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16 2 < 2-1> 22 < 2-2> 22 < 2-3> ( / ) 23 < 2-4> ( ) 29 < 2-5> ( ) 30 < 2-6> GNP 30 < 2-7> 31 < 2-8> 33 < 2-9> 35 < 2-10> 38 3 < 3-1> 45 < 3-2> 3 (, ) 46 < 3-3> ( ) 47 < 3-4> (1995 ) 49 < 3-5> (1996) 51 < 3-6> (1996) 52 < 3-7> 53 < 3-8> (1996) 54 < 3-9> (95 ) 55 < 3-10> (96 ) 55 < 3-11>,, (1996) 56 < 3-12> (1996) 57

17 4 < 4-1> 75 < 4-2> 76 < 4-3> 79 < 4-4> 79 < 4-5> : < 4-6> 80 < 4-7> : < 4-8> 87 < 4-9> : 1 87 < 4-10> 88 < 4-11> 88 < 4-12> : < 4-13> : 91 < 4-14> 1995 ( ) 93 < 4-15> : < 4-16> 100 < 4-17> 101 < 4-18> < 4-19> 104 < 4-20> 108 < 4-21> 108 < 4-22> 110 < 4-23> 113 < 4-24> 114 < 4-25> : < 4-26> 123

18 5 < 5-1> 144 < 5-2> 145 < 5-3> 146 < 5-4> (1996 ) 146 < 5-5> 148 < 5-6> 148 < 5-7> 149 < 5-8> 150 < 5-9> : < 5-10> OECD 1 (G ) (NHE ) 153 < 5-11> 154 < 5-12> 154 < 5-13> 155 < 5-14> (1994 ) 156 < 5-15> 157 < 5-16> 159 < 5-17> 159 < 5-18> 160 < 5-19> 161 < 5-20> ( ) 163 < 5-21> 165 < 5-22> (1996 ) 166 < 5-23> 166 < 5-24> 167 < 5-25> 167 < 5-26> < 5-27> 172 < 5-28> 173 < 5-29> 174

19 < 5-30> 175 < 5-31> (1996 ) 179 < 5-32> 180 < 5-33> (1995 ) 181 < 5-34> 184 < 5-35> 187 < 5-36> 189 < 5-37> 190 < 5-38> 191 < 5-39> 193 < 5-40> 193 < 5-41> ( ) 194 < 5-42> 196 < 5-43> 196 < 5-44> 200 < 5-45> 200 < 5-46> (1995 ) 201 < 5-47> 202 < 5-48> (1995 ) 205 < 5-49> 206 < 5-50> ( ) 208 < 5-51> 208 < 5-52> 215 < 5-53> ( ) 223 < 5-54> ( ) 223 < 5-55> 227

20 4 < 4-1> 81 < 4-2> 84 5 < 5-1> 141 < 5-2> 164 < 5-3> 170 < 5-4> 176 < 5-5> (1996 ) 177 < 5-6> (1996 ) 178 < 5-7> 199 < 5-8> 218 < 5-9> 228

21 1, 1, ( ) ( ) ( ),,,,..,,. 1

22

23 1, 1, 1.,,,,,, 21,. ( )..,.....,,,,....,,,,.,...,.. 3

24 .,,.,..,,...,., (,,, ),..,.. 4

25 1, 2.,,,,.,..,,., ,,...,... 5

26 3.,.,,.,,...,. ( )..,,.,.,,,. 6

27 1, 4.,.,,,..,. ( 4 ), ( 5 ).,,,,, (interdisciplinary ).,.,. 7

28

29 2 2 ( )... 9

30

31 2 2 1., (functional definition ). 1.1 ( ) (w elfare)...,.. (social welfare)., (,,,, ), (,,, ) (,, ) (,, ).,. (per sonal welfare),...1) 1),., (Rawls, 1971). 11

32 ,.,.,,. (system of social w elfare programs ). 2.2),...3 ), ( ).. 4),.. 5) 2) 2, (residual).,. (institutional),. ( ),. (Compton, 1980, p. 26). 3) (B. R. Compton) (interstitial institution). (Compton, 1980, p. 31). 4),,,. 5) Rimlinger (1971). 12

33 2.., ( ) (, ; public social w elfare service),, (, ; private social w elfare service)., ( ) (national minimum ) (basic needs),,,,,, ( ; social security system ). 6). (social insurance) (public assistance) (social welfare service).,,,,,.7),,,, 6),,,,. (, 3 1 ). 7) 3 1,,,,,, ( 3 5 )..,. 13

34 . 8),. 9).,,,,.10)..,.,.. 11).. (w elfare state)12) 8). (, 3 2 ). 9). (, 3 3 ). 10) ) (Heinz Lampert),,,,,,,,,, (Lampert, 1991,, p. 23).. 12),,.,,, (national minimum)..,. 14

35 2.,,..,

36 2.,.,,, ) ( )., ),,.. 19,,, 2 3, ) (mercantilism), (Walter Eucken ) (Zentralverw altungsw irtschaft).. (Eucken, 1952, p. 118) ( ) (Ordnung Liberalismus). 16

37 2,,,, ( ). 14 ),,,,. ( ) 15) ), (mercantilism ; interventionism) (liberalism) , 1970 ( ), 1980 ( )., ( ). 15)......,. (economic process) (economic order). (Eucken, 1952). 1 7

38 ..,..,,,.....,,..,. (100 )..,. ( )

39 ( ).,,,,, ( ). (1996),,.., (Wilhelm Röpke),,,, (Röpke, 1960, p. 175)...,,... 19

40 , (security ). ( ) (Buchanan, 1975, pp. 78-9). ( ) ( ).. 2 ) 30, )...,,,,, 2 0

41 2,., ,,..., ) 2 1

42 . < 2-1> , 8.0% 17.5%.. < 2-1> ( ) ) (% ) : 1) : (1996), 21, p ),. < 2-2>,, % %.,,. < 2-2> ( =100) ) ) ) 1) ) 1992 GNP 12,000 15,000 3) , 21,, p ) % %, 22

43 % (< 2-3> )..,,.. < 2-3> ( / ) ( : %) : (1996), 96, p. 149., 16 ).,, ),,,,,,,,. 16) (urban informal sector).,,,.. 2 3

44 ,.,..., ,.,,...,, ) 17) (, 1995, pp. 71-2). 24

45 ,,,.. (, ),......,,., ), 18) (1995). 25

46 ,...,..,.,.,., (, )...,....., (, 1995, p. 72). 2 6

47 ,.,,,,,,,, , , ,,

48 . 63, , 88,, 10, 5,,. 89, 90, , , 95,., < 2-4>,,,,, 4,, < 2-5>, , % 6% ,245. 1%. 28

49 2 < 2-4> ( ), 1988, 1960, , 1977, * 1962*,, 1961* 1981* 1981* 1986* 1) * : : 1),,,,. 2 9

50 < 2-5> ( ) ( :,%) (A ) (B) (C) 1 ) C/ B C/ A 793, ,064 4, ,782, ,637 14, ,059, ,500 26, ,512, ,811 29, ,621 35, : 1),,,, ( ),. :, 1995, pp ; 1996, pp < 2-6> GNP ( ) ( : %) * * * :,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. : (1995),. ( ).. p (GNP) < 2-6>.., 1993, 22 GNP 2.5%, 10.6% 1.4% 6.1%... < 2-7>, 92 30

51 2 (, ), 36.8% ( 30.0%, 6.8%), 54.1% ( 23.0%, 31.1%), ( ) 9.7% % % ( ), 93. < 2-7> ( : 10, %) ) 491 (21.1) 759 (18.7) 1,294 (19.1) 1,808 (18.0) 337 (14.5) 530 (13.1) 883 (11.1) 1,208 (12.0) 829 (35.6) 1,289 (31.8) 2,177 (32.2) 3,017 (30.0) 138 (5.9) 229 (5.7) 503 (7.4) 682 (6.8) 536 (23.1) 1,021 (25.2) 1,454 (21.5) 2,306 (23.0) 696 (29.9) 1,300 (32.1) 2,233 (33.0) 3,126 (31.1) 2 ) 126 (5.4) 213 (5.3) 418 (6.2) 977 (9.7) 2,325 (100.0) 4,051 (100.0) 6,768 (100.1) 10,062 (100.0) 1) 2) (1994),.., p ,...,,,,.. 31

