한국기계가공학회지, 제18 권, 제6 호, pp.45 54( ) ISSN (Print) Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp.4

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1 한국기계가공학회지, 제8 권, 제6 호, pp. (9.6) ISSN 9867(Print) ournal of the Korean Soiety of Manufaturing Proess Engineers, Vol. 8, No. 6, pp.~(9.6) ISSN 8877(Online) 농업용트랙터 전동라인의래틀소음분석 안다빈 *, 신인경 ** *, 한현우, 손관희, 박영준 * *,***,# * ** *** 서울대학교바이오시스템 소재학부, 대동공업기술연구소, 서울대학교농업생명과학연구원 Analysis of the Driveline Rattle Noise on an Agriultural Trator DaVin Ahn *, InKyung Shin **, HyunWoo Han *, GwanHee Son *, Youngun Par *,***,# * Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Siene and Engineering, Seoul National University, Korea ** Daedong Industrial Co., Ltd, R&D Center, Changnyeong, Korea *** Researh Institute of Agriulture and Life Sienes, Seoul National University, Korea (Reeived April 9; reeived in revised form April 9; aepted May 9) ABSTRACT In this study, we analyze the rattle noise of a power taeoff () driveline and develop a driveline resonane model. We measured the rattle noise of the driveline on the output shaft and, by analyzing the rattle noise in the time domain, we determine that the engine expansion stroe period mathes the sound pressure of rattle noise. This finding helped us demonstrate that the rattle noise is aused by the ollision between the driving gear and the gear driven by the engine expansion stroe; the torsional vibration aused by this ollision is affeted by the angular veloity flutuation of the drive shaft. By measuring the angular veloity of the drive shaft, we onfirm that the angular veloity flutuation of the engine flywheel tends to exessively amplify the drive shaft angular veloity flutuation. We onlude that the resonane, whih ours when the operating frequeny of the engine is lose to the natural frequeny of the trator power transmission system, auses the exessive angular veloity flutuation of the drive shaft. We performed a modal analysis of the driveline resonane and, using the harateristi equation, we show that the resonane ours when the engine rotation speed is lose to 8 rpm, whih mathes the natural frequeny of the driveline. Key Words : Rattle Noise( 래틀소음 ), Driveline ( 전동라인 ), Trator( 트랙터), Torsional Vibration( 비틀 림진동), Simulation Model( 시뮬레이션모형), Resonane( 공진). 서론 농업용트랙터는주로부하변동이심한쟁기, # Corresponding Author : Tel: 8886, Fax: 8879 로터리등의농작업과, 로더, 사료이송등의축산 작업에사용되는다목적기계이다. 그러므로트랙 터의운전자는작업중여러가지유해한환경뿐 아니라높은수준의진동과소음에노출되게된 다. 이러한진동과소음은운전자의작업능률을 저하시킬뿐아니라청력저하, 두통등의건강에 Copyright The Korean Soiety of Manufaturing Proess Engineers. This is an OpenAess artile distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons AttributionNonommerial. Liense (CC BYNC. whih permits unrestrited nonommerial use, distribution, and reprodution in any medium, provided the original wor is properly ited.

