2012; Jung et al., 2012)., EM (Yang & Hong, 2013),.,,,
3 33 3, pp. 524~535 (2014), (Bae et al., 2011).,..,,,. EM,.,. II. S (27 ) 1 (27 ), 16, 11, 15, EM, (Seoul Metropolitan Government & Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education, 2010) 10. (p>.05). EM,. EM EM,,.,,. 2~3,.,,, 4,, (MEST, 2010a).,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. STS 10 EM -, 7 3 1,, 5,
4 < > :. EM ~2., (Gall et al., 2003) ,,,,,,. 10, 1~2, 3, 4~5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. t-., 5.,.,, EM, EM,. EM Table 1. EM EM,,,,,,. 1~2, EM,. 3 EM, EM. EM, 7 EM,. 4~9, EM,,,, EM. 10 EM,., Table 1 10,,,,. Chu et al.(2005) Jung & Seo(2008),
5 33 3, pp. 524~535 (2014) Table 1. Topic and detailed activities according to period in creative hands-on activities using EM Period Topic for class Core contents Detailed activities Main character of invisible microbial world Very small organisms that give disease and medicine Making our precious water cleaner Growth of plants using rice water- fermented solution Effective microorganism is the cleaner of our school Our friends is disappearing Making EM- soap and air freshener Earthworm and EM are farmers in the soil Making the stream clean by using the fermented soil ball Searching for Geum-chun stream What is a microorganism? World of work that study the microorganism Useful or harmful microorganism EM as useful microorganism Making EM-active solution Investigating the examples using EM Using EM to plant cultivation EM s ability to remove a bad smell Inhibiting harmful microorganisms by EM Ecosystem status of microorganism as a decomposer Making daily supplies using EM Composting of food wastes using EM Water purification and oil degradation using EM Environment purification campaign using EM soil ball (Activity 1) Encountering a microbial world (Activity 2) Talking about the microbial world (Activity 3) Investigating the persons that live with microorganisms together (Activity 1) Searching for the foods using fermentation (Activity 2) Investigating the bacteria that cause diseases to human (Activity 3) Making inquiry about EM (Activity 1) Be lacking in water (Activity 2) Benefits that clean water provides (Activity 3) Making the rice water-fermented solution using EM (Activity 1) Observing the growth of plant using the rice water-fermented solution (Activity 2) Comparing the growth of plant using the rice water-fermented solution (Activity 1) Cleaning using the rice waterfermented solution (Activity 1) Doing laundry using the rice water-fermented solution (Activity 1) Washing-up using the rice water-fermented solution (Activity 1) Hunter of darkness (Activity 2) Animals in a crisis (Activity 3) Writing a letter to spoonbill (Activity 1) Making a soap using EM (Activity 2) Making an air freshener using EM (Activity 1) Valuable land (Activity 2) Investigating the time that toy wastes degrade (Activity 3) What is common ground between earthworm and EM (Activity 1) Help a little grebe (Activity 2) Efforts to save river and sea (Activity 3) Making an EM-fermented soil ball (Activity 1) If healthy river becomes (Activity 2) Fish of Geum-chun stream (Activity 3) Throwing EM-fermented soil ball Characteristic of EM Domain related to creative activities Career activities : EM as a Career