52 ,,,,.,. 89,.,, 5, % % (96 ),. 53%. 80% (, 1994, p. 102)., 3.8% (174 ), 1 1.3% (61 ), (1995, p. 51), 5%, 15%.,, (,,,,, ). 19)(, 1995, p. 23). 32

53 2,,. 2 2,.,., , 64.5%, 62.7% (, 1989). < 2-8>. < 2-8>,,, * * * * * ** ** ** ** ** * * * * * * ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** * * * * : ** : : (1995), p )., (, 1995, p. 24 ). 33

54 ,, 60, 87.. ( ),,.,,,,,.. 20),.. 84,. 1996, 296, 76, 1,134, 1, %..,., 21),, 22)., ( 23 ) )., ( ), 20).. 21), 65, 15,,. 22) 1996, 20, 2,500, 21, 2, ) 21), 65, 15,,. 34

55 2, ( ) ( 1 ).. 5 (1994) ,671, 149,353.,, ,000.,. < 2-9> % %.. 3.3%. ( ) 7%.24) %. < 2-9> ( :, %) (A ) (B) A/ B ,256 2,246 2,176 2,001 1,902 1,755 1,506 42,869 43,268 43,663 44,056 44,453 4,485 45, :, ) , % ( ), 5.04%. 6.2%, 13.49%, 7.5% , 612.1, 553, (, 1990, pp ). 35

56 4.4...,,.,,.,,. 25),,, ( 22, 31 ) 5%., ,, ( ) ,021,,, 30% ,. 25),,,, ( ). 36

57 2.. 1), (, 1993, p. 37).. < 2-4>,,,,,,,.,..,.,,, (, 1995).,,,,.. 2 )... 15,

58 3 ).,,.,, ,,,,. ( ) 9, 15...,, ( ) < 2-10> ( :, %) 21, , , , , , : (1995b), 1995, p < 2-10>, %, %, 93 ( 38

59 2 ) %, %. 94..,....., ,.,,,,,.,....,.,, 5% 39

60 , 10%.. 4 ).., ( ).. (national minimum )...,.,,. 5 ).,,,, ,.,,.,, 4 0

61 2., , , 6. 41

62 5.,,.. (1) :. (2) :,,,,.,,,,,,. (3) :,,,,,.,.,.,,... 42

63 3 3 ( ).,. 43

64

65 ( ),, 7. 1),,,,, < 3-1> ( :, %) 38, , ) ( ) 2 ) 3 ) 1,449 11,150 (2,204) 14,916 1,391 9, (5.8) ,458 16,056 2,979 13,626 1,947 10,329 : 1),,, 2),,, 3),, : (1996c), 1996, p ),,,,,,. 45

66 .. < 3-1> , (,,, ), 1 4,916 (39.1%) 1 3,626 (30.7%), (,,, ) 1 1,150 (29.2%) 1 6,056 (36.1%) , ,204 (5.8%) ,979 (6.7%) 35.1%. < 3-2> 3 (, ) ( :, %) , , , , , ,464 10,996, 23,701, 3,027 5,604, 14,312, 11, ,265 14,132 21,928 3,784 5,743 6,513 13, ,745 17,050 23,931 5,097 6,645 8,154 13,413 : (1996c), 1996, p ,856 18,741 24,773 5,221 6,895 7,676 13, ,866 49,923 70,632 14,102 19,283 22,343 40, < 3-2> ), ( ) %, %, % % 2% ( ),,. 2).. 4 6

67 < 3-3> ( 1 ) ) 3 ( :, %) 2 ) 3 ) ( ) 4 ) ,981 29,076 50,441 2,678 47, ,605 25,589 8,542 6,540 12, ,170 5 ) (A ) (B ) B/ A 26,481( 8.2) 35,065(10.9) 55,410(17.2) 3,579( 1.1) 48,538( 15.1) 705( 0.2) 58,971(18.3) 37,766(11.8) 10,035( 3.1) 7,741( 2.4) 26,879( 8.4) 321,402(100.0) ,037 21, , ,916 13,205 2,190 1,251 4, , : 1). 2),,,, 3) 4) 5) (1995 2,203, ,979 ). : (1996d), < 3-3>. 3),.4) 96 3,214 2, %. 1996, 590 3) (,,, )...,. 4) % 48.5%. 50%. 4 7

68 (18.3%), ( ) 554 (17.2%), 485 (15.5% ), ( ) 378 (11.8%), 351 (10.9%), 2,358 (73.3%) , (26.7%). 70%..., ( ), 50%, 20%, 10% ( ).,,,. (50% ). 60%. 96 ( ) 1, %., 40%.,.. (,,, ), (,, ) 10, 150, 173, 11, (< 3-4> )., 77, 75, 50, 49, (, )

69 3 < 3-4> (1995 ) ( )* ( ) ,418 11,855 65,795 24, ,443 31,760 10, ,418 9,935 2, , , ,559 1,465 5, , , ,125 2,500 1, ,465 6, ,433 1,900 3, ,335 4,550 10, * :,, : (1996d), 1996, p

70 )...,, , , %. 3.3% 1/ 3., 13,000 17,300, 27,000 73,400, 8,200 74%.6), 1,7),,, < 3-5>. 102,467 8) 92,831 (91.9%) 8,150 (8.1% ).. 57%.,,,. 5) 4. 6). 96 (96. 1).. 7) 1, 2, 1 1,500 20% ) < 3-5>,,

71 3 < 3-5> (1996) ( ) ( ) ( ) 102, , ,807 8,169 2,141 13,417 4,067 1,569 1,347 49,800 8, , ,385 43,631 43,631 9,205 4, , , ) 92 10Kg 1, 2,500, 180, 1,000 17,000,, : 1). : (1996d), 1996, pp ; (1996e),, p % %. 6%, (, ) 82%, 12%.. < 3-6> ,480,9) 3,902 (10.7%), 735 (2.0%) 31,843 (87.3%). 20,492 (56.2% ) 6. 9) < 3-3>. 51

72 < 3-6> (1996) ( : ) 36,480(100.0) ( ) 3,902(10.7) 720( 2.0) 245( 0.7) 107( 0.3) 150( 0.4) 1,240( 3.4) 1,440( 3.9) 0 ( 0.) 4 6% 2 6% 400 ( ) 735( 2.0) 399( 1.1) 160( 0.4) 176( 0.5) 5 (17 ) 4 1 ( ) 31,843(87.3) 20,492(56.2) 5,372(14.7) 2,655( 7.3) 2,931( 8.0) 393(1.1) (25 ) : (1996e),, pp ,.. - : 4. - : ( 25 ). - :. - :,, - : 6% 1 - : 6% 2 52

73 3,, , 3, 37, , 21. 4, 3, 1, 8, 9, 2. 6, 9, 2, < 3-7> (4.2% ) (5.0%), (6.3% ). < 3-7> ( :,%) ,925(100.) 473(4.2) 5,435(49.7) 3,247(29.7) 78(0.7) 10,776(100.0) 537(5.0) 5,428(50.4) 2,994(27.7) 84(0.78) 10,789(100.0) 592(5.5) 5,364(49.8) 2,778(25.7) 90(0.83) 10,762(100.0) 687(6.3) 5,351(49.7) 2,612(24.2) 93(0.86) : (1996),, p. 6. < 3-8> 96 58, ,605 75%,. 53

74 ., ( 2 ), ( 1 5 ). 65, 65 12,240. < 3-8> (1996) ( : ) * 58,971 4, ,730 4,612 29,467 2,000 4,202 5,916 3, , * :, : (1996d), 1996, pp ,700. < 3-9> 95 1,773 1, , 707, 1,171. < 3-10> ,, 29,467 ( 2,254 )

