<C7D1B1B9C0C7B7E1BAB9C1F6B0C7C3E0C7D0C8B828B3EDB9AE2D3231B1C731C8A3292DBCF6C1A428322E E687770>

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "<C7D1B1B9C0C7B7E1BAB9C1F6B0C7C3E0C7D0C8B828B3EDB9AE2D3231B1C731C8A3292DBCF6C1A428322E E687770>"

Transcription

1 A Study on Improvement of Standard Criteria for Tactile Walking Surface Indicators 시각장애인점자블록의규격기준개선방안연구 Shin, Dong Hong* 신동홍 Kang, Byoung Keun** 강병근 Park, Kwang Jae*** 박광재 Kim, Sang Woon**** 김상운 Abstract Purpose : The current tactile walking surface indicators have not been easily accessible to blind and vision-impaired people due to unexpected variation of walking environment and walking behavior of transportation poor. Moreover, those indicators frequently cause the inconvenience to transportation users walking. Thus, this study aims to investigate the improvement of tactile walking surface indicators, by comparing and analyzing findings from the relevant research. Results from this study contribute to suggest the better standard criteria of tactile walking surface indicators for transportation users, especially blind and vision-impaired people, the handicapped, the child and the elderly and weak, providing the secure and convenient circumstance for walking. Method : This study presents the problems about the standard criteria of tactile walking surface indicators via the examination of finding from the past studies. For example, we examine all standard criteria, focusing on shapes, colors and qualities of materials used for Tactile Walking Surface Indicators. Then, the present study suggests the improvement of standard, which apply to the current walking environment practically and reasonably. Results : To improve the current condition of tactile walking surface indicators, the analysis on international and domestic standard criteria need to be conducted. Findings from these analyses helps to suggest the better criteria for the interval between projecting points of tactile walking surface indicators, effective perceived range of walking road, and the brightness contrast between tactile walking surface indicators and finishing materials. Implication : The suggested standard criteria of tactile walking surface indicators need to be tested by transportation users, and the practical instructions of establishing tactile walking surface indicators should also be developed. Keywords 주제어 Tactile Walking Surface Indicators, Blind and Vision-Impaired persons, Transportation Poor 점자블록, 시각장애인, 교통약자 1. Introduction 1.1 Background and Purpose 2) 시각장애인점자블록은시각장애인의이동편의에도움을 * Member, Research Professor, Dr.-Ing., Konkuk University (Primary author: ** Member, Professor, Dr.-ing., College of Architecture, Konkuk University (Corresponding author: *** Member, Professor, Ph.D., Dept. of Interior Design, Korea National University of Welfare **** Member, Research Professor, Ph.D., Konkuk University 주기위한편의시설로써, 가장기본적인방향정위와보행안전확보를위해설치된다. 현재우리나라에서설치되고있는점자블록은 1965년일본에서개발된점자블록과동일한형태와규격을가지고있으며, 1981년한국장애인복지재단에의해도입되었다. 시각장애인점자블록은 2011년말현재보행자보도시설, 건축물의내 외부등설치대상시설 35,652개소에설치되었으며, 설치율은 50.6% 에이르고있다 (Ministry of Health and Welfare, 2012a: ). 2012년말현재우리나라의교통약자 1) 는약 1,263만명으 논문 21 권 1 호 2015 년 2 월 67

2 로전체인구의약 24.8% 를차지하고있다 (Table 1), (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, 2013). 또한, 보건복지부에등록된전체장애인은 251만명, 시각장애인은 25만명으로조사되었으며, 이중실제로보행시점자블록이필요한시각장애인은약 7.5만명으로, 전체교통약자의 0.6%, 장애인의 3% 로추정되고있다 (Employment Development Institute, 2013: 29-35). 시각장애인점자블록은시각장애인의안전한보행을위해서는필수적인편의시설이지만, 이러한점자블록의규격및형태그리고설치방식에따라다수의다른교통약자에게의도하지않은불편을줄수있는가능성을내재하고있다. 현재사용되고있는시각장애인용점자블록은다양한보행환경과교통약자의보행특성에따른대처가용이하지않으며, 시각장애인을제외한다른교통약자들에게는장애요소로작용하는경우가많은실정이다. 특히, 휠체어 보행보조기등을사용하는지체장애인또는노약자의보행에큰불편을주고있으며, 비장애인을대상으로한설문조사에서도응답자중 19% 가보행에불편하게생각하고있으며 9% 는걸려넘어지거나발목을접질리는사고를격은것으로조사되었다 (Kang, Byoung-Keun et al., 2006: 67-69). 본연구에서는국내 외시각장애인용점자블록의규격과형태를비교 분석하여, 시각장애인뿐만이아닌장애인, 어린이, 노약자등의모든교통약자들에게안전하고편리한보행환경을제공할수있는점자블록표준의개선방안을제시하고자한다. [Table 1] The Present of Transportation Poor Group The Number of People(no) Rate (%) Total 12,634, the Handicapped 1,500, the Elderly 5,980, the Pregnant 484, the Child 2,347, the Companion with the Infant 2,321, Note: Among transportation poor, the handicapped who are more than 65 ears old are grouped as the elderly (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, 2013) 연구조사를통해분석한다. 그리고국내 외점자블록의형태 색상 재질등종합적인규격기준을비교분석함으로써, 현재의보행환경에대응가능한합리적이고실용적인규격기준의개선방안을제시하고자한다. 본연구의진행은아래의 [Figure 1] 과같다. Background /Purpose Theoretical Study Compare Conclusion Improvement of Pedestrian-Environment for the Mobility Impaired / Improvement of Standard for Tactile Walking Surface Indicators Characteristics of Blind and Vision-Impaired Pedestrian Problems of Tactile Walking Surface Indicators Korea KS F 4561 [Figure 1] Study Flowchart ISO, EU, Japan, etc. ISO 23599, DIN 32984, JIS T 9251, SN Suggestions for Improvement of Tactile Walking Surface Indicators 1.3 Previous Studies Review 현재까지국내에서이루어진시각장애인점자블록관련연구논문들을살펴보면, 우선 (Seong, Ki-Chang et al., 2005) 에서는다양한국내 외점자블록의비교 실험을위해전맹인과약시자를대상으로실제보행과설문조사를실시하였으며 (Kang, Byoung-Keun et al., 2006) 과 (Kang, Byoung-Keun et al., 2007) 에서는점자블록의설치현황과국내 외관련법규와각국의점자블록유형및설치현황등을종합적으로조사 분석하였다. 선행연구에서나타난기존점자블록의문제점및개선사항은다음 [Table 2] 와같다. [Table 2] Previous Studies 연구내용 Seong, Ki-Chang et al., 2005 우리나라, 일본, 독일, 오스트리아의점자블록장 단점분석및보행실험 Kang, Byoung-Keun et al., 2006 Kang, Byoung-Keun et al., 2007 시각장애인, 기타장애인, 비장애인에대한점자블록이용문제점설문조사, 전맹인과약시자보행실험 1.2 Methods of Research 연구의방법으로는시각장애인의보행특성과점자블록이용방법그리고기존점자블록의문제점을문헌조사및선행 1) 교통약자 란장애인, 고령자, 임산부, 영유아를동반한사람, 어린이등일상생활에서이동에불편을느끼는사람을말한다. (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, 2014) 문제점개선점 제안 형태상의문제 ( 블록형, 가공이어려움 ) 재질상의문제 ( 미끄러움 ) 기타장애인보행장애요소 안전기능의측면에서기존점자블록의규격에대한재검토필요 설치상의문제 : 방법과장소안전공간확보와경고기능강화필요 다른교통약자의보행을고려한경고중심의설치개념도입필요 68 시각장애인점자블록의규격기준개선방안연구