experience microorganism activities Definition of EM Water purification Growth promotion Odor removing & disintegration Disintegration Odor removing Disintegration Water purification Disintegration & odor removing Club activities : Academic activities Self-regulated activity : Creative special activities Club activities : Work practice activities Self-regulated activity : Creative special activities Voluntary service activities : Nature conservation activities Self-regulated activity : Creative special activities Self-regulated activity : Creative special activities Voluntary service activities : Nature conservation activities Voluntary service activities : Campaign activities. (5 ) (1 ) 5.,,,,,, 33. 6,
6 < > : 9, 5, 13,, Cronbach s α.627,.727,.734, III. EM Table 2. (p<.05). EM. (Ko et al., 2012),, (Bae et al., 2011; Lim & Lee, 2011). 4 EM,,, (Table 3).. Lee et al.(2012), Lyu & Shin(2014). 8,,. EM EM Table 2. The t-test results of environmental literacy Category Environmental literacy *p<.05, **p<.01 Experimental group Control group M SD M SD t p Pretest Posttest *.022 Table 3. The t-test results for the domains of environmental literacy Domain Experimental group Control group M SD M SD t p Knowledge Pretest Posttest Emotion Pretest Posttest *.012 Skill Pretest Posttest *.044 Behavior Pretest Posttest **.007 *p<.05, **p<.01
7 33 3, pp. 524~535 (2014).,,, (Table 4, p<.05). (Kim et al., 2011), (Kim & You, 2012)., (Lee et al., 2012). EM,,,,.,., (Lee, 2012), (p<.05).,,.,,,,, (Table 5). (Kim & Nam, 2009; Nam & Lee, 2010), (Kim & Lee, 2010; Lee, 2012; Lee et al., 2012; Lyu & Shin, 2014).,,, EM,,, EM., Table 4. The t-test results of emotion domain Emotion *p<.05, **p<.01 Subcategory Environmental sensitivity Environmental attitudes Experimental group Control group M SD M SD t p Pretest Posttest *.032 Pretest Posttest *.039
8 < > : Table 5. The t-test results of behavior domain Subcategory Saving behavior Behavior Recycling behavior Participation *p<.05, **p<.01 Experimental group Control group M SD M SD t p Pretest Posttest Pretest Posttest Pretest Posttest **.003 (Lyu & Shin, 2014)... EM, EM,,. EM,.,,,,. 9~10 EM ().,. EM, (Table 5, p<.01).,. 10 /.. 흙공만들기할때흙으로비비고만들던게너무신났어요. 시간이지나면서곰팡이가하얀색으로덮인모습이마치솜사탕같았어요. 흙공을던질때친구랑멀리던지기하는기분으로했는데, 놀이를하면서도하천을깨끗이할수있어서좋았어요.( 학생 A) 캠페인만하면솔직히창피하기도한데, 내가만든흙공이우리동네와안양천을깨끗하게한다는게좋았어요. 안양천에더많은물고기와철새가돌아왔으면좋겠어요.( 학생 B) 환경이오염되면우리도깨끗한환경에서살아갈수없잖아요. 저어새도살고, 논뿔병아리도아프지않고, 북극곰도행복하게살았으면좋겠어요.( 학생 C) 1 -.,.
9 33 3, pp. 524~535 (2014),.,.,,. 미생물로부터사람에게도움이되는좋은것들을많이얻을수있을것같아요. 미생물연구는의사만그런줄알았는데, 훨씬더많은사람들이있다는사실을알게되었어요.( 학생 D) 미생물을연구해서병도치료하고, 환경도깨끗하게만들고. 그런일을해보는것은재미있을것같아요.( 학생 E), 2, 4,,. 2 EM,,,., 3,.,,, 4 EM,.,,,. EM,, (Table 4, p<.05). 미생물로발효시키면김치도만들수있다고선생님이말씀하셨는데, EM 은눈으로볼수없어서잘은모르겠어요.( 학생 C). 학교교재원식물에게 EM 을주던날도기억하고, 지금도가끔가봐요. 상추는 EM 을너무많이주어서죽었지만, 호박이나배추는잘자라고있어서뿌듯했어요. 교실에서키우는양파가이렇게크게자랄줄은몰랐어요.( 학생 E) 3, 5 EM, 7 EM, 8 EM. EM,,,,,. 4 -, EM.,, (Kim et al., 2012),. EM, EM.,.
10 < > : EM, EM. 냄새는시큼했지만 EM 쌀뜨물이곰팡이와세균을없애주고깨끗하게청소가된다니신기했어요. EM 은청소도하고환경을살리는약이에요.( 학생 B) EM 쌀뜨물발효액을사용해서집에서빨래를여러번해봤어요. 싱크대랑변기는처음닦아봤는데, 생각보다더깨끗해졌어요. 이제는집에서설거지할때엄마도 EM 액을사용하세요.( 학생 D) EM 은지렁이같은존재입니다. 지렁이배설물이땅에양분이된다고했잖아요. EM 도더러워진환경에도움을주는작은지렁이에요.( 학생 E), EM,,. IV. EM,, 3.,,,.., EM,,,,,,.,,., EM.,,,.,.,,,,..,. EM,.,,.,,,.,
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