75 < 3-9> (95 ) 3 1, , , , : (1996),, p. 3 < 3-10> (96 ) * * : 4-5 ; 96. : (1996),, p , ( ) , 83% 70 55

76 2,100 ( 404, 1696 ) %. < 3-11> 96 13,205 37,766 (835 ). (,, ) ,456 ( 4,683 ) 54%. (7,950 ), (2,295 ), (2,136 ). < 3-11>,, (1996) ( : ) ( ), 1 ) ( ), 37,766 29,416 7, ,879 14,456 2, , ,205 8,914 4, ,683 4, ( ) 2 ) 7,741 2,508 3, ,520 1, , : 1) 2),, : (1996d), 1996, pp

77 3, 96 7,741. ( ) 2,508, 3,150 73%. 97 ( ), 4.,. 2.5 ( ) (,, ). 10),.. < 3-12> 96 2,439 ( 1,220 ), 388 ( 194 ), 3,624 ( 826 ).., < 3-12> (1996) ( : ], * 10,740 2, ,624 2, , ,384 1, ,272 26, : (1996d), 1996, p. 178, )

78 ,123 (344 )..,.,,,,,,,,,,. 58

79 ,..,,,...,,,, %. 3.3%...,.....,,,, 59

80 ..,,,.,. 1.,.,,... 7,..,.,,,,,., ,, (, 1994, pp ). 60

81 4 4 ( )..,.,,.,,

82

83 4 4 1.,,. 1. (public assistance) ,. 1961, ,.. (the pure needy ), (the able- bodied) (Murray, 1984 ;, 1995). 1). (, 1993, pp ;, 1994, pp ;, 1995, pp ; 1) 1. 63

84 , 1995, pp )..,.,..,. (top- down) (bottom - up) (street - level bureaucracy ).,.,.,,.,...,,..., (2 ), (2 ), (2 ) (6 ) 12. (8 7 ).,.., 64

85

86 2....,., - -,.,., ( :, 1994 ;, 1995 ;, 1995).,., ( :, 1989 ;, 1991)...,. (1995) (1995), (1993).,. 66

87 4,,.,, (burnout ) ( :, 1990 ;, 1991) ( :, 1991 ;, 1994)... (middle- range) ) 1960 (Great Society ), (War on Poverty ).., 1970 (implementation studies) 2).. (Alexander, 1985 ; Williams, 1982).,. (top- down model), (bottom - up model)..,. Lowi, Montjoy O'T oole, Sabatier 2) Derthick (1972), Pressman & Wildavsky (1973), Hargrove(1975). 6 7

88 Mazmanian. Lowi(1969).,. Montjoy O 'T oole(1979). Sabatier Mazmanian (1980). 17,,. Elmore(1979) (forw ard mapping ).,.,..,,,,..,.. (unidirection).,,,, (Nakamur a & Smallw ood, 1980).. 3). Elmore(1979) 3), Bardach (1977)., (a series of games). Stone(1980) (implementation problem ),.. 68

89 4.,. (backward mapping )....,.,.,... (Sabatier, 1986).. Elmore (1979), (the source of the policy ),. (the source of the problem ),... 2 ) Van Meter & Van Horn (1975) Sabatier & Mazmanian (1980). Van 69

90 Meter Van Horn (1975),,,,, 6.. (enforcement activities ),,.,,. Sabatier Mazmanian (1980) 3 (, ), 17. (tractability of the problem ).,,,., (ability of statute to structure implementation ).,,,,,,.,,,,, (commitment ) ) (street - level bureaucracy ) Lipsky (1980)., (Lipsky, 1980, p. 3). Prottas (1979, p. 2). 70

91 4.,. (Prottas, 1979 ; Lipsky, 1980 ;, 1990).,. (paper processing ) (people processing ). (face- to- face relations).,.,.,.. Burke(1987), Linder Peters (1987).,..,. 4 ),.,... 4) Lipsky (1980). 71

92 .. 2 ) :,,.,..,.,,,., (Lipsky, 1980, p. 15). (pp ).,,.,.., (Lipsky, 1980, pp )

93 (hard services) (soft services ). (Moore, 1987, pp ).. (, 1990, 1993 ;, 1993). 73

94 ), 34.., (, 1995, p. 85) , 18,,., 5)., (, 1994, p. 68),,,,,, 3 (< 4-1> ).. 6).. 5) (, 1995, p. 88). 6) (1995, pp ). 74

95 4 5 2, 6 1. < 4-1> ( 6 1 ) ( 6 2 ) ( 6 3 ) ( ) : ( ).. (, 1992, p. 172).,. (, 1995, p. 87). 75

96 < 4-2> ,, , 76

97 , ( 2039 ) ( ). 1978, 1979 ( 9495 ) ) ,,,. 12, (< 4-2> ). 2 ).,.,.,.,..,,,,.. 7) (1995, pp ). 77

98 , ( ) (, 1996b, p. 34)8).,.,. 9),..., 1977.,. 1, 2. 10). 50%, 50% ( 80%, 20%).., < 4-3>, ,, 17.3% (17 ), 8.2% (8 ), 74.5% (73 ).,,. 8), 18, ), 14, 3, 2 3,, (, 1992). 10) 1 1,500. (20%),

99 < 4-3> ( : ) : ( ) ,.,. < 4-4>, % 3.3%. 1990, 51.2%, 38.9%. < 4-4> ( : %) : (1996d), 1996, p. 96., ,582, 4, %, %. 1996, < 4-5> : 1996 ( ) (% ) ( ) (% ) : (1996a), 96 ; (1996c),

100 10,596 10, %, % (< 4-5> ) %. 1992, < 4-6>., % (17,524 ), ( ) 76.2% (56,004 ).. 11) , 50%.,. < 4-6> ( : ) ,274 6,909 7,190 7,954 9,729 4,657 5,120 5,080 5,310 5,716 4,214 2,897 2,172 1,956 2,079 35,000 33,637 36,371 36,829 40,331 2,363 1,736 1,680 2,548 3,276 17,114 9,217 8, ,397 71, ,516 60,931 62,487 73,528 : ( ),. 11) < 4-6> (, 1996d, p. 173). 8 0

101 ).. 48, (4 1, 5 3, ),. (15 ),,,. < 4-1> - -., 5 5 ( ) 1, 6 2, 7 2. ( 6-7 ),. < 4-1>. 81

102 2 )..,..,, , (, 1991, pp ) ,, 3 ( ), 3,000.,,,, (, 1989, p. 12 ;, 1989, pp. 9-10).., , 200 1, (, 1996f).. 82

103 < 4-7> : (27) 31 : (1996f).,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, (56), (41) , , , ( 99, 219 ) 94.6%, , 56 41, (19 ), (17 ), (17 ) 10, (< 4-7> )., (93.1%), 8 22 (6.9%). 12) 3.3 < 4-2>., (output ) (outcome). (tangible),.,.., (Brudney & England, 1982). 12) (1996f). 83

104 . (program content ). (specificity ), (feasibility ), (desirability ).,.,,.,,. < 4-2> (delivery system ),,.,.. 84

105 4...,.,. (task environment ),... < 4-2>. 85

106 , (, 1993, pp ;, 1994, pp ;, 1995, pp ;, 1995, pp ).,... ( ), (,,. ( :, ), ) ( < 4-1> ).,. < 4-8>, 1 20, 2, , 2,700.,. 8 6

107 < 4-8> : (1 / ) ( ) 160,000 1, ,000 2, ,000 2, ,000 2, ,000 2, ,000 2,700,,,..., 1 107,000 (< 4-9> ). 13, , , ,000, 8, ,000 13)., 2,500, , < 4-9> : 1 ( : ) ,000 29,000 39,000 49,000 65, ,000 37,000 44,000 48,000 55,000 65,000 92,000 :. : (1996e) 13) (, 1996e). 8 7