3 위와같은선행연구를고찰한결과시각장애인점자블록과관련된실태조사와설문조사그리고보행실험을통해전반적인개선방안을제시하고있다. 그러나이러한연구결과들이시각장애인점자블록의개선을위해활용되기위해서는보다구체적인분석과세부적인개선사항에대한연구가필요함을알수있다. 따라서본연구에서는시각장애인점자블록의크기, 높이, 돌출부의간격및색상등의항목별기준의비교 분석을통해인식률과보행안전성을고려한규격기준의개선방안을제시하고자한다. 2. Theoretical Study 2.1 Characteristics of Blind and Vision-Impaired Pedestrians 시각장애는보행문제를발생시킨다. 시각장애인은보행을위해공간정보를습득하고, 이를바탕으로보행시발생하게되는문제를지속적으로해결해야한다. 보행문제는시각장애인의이동과정에필요한공간정보의부족이원인이된다. 특정위치에서목적지까지이동하는데필요한공간정보를효과적으로수집하기위해잔존감각과인지전략을활용하여문제를해결하는과정을방향정위 (Orientation) 라한다. 시각장애인은잔존감각을최대한활용하여주위환경에대해파악하고인지능력 ( 특히기억과추론 ) 을활용하여감각자극이의미하는공간정보를결정한다. 시각, 청각, 촉각, 후각, 고유수용감각, 운동감각등을통해획득한감각자극을기초로보행경로와연관된공간정보를인지하고, 추론하며, 조직화한다. (Long & Hill, 1997; ( 재 ) 정인욱복지재단, 2013: 34) 감각자극을통해공간정보를수집하기위해서는시각장애인의보행경로내에특정위치를알려줄수있는지각적특징 (Perceptual Feature) 이필요한데, 이를랜드마크 (Landmark) 라한다. 주위의물체, 소리, 냄새, 기온혹은쉽게포착할수있는감각적단서가랜드마크로써의역할을하게된다. 이러한랜드마크는일정기간고정되어있고, 특정환경의고유한특징을드러내며, 쉽게인지되어야한다. 랜드마크는인지의용이성을기준으로 1차랜드마크 (Primary Landmark) 와 2차랜드마크 (Secondary Landmark) 로구분할수있다. 1차랜드마크는환경내에항상존재하며, 보행경로에서반드시인지하게되는것이다. 2차랜드마크란쉽게인지되고, 영속적이며, 환경내위치를분명하게알려주기는하지만시각장애인보행자가놓칠수있는랜드마크이다 (( 재 ) 정인욱복지재단, 2013; 34-35). 시각장애인점자블록은설치방식에따라 1차또는 2차랜드마크로써의역할을하게된다. 2) 시각장애인의보행특성은잔존감각을이용하여공간의정보를수집하고진행방향의기준을파악하여이루어지게된다. 이때시각장애인에게목표지점까지의보다정확한정보를제공하기위해설치되는것이점자블록이다. 따라서점자블록은형태 색상 재질등모든측면에서시각장애인의감각과잔존시력으로쉽게인지할수있어야한다. 2.2 Use of Tactile Walking Surface Indicators 시각장애인점자블록은보행로표면마감재의일부분이며, 그형태 재질 색상이시각장애인의촉각과잔존시력으로쉽게인지가능하도록설치되어야한다. 점자블록은유도기능과경고기능이주기능으로써복잡한도로상황에대한정보를제공할수있어야한다. 시각장애인점자블록은그기능에따라위험요소경고기능의점형블록과보행경로안내를목적으로하는유도기능의선형블록이있다. 점형블록은각종단차의위치, 출입구의위치를표시해주고위험요소이전에설치하여위험을사전에경고하는용도로사용된다. 횡단보도, 지하도, 육교, 계단의시작지점과끝지점에설치하여그위치를발바닥이나지팡이끝으로감지하여실수없이정확한위치에정지하게한다. 선형블록은보행로의진행방향, 출입문의진행방향등을유도해준다 (Kang, Byoung-Keun et al., 2006: 10-12). 시각장애인점자블록은보행환경과설치목적에따라경고기능또는유도기능에중점을두고설치해야하며, 어떠한이용방법을중심으로설치하느냐에따라보행환경에큰차이를보이게된다. 또한점자블록은불특정다수가이용하는공공장소에설치되기때문에, 점자블록의설치시에는다른보행자에게장애요소가되지않도록하여야한다. 모든보행자에게안전한보행환경을제공하기위해일본, 북미지역, 유럽지역에서는점자블록의규격기준을개정하였으며, 2012년국제기준이제정되었다. 이러한기준들의특징은점자블록의형태 색상 재질을한가지로규정하지않고, 인식률을향상시키기위해보행환경에따라탄력적으로대응할수있는범위를명확하게제시하고있다. 3. Comparative Analysis 3.1 International Standard (ISO 23599) ISO 에서는다음 [Figure 2], [Figure 3] 와같이 4 가지 2) 시각장애인용점자블록이계단폭전체에걸쳐설치되는경우, 이는 1 차적랜드마크로평가된다. 도로의방향에따라설치된선형블록 ( 유도블록 ) 의경우에는확실하게인지할수는있으나, 시각장애인의보행위치에따라인지되지않는경우도있으므로 2 차적랜드마크로분류할수있다. 따라서점자블록의설치목적이위험요소의경고에있다면, 이때설치되는점자블록은보행경로내에서항상인지할수있는 1 차적랜드마크가되도록보행로전체에걸쳐설치하는것이바람직하다. 논문 21 권 1 호 2015 년 2 월 69

4 형태의기본형을규정하고있다. 경고블록의경우에는병렬형과대각선형두가지의형태가기본형으로규정되어있으며, 돌출점은원뿔절단형을사용하도록하고있다. 반구형돌출점의경우에는원뿔절단형돌출점과인식률의차이가거의없으며, 휠체어, 보행보조기구등을사용하는다른보행약자들의안전성확보에어려움이있으므로채택하지않고있다. 우리나라의경고블록과비교하면, 단위면적당돌출점의개수가적고돌출점의크기가작은특징이있다. 유도블록의경우에는우리나라의선형블록과유사한형태와홈형유도블록두가지를기본형으로규정하고있다. 유도블록역시도우리나라의점자블록에비해돌출부의면적이작고돌출부간의간격이넓은특징을가지고있다. 점자블록의규격은경고블록과유도블록두가지모두블록자체의크기에대해서는규정하고있지않으며, 설치위치와목적그리고보행로의형태에따라유효폭을정하고있다. 점자블록의규격은각돌출부의높이, 크기, 간격을규정하고있으며, 돌출부크기의변화에따라간격이변화하도록인식률을고려하여정하고있다. 각점자블록의상세한규격은다음 [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5] 와같다. [Table 3] Top Diameter and Corresponding Spacing of Truncated Domes or Cones (ISO 23599) Top diameter of truncated domes or cones Spacing to to to to to 70 [Table 4] Top Width and Corresponding Spacing of Axes of Flat-topped Elongated Bars (ISO 23599) Top width of flat-topped elongated bars Spacing to to to to 85 [Table 5] Spacing and Dimensions of Sinusoidal Ribs (ISO 23599) a) Parallel b) Diagonal at 45 [Figure 2] Attention Patterns of Tactile Walking Surface Indicators (ISO 23599) Sinusoidal ribs Spacing and Dimensions between the axis of adjacent sinusoidal ribs 40 to 52 height of sinusoidal ribs 4 to 5 length of sinusoidal ribs 270 또한, ISO 23599에서는점자블록의설치시점자블록간또는주변포장재와의불연속부위가발생하지않도록, 연결부위의간격을규정하고있다 (Figure 4). 이는불연속부위가다른마감재나다른형태의점자블록으로인식됨으로써보행로를이탈하는위험을방지하기위함이다. a) Flat-topped elongated bars b) Sinusoidal ribs [Figure 3] Guiding Patterns of Tactile Walking Surface Indicators (ISO 23599) Width of the gaps between joins 10 mm Depth of the gaps between joins 2 mm [Figure 4] Gaps Between Joins (ISO 23599) 70 시각장애인점자블록의규격기준개선방안연구