2 안다빈, 신인경, 한현우, 손관희, 박영준 : 한국기계가공학회지제8 권, 제6호 도치명적인영향을미칠수있다 []. 농업용트랙터의진동과소음은동력원인엔진 과, 동력전달계인변속기및 전동라인에서 주로발생한다. 트랙터동력전달계에서의소음은 주로기어의물림강성(mesh stiffness) 의변화로 인한소음과기어의충돌에의한소음으로구분할 수있다. 특히, 엔진의토크변동은 전동라인 비틀림진동을유발시키며, 비틀림진동은 전동라인의구동기어(driving gear) 와피동기어 (driven gear) 에연속적인충돌을야기하여심한진 동과소음의원인이된다. 이러한토크변동에의 하여기어가연속적으로충돌할때발생하는소음 을기어의래틀소음(rattle noise) 이라고한다 동력전달계의래틀소음분석에대하여차량구 동계의래틀소음의원인이되는비틀림진동특 성에대한연구 [~], 차량구동계의래틀소음분 석및저감에대한연구 [6~7] 등이수행되었다. 그 러나차량구동계의가솔린엔진과디젤엔진은 트랙터용디젤엔진에비하여동일한회전속도에 서엔진의토크변동이크지않다. 그렇기때문에 차량구동계의연구결과를트랙터동력전달계에 그대로적용하기에는무리가있다. 농업용트랙터에대한연구는트랙터자체보다 는작업기를장착한트랙터의성능분석및평가 와작업능률에관한연구 [8~6] 가대부분이며, 트랙 터및작업기에의해발생하는진동과소음에대 한연구는많이부족한실정이다. 박영준등은국 내외트랙터 []. 전동라인의래틀소음수준을 비교분석하는연구를진행하여국내트랙터의국 제경쟁력증대를위한방향을제시하였다 []. 하지 만공진현상(resonane) 이발생하지않는트랙터 에서의래틀소음을분석하였기때문에분석결과 가공진상태의시스템에서도동일한경향성을나 타내는지판단할수없다는한계가있었다. 본연구에서는트랙터 전동라인의래틀소 음을평가하기위한시험과비틀림진동을분석하 기위한각속도시험을수행하였다. 또한, 공진현 상을확인하기위하여트랙터 전동라인의시 뮬레이션모형을개발하였고, 개발된모형을이용 한모드해석(modal analysis) 으로 전동라인의 공진유무를확인하였다. Table Speifiation of trator used in this study.. Engine 전동라인의래틀소음분석 시험대상트랙터 시험에사용된트랙터는출력 7 W( hp), 정격회전수 rpm인디젤엔진을탑재하고 전 후진파워셔틀(power shuttle) 을장착한중형트 랙터이다. 시험트랙터의동력전달계는엔진, 클러 치, 변속기, 차동장치, 최종감속기어, 최종구동축 으로구성된다. 변속기는전후진변속, 주변속,,, 단및부변속 H, M, L 로구성되며, 변 속부는독립형으로 단변속이가능하다. 트랙터 에대한상세제원은표 과같다.. Items Speifiation Weight, g, Rated power/speed, W/rpm 7/ Rated torque, Nm Displaement, Speed, rpm /7/ Driveline type Diret 전동라인의래틀소음측정 전동라인의래틀소음측정과분석은그림 의순서에따라수행되었다. 또한, 측정및신호 처리에사용된장비의제원은표 와같다. 래틀소음측정은엔진공회전(idle) 속도인 8 rpm 에서수행되었다. 엔진의팽창행정주기( 엔진 의가진주파수) 와래틀소음의관계를구명하기 위하여그림 와같이 변속부주변하우징에 Table Speifiations of equipments used for measurement and analysis of rattle noise Equipment Model Speifiation Signal analyzer Mirophone Aelerometer B&K 6 B&K 9 B&K 8 h. signal analyzer to 6 line FFT Sensitivity: mv/pa Freq.range: Hz~Hz Sensitivity:.pC/g(±%) Freq.range:.Hz~8.Hz 6

3 농업용트랙터 전동라인의래틀소음분석 : 한국기계가공학회지제8 권, 제6호 Mirophone signal Aelerometer signal Signal analyzer Antialiasing filter Aeleration, Sampling A/D onverting Time history Personal omputer Fig. Blo diagram of rattle noise measurement and analysis Time, se Fig. Time history of rattle noise at engine speed of 8rpm Aeleration, Time, se Fig. Time history of aeleration at engine speed of 8rpm (a) Aelerometer (b) Mirophone Fig. Loation of measuring sensors installed on the trator 가속도계를설치하여진동을측정하였으며, 출력축중심에서수평후방으로 m, 지면에서.6 m 떨어진곳에마이크로폰을설치하여소음을측정하였다. 전동라인의래틀소음은그림 에서보는 것과같이음압의피크값이주기적으로나타났고, 주기 ( ) 는. 초이며, 주파수는 8.7 Hz이었 다. 변속부주변하우징에서측정된진동의 피크값은래틀소음과마찬가지로주기적인특성 을보였고, 그림 와같이진동주기( ) 는. 초이며, 주파수는 8.7 Hz 이었다. 엔진의지배적인차수는실린더개수와행정수 의관계로차수를정의할수있다. 식 () 에서계 한한지배적인차수를이용하여엔진의가진주파 수를구할수있다. 식 () 로공회전시엔진의가 진주파수는 8. Hz 이며, 래틀소음및진동주 파수와거의일치하였다. 즉, 래틀소음의주기는 엔진의팽창행정주기와일치하므로엔진의팽창 행정에의한토크변동(torque flutuation) 으로인 7