108 < 4-10> ( / ) 14,218 14, ( / ) 1,020 1, ( / ) ( / ) 49,790 85,130 35,340 ( / ) - 72,300 ( ) ( / ) 55,800 84,800 29,000 : (1996b),, p. 15. < 4-9> ,000, (18,371 ) (3,851 )..,, , ,000. < 4-10>, (1 72,300 ), ( 35,100, 1 10,450 ).(, 1996b, pp ). < 4-11> : (1996b),, p ,003 2,583 4,583 8,183, 1 88

109 4.,. 5, 72,513 ( / 1 ) 1,003 (2 ) 8,183 (5 ) (< 4-11> ). 2 ).. ( 3 ).,., , (, ).. 14) , ,000 ( ) 36% (, 1994, pp ) ) (, 1989, p. 184). 89

110 15).,., 1995 ( 150% ) (, 1991, pp ).., (, 1995d),, (2, ) 16 ),.., ). 15), ,000, ,000, ,000, , % (, 1996e). 16) (, 1996b, p. 7). 17)... 90

111 4.,.,,. < 4-12>, , (238,245 ) 39%. ( ). < 4-12> : ( : ) , , , , , ,277 58,625 55,736 55,582 58, , , , ,997 87,841 :. < 4-13>, 3.8% 1.4%. 23% 8.4%.. < 4-13> : ( : ) (% ) (% ) (A ) (B ) (B/ A ) 1,506 1, % 8.4% : 91

112 3 ) ( ) (,, ) ,359 (, 1994, p. vi) 1 65, %...,... (, 1995, p. 194).,.. < 4-14> 1995,,, 64.5% (56,794 / 88,041 ).., 1995, 92

113 4, g ,000. < 4-14> 1995 ( ) ,362 (100%) 8,677 (53.0% ) 2,346 (14.3%) 2,173 (13.3%) 2,140 (13.1%) 1,026 (6.3%) 88,041 (100%) 9,421 (10.7% ) 29,947 (34.0%) 7,674 (8.7%) 9,752 (11.1%) 31,247 (35.5%) 104,403 (100%) 18,098 (17,3%) 32,293 (30.9%) 9,847 (9.4%) 11,892 (11.4%) 32,273 (30.9%) : : (1995c), 95, p. 33, p (poverty line) ,, 5.,...,. 93

114 .,. 2 (, 1989, p. 182 ;, 1994, p. vi). 4 ),,,..,,... (Choi, 1991, p. 206)., ,. < 4-15>, ,501 (51,710 ) 116,295 (43,587 ) 94

115 4 79.4%. (26.0%).,. < 4-15> : 1995 ( ) ( ) 146,501 (51,710) 116,295 (43,587) 16,627 (12,627) 16,362 (12,613) 10, ,997 (39,083) 11,892 88,041 (30,974) : (1995c), 95, pp ,...., ). 95

116 ..., (, 1994, p. 117)..,.,..,.....,., (53.6%) (, 1990)..,, 18 ).. 18). 96

117 4,..,.,., 11.3% 23.9% (, 1987, p. 81)... 70%.. 19). 1995, ,.,,,.,,.. 19), % 2 4.7% (, 1989, p. 28). 9 7

118 .,...,. 31%, 44% (, 1992, p. 55) , 2-3 (, 1995, pp )...,, ,,,, 5, ( ) 3., (, 1996, p. 32) ,. 98

119 4... 1,... (, )..,. ( ),,,. 2 ) , < 4-16>.. ( ) ( ).,,..,.. ( :, 99

120 , ),. < 4-16> : 8 1. (,,, ) 1994., 32.20), < 4-17>,,, ,, 18 21)...., 20) (, 1991a, p. 14). 21) ( ). ( ), ( : ) (, 1994b, p. 712). 100

121 4,,.,., ( 18 ), ( 12 ), ( 37 ). < 4-17> : (1994b), 2, pp ,., (, 1993, p. 26). < 4-17> 101

122 ,,.. (1995, p. 87))., 19, )..., ( :, ).., 23)..., 5 2..,, ( 22) (, 1995, p. 84). 23). 102

123 4 ).,. (,,,, ) 5/ 10, 5/ / 10, 2/ 10, 8/ 10, 1/ 10, 1/ 10. 5/ < 4-18>, 1996 < 4-18> 1996 ( : ) 21,793,233 33,617,069 55,410,302 (12,613, 16,362 ) 9,204,956 4,602,478 13,807,434 (19, 8,210 ) 4,084,359 4,084,359 8,168,718 (23,090 ) ( 13,065, 10,025) 6,800,396 6,596,050 13,396,446 ( 2 ) 1,347,360 1,347,360 (47,220, 91 ) 2,444,415 2,444,415 (13,500 ) 2,141,601 2,141,601 (3,660 ) 291, ,600 (1,050 ) 472, ,500 (320 ) 1,703,522 1,703,522 5,000,000 5,000,000 ( , 000 ) 6,255,957 6,255, , ,749 : (1996d), 1996, pp ) 103

124 60.7%, % ( ). ( 364 ) ( 17 ).. 50% ( 80%). < 4-19>, , %.,, 5-6 ( 2 ).. < 4-19> ( : ) ,097 (46.2%) 11,931 (53.8%) 12,565 (42.8%) 16,806 (57.2%) 12,319 (38.8%) 19,435 (61.2%) 15,330 (43.8%) 19,649 (56.2%) 15,420 (42.8%) 20,631 (57.2%) 19,832 (44.5% ) 24,772 (55.5% ) 24,028 29, ,754 34, , ,604 : 3 ).., 24),. 104

125 4.., 25)., 39.4% (, 1995, p. 288)26)., , 5% (, 1995)..,, LG,,,.,..,, ,,,. (6 40% ),, (, 1995, p. 520).. 25),.. 26), 105

126 4.3 1).,..,..,.,.,.,,,,.,.., 4.,,..,.,. 2 ). 106

127 4..., ,.,..,., 27)....,. (1994) 211. < 4-20>, % %. 27),,

128 < 4-20> ( ) (% ) : (1994),, p. 44. (85.0%), (8.5%), (2.8%) (< 4-21> ) 28). (, 1991), (, 1989).,. (paper compliance) (Choi, 1991, p. 203). < 4-21> ( ) (%) : (1994),, p ). 108

129 4 (1994). < 4-22>.. 3.3% 91.5%, 5.2%. (89.1%), (95.7% ).. ( ) 74.9%.,,. (88.7% ), 84.3%.., ).,. 29). 109

130 < 4-22> ( ) ( ) (% ) : (1994),, pp ).,.. 110

131 4,. (, 1994, p. 161),.. ( ).,.,,, 30).,,, 1.., , 200 1, , (, 1996f) 31), ( : )..,.,,,, (, 1994). 30) (1994), (27.8%), (27.2%), (20.7%), (15.4%). 31) (, 1993, p. 49). 111

132 4 ),,,,.,,.., 85% 7...., 3. 7, 8. ( 50%, ) )., , ,000 32) %.. (, 1993)33). 32) , , , 1, ), (Ziderman, 1978, p. 51). 112

133 4, (1 75,000 ), (1 20,000 ), (1 60,000 ) (1 30,000 ) (, 1996d, p. 193) , ).. 35) 30%., ,300 (13,065 ), 1 810,200 (10,025 ) 130 (< 4-23> ) 36 )..,,,,, (8 ) 17,000. 2, ( < 4-23> ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , ,000 3, , ,637 2, , ,371 2, , ,829 2, , ,331 2, , ,400 2,441 :, ) , ),, ( ). 36)

134 )., (< 4-23> ). 2 ).. < 4-24>, 34,289 (78.7% ), 9,298 (21.3%).., 8,042, 1,256.,. < 4-24> 15,402 1,727 13,675 18,887 10,581 8,306,, 6, ,660 1, ,159 1, , ,587 12,613 30,974 : (1995), 95, pp ,316 43, %., 15.7% (1,979 ) 68.9% (21,337 ) 114