5 점자블록의색상은 ISO 에서정의하는 Safety Yellow를사용할수있으며, 그밖의경우에는점자블록과인접마감재간의휘도대비에따라정해지게된다. 휘도대비값의계산은기본적으로다음 Michelson Contrast formula에따라계산하며, 경우에따라 Weber, LRV, Sapolinski formula 도가능하다. 각경우에따른휘도대비기준값은 [Table 6] 과같다. a) Attention Pattern b) Guiding Pattern 주 ) KS F 4561, 장애인편의시설표준상세도 (ⅰ) [Figure 5] Tactile Walking Surface Indicators (KS F 4561) C M : The Luminance Contrast Value (%) L 1 : The Value of Luminance on a lighter Surface (cd/m 2 ) L 2 : The Value of Luminance on a darker Surface (cd/m 2 ) [Table 6] Minimum Value of Contrast (ISO 23599) Minimum Contrast Value Minimum for Discrete Units Minimum for Hazards Michelson (%) Weber (%) [Table 7] Dimensions of Tactile Walking Surface Indicators (KS F 4561) Width Length Height Attention Pattern Guiding Pattern 주 ) KS F 4561 Tolerance Width, Length ±2 Height ±1 점자블록의색상에대해서는황색을원칙으로하고, 그밖의색상은협의에따라사용한다고언급되어있으며, 정량적으로평가할수있는기준은명시되어있지않다. 이외에점자블록의재질과성능평가기준에대해명시하고있다. LRV Sapolinski (%) LRV 1= LRV 1= LRV 1= Y 1= Y 1= Y 1= Japan (JIS T 9251) 일본의 JIS T 9251에서는경고블록 ( 점형블록 ) 과유도블록 ( 선형블록 ), 두가지형태의점자블록을규정하고있다 (Figure 6). 점자블록의형태와규격은국제기준과유사하며, 점자블록의크기역시유동적이다. 다만, 최소규격을 300 mm 300 mm로제한하고있으며, 점형블록에서는병렬형만을표준으로지정하고있다. 경고블록과유도블록의상세규격은다음 [Table 8], [Table 9] 와같다. - LRV : Light Reflectance Value. 3.2 Korea (KS F 4561) KS F 4561에서는시각장애인점자블록표준을위치및주위표시형점형블록과유도표시형선형블록, 두가지로규정하고있다 (Figure 5). 점형블록의규격은 300 mm 300 mm, 높이 5 mm, 돌출점의개수는블록당 36개로규정하고있다. 돌출점의형태는반구형과원뿔절단형두가지를모두사용할수있으며, 기타상세한치수는언급되지않고있다. 선형블록의경우에는블록당 4개의돌출선, 돌출선의높이는 6 mm로규정하고있다 (Table 7). a) Attention Pattern b) Guiding Pattern 주 ) JIS T 9251 [Figure 6] Tactile Walking Surface Indicators (JIS T 9251) 논문 21 권 1 호 2015 년 2 월 71

6 [Table 8] Dimension of Attention Pattern (JIS T 9251) Width, Length, Height, Spacing Tolerance Structure) 의형태와규격은다음 [Figure 7], [Table 10] 과같으며, 점형블록 (Burled Structure) 의형태와규격은다음 [Figure 8], [Table 11] 과같다. Top diameter of truncated domes or cones Bottom diameter of truncated domes or cones Spacing between the centers of adjacent truncated domes or cones to ~ 0 Height of truncated domes or cones ~ 0 주 ) JIS T 9521 [Table 9] Dimension of Guiding Pattern (JIS T 9251) Width, Length, Height, Spacing Tolerance 주 ) DIN [Figure 7] Ribbed Structure (DIN 32984) Top Width of flat-topped elongated bars 17 Bottom Width of flat-topped elongated bars Spacing between the centers of adjacent flat-topped elongated bars ~ 0 Height of flat-topped elongated bars ~ 0 Length of flat-topped elongated bars (Top) Length of flat-topped elongated bars (Bottom) 주 ) JIS T 주 ) DIN [Figure 8] Burled Structure (DIN 32984) 일본의점자블록규격은국제기준의최소규격에준하는규격을사용하고있으며, 경고블록의경우안전성의문제 ( 미끄러움, 부상의위험등 ) 로반구형의돌출점사용이제한되고있다. 유도블록의돌출선은끝부분이둥근형태를사용할경우, 경고블록으로착각할가능성이있기때문에각진형태의유도블록만을사용하고있다. 점자블록의색상은국제기준과동일하게휘도대비를통해결정되며, 이는각지자체의지침에따라결정되도록하고있다. 일반적인경우에는휘도비 2.0 ~ 2.5 이상으로규정하고있으며, 일부지자체의경우 ISO 23599의기준을그대로차용하고있다. 3.4 Germany (DIN 32984) 독일의 DIN 에서는선형블록 (Ribbed Structure) 과점형블록 (Burled Structure), 두가지형태의점자블록을규정하고있으며, 국제기준, 일본과유사한형태와규격을가지고있다. 그러나독일의경우에는점형블록은경고블록의역할을하는것은동일하지만, 선형블록은설치장소와방향에따라경고블록과유도블록의역할을하는것이큰차이점이다. 선형블록 (Ribbed [Table 10] Dimension of Ribbed Structure (DIN 32984) Spacing between the centers of adjacent flat-topped elongated bars Top Width of flat-topped elongated bars Spacing between the Top-corners of adjacent flat-topped elongated bars Height of flat-topped elongated bars Width, Length, Height, Spacing inside of BLDG. Tolerance ± 0.5 mm outside of BLDG. Tolerance ± 0.5 mm 25 to to 50 5 to 10 5 to 15 a) 20 to to 35 b) 3 to 4 4 to 5 주 ) DIN a) Use as Attention Pattern : 5 mm to 10 mm. b) Use as Attention Pattern : 30 mm to 40 mm. 72 시각장애인점자블록의규격기준개선방안연구

7 [Table 11] Dimension of Burled Structure (DIN 32984) Width, Length, Height, Spacing Spacing between the centers of adjacent truncated domes or cones Top diameter of truncated domes or cones Spacing between the Top-corners of truncated domes or cones Diagonal Spacing between the centers of adjacent truncated domes or cones Height of truncated domes or cones inside of BLDG. Tolerance ± 0.5 mm outside of BLDG. Tolerance ± 0.5 mm 40 to to to to to to to to 53 3 to 4 4 to 5 주 ) SN Where there is a risk of water ponding between the Tactile Visual Markings, a drainage gap of 10 max. 30 mm shall be provided. Height 4-5 mm, Width 30 mm, Spacing between the Tactile Visual Markings 30 mm, Height 4 ~ 5 mm. [Figure 9] Tactile Visual Marking (SN ) 주 ) SN [Figure 10] Guiding Pattern (SN ) 주 ) DIN The distance between the Bottom-corners of truncated domes or cones should be no more than 12 mm. 독일은선형블록과점형블록의규격을실내용, 실외용으로구분하고있으며, 실내의경우바닥마감재의재질이실외에비해매끄러운재질이사용되는것을고려해간격과높이를작고낮게규정하고있다. 일본과는대조적으로병렬형을제외한대각선형의점형블록을기준으로하고있으며, 국제규격의최대값과유사한규격을사용하고있다. 점자블록의색상은특별히규정하고있지않으며, 휘도대비에따른기준값을제시하고있다. 휘도대비값의계산은 ISO 23599와동일하게 Michelson Contrast formula에따라계산하며, 휘도대비 40% 이상으로규정하고있다. 또한, 이와는별도로점자블록자체의반사율 (Light Reflectance Value) 이 50% 이상이되는제품을사용하도록규정하고있다. 3.5 Swiss (SN , Merkblatt 14/05) 스위스의 SN 에서는부착형선형블록 (Tactile Visual Marking) 을기본형으로규정하고있다. 기본적으로 30 mm 폭의선형블록을 30 mm 간격으로배치하고, 평행또는직각방향의배치형태를통해경고, 유도의기능을부여하도록하고있다. 기본적인형태와규격은다음 [Figure 9] 와같다. 부착형선형블록을유도블록으로설치할경우에는, 3줄씩조합한형태를 270 mm 간격으로이중배치하여총 570 mm 의유효폭을확보하도록하고있다 (Figure 10). 경고블록으로사용시에는유도블록과직각방향으로배치하고 900 mm의유효폭을사용하며, 최소 900 mm 이상의넓이를확보하도록하고있다 (Figure 11). 부착형선형블록의색상은기본적으로흰색과노랑색을사용할수있으며, ISO 23599와동일하게 Michelson Contrast formula에따라계산하며, 휘도대비기준값은경고블록의경우 60%, 유도블록의경우 30% 이상으로규정하고있다. 주 ) SN [Figure 11] Attention Pattern (SN ) 3.6 Comparing Standards 국제기준및국외기준의비교 분석해본결과다음 [ Table 12], [ Table 13], [ Table 14] 와같은차이를나타내고있다. 국제기준과비교해볼때, 일본의기준은국제기준규격범위의최소값과, 독일은최대값과유사한규격을사용하고있으며, 논문 21 권 1 호 2015 년 2 월 73