4 안다빈, 신인경, 한현우, 손관희, 박영준 : 한국기계가공학회지제8 권, 제6호 하여 전동라인의기어가충돌하는래틀소음 이발생하는것으로판단된다 [7]. () 의제원을정리한것이다. 전동라인의비틀림진동은엔진공회전상태인 8 rpm, 9 rpm, rpm, rpm, rpm, rpm, rpm, rpm 에대하여측 여기서, dominant order of engine number of ylinder yle number of engine () 여기서, engine exitation frequeny, Hz engine speed, rpm. 전동라인의각속도시험 전동라인의비틀림진동이래틀소음에미치는영향을분석하기위하여각속도시험을수행하였다. 엔진플라이휠의각속도변동대비 구동축의각속도변동인비틀림진동은래틀소음의주요원인중의하나이다. 구동축의각속도변동이증가할수록 변속부의구동기어( driving gear) 와피동기어(driven gear) 사이에상대각속도가증가하여래틀소음이발생한다 [8]. 전동라인의각속도는엔진플라이휠과 구동축에서측정하였다. 엔진플라이휠의각속도는마그네틱픽업센서를사용하여측정하였다. 비접촉방식인마그네틱픽업센서는플라이휠의기어이와 mm 이내의거리에플라이휠기어의피치원과수직으로설치하였다. 구동축의각속도는로터리엔코더를사용하여측정하였다. 그림 (a) 와 (b) 는각각플라이휠하우징에마그네틱픽업센서와, 구동축에로터리엔코더를설치한사진이다. 표 은각속도측정에사용된장비 (a) Magneti piup at flywheel (b) Rotary enoder at drive shaft Fig. Loation of measuring sensors installed on the trator Table Speifiations of equipments used for measurement and analysis of angular veloity Equipment Model Speifiation DAQ F/V onverter Magneti piup sensor Rotary enoder DEWE COCO RESEARCH KAZ7A Photos series Autonis ES8 T Sampling rate : S/se Counter time base :. MHz Counter resolution : bit Input frequeny range :. ~ Hz Resolution : 6.ns Voltage output : V. pea pea Resistane : ohms Inremental type Rotation per pulse No.: Output phase : A.B.Z 8

5 농업용트랙터 전동라인의래틀소음분석 : 한국기계가공학회지제8 권, 제6호 8rpm 9rpm Angular veloity, rpm rpm rpm rpm rpm Angular veloity ratio, Angular veloity, rpm Fig. 7 The angular veloity ratio of the flywheel and drive shaft with respet to engine speed rpm rpm 때엔진의팽창행정에의한가진이시험트랙터의 전동라인에공진을유발한것으로예측되었다. Time, se. 공진확인을위한 전동라인의시뮬레이션모형개발 Flywheel drive shaft Fig. 6 Comparison of angular veloities between flywheel and drive shaft 정하였다. 그림 6은엔진회전속도에따른플라이 휠과 구동축의각속도변동을비교한것이 다. 빨간실선이엔진플라이휠의각속도변동을, 파란점선이 구동축의각속도변동을나타낸 다. 시험결과, 8 rpm에서엔진플라이휠의각 속도변동대비 구동축의각속도변동이다 른엔진회전속도에비하여과도하게증폭된것을 확인할수있었다. 그림 7은엔진플라이휠의각 속도에대한 (ratio), 구동축기어의각속도의비 즉입력대비출력의진폭비를그래프로 나타낸것이다. 8 rpm에서진폭비는 이상이었 으나, 9 ~ rpm에서진폭비가 미만인것 을확인하였다. 이는엔진회전속도가 8 rpm일 엔진공회전속도인 8 rpm에서의 구동축 의과도한각속도변동이공진현상에의한것인 가를판단하기위하여모드해석을통한 동라인의고유진동수를계산하였으며, 이를엔진 의가진주파수와비교하였다.. 전동라인의물성치 전 전동라인의회전운동에영향을미치는요 소는질량관성모멘트, 비틀림강성및비틀림감쇠 계수이며, 이값들은 전동라인구성품의형상, 크기, 재질을이용하여도출하였다. 부품들의질량 관성모멘트와비틀림강성은 차원모델링소프트 웨어(D CAD) 를이용하여도출하였다. 비틀림감 쇠계수는질량관성모멘트와강성을이용하여계산 하였고사용된감쇠비는.8이다 [9]. 표 는전동 축, 클러치, 기어의물성치를나타낸것이다. 9