135 < 4-25> : ) 4 ( ) ( ) 10,518 1,876 8,642 1, , , ,440 1, ,417 13,372 12,228 17,409 42,836 14,020 1,552 : (1995c), 95, pp ,. < 4-25>, , %, 9.6% 11.3% 38). 13.2% (13,372/ 101,417 ). 3 )? -, -..., 37).,.. (, 1993) (, 1995, p. 216). 38). (, 1995, p. 214). 115

136 (, 1995, p. 169). 69.1% ( 93.7%, 64.5%)., (, 1995, p. 169). 130, , 400, 120, 4 5, %, 54.3%, 25.9% (, 1995, p. 162). (, 1991, p. 271), (56.7%), (28.5%), (9.5%), (5.3%)..,. 312 (946 ) (1995, p. 215), (54.5%) (16.2%)... (, 1995, p. 215). (Goodin 116

137 4 & Le Grand et al., 1987) (Brew er & deleon, 1983, p. 337)..., (, 1994, p. 272) 39), %...,.,. 40).., ) (1,000 ) 1/ 2. (2,000 ) (6, ). 40) % (, 1995, p. 194). 11 7

138 41).,. (, 1995, pp ), 71.6%... ( ) (p. 281)..., (20.5% ), (17.9%), (15.4%), (12.8% ). (40.8%), (21.7%), (13.7%), (11.9%) (, 1995, p. 243, 248)... 30, (, 1993, p. 244) % (50,682 / 88,041 ) (, 1995c, pp ).,.., 41)

139 4 42)...,.,. 43).. ( ),, (, 1995, pp ). 42) (1995, pp ). 43) (1996b, p.37). 119

140 ) (Osborne & Gaebler, 1992 ;, 1995).,.,..,.,,,. (restructuring )... 2 ). 12 0

141 ,., 97 80%,,., (, 1993). 7 5 ( ),., (, 1995, p.47)., % 8.7% % % 44 ). (1995/ 3/ 23),. (16%) (19.5%) 4.09%.. (, 1994;, 1995)., (82.1%), (55.7%), (13.6%) (1.7%). 3 ( ) (98 100% ),, (96 1, ,000 ), (, 1996b),. 44) (1996, p. 4). 12 1

142 .,, )., ,,,,, (, 1990, pp ).,...,.,.,.. 45) (, 1995, p. 81).. 45) (1994). 122

143 4.,, %.,, (, 1994)., (4 ) 711,766, 1 220, ,000 1/ 3. ( ) 2. < 4-26> 46), 1.. < 4-26> ( : ) , , , , , , , , , , , , ,586 : (1994),, p. vi. 205, , , , , , , , , , , , , ,727 46) 1-2, (, 1994). 12 3

144 2 ),.,,.,.,., 5% 0.83% (, 1994, p. 233). 1.4%. Medicaid 10%,. 3 ) :.,., ( ) ( ) 50%

145 4. (, 1995, p. 307),..,. ( ) ,.47 ).. (1994, p. 274).,... 4 ), % (, 1995c, p. 118).. (, 1995, p. 30). 47). 125

146 ..,.. ( : ) ( : )..,,, (, 1995, pp ).,.,, (needs assessment ) 48 ). (, 1995, p. 222),.,, (, 1995, p. 228). 60..,. 48) 9.,,,. 12 6

147 4,.,., ( ), ( )..,, (, 1995, p. 162).., (, 1995, p. 227).., (Youth Employment Policy ) (On - Site- Job T raining ) (Elmore, 1979).., ( ).,, (, 1993, p. 244). (, 1995, pp ).. ( 6%). 49). 49) (1995, p. 297) (AFDC) (matching fund)

148 .., )...,.,....,.,,,.,,,.,,., (, 1994, p. 212). 128

149 4.,.,, ( 10%)......,, ,., 12 9

150 (, 1995, pp ). 50). ( ).. 2 )...,,., (screen out ).. (imper sonal)., (, 1990, p. 109). (Hill, 1988, p. 85), (role confusion ). 50) 1991.,,,,

151 4...,.. (Berman, 1978, p. 175).., (paper compliance).,.... 2,....,.. 131

152 3 ),,.. (T he Job T raining Partnership Act of 1982) (, 1988, p. 175). (public and private partnership).,..,,.., (coproduction ).,,..,... ( ) (, 1996, pp ). 5 1).. 51) (1996, pp ). 132

153 4,,.. ( ).,, 52).,...,.. ( ).,,.,, ( ) 53 ) 54). 52) (, 1996/ 8/ 30). 53). 54) (1995, pp ). 133

154 5.4 1).,,.,..,...,,.,.,.,, 55)., 56) ) (1995, p. 270), )... (1995, pp ). 134

155 4. ( :, ),.,.,,,.,, ,,, (, 1995, p. 90). 2 ),..,,.,,.,..., 1 100,

156 ,...,,.,

157 5 5 ( )...,., ,,,,

158

159 % 60%. 3.8%...,..,.. 10% 34% 25%..,

160 ...., ,..,,,.. 1.3,,. < 5-1>. 14 0

161 5 < 5-1>

162 1,,, ,,.. 2.,. 3., ,

163 ,. (, 1995, p. 81). (, 1993).,. (national health service),..,..,.., ( )..,..,

164 < 5-1> ( 1 ) ( 2 ) 1 2, < 5-1> , 1988, 1989.,.,,. < 5-2> < 5-3>.,,.. < 5-4> , % 4,408 ( 2,252, 1,675, 481 ), 174 (1 61, ) 3.8%. 144

165 5 < 5-2> ( ) 2 8% - 1/ 2-1/ ( 50% ) 3.8% - 1/ 2 1/ 2-50/ / / 100, ( ),, ( ) 1 2,,,, ( ) % 50% 20% 145

166 < 5-3> 1 ( ) ( ) 2 1 1,500 : 80% 20% (10 ) < 5-4> (1996 ) ( ) (%) 1, , , , : (1996a),

167 5. (, 1990).,.,.,,., %, 86.7% (, 1996a ).. < 5-5> 1995, 57,188, 8,714, 13,681, 43,269, 120, , 2.30, 2.52, 1.45, 2.04., < 5-6> ( ) , , ,278, , ,036, ,., 1, 570 (92 ), 419 (88 ), 446 (91 ), 437 (88 ), 395 (90 ), 391 (84 ), 333 (89 ) 681 (95 ) %.. 1,. 1,. 14 7

168 < 5-5> ( : ) 1985(A ) (B) 29,596 42,554 45,496 48,390 51,518 54,406 57,188 3,789 5,792 6,120 6,839 7,569 8,179 8,714 5,436 9,619 10,137 11,285 12,180 12,939 13,681 29,866 37,118 38,396 39,564 40,779 42,037 43,269 59,104 89,032 95, , , , ,415 B/ A : (1995a),., 1995, 96, < 5-6> ( : ) 1 ) ,457 4,268 3,869 3,620 3,436 3,278 1,155 1,127 1,104 1,080 1,057 1, * ( 92) ( 91) ( 88) ( 88) ( 91) ( 90) 2 ) ( 84) ( 89) ( 91) , ,685 1,852 1,639 1,754 1,493 1, ,493 1,205-1,961 1, ( 90) 247( 81) 104( 88) 194( 88) 137( 88) 69( 88) 91( 88) 143( 88) 65( 81) : 1) 2). : (1996a),

169 ,773 ( 19,624 ), 196,232 (< 5-7> ) (< 5-6> ). 74 (90 ), 194 (88 ), 137 (88 ), 104 (88 ), 69 (88 ), 91 (88 ), 143 (88 ) 1/ 4 1/ 2.. < 5-7> (95 12, :, ) 29, , ,343 96,865 50,188 44, , ,997 3, * : 19,624 : (1996a), ) 139,751 (10.9%), 1,146,559 (89.1%) (, 1995a ) ,101, 41, , %., 1),,,,,,,,,. 149

170 2.6% (, 1995a ). (,,, ) < 5-8> , < 5-8> ( :, ) 1985(A ) 16,358 1, , ,387 2, , (B) 30,824 (4.9) 32,482 (5.4) 34,578 (6.5) 37,993 (9.9) 2,405 2,524 2,733 2, ,891 (3.4) 71,276 (11.6) 75,101 (5.4) 77,815 (3.6) A/ B *. : (1995a),. (, 1995b, pp ). < 5-9>. 70 GNP 2 3% % 80 GNP 4.0%