8 우리나라규격의경우에는점형 선형블록모두국제기준보다큰기준을사용하고있다. 우리나라의점자블록은국제기준및국외기준에비해큰규격을사용하고있으며, 돌출부의면적이넓고돌출부간의간격이좁으며돌출부의높이가높은특징을가지고있다. 우리나라의경우점자블록의색상은황색을사용하도록하고있으며이에관련된정량적평가기준은없으나, 국제기준및외국의기준에서는모두휘도대비를이용하여평가하도록하고있으며주변마감재와의휘도차이에대한기준값을규정하고있다 (Table 15). [Table 12] Comparing of Attention and Guiding Patterns - Width, Length, Height Standard Width Length Height Tolerance ISO to 5 Height ±1 KS F to 6 JIS T Width, Length ±2 Height ±1 Width, Length ±0.5 Height ±1 DIN to 5 Height ±0.5 SN [Table 13] Comparing of Attention Patterns - Diameter of truncated domes or cones, Spacing Standard Diameter of Truncated domes or cones Spacing Top Bottom ISO to to to 70 KS F JIS T to 60 DIN to to to 50 SN [Table 14] Comparing of Guiding Patterns - Diameter of flat-topped elongated bars, Spacing Standard Diameter of Truncated domes or cones Spacing Top Bottom ISO to to to 85 KS F JIS T DIN to to to 50 SN [Table 15] Comparing of Visual Contrast - Minimum Value of Contrast Standard Calculation Method Minimum Value etc. ISO Michelson 30 to 50 % - KS F JIS T 9251 Michelson 30 to 50 % - DIN Michelson 40 % LRV 50 % SN Michelson 30 to 60 % - 4. Improvement of Standard for Tactile Walking Surface Indicators 시각장애인점자블록국제기준과국내 외기준을비교 분석하면다음과같은개선방안을도출할수있다. 국제기준및국외의기준은우리나라의기준과는다르게점자블록자체의크기에대한규격을규정하고있지않다. 이는다양한보행로상황을감안하여유효폭을다르게설정함으로써, 설치위치와방식에따라탄력적인운영을가능하게해준다. 우리나라의경우한가지크기의블록형점자블록을사용함으로써시공시현장에서절단하여사용하는경우가많은데, 이는점자블록의파손과인식률을저하시키는원인이되고있다. 따라서국제기준또는독일의기준과같이돌출부의크기와간격만을규정하고다양한크기의점자블록의제작을가능하게하여다양한보행환경에대처할수있도록하는것이바람직하다. 점자블록의높이는우리나라의경우가국제기준및국외의기준보다 1 mm 높게규정되어있으며, 허용치를감안하면최고 3 mm 까지높게설치될수있다. 독일의점자블록인식률조사 (Boḧringer, 2014) 에의하면, 점자블록의인식률은돌출점과돌출선의높이보다는형태와배치간격에의해결정되는것으로나타나고있다. 또한, 돌출점과돌출선의높이가높은경우에는점자블록인식률에는크게영향을주지않으며, 오히려다른교통약자의보행에장애요소로작용할가능성이증가하게된다. 점자블록의인식률향상을위해서는돌출점 ( 선 ) 의폭과면적을작게하고, 돌출점 ( 선 ) 간의간격을넓게하는것이합리적인것으로분석되었다. 국제기준및국외기준의경우이러한점을고려하여우리나라에비해돌출점 ( 선 ) 의폭과면적이작고단위면적당돌출점 ( 선 ) 의수를적게규정하고있다. 우리나라의점자블록도이러한점을감안하여국제규격의범위내에서돌출부의면적과간격을조정할필요가있다. 독일의경우에는실외와실내에쓰이는바닥마감재의재질을고려하여실내에설치되는점자블록의경우더낮은높이로설치하도록하고있다. 이는매끄럽고부드러운마감재가주로설치되는실내의경우점자블록을높게설치하는것은점자블록의인식에도움이되기보다는오히려다른보행약자의안전을위협할수있기때문이다 (DIN 32984, 2011). 따라서한가지재질과규격만을사용하도록하는우리나라의경우 74 시각장애인점자블록의규격기준개선방안연구

9 전체적인보행경로에서의통일성은확보할수있으나설치장소에따라다른보행약자의안전성을위협하거나인식률을저하시킬수있으므로, 설치장소에따라다양한재료와형식을사용할수있도록규정할필요가있다. 실내의경우, 스위스와같은방식의부착형점자블록을사용하는것도합리적인대안이될수있다. 점자블록의형태에있어서도점형블록과선형블록을착각할수있는가능성이있는형태는사용하지않는것이바람직하다. 국제기준및일본, 독일등모든기준에서는공통적으로선형블록의돌출선의끝부분은각진형태로마감하도록하고있다. 이는선형블록의끝부분이둥근형태로마감될경우점자블록으로오인될가능성이있기때문이다. 현재우리나라에서사용되는선형블록의경우둥근형태의끝부분을사용하도록하고있는데, 이는반드시개선되어야할부분이다. 또한제작사에따라일부점형블록에서반구형돌출점을사용하고있는데, 이는보행안전성의확보를위해사용이제한되어야한다. 또한, 점자블록의색상은우리나라의경우정량적평가기준없이황색을사용하도록하고있으나, 보행로및건물의바닥마감재의다양한색상과재질을고려하여점자블록의색상을규정하는것보다는주변마감재와의색상대비를규정하여인식률을높이는것이합리적인방안이다. 5. Conclusion 본연구는국제기준및국내 외관련기준의비교 분석을통해시각장애인점자블록의개선방안을제시하기위한연구로써, 주요연구결과를정리하면다음과같다. 1) 우리나라의점자블록규격기준은 1960년대일본에서개발된원형을그대로사용하고있다. 이러한점자블록은그효용성과인식률의문제가제기되어일본, 독일등에서는오랜기간의연구 조사를거쳐기준을개정하였으며, 이를반영한국제기준도제정되었다. 우리나라역시국제기준과연구결과를반영한점자블록규격기준의재정비가필요하다. 2) 시각장애인점자블록은시각장애인의보행을위해서는필수적인편의시설이지만, 다른교통약자들에게는보행장애요소로작용하는경우가많다. 따라서점자블록의크기 높이를증가시키기보다는점자블록돌출부형태와간격의조절을통해인식률을향상시켜야한다. 3) 국제기준및국외의기준을분석한결과를활용하여실질적으로점자블록의인식에영향을주는돌출점 ( 선 ) 의배치간격, 보행로에서의유효인식범위, 점자블록과주변마감재간의휘도대비등을고려한규격기준의정립이필요하다. 본연구에서는국제기준및국외기준그리고관련연구결 과를분석하여시각장애인점자블록의기본적인개선방안을제시하고있으나. 실질적이고세부적인규격기준의재정비를위해서는본연구에서제시하고있는자료를바탕으로한이용자측면에서의검증과정이필요하며, 실제보행로에서의안전성확보를위한명확한점자블록설치지침의개발이병행되어야할것이다. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by a grant (Research Project ID-79209) from Transportation & Logistics Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Affairs of Korean government. References Boḧringer, D., 2014, Wertlos-brauchbar-sehr gut: Über Sinn und Unsinn von Bodenindikatoren, Ergebnisse von Leitlinientests und Fogerungen daraus. URL DIN 32984, 2011, Bodenindikatoren im öffentlichen Raum, Beuth Verlag GmbH. Employment Development Institute, 2013, 2013 Disablility Statistics. ISO 23599, 2012, Assistive products for blind and vision-impaired persons - Tactile walking surface indicators, ISO copyright office. JIS T 9251, 2001, Dimensions and patterns of raised part of tactile ground surface indicators for blind persons, Japanese Industrial Standard. Kang Byoung-Keun et al., 2006, The Research on Present Conditions and Effectiveness Analysis on Tactile walking srface indicators for Blind and Vision-Impaired Persons, Seoul Metropolitan Government. Kang, Byoung-Keun; Seung, Ki-Chang; Park, Kwang-Jae; Yun, Young-sam; Kim, Eun-Kyoung, 2007, A Reearch on Present Conditions and Effectiveness Analysis on Raised Block for the Blind, Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design Vol. 23 Issue 11, pp KS F 4561, 2013, Braille Blocks for the Visually Impaired, Korean Agency for Technilogy and Standard. Leitliniensystem Schweiz: Taktil-visuelle Markierungen fu r blinde und sehbehinderte Fussga nger (Merkblatt Nr. 14/05), 2005, Schweizerische Fachstelle für behindertengerechtes Bauen. Ministry of Health and Welfare, 2012a, Statistical Yearbook Ministry of Health and Welfare, 2012b, 장애인편의시설표준상세도 ( 수정판 ). Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, 2013, Actual Condition Survey on Mobility Conveniences for Transportation Poor, South Korea. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, 2014, the Mobility Enhancement for the Mobility Impaired Act, South Korea. Seung, Ki-Chang; Kang, Byoung-Keun; Kim, In-Soon, 2005, A Study on the Analysis about Practicality of a Raised Block for the Blind, Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design Vol. 21 Issue 1, pp 논문 21 권 1 호 2015 년 2 월 75