6 안다빈, 신인경, 한현우, 손관희, 박영준 : 한국기계가공학회지제8 권, 제6호 Table Property of driveline omponents Name,,, g.mm Nm/rad Nm.se/rad Flywheel 8. Torsional damper input shaft Drive shaft #. 7.. luth 96.7 Drive shaft # Drive shaft # Gear (8T) Gear (T) 87.6 Gear (T) 88. Output shaft 전동라인의모형화 전동라인은그림 8 과같이엔진플라이휠, 비틀림댐퍼( 메인댐퍼), 개의 전동축, 클러치, 변속부로구성된다. 엔진의입력토 크는비틀림댐퍼를거쳐 클러치로전달된 다. 클러치에전달된토크는 구동축을지나 변속부의구동기어(driving gear) 및피동기 어(driven gear) 로전달되며, 최종적으로 출력 축에전달된다. 모형화의목적이 전동라인의고유진동수 를예측하는것이기때문에모형을단순화하기위 하여그림 9와같이 출력축의기어부를단순 화시켰다. 이때물려있는구동기어(driving gear) 와피동기어(driven gear) 쌍,, 은등가질량관 성모멘트이론을적용하였다 []. 등가질량관성모멘트를적용한 전동라인 모형은엔진플라이휠, 클러치, 개의축으로 이루어진 6 자유도(degree of freedom, DOF) 시스 템으로구성하였으며, 전동라인의고유진동수해 석에비틀림감쇠계수는크게영향을미치지않으 므로각요소들은비틀림강성만으로연결하였다.. 모형화한 전동라인의운동방정식 전동라인의운동방정식은식 () 과같이행렬식으로나타낼수있다 [,]. () 여기서, = mass inertia moment of inertia matrix = torsional damping oeffiient matrix = torsional stiffness matrix = angular displaement vetor of eah omponents = torque vetor Engine Torsional Damper input shaft drive shaft # Cluth drive shaft # drive shaft # gear pair output shaft Fig. 8 driveline and blo diagram

7 농업용트랙터 전동라인의래틀소음분석 : 한국기계가공학회지제8 권, 제6호 Engine drive shaft gear box Engine drive shaft gear box Fig. 9 Model of the whole driveline and 6 DOF model of the drivelinde 운동방정식의계수행렬,, 및벡 터, 는부록에서와같다.. 전동라인의모드해석 모드해석을위한 은식 전동라인의특성방정식 () 와같이나타낼수있으며, 특성방정식을 이용하여시스템의고유값(eigenvalue) 을계산할 수있다. 식 () 를계산하여얻은고유값과고유 진동수의관계는식 () 로나타낼수있다. 표 는질량관성모멘트행렬과비틀림강성의 물성치를정리한것이고, 표 6 은식 () 와 () 를 이용하여 것이다. 전동라인의고유진동수를계산한 det () n=,,, n () Table Property of mass moment of inertia and torsional stiffness Mass moment of inertia, g.mm Torsional stiffness, N.m/rad Table 6 Natural frequenies of driveline Number Natural frequeny, Hz