171 < 5-9> : (10 ) GN P GD P (%) (% ) (%) 1 1 * $ (%) , , , , , , , , , GNP. : (1996), : GNP 4.8% 10%., %, % %, GNP % GNP 5.5% , ,596, , % ( 17,696 ) 2.3, , 1,

172 , (1996), , (,, ) 100,,, - 14,1%, 35.5%, 6.7%, 71.9% 1., % 70%, 13%. < 5-10> $379, 1/ 9 1/ 5, 1/ 4. (OECD) 24 1/ 5., , 1/ 5 OECD 2/ 5. OECD 1,

173 5 < 5-10> OECD 1 (GDP) (NHE ) ( : $, %) 1 N H E/ GD P ,314 1,720 1,539 1, ,300 1,190 1, ,686 1,451 1,949 1,745 1, ,497 1,376 1, ,151 3, OECD 1,217 1, (458) 379(579) * OECD 1 1., 1989 GDP PPP. : (1996), : ,. 1) < 5-11> < 5-12>. 153

174 < 5-11> ( ) (%) (%) (% ) (34.5) 58(18.8) 66(14.8) 58(10.1) 63(10.6) 67(11.1) 61( 8.7) 60( 8.1) 89(11.3) 115(65.7) 250(81.2) 380(85.2) 514(89.9) 532(89.4) 536(88.9) 643(91.3) 684(91.9) 700(88.7) 175(100.0) 308(100.0) 446(100.0) 572(100.0) 595(100.0) 603(100.0) 704(100.0) 744(100.0) 787(100.0) : (1996a), 96. < 5-12> ( ) (%) (%) (%) ,757(19.8) 16,826(18.1) 19,100(19.0) 20,214(18.9) 21,442(17.0) 20,958(14.8) 20,040(13.3) 59,608(80.2) 75,900(81.9) 81,519(81.0) 86,906(81.1) 104,684(83.0) 120,309(85.2) 130,592(86.7) 74,365(100.0) 92,726(100.0) 100,619(100.0) 107,120(100.0) 126,126(100.0) 141,267(100.0) 150,632(100.0) : (1996a), 96. < 5-11> %, %, %. 154

175 5 < 5-12>, % %., < 5-7> ,232 < 5-12> ( ) 20,040 10%., 10% (95 ) 92% (83 ) 95% (83 ), 34% (87 ), 25% (86 ) (< 5-13> ). < 5-13> ( : % ) (95 ) (87 ) (86 ) (83 ) (83 ) (83 ) : (1994a),. < 5-7> < 5-12>., %, 14.7% (< 5-14> ). < 5-12> ( ) 14.8% (94 )..,,.,,., ( ),,, (, 1996, p. 30). 155

176 < 5-14> (1994 ) ( ) (% ) ( ) (%) 2,712 3, ,247 9, , , ,327 5, ,813 19, , , , , : (1995a),. < 5-15>.,.,,. 90% (, 1979) %, 1988 (< 5-14> ) % %. 10%. ( ) % %.,,,. (, 1994a, pp )..,

177 5 < 5-15> ( : % ) * * : (1996), : %, % % %, %, %. 60 Medicare Medicaid.. 3/ 4, 1/ 4,., %, 6.8% 1/ 3, 56.3%, 88%. 10%.., 10%, 10% ( 30% ). 15 7

178 2 ),,,,. 3, 4, 3,, (< 5-16> ). < 5-17> 8. < 5-18> 10, 9, 4,. 44, 15 (< 5-19> > ) ). ( ) ( ) 1,, , 1,327, 2,039 (< 5-20> ).,, ) (1983). 158

179 5 < 5-16> 10 ( ) , ,72 1 < 5-17> 8 1, ,459,,,,,,,, 159

180 < 5-18> 10 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 1 500, 24 6,

181 5 < 5-19> ,, ( ),,,,, ( ), ( ) ,, 1 300, 1 300, 1 200, 7(1) * ,,,,,,, 8(2) * * ,,,,,,,, ,, 161

182 < 5-19> 5(1) * ,,,,, 4(2) * * ,,,, 7(4) * * * * ,,,,,,, 6(3) * * * ,,,,,, 5(2) * * ,,,,, ,, 59 (15 ) 10,074 (448 ) * ;. 162

183 5 < 5-20> ( ) ( ) 238 1,327 2,039, ( ) 966 ( ) 2,070 2,039 : (1996a), 96.,.,., ( ),.,, (< 5-2> ).,. 163

184 < 5-2> ( ) 164

185 ) 1996 < 5-21>. ( ) 10,596, 10,450 ( 5,218, 4,169, 1,063 ) 98.6%, 146 (1 57, 2 89 ) 1.4%.,. 3 ) < 5-21> ( ) (%) 4, , , , , : (1996c), , %, %., 23% 8.3% (< 5-22> ).., 3) 50%, 80% ( ). 165

186 ,. 50% (< 5-23> ). < 5-22> (1996 ) ( ) ( ) 4,582 1,060 1, % 8.4% 3.8% 1.4% 11,097 (46.2%) 11,931 (53.8%) < 5-23> ( : ) ,565 (42.8%) 16,806 (57.2%) 12,319 (38.8%) 19,435 (61.2%) 15,330 (43.8%) 19,649 (56.2%) 15,420 (42.8%) 20,631 (57.2%) 19,832 (44.5% ) 24,772 (55.5% ) 24,028 29,371 31,754 34,979 36,051 44,604 : ,246, 48,589 (< 5-24> ). 28, % ( %), 182, % (, 1995). < 5-6> 246 (94 ) 222 (< 5-25> ). 23.7% (94 ). < 5-25> (94 ), 15,507, 2,268, 3,438, 8,460, 15,

187 < 5-24> 5 (94 12, :, ) 9,246 48, ,162 31,661 9,316 6,601 2, , * : (1995),. < 5-25> (94 12 ) * 15,507 2,268 3,438 8,460 15,464 48,598 ( ) * * ,141 1, *. ** ( ) = 94 10,798,700 / ( ) : (1995),.., ( ) 1 608, 1 3,141 < 5-6> ,436.4) ( ) 38.7% 4), < 5-25>, < 5-6>,. 16 7

188 (, 1995).. ( ) (94 ) 275 (94 ), 222 (93 ), 110 (91 ), 306 (94 ), 539 (92 ) (< 5-26> ).. 1 ( ) < 5-26> * 1 (1994 ) *. (1994 ) (1994 ) (1993 ) (1992 ) (199 1) : (1995),. 2 ).,. ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) 4, ( ), ( ), ( ) ( ) 8. 3 (,, ), 3 (,, ), 1 ( ) , ,470 5%. 5) 1 ( ) )

189 , 2 ( ) 6. < 5-3>..,..,.. 25,.,..6) 6), (, 1995, pp ). 169

190 < 5-3>

191 ) (, 1994, pp ) (Allen ),. 1905,,., 1908 ( ) ( ) 1929 ( ). 1947, 1948, < 5-27>,,,,, , < 5-28>,,, 4,, ( ), ( ), ( ) ,455. 6, 460, 405, 340, 250, 200.,.,, 1 71

192 < 5-27> 1908 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1987 ( ) 1996 ( ) 1 72

193 5 < 5-28> ( ) ( ) * ( ) 95 (% ) 51,979 2,455 26,514 (2,930) 1,626 2,504 13,510 2, , ,155 20,805 4, (815) ,059 7,018 1,000 1,744 1,500 1, , ,615 *. :. 5. ( ),, 1.. < 5-29>., 200,

194 < 5-29> : (1996a), : : 200 : : ),,,, 4. 7) , ( ) , ,. < 5-30>. 7) 1.,

195 < 5-30> 5 ( ) 3 ),,.,,, < 5-4>.,,,.. 8)..,,,., 3, (, ) )