10 ( 재 ) 정인욱복지재단, 2013, 시각장애인보행의이론과실제, 시그마프레스, 서울특별시 접수 : 2014년 12월 31일 1차심사완료 : 2015년 1월 28일게재확정일자 : 2015년 2월 9일 3인익명심사필 76 시각장애인점자블록의규격기준개선방안연구

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 6, December, 30, 2016:237~251 Received: 2016/11/20, Accepted: 2016/12/24 Revised: 2016/12/21, Published: 2016/12/30 [ABSTRACT] Recently, there is an increasing

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp DOI: (NCS) Method of Con

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp DOI:   (NCS) Method of Con Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp.181-212 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.3.201709.181 (NCS) Method of Constructing and Using the Differentiated National Competency

More information

untitled

untitled 국문요약....,,... 2,,. 3.,. 4. 5. Abstract Demographic change is greatly accelerating owing to the increasingly low birth rate and aging population in Korea. In particular, the increase in the number of elderly

More information

-07-......

-07-...... A Depth Interview on Qualification, Role, and Professionalism of Infant/Toddler Teachers Department of Child & Family Studies, Kyung Hee University Associate Professor : Ahn, Sun Hee Department of Early

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA e- 비즈니스연구 (The e-business Studies) Volume 17, Number 1, February, 28, 2016:pp. 293~316 ISSN 1229-9936 (Print), ISSN 2466-1716 (Online) 원고접수일심사 ( 수정 ) 게재확정일 2015. 12. 04 2015. 12. 24 2016. 02. 25 ABSTRACT

More information

-06-......,......

-06-......,...... Analysis of the Current Condition of Student Childcare Training in Korea: Student Childcare Training Centers, Guidance Teachers, Student Teachers and Student Childcare Training Fees Department of Childcare

More information

#Ȳ¿ë¼®

#Ȳ¿ë¼® http://www.kbc.go.kr/ A B yk u δ = 2u k 1 = yk u = 0. 659 2nu k = 1 k k 1 n yk k Abstract Web Repertoire and Concentration Rate : Analysing Web Traffic Data Yong - Suk Hwang (Research

More information

Æ÷Àå82š

Æ÷Àå82š Lee, Kyungbae (E-mail : kblee6078@ex.co.kr) Lee, Jaehoon (E-mail : ranian74@ex.co.kr) Sohn, Duecksu (E-mail : mgsds@ex.co.kr) Kwon, Soonmin (E-mail : soonmini2@ex.co.kr) ABSTRACT PURPOSES : The purpose

More information

Àå¾Ö¿Í°í¿ë ³»Áö

Àå¾Ö¿Í°í¿ë ³»Áö Disability & Employment 55 Disability & Employment 56 57 Disability & Employment 58 59 Disability & Employment 60 61 Disability & Employment 62 63 Disability & Employment 64 65 Disability & Employment

More information

ePapyrus PDF Document

ePapyrus PDF Document 육아지원연구 2008. 제 3권 1 호, 147-170 어린이집에서의 낮잠에 대한 교사와 부모의 인식 및 실제 이 슬 기(동작구 보육정보센터)* 1) 요 약 본 연구의 목적은 어린이집에서의 일과 중 낮잠 시간에 대한 교사와 부모의 인식 및 실제를 알아봄 으로써, 교사와 부모의 협력을 통해 바람직한 낮잠 시간을 모색해 보는 데 있었다. 연구 대상은 서울, 경기지역

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 4, August, 30, 2016:319~332 Received: 2016/07/28, Accepted: 2016/08/28 Revised: 2016/08/27, Published: 2016/08/30 [ABSTRACT] This paper examined what determina

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI: : Researc

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI:   : Researc Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp.251-273 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.2.201706.251 : 1997 2005 Research Trend Analysis on the Korean Alternative Education

More information

???? 1

???? 1 The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics (2014) 27(1), 13 20 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5351/kjas.2014.27.1.013 Maximum Tolerated Dose Estimation by Stopping Rule and SM3 Design in a Phase I Clinical Trial

More information

歯1.PDF

歯1.PDF 200176 .,.,.,. 5... 1/2. /. / 2. . 293.33 (54.32%), 65.54(12.13%), / 53.80(9.96%), 25.60(4.74%), 5.22(0.97%). / 3 S (1997)14.59% (1971) 10%, (1977).5%~11.5%, (1986)

More information

Æ÷Àå½Ã¼³94š

Æ÷Àå½Ã¼³94š Cho, Mun Jin (E-mail: mjcho@ex.co.kr) ABSTRACT PURPOSES : The performance of tack coat, commonly used for layer interface bonding, is affected by application rate and curing time. In this study, bonding

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp DOI: * A Study on Teache

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp DOI:   * A Study on Teache Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp.149-171 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.4.201712.149 * A Study on Teachers and Parents Perceptions on the Introduction of Innovational

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 6, December, 30, 2016:275~289 Received: 2016/12/02, Accepted: 2016/12/22 Revised: 2016/12/20, Published: 2016/12/30 [ABSTRACT] SNS is used in various fields. Although

More information

<30345F283439372D353034295F313135375FC0CCB5BFC8F15FB5B5B7CEC5CDB3CEC0C720B0BBB1B8BACE20B0E6B0FCBCB3B0E8B0A120C5CDB3CE20B3BBBACEC1B6B8ED2E687770>

<30345F283439372D353034295F313135375FC0CCB5BFC8F15FB5B5B7CEC5CDB3CEC0C720B0BBB1B8BACE20B0E6B0FCBCB3B0E8B0A120C5CDB3CE20B3BBBACEC1B6B8ED2E687770> J of Korean Tunn Undergr Sp Assoc 15(5)497-504(2013) eissn: 2287-4747 http://dx.doi.org/10.9711/ktaj.2013.15.5.497 pissn: 2233-8292 도로터널의 갱구부 경관설계가 터널 내부조명에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 이미애 1 ㆍ이동희 2 * 1 아이라이트 대표이사 2

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp DOI: * Experiences of Af

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp DOI:   * Experiences of Af Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp.201-229 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.26.2.201608.201 * Experiences of After-school Class Caring by Married Early Childhood

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI: * Suggestions of Ways

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI:   * Suggestions of Ways Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp.65-89 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.1.201903.65 * Suggestions of Ways to Improve Teaching Practicum Based on the Experiences

More information

大学4年生の正社員内定要因に関する実証分析

大学4年生の正社員内定要因に関する実証分析 190 2016 JEL Classification Number J24, I21, J20 Key Words JILPT 2011 1 190 Empirical Evidence on the Determinants of Success in Full-Time Job-Search for Japanese University Students By Hiroko ARAKI and

More information

한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구

한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구 한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구 한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구 - - i - - i - - ii - - iii - - iv - χ - v - - vi - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - 그림 1. 연구대상자선정도표 - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - 그림 2. 연구의틀 χ - 9 - - 10 - - 11 -

More information

878 Yu Kim, Dongjae Kim 지막 용량수준까지도 멈춤 규칙이 만족되지 않아 시행이 종료되지 않는 경우에는 MTD의 추정이 불가 능하다는 단점이 있다. 최근 이 SM방법의 단점을 보완하기 위해 O Quigley 등 (1990)이 제안한 CRM(Continu