8 안다빈, 신인경, 한현우, 손관희, 박영준 : 한국기계가공학회지제8 권, 제6호 Fig. Frequeny response funtion of 6DOF driveline model 그림 은본연구에서개발한 6자유도 전 동라인의주파수응답함수 (frequeny response funtion, FRF) 를그래프로나타낸것이다. 강체모 드를포함하여 6차모드까지나타나는것을확인 할수있었다. 전동라인의고유진동수해석결과, 엔진 회전속도가 8 rpm일때의가진주파수인 8. Hz 는강체모드(rigid mode) 인 Hz를제외한첫 번째고유진동수인 6.7 Hz와매우근접해있음 을확인할수있었다. 따라서 전동라인에서 공진이발생하여 구동축기어에서과도한각 속도변동이발생한것으로판단된다.. 결론 본연구의목적은트랙터 전동라인의래틀 소음의특성과공진현상을분석하고, 공진현상 을확인하기위한 것이다. 래틀소음을엔진플라이휠과 전동라인모형을개발하는 출력축에서 측정한결과, 엔진의팽창주기와래틀소음의주 기가일치하였다. 따라서래틀소음의원인은엔 진의팽창행정에의해 구동기어(driving gear) 및피동기어(driven gear) 가충돌하는것이 라판단된다. 구동기어(driving gear) 및피동기어 (driven gear) 의충돌에원인이되는비틀림진동인 구동축의각속도를측정한결과, 구동 축의각속도변동은엔진플라이휠의각속도변동 보다과도하게증폭되는것을확인할수있었다. 엔진의가진주파수가트랙터동력전달계의고유 진동수에근접하여공진현상이발생하였고, 공진 현상에의해 구동축의각속도변동이과도하 게증폭된것으로판단되었다. 공진확인을위해 전동라인을모형화하여 모드해석을수행하였다. 특성방정식을이용하여 모드해석을진행한결과, 전동라인의고유 진동수는강체모드인 Hz를제외한첫번째고 유진동수인 6. Hz 로계산되었다. 엔진회전속 도 8 rpm일때의가진주파수가 8. Hz임을 고려하면공진영역에근접하였다고볼수있으 며, 공진영역에근접하여 구동축의각속도 변동이과도하게발생했다고판단하였다. 추후연구에서는공진이발생한 전동라인 의래틀소음저감과공진영역회피를위한방안 을제시할것이다. 후기 "The oauthor of this paper, InKyung Shin, ontributed equally to the lead author. Than you." REFERENCES. ung, W.., Oh,. S., Par, Y. N., Kim, D. C., and Par, Y.., "Optimization of the Suspension Design to Redue the Ride Vibration of 9WClass Trator Cabin," ournal of Korean Soiety of Manufaturing Proess Engineers, Vol. 6, No., pp. 998, 7.