196 < 5-4> < 5-5>.. 7,, ),,,,.,,.,..,, ( ). < 5-4> < 5-6>. 9) 4 3 ( 3 14 ). 1 76

197 5 < 5-5> (1996 ) (19 ) (2 11 ) 1 77

198 < 5-6> (1996 ) (1 ) (2 ) (2 ) ( 102 ) (2 ) (1 3 ) (1 ) 25 (2 ). ( ),,,, 5.,,,,.,..,.,,, 25,,,,.,, < 5-31>.., 1 78

199 < 5-31> (1996 ) 5 (% ) ( + ) (%) (%) ,037 1, : %. 100%.,. 4 ),,,. < 5-32> 1996.,, 3 25, 19, < 5-33>. 95 ( ) 603,141, 786,013 1,389,154 ( 865,144 ).,,,,.,, 1 79

200 < 5-32>,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 16,,, 4,, 3 1, 2,,,,,, 8,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 25 : 18 0

201 5 < 5-33> (1995 ) ( :, % ) ( * ) 12,378 (38.3) 19,942 (61.7) 32,320 (100) 56,217 (78.6) 15,269 (21.4) 71,486 (100) 31,117 (55.4) 25,032 (44.6) 56,149 (100) 735 (0.5) 133,937 (99.5) 134,672 (100) 3,739 (95.0) 197 (5.0) 3,936 (100) 1,981 (1.5) 134,003 (98.5) 135,984 (100) 29,157 (46.9) 32,966 (53.1) 62,123 (100) 7,600 (93.2) 553 (6.8) 8,153 (100) 31,690 (48.9) 33,150 (51.1) 64,840 (100) 42,591 (44.3) 53,500 (55.7) 96,091 (100) 97,177 (90.2) 10,581 (9.8) 107,758 (100) 74,983 (56.8) 57,027 (43.2) 132,010 (100) 84,861 (26.1) 240,345 (73.9) 325,206 (100) 164,733 (86.1) 26,600 (13.9) 191,333 (100) 139,771 (35.9) 249,212 (64.1) 388,983 (100) 103,557 (77.6) 29,849 (22.4) 133,406 (100) 295,804 (91.9) 26,137 (8.1) 321,941 (100) 202,158 (84.0) 38,561 (16.0) 240,719 (100) 100,518 (69.5) 44,011 (30.5) 144,529 (100) 226,854 (83.2) 45,885 (16.8) 272,739 (100) 176,136 (74.8) 59,306 (25.2) 235,442 (100) 288,936 (47.9) 314,205 (52.1) 603,141 (100) * = + / 3 ** (%). : 687,391 (87.5) 98,622 (12.5) 786,013 (100) 518,065 (59.9) 347,079 (40.1) 865,144 (100),,,., 24, 13,,., 52.1%, 12.5%, 40.1%.. 50%.,,,,,, 181

202 ,. 40.1%,, %. 25.2% 16.0% %. 1, 6, 1, 1 ( 4 ). 4,. 182

203 5 ( )., ( 6 ). 5 ) , ( 2 3 ). ( 13 )..,,. 5., (300 ),. ( 7 1 ) ) 183

204 1) 6 < 5-34>. < 5-34> 100 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (%) : (1995a), 94.. n.a. 100,, , 89.5, 135, , 84.1, 135.2,. 10) (1995a).,,, 3,,.. 184

205 , 67.1, , 87.1, ,,., , , (% ) (% ), ( ), (%). 11) 100 (%),,,,,., 11). ( ),.,,.. ( ) 1,. (, 1995b. pp ). 185

206 ,.,. 35.9%.,,.,,,,. 2 ) < 5-35> %, ,. 1.,.,,,., 18 6

207 < 5-35> 5 ( : %, ) n.a. n.a. n.a.. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a n.a. n.a. 9, n.a. n.a. n.a. : (1995a), %,., %.,. 18 7

208 -,,..., 5,,,, 4.. 6,.. 3 ) 12), 13), 1, 1 < 5-36>. 6., ) (= / ) (%).. 13) (= / ).. 188

209 5 < 5-36> (% ) n.a n.a n.a (%) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,117.0 n.a. n.a. 1, : (1995a), ) < 5-37> , 133.5, 100, ,,. -,

210 , ,. < 5-37> 100 ( : ) n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. : (1995a), ) 6,,, 4. -,,, ,,,,

211 , 4.. -, < 5-38>. < 5-38> ) :, :, :,,,, 4.,,,

212 3.3 1) 3, 2 3, 1, 1 8, 2,455. 5%, 10%. 60%,.. < 5-39>. 17, ( ) 9, 2, 2, 4., 4,126, 1,607, 210, 217, 90 6,252. < 5-40>. 47%, 39%.,,. 2 ),, 3 (1993), 23.7%, 32.1%, 18.3%., (, 1996). 192

213 5 < 5-39> ( ) 470( 438, 32) 248( 248) 789( 741, 48) 462( 375, 87) 382( 342, 40) 595( 525, 28, 42) 556( 384, 172) 116( 116) 296( 264, 32) 259( 221, 38) 130( 90, 40) 1,273( 1,273) ( 202, 40) 160( 110, 50) 150( ) 88( 88) 36( 36) 6,252( 4,126, 1,607, 210, 217, 90) : (1994),,. < 5-40> ,455 6,252 ( ) 1, ,126 1, * (400 ) (200 ). 193

214 3 3..,... < 5-31> 84.9%, 57.1%, 67.2%....,, % (< 5-41> ). < 5-41> ( ) T/ O (%) :,.. 4,..,. 194

215 5 3 )., 6, 4.,.,,.,, 4..,,,.,,.,.,.,. < 5-40>.,. 195

216 90%,,,, 4. < 5-43>, %, % 298. < 5-42> ( : %) : < 5-43> 16,013 ( : ) ,737 (10.8% ) 25,239 (42.3%) 29,830 (18.2%) 3,466 3,318 5,311 5,792 4,466 4,922 4,124 7,057 2,027 2,665 3,134 4,067 3,475 4,265 5,701 5, ,146 3,382 1,492 1,647 1,421 3,587 5,716 *. ** 96. : 196

217 5 4 ). 5 1.,..,... 14). 3,,.,, 3,. ( ) ,., 15). 14), ,,,,,, ( ).., (, 1994). 15) (, ),,

218 5 ).,,.... (netw ork).,,,, ) (,,, ).,.. 17)., 2, 2. 16) 2, 1 4.4% (, 1993). 198

219 ) (25 ) 1.. < 5-7>..,.,,,,,,, 8,. < 5-44>. < 5-7> ( 4 ) 5 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 17), 24,. 199

220 < 5-44>,,,,,, ( ),,, (,,,,,,, 8 ),, ( ) 2 ) 96 < 5-45>. 2,110 2,020 96% 88% , , 9 5. < 5-45> ( : ) , , : 2 00

221 5 3 ) 1.. < 5-46> 95., 273, ,596, ( ) 2,509,346 92%, 140,672 5%, 81,872 3%. < 5-46> (1995 ) ( : ) 1 ( ) 2,731, ,275 2,509, ,373 81,872 3, ,672 5,627 * 25. :,, ( )...,, 2,,,,,

222 ,. 1991,,,, ,, , (, 1995). < 5-47>. < 5-47> ( : ) ( ) , , , , ,932 17,580 68,135 76,943 80,577 86, , , , , ,719 29,218 46,529 49,916 53,621 55, ,745 2,355 2,475 4,058 * ( ) : 7,863 ( 855, 78, 1,955, 467, 1,630, 1,105, 1,773) : (1996b), 1 :. 4.2 (1)., 2 02

223 5,.,, ( ).. (2),. 25., 18)... (3),,. 1..,,,. 18) 23%. 2 03

224 (4),. < 5-48> (669,042 ) (145,646 ) 4.6. (47.19 km 2 ) (9.97 km 2 ) ,.,, 1 ( ) 1,942, 8,469, 7, ,400, 11% 1,900 (< 5-48> ). (5),., ( ),,,,...,. (6).,. (,,,, ). 2 04