878 Yu Kim, Dongjae Kim 지막 용량수준까지도 멈춤 규칙이 만족되지 않아 시행이 종료되지 않는 경우에는 MTD의 추정이 불가 능하다는 단점이 있다. 최근 이 SM방법의 단점을 보완하기 위해 O Quigley 등 (1990)이 제안한 CRM(Continu 한 국 통 계 학 회 논 문 집 2012, 19권, 6호, 877 884 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5351/ckss.2012.19.6.877 Maximum Tolerated Dose Estimation Applied Biased Coin Design in a Phase Ⅰ Clinical Trial Yu Kim a, Dongjae Kim

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp DOI: Awareness, Supports

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp DOI:   Awareness, Supports Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp.335-363 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.26.3.201612.335 Awareness, Supports in Need, and Actual Situation on the Curriculum Reconstruction

More information

<32382DC3BBB0A2C0E5BED6C0DA2E687770>

<32382DC3BBB0A2C0E5BED6C0DA2E687770> 논문접수일 : 2014.12.20 심사일 : 2015.01.06 게재확정일 : 2015.01.27 청각 장애자들을 위한 보급형 휴대폰 액세서리 디자인 프로토타입 개발 Development Prototype of Low-end Mobile Phone Accessory Design for Hearing-impaired Person 주저자 : 윤수인 서경대학교 예술대학

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp.1-16 DOI: * A Study on Good School

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp.1-16 DOI:   * A Study on Good School Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp.1-16 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.26.3.201612.1 * A Study on Good School and School Evaluation Purpose: This study was to examine

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp DOI: * A Analysis of

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp DOI: * A Analysis of Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp.99-117 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.1.201803.99 2015 * A Analysis of the Characters and Issues about the 2015 Revised Social

More information

인문사회과학기술융합학회

인문사회과학기술융합학회 Vol.5, No.5, October (2015), pp.471-479 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ajmahs.2015.10.50 스마트온실을 위한 가상 외부기상측정시스템 개발 한새론 1), 이재수 2), 홍영기 3), 김국환 4), 김성기 5), 김상철 6) Development of Virtual Ambient Weather Measurement

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI: * A Research Trend

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI:   * A Research Trend Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp.295-318 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.4.201812.295 * A Research Trend on the Studies related to Parents of Adults with Disabilities

More information

서론 34 2

서론 34 2 34 2 Journal of the Korean Society of Health Information and Health Statistics Volume 34, Number 2, 2009, pp. 165 176 165 진은희 A Study on Health related Action Rates of Dietary Guidelines and Pattern of

More information

<3135C8A3B3EDB9AE303333312DBCF6C1A42E687770>

<3135C8A3B3EDB9AE303333312DBCF6C1A42E687770> 기업파티 공간연출 분석에 관한 연구 -국내 기업파티 사례 중심으로- A Study on the Analysis of Space Display for Company Party -Focusing on the parties of domestic companies- 백승범 / 100-스타일 대표 Paik Seung beom / 100-style President 김주연

More information

Abstract Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Related Factors for Nurses and Radiological Technologists Wearing a Lead Apron for Radiation Pro t e c t i o n Jung-Im Yoo, Jung-Wan Koo 1 ) Angio Unit, Team of Radiology,

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp DOI: NCS : * A Study on

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp DOI:   NCS : * A Study on Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp.157-176 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.3.201809.157 NCS : * A Study on the NCS Learning Module Problem Analysis and Effective

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI: (LiD) - - * Way to

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI:   (LiD) - - * Way to Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp.353-376 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.1.201903.353 (LiD) -- * Way to Integrate Curriculum-Lesson-Evaluation using Learning-in-Depth

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp DOI: * The

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp DOI:   * The Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp.243-268 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.1.201703.243 * - 2001 2015 - The Research Trends on Peer Counseling in Elementary and

More information

27 2, 1-16, * **,,,,. KS,,,., PC,.,,.,,. :,,, : 2009/08/12 : 2009/09/03 : 2009/09/30 * ** ( :

27 2, 1-16, * **,,,,. KS,,,., PC,.,,.,,. :,,, : 2009/08/12 : 2009/09/03 : 2009/09/30 * ** ( : 27 2, 1-16, 2009. * **,,,,. KS,,,., PC,.,,.,,. :,,, : 2009/08/12 : 2009/09/03 : 2009/09/30 * ** (: jjhkim@cau.ac.kr) 2 한국교육문제연구제 27 권 2 호, 2009 Ⅰ.,. 2008 3,536, 10 99.9% (, 2008). PC,, (, 2007). (, 2008),.,

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI: A Study on Organizi

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI:   A Study on Organizi Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp.441-460 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.4.201812.441 A Study on Organizing Software Education of Special Education Curriculum

More information

원고스타일 정의

원고스타일 정의 논문접수일 : 2015.01.05 심사일 : 2015.01.13 게재확정일 : 2015.01.26 유니컨셉 디자인을 활용한 보행환경 개선방안 연구 A Study on Improvement of Pedestrian Environment on to Uniconcept Design 주저자 : 김동호 디지털서울문화예술대학교 인테리어실용미술학과 교수 Kim dong-ho

More information

서울도시연구_13권4호.hwp

서울도시연구_13권4호.hwp ~ An Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Changes in the Longevity Degree and Characteristics of the Long-live Community in Seoul Jae Hun Sim* Seung Cheol Noh** Hee Yeon Lee*** 7)8)9) 요약 주제어 This paper aims to

More information

+À¯½Å.PDF

+À¯½Å.PDF A design of effective fire safety facilities in long railway tunnel - Case study in Daegwallyeong railway tunnel (L=21,755m) There is very little probability that a train fire accident is occurred in tunnel,

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA e- 비즈니스연구 (The e-business Studies) Volume 17, Number 1, February, 28, 2016:pp. 3~30 ISSN 1229-9936 (Print), ISSN 2466-1716 (Online) 원고접수일심사 ( 수정 ) 게재확정일 2016. 01. 08 2016. 01. 09 2016. 02. 25 ABSTRACT

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp DOI: A Study on the Opti

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp DOI:   A Study on the Opti Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp.127-148 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/11024/pnuedi.27.4.201712.127 A Study on the Optimization of Appropriate Hearing-impaired Curriculum Purpose:

More information

Output file

Output file 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 An Application for Calculation and Visualization of Narrative Relevance of Films Using Keyword Tags Choi Jin-Won (KAIST) Film making

More information

232 도시행정학보 제25집 제4호 I. 서 론 1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 사회가 다원화될수록 다양성과 복합성의 요소는 증가하게 된다. 도시의 발달은 사회의 다원 화와 밀접하게 관련되어 있기 때문에 현대화된 도시는 경제, 사회, 정치 등이 복합적으로 연 계되어 있어 특

232 도시행정학보 제25집 제4호 I. 서 론 1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 사회가 다원화될수록 다양성과 복합성의 요소는 증가하게 된다. 도시의 발달은 사회의 다원 화와 밀접하게 관련되어 있기 때문에 현대화된 도시는 경제, 사회, 정치 등이 복합적으로 연 계되어 있어 특 한국도시행정학회 도시행정학보 제25집 제4호 2012. 12 : pp.231~251 생활지향형 요소의 근린주거공간 분포특성 연구: 경기도 시 군을 중심으로* Spatial Distribution of Daily Life-Oriented Features in the Neighborhood: Focused on Municipalities of Gyeonggi Province

More information

인문사회과학기술융합학회

인문사회과학기술융합학회 Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities, and Sociology Vol.5, No.4, August (2015), pp.631-648 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ajmahs.2015.08.77 보육의 위기적 현상과 재난안전관리의 문제점 조망

More information

- iii - - i - - ii - - iii - 국문요약 종합병원남자간호사가지각하는조직공정성 사회정체성과 조직시민행동과의관계 - iv - - v - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 - - 11 - - 12 - - 13 - - 14 - α α α α - 15 - α α α α α α

More information

02Á¶ÇýÁø

02Á¶ÇýÁø Analysis of Hazardous Fog and Index Development in Korea* Hye-Jin Cho** Abstract : The existing researches related to the fog have focused on mainly the fog itself and its spatial variation. This study

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI: : * Research Subject

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI:   : * Research Subject Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp.91-116 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.1.201903.91 : * Research Subject Trend Analysis on Educational Innovation with Network

More information

27 2, 17-31, , * ** ***,. K 1 2 2,.,,,.,.,.,,.,. :,,, : 2009/08/19 : 2009/09/09 : 2009/09/30 * 2007 ** *** ( :