9 농업용트랙터 전동라인의래틀소음분석 : 한국기계가공학회지제8 권, 제6호. Par, Y.., and Kim, K. U., "Redution of rattle noise of a diret engine driveline of agriultural trators: Part I. Measurement and analysis of rattle noise," Transations of the ASABE, Vol., No., pp., 9.. Choi, E. O., Kim, H. S., and Hong, D. P., "A study on the harateristis of torsional vibration for * vehiles drivetrain," Transations of the Korean Soiety of Mehanial Engineers A, Vol., No., pp. 9796, Ahn, B. M., and Hong, D. P., "Torsional free vibration analysis of heavy duty powertrain," Transations of the Korean Soiety of Mehanial Engineers A, Vol., No., pp. 7, Choi, M. S., Moon, D. H., and Sim,. M., "Development of Computer Program of Torsional Vibration Analysis for Design of Diesel Engine Propulsion Shafting," ournal of the Korea Soiety For Power System Engineering, Vol. 7, No., pp. 8,. 6. Hong, D. P., Chung, T.., and Tae, S. H., "A Study for a Automotive Neutral Gear Rattle and the Cluth Torsional Charateristis," Transations of the Korean Soiety of Automotive Engineers, Vol., No., pp., Ahn, B. M., Chang, I. D., and Hong, D. P., "A Study on the Idle Gear Rattle Vibration and Noise Redution for Heavy Duty Tru," Transations of the Korean Soiety of Mehanial Engineers A, Vol., No., pp , Lee, K. Y., Yoo, S. N., Han, B. H., Choi, Y., and Choi, I. S., Design and Constrution of a Piup Type Pulse Crop Harvester,. of Biosystems Engineering, Vol., No., pp., in, B. O., Lee, M. H., o,. S., ung, H.., Kim, C. H., and Kim, H. T., Analysis of the Cutting Shape as a Funtion of Feed Rate and Cutting Speed of Korean and apanese Combines, ournal of Biosystems Engineering, Vol., No., pp Cho, Y.., Choi, I. S., Kim,. D., Oh,. W., and Lee, D. H., Performane Test of Fully Automati Potato Seeding Mahine by Insitu Proess of Cutting Seeds, ournal of Biosystems Engineering, Vol., No., pp. 7, 7.. Nam,. S., Kang, Y. S., Kim, S. B., and Kim, D. C. Fatorial Experiment for Drumtype Seondary Separating Part of Selfpropelled Pepper Harvester, ournal of Biosystems Engineering, Vol., No., pp., 7.. Han,. W., Moon, S. G., Lee, G. H., and Kang, D. S., Experimental Method for Durability Evaluation of a Chisel Mounted on a Composite Woring Implement, ournal of Biosystems Engineering, Vol., No., pp. 7, 7.. o,. S., Oyere, F. G., o,. M., and Kim, H. T., A Study on Improving the Performane of the Planting Devie of a Vegetable Transplanter, ournal of Biosystems Engineering, Vol., No., pp., 8.. Oyere, F. G., Moon, B. E., Qasim, W., Basa,. K., Kahn, F., Kang, D. S., Yoon, Y. C., and Kim, H. T., Tillage Operational Analysis Based on Soil Moisture Content, Mahine Speed, and Dis Spae of Compat Dis Harrow, ournal of Biosystems Engineering, Vol., No., pp. 67, 8.. Choi, K.., Oh,. S., Ahn, D. V., Par, S. U., Kim, H. S., and Par, Y.., Experimental Study of the Dynami Charateristis of Rubber Mounts for Agriultural Trator Cabin, ournal of Biosystems Engineering, Vol., No., pp. 6, Chung, W.., Choi, K.., Oh,. S., Lee, K. H., and Par, Y.., Analytial Study on Improvement in Load Sharing for Planetary Gear

10 안다빈신인경한현우손관희박영준,,,, 한국기계가공학회지제권제호 : 8, 6 Set using Floating Ring Gear, ournal of Biosystems Engineering, Vol., No., pp. 67, Weidner, G., and Lehner, G., Rattling vibrations in automotive transmissions, SME International onferene on motion and power transmissions, Vol., pp. 7, Par, Y.., and Kim, K. U., "Redution of Rattle Noise of a Diret Engine Driveline of Agriultural Trators: Part III. Redution of Rattle Noise by a Torsional Damper," Transations of the ASABE, Vol., No., pp. 697, Neville, F. R, Vibration in geared systems, Mahine Design, September, pp. 67, 96.. Moon, S. G., Par, Y.., and Lee, G. H., "Determination of Equivalent Moment of Inertia of Flywheel for Inertial Endurane Test of Exavator Slewing System," ournal of the Korean Soiety for Preision Engineering, Vol., No. 6, pp. 89, 7.. Singh, R., Xie, H., and Comparin, R.., Analysis of automotive neutral gear rattle, ournal of Sound and Vibration, Vol., No., pp. 7796, Szadowsi, Mathematial model and omputer simulation of idle gear rattle, SAE Tehnial Paper, No. 96, 99. 부록 û ù ë é = 6 ] [ û ù ë é = K ] [ û ù ë é = C ] [ û ù ë é = 6 [q] û ù ë é = L e T T T ] [

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