225 5 < 5-48> (1995 ) (k m 2 ) ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) * ( ) 30 (4) 145, , , , (70) 80(79) 85 (77) 91(79) 1,942 2,559 3,071 3,128 2,530 2,438 2,382 2, ,556 47,544 55,860 51, (6) 342, , , , , , (87) 86 (81) 93 (88) 91(86) 82(86) 93 (87) 3,765 4,319 4,024 4,211 4,770 4,248 3,069 2,246 3,401 2,675 2,262 2, , ,358 75, ,074 83,708 73, (8) 400, , , , , , , , (72) 78 (74) 80(80) 83 (78) 78 (75) 92(85) 79 (77) 88 (83) 5,339 5,229 5,223 5,061 5,599 4,945 6,166 5,655 2,223 2,177 2,361 2,502 2,216 2,801 2, ,821 56, , ,034 94, , , , (6) 503, , , , , , (74) 88 (88) 86 (82) 98 (92) 83 (81) 82(82) 6,801 5,757 6,088 5,699 6,735 7,310 2,361 2,604 2,683 3,073 2,958 2, , , , ,666 99, , (1) 669, (77) 8,469 2, , ,595, ,110(2,020) 5,022 62, ,731,890 * 1 ( ), : 2 05

226 , ) 1995 < 5-49>, (, 1996a). < 5-49>..,,,.,,,. 2 06

227 5,,,..,,,..,,..,.,.., AIDS.,.. < 5-50>.., 1 ( ; < 5-27> ),

228 < 5-50> ( ) ( ) (11,370 ) (44,640 ) AIDS (32,898 ) (8,523 ) (14 ) : (1996b), 1 :. < 5-51> ( ) ( ) m 2 (3,000 ) 200 9,917m 2 (3,000 ) ,884m 2 ( ) ( ) 9,917m 2 (3,000 ) 40, , ,019 ( 11,000 35,019) *. : (1996b), 1 :. 2 08

229 (< 5-51> ).. 2 ),,.,.,,.,,, (restructuring )., ( ), 1 ( ), 4 (,,, ), 2 ( ) ? - ( ),?

230 3?? - 2, 2,? -,? - 3?,., (,,, ).,, ),

231 5,..,. (, 1996a, 1996b ;, 1996)...,,,,,,,., 1/ 2,,., ,.,,,, 40 64,.,.,,,,,.,.,. 2 11

232 .,. ( 27% ), 3, 4, 5 1, 2 ( ).. ( ) 98 20, 1 6..,. ( ), ( ). 65,,,, ( : )., (,,,, ) (part - time),. 2 12

233 5 2 ),,,.,.,,,..,,.,,.,,..19 ),,,,, ( ).20),. 19), (, 1995, pp ). 20),,,. 2 13

234 .,, 21) 22). 21) ,, 3,, 1. 22) , ,

235 )., % 60%, 3.8%., 1.4%, (< 5-52> )., , ,858 40%. ( ). < 5-52> ( : ) , , , , , , ,277 61,277 58,625 55,736 55,582 58, , , , , ,997 87,841 39,855 34,842 17, : 2 15

236 Medicaid 10% 23 ). 5% (, 1990)., 10%. 3.8%, 1.4%., 24),..,,,..,,.,,,, AIDS,.,., 23) 1965 Medicaid 1966 Medicare. Medicaid. Medicaid, ( 50% ).. Medicaid 89 2,290. Medicare 65. Medicare,. Medicare 89 3,300 (, 1994a, pp ). 24) 2, 5 6.,

237 ,,..,....,,,... 2 ). 2,455 5%, 39%...,, 3 2,455 1/

238 ( ),. 25),, 3., , 20, ), NIMBY. ( ) 3. (< 5-8> ). < 5-8> 25), (, 1993). 26),, ( < 5-39> )

239 ) 3..,,.,..,,., ) ,., 27) 3 3., ( ), ) (< 5-39> ). 2 19

240 .,.,,,...,.,,,....29) (,, )..,,. 4..,, (restructuring )..,.. 29),? 31%. (, 1993). 22 0

241 5 98 1,.. (1993) (1993) (1983)., < 5-33> 30.5%, 16.8%. (, ). 30)..,..,,. 31) 10.,. 3,,. 32) 3 30),,,,,... 31) ( 52 2 ). 22 1

242 ,, 33 ). 4., (network).,.,,.,.,, AIDS,,,.34 ).,,, 25 < 5-53>,,,. < 5-54>.. 32),. 33),. 34), ( ),. 222

243 < 5-53> ( ) 5,,,,, 6,,,,,, 7,,,,, 6,,,,, 6 < 5-54> ( ),,,, 5,,,, 5,,, 4,,, 4,,, 4,, 3.., ),,. 3 ). 35) (,,,, ) (, 1996b). 22 3

244 .,.,,,,,, ,.,,,,,,, ,,.,,,,,

245 ,. AIDS...,,,,,, 6..,, (Community Mental Health Center ). 50..,. 225

246 ,. 12,. 4 ),, 4 < 5-55>. < 5-55>. ( ),. 4,,, , NIMBY

247 < 5-55> 5 AIDS ( ) ( 400 ) 22 7

248 < 5-9> , ( ),. < 5-55>,. 3 1, 2 (< 5-9> ).,. 3,

249 5, ,. 1),,.,... 2 ),,.36) (outsourcing ) 37). 36),. 37) ( 22 ). 22 9

250 3 ) 38)... 4 ),.,, )... 6 ) < 5-53> < 5-54>,,,,,. 38),,. 2 30

251 5,.. 39 ) 6.3,.,.,...,.,,,. 40 ) 39) ), (,,, ), (,,, ),, 2 31

252 ..,.. 41),.,,.,. 6.4,. ( 9 ).. (, 1995b, p. 159). (,, ) ( (1994) ). 41) ( )

253 5.42),,.,,,.,,,,,,, AIDS,.. ( ),,. (,, ) MRI( ),. 42) IBRD 3,000 (, 1995b, p. 159). 2 33

254

255 6 6 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 35

256

257 6 6,,,., 30...,,,..,...,.,,,,.,.,,......,

258 .,.,..., ,...,

259 6.. 4.,.,, ,... 1).., 2 39

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264 ,., (T he Job T raining Partner ship Act ). ( ).,,.,, ( ) ,..,,,.,,.,,,.,. 1).,, 244

265 6.,.,. 2,,. ( :, ),.,.,,,...,,,. 2 ).,, , 200..,..., 245

266 ,..,. 60%,..,.,...,

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268 5. 1)., , 20,805, ,., ).,. 248

269 6.,,...,. 3 ),,,. 4.,, (restructuring ).., ,..,..,,. 3,, 249

270 . 4., (network).,.,,.,., AIDS,,,. 4 ) 25,,,... 5 ).,

271 ,.,,.,.,... 1),,.,. 2 ),,. (outsourcing ). 251

272 3 ).. 4 ),.,, )... 6 ),,,,,.,.. 252

273 6 2.3,.,.,,,...,..,.,,.,. 2.4,

274 .,,.,,,.,,,,,,, AIDS,..,,. 254

275 (1995),, 25, pp (1994),,. (1991),,. (1989),. (1993),, :. (1995),, :. (1983),, 11, pp ,. (1994),, 10 1, pp (1986),, :. (1995),, :. (1993), :, (1995),, (1990),,. (1993),, :. (1994),, 10 2, pp (1995),, 4 2, pp (1993),, 2 3, pp (1995),, :. 255

276 (1995), :, :. (1993), -, 6, pp (1990),, :. (1993),,, pp (1994),,, pp (1992),, :. (1990),, 24 2, pp (1993),, 1. (1996), :, :. (1995),, :. (1993),, :. (1995),, :. (1996),,. (1991),, :. (1994), :. (1990), -,. (1993),, 2 3, pp (1979),, :. (1993), :, 2 1, pp , :. (1988),, :. (1994),, 94- R

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