27 2, 17-31, , * ** ***,. K 1 2 2,.,,,.,.,.,,.,. :,,, : 2009/08/19 : 2009/09/09 : 2009/09/30 * 2007 ** *** ( : 27 2, 17-31, 2009. -, * ** ***,. K 1 2 2,.,,,.,.,.,,.,. :,,, : 2009/08/19 : 2009/09/09 : 2009/09/30 * 2007 ** *** (: dminkim@cau.ac.kr) 18 한국교육문제연구제 27 권 2 호, 2009. Ⅰ. (,,, 2004). (,, 2006).,,, (Myrick,

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI: An Exploratory Stud

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI:   An Exploratory Stud Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp.423-441 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.1.201903.423 An Exploratory Study on the Improvement of Democratic Consultative Culture

More information

07_Àü¼ºÅÂ_0922

07_Àü¼ºÅÂ_0922 176 177 1) 178 2) 3) 179 4) 180 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 181 11) 12) 182 13) 14) 15) 183 16) 184 185 186 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 187 22) 23) 24) 25) 188 26) 27) 189 28) 29) 30)31) 32) 190 33) 34) 35) 36) 191 37)

More information

<31372DB9CCB7A1C1F6C7E22E687770>

<31372DB9CCB7A1C1F6C7E22E687770> 미래지향 고령친화 주거디자인을 위한 예비노인층의 라이프스타일 특성 Characteristics of Lifestyle of the Pre-Elderly for Future Elderly-friendly Housing Design 류 혜 지 청운대학교 인테리어디자인학과 교수 Ryu hye-ji Dept. of Interior Design, Chungwoon University

More information

사단법인 커뮤니케이션디자인협회 시각디자인학회

사단법인 커뮤니케이션디자인협회 시각디자인학회 소도시 공공디자인 기본계획의 실효성 및 지속성 제고에 관한 연구 - 고성군을 중심으로 - Study on Public Design Master Plan to enhance the effectiveness and sustainability - Focusing on Goseong-Gun - 주저자 김정범 Kim, Jungbum 경동대학교 디자인학과 교수 Professor

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp DOI: : A Study on the Ac

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp DOI:   : A Study on the Ac Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp.269-293 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.1.201803.269 : A Study on the Actual Condition of Character Education in Early Childhood

More information

- i - - ii - - iii - - iv - - v - - vi - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - 1) 통계청고시제 2010-150 호 (2010.7.6 개정, 2011.1.1 시행 ) - 4 - 요양급여의적용기준및방법에관한세부사항에따른골밀도검사기준 (2007 년 11 월 1 일시행 ) - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 -

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA 27(2), 2007, 96-121 S ij k i POP j a i SEXR j i AGER j i BEDDAT j ij i j S ij S ij POP j SEXR j AGER j BEDDAT j k i a i i i L ij = S ij - S ij ---------- S ij S ij = k i POP j a i SEXR j i AGER j i BEDDAT

More information

03-서연옥.hwp

03-서연옥.hwp 농업생명과학연구 49(4) pp.31-37 Journal of Agriculture & Life Science 49(4) pp.31-37 Print ISSN 1598-5504 Online ISSN 2383-8272 http://dx.doi.org/10.14397/jals.2015.49.4.31 국가산림자원조사 자료를 적용한 충남지역 사유림경영율 추정 서연옥

More information

<BFACB1B85F323031332D333528C0CCC3B6BCB1295FC3D6C1BEC8AEC1A45FC0CEBCE2BFEB28313430323131292E687770>

<BFACB1B85F323031332D333528C0CCC3B6BCB1295FC3D6C1BEC8AEC1A45FC0CEBCE2BFEB28313430323131292E687770> 연구보고서 2013-35 친서민정책으로서의 사회서비스 일자리 확충 전략 Ⅲ : 사회서비스 산업-제3섹터-고용창출 연계모델 이철선 박세경 권소일 책임연구자 이철선 한국보건사회연구원 연구위원 주요저서 협동조합 실태조사 및 기본계획 수립을 위한 기초연구 한국보건사회연구원, 2013(공저) 협동조합기본법 관련 현황조사 연구 한국보건사회연구원, 2012(공저) 공동연구진

More information

<28C3D6C1BE29312DC0CCBDC2BEC62E687770>

<28C3D6C1BE29312DC0CCBDC2BEC62E687770> 한국패션디자인학회지 제9권3호 The Korean Society of Fashion Design Vol. 9 No. 3 (2009) pp.1~12 소니아 리키엘 컬렉션에 나타난 니트웨어 색채 특성 The Color Characteristics of Knit Wear Shown in Sonia Rykiel s Collections 이 승 아ㆍ조 주 연ㆍ이 연

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp DOI: 3 * Effects of 9th

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp DOI:   3 * Effects of 9th Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp.357-378 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.2.201906.357 3 * Effects of 9th Grade Students Participation in Career Curriculum Cluster

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA e- 비즈니스연구 (The e-business Studies) Volume 17, Number 3, June, 30, 2016:pp. 93~116 ISSN 1229-9936 (Print), ISSN 2466-1716 (Online) 원고접수일심사 ( 수정 ) 게재확정일 2016. 06. 12 2016. 06. 20 2016. 06. 26 ABSTRACT e-

More information

우리들이 일반적으로 기호

우리들이 일반적으로 기호 일본지방자치체( 都 道 府 縣 )의 웹사이트상에서 심벌마크와 캐릭터의 활용에 관한 연구 A Study on the Application of Japanese Local Self-Government's Symbol Mark and Character on Web. 나가오카조형대학( 長 岡 造 形 大 學 ) 대학원 조형연구과 김 봉 수 (Kim Bong Su) 193

More information

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Dec.; 27(12),

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Dec.; 27(12), THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. 2016 Dec.; 27(12), 1036 1043. http://dx.doi.org/10.5515/kjkiees.2016.27.12.1036 ISSN 1226-3133 (Print) ISSN 2288-226X (Online)

More information

레이아웃 1

레이아웃 1 Disability & Employment 2011. 8. 제21권 제3호(통권 72호) pp.209~238 장애인의 직업재활을 위한 자기표현력 향상에 관한 집단미술치료 사례연구 임혜숙 서울사회복지대학원대학교 사회복지학과 교수 요 약 본 연구에서는 장애인의 직업재활동기를 강화시키고 지속시키는데 필요한 자기표현력 향상을 위한 집단미술치료의 영향에 관하여 사례연구를

More information

10(3)-09.fm

10(3)-09.fm w y wz 10«3y 253~258 (2010.12.) Journal of Korean Society of Urban Environment ³ w Á» Á Á y w y œw (2010 11 22, 2010 12 9 k) Study on Determine of Detention Pond in Small Developed Area In-Soo Chang ½

More information

도비라

도비라 광고학연구 : 제24권 5호(2013년) The Korean Journal of Advertising, Vol.24, No.5 (2013). pp.99 116 대학생 광고공모전이 광고업계 취업에 미치는 영향: 대학생과 실무자의 인식 비교를 중심으로 차 유 철 우석대학교 광고이벤트학과 교수, 언론학박사 이 희 복 상지대학교 언론광고학부 교수, 언론학박사* 신

More information

hwp

hwp 심사위원 심사위원 심사위원 인 인 인 - i - - ii - - iii - - iv - - v - Ⅰ. 서 - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 - - 11 - - 12 - - 13 - - 14 - - 15 - - 16 - - 17 - - 18 - 항목 건강하지못하다 주관적구강상태 보통이다

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA 김진주 김수연. 초등학생대상장애이해교육에활용된동화에나타난장애인관분석. 특수교육, 2013, 제12권, 제2호, 135-160... 20.,,. 4.,,.,..... 주제어 : 장애이해교육, 동화, 장애인관 1. ( 1 ) Incheon Munhak Elementary School ( )(, E-mail: sooyoun@ginue.ac.kr) Dept. of

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp DOI: * Meta Analysis : T

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp DOI:   * Meta Analysis : T Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp.289-314 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.26.3.201612.289 * Meta Analysis : Trends and Effects of Art-Therapy with Clay Purpose:

More information

4 RIVERSIDE TRAIL IMPROVEMENT 1 8 Wide Asphalt Trail Design follows AASHTO and ADA design guidance. Stable and maintainable surface: new asphalt or re

4 RIVERSIDE TRAIL IMPROVEMENT 1 8 Wide Asphalt Trail Design follows AASHTO and ADA design guidance. Stable and maintainable surface: new asphalt or re 4 RIVERSIDE TRAIL IMPROVEMENT 1 8 Wide Asphalt Trail Design follows AASHTO and ADA design guidance. Stable and maintainable surface: new asphalt or recycled asphalt product (RAP). Open curve and radii

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA e- 비즈니스연구 (The e-business Studies) Volume 17, Number 3, June, 30, 2016:pp. 273~299 ISSN 1229-9936 (Print), ISSN 2466-1716 (Online) 원고접수일심사 ( 수정 ) 게재확정일 2016. 06. 11 2016. 06. 24 2016. 06. 26 ABSTRACT e-

More information

레이아웃 1

레이아웃 1 Disability & Employment 11. 8. 제1권 제호(통권 7호) pp.97~118 중증장애인직업재활지원사업수행시설의 효율성비교* 양숙미 남서울대학교 사회복지학과 부교수 전동일 가톨릭대학교 박사과정 요 약 본 연구는 직업재활시설의 중증장애인 직업재활지원사업에 대한 효율성을 평가하여 효 율적인 운영방안을 제시하는데 목적이 있다. 본 연구를 위해

More information

<BFA9BAD02DB0A1BBF3B1A4B0ED28C0CCBCF6B9FC2920B3BBC1F62E706466>

<BFA9BAD02DB0A1BBF3B1A4B0ED28C0CCBCF6B9FC2920B3BBC1F62E706466> 001 002 003 004 005 006 008 009 010 011 2010 013 I II III 014 IV V 2010 015 016 017 018 I. 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 III. 041 042 III. 043

More information

<BCF6BDC3323030392D31385FB0EDBCD3B5B5B7CEC8DEB0D4C5B8BFEEB5B5C0D4B1B8BBF3BFACB1B85FB1C7BFB5C0CE2E687770>

<BCF6BDC3323030392D31385FB0EDBCD3B5B5B7CEC8DEB0D4C5B8BFEEB5B5C0D4B1B8BBF3BFACB1B85FB1C7BFB5C0CE2E687770> ... 수시연구 2009-18.. 고속도로 휴게타운 도입구상 연구 A Study on the Concept of Service Town at the Expressway Service Area... 권영인 임재경 이창운... 서 문 우리나라는 경제성장과 함께 도시화가 지속적으로 진행되어 지방 지역의 인구감소와 경기의 침체가 계속되고 있습니다. 정부의 다각 적인

More information

.. IMF.. IMF % (79,895 ). IMF , , % (, 2012;, 2013) %, %, %

.. IMF.. IMF % (79,895 ). IMF , , % (, 2012;, 2013) %, %, % *.. 8. Colaizzi 131, 40, 11.,,,.... * (2014). (Corresponding Author): / / 76 Tel: 041-550-2903 / E-mail: limkt3013@naver.com .. IMF.. IMF 1996 1.7% (79,895 ). IMF 1999 118,000 1980 5 2004 138,900 11 12.

More information

05-08 087ÀÌÁÖÈñ.hwp

05-08 087ÀÌÁÖÈñ.hwp 산별교섭에 대한 평가 및 만족도의 영향요인 분석(이주희) ꌙ 87 노 동 정 책 연 구 2005. 제5권 제2호 pp. 87118 c 한 국 노 동 연 구 원 산별교섭에 대한 평가 및 만족도의 영향요인 분석: 보건의료노조의 사례 이주희 * 2004,,,.. 1990. : 2005 4 7, :4 7, :6 10 * (jlee@ewha.ac.kr) 88 ꌙ 노동정책연구

More information

12Á¶±ÔÈŁ

12Á¶±ÔÈŁ Journal of Fashion Business Vol. 5, No. 4. pp.158~175(2001) A Study on the Apparel Industry and the Clothing Culture of North Korea + Kyu Hwa Cho Prof., Dept. of Clothing & Textiles, Ewha Womans University

More information

06_À̼º»ó_0929

06_À̼º»ó_0929 150 151 alternative investment 1) 2) 152 NPE platform invention capital 3) 153 sale and license back 4) 154 5) 6) 7) 155 social welfare 8) 156 GDP 9) 10) 157 Patent Box Griffith EUROSTAT 11) OTC M&A 12)

More information

04-다시_고속철도61~80p

04-다시_고속철도61~80p Approach for Value Improvement to Increase High-speed Railway Speed An effective way to develop a highly competitive system is to create a new market place that can create new values. Creating tools and

More information

14.531~539(08-037).fm

14.531~539(08-037).fm G Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 531~539, August, 2008 š x y w m š gj p { sƒ z 1) * 1) w w Evaluation of Flexural Strength for Normal and High Strength Concrete with Hooked

More information

보건사회연구-25일수정

보건사회연구-25일수정 30(1), 2010, 220-241 Health and Social Welfare Review...... * :, (slee@kangnam.ac.kr) 220 ( ) 5.. (, 2005;, 2006;, 2006;, 2007), (, 2004;, 2005;, 2007;, 2007), (, 2005, 2009;, 2005;, 2005;, 2008).....

More information

06_ÀÌÀçÈÆ¿Ü0926

06_ÀÌÀçÈÆ¿Ü0926 182 183 184 / 1) IT 2) 3) IT Video Cassette Recorder VCR Personal Video Recorder PVR VCR 4) 185 5) 6) 7) Cloud Computing 8) 186 VCR P P Torrent 9) avi wmv 10) VCR 187 VCR 11) 12) VCR 13) 14) 188 VTR %

More information

05_±è½Ã¿Ł¿Ü_1130

05_±è½Ã¿Ł¿Ü_1130 132 133 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 134 135 6) 7) 8) 136 9) 10) 11) 12) 137 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 138 19) 20) 21) 139 22) 23) 140 24) 141 25) 142 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 143 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 144

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp DOI: NCS : G * The Analy

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp DOI:   NCS : G * The Analy Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp.133-158 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.1.201703.133 NCS : G * The Analysis of the Cognitive Level of Basic Job Skills of Specialized

More information

20, 41..,..,.,.,....,.,, (relevant).,.,..??.,

20, 41..,..,.,.,....,.,, (relevant).,.,..??., , 41 (2007 12 ) * 1) *** ***,. IMF..,,,.,,,,.. I.. 1999 (,.),,. 2010 *. ** *** 19 20, 41..,..,.,.,....,.,, (relevant).,.,..??., 21.....,. II. 1967 G. G. Muller International Accounting. 1960. 1970... 1966,,,.

More information

03신경숙내지작업

03신경숙내지작업 57~82 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 A Study on the Educational Use of Dolmen Construction Technology Kyung-sug Shin (Research Centre of Dolmens in Northeast Asia)

More information

04_이근원_21~27.hwp

04_이근원_21~27.hwp 1) KIGAS Vol. 16, No. 5, pp 21~27, 2012 (Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas) http://dx.doi.org/10.7842/kigas.2012.16.5.21 실험실의 사례 분석에 관한 연구 이근원 이정석 한국산업안전보건공단 산업안전보건연구원 (2012년 9월 5일 투고, 2012년 10월 19일

More information

20(53?)_???_O2O(Online to Offline)??? ???? ??.hwp

20(53?)_???_O2O(Online to Offline)??? ???? ??.hwp O2O(Online to Offline)서비스 전략방향 연구 - 모바일 사용자 경험 디자인(UX Design)을 중심으로 - O2O(Online to Offline) Service Strategy Research -Focusing on Mobile UX Design- 주저자 김 형 모 Kim, Hyung-mo BK21플러스 다빈치 창의융합인재양성사업단 BK21Plus

More information

12È«±â¼±¿Ü339~370

12È«±â¼±¿Ü339~370 http://www.kbc.go.kr/ k Si 2 i= 1 Abstract A Study on Establishment of Fair Trade Order in Terrestrial Broadcasting Ki - Sun Hong (Professor, Dept. of Journalism & Mass Communication,

More information

Analysis of objective and error source of ski technical championship Jin Su Seok 1, Seoung ki Kang 1 *, Jae Hyung Lee 1, & Won Il Son 2 1 yong in Univ

Analysis of objective and error source of ski technical championship Jin Su Seok 1, Seoung ki Kang 1 *, Jae Hyung Lee 1, & Won Il Son 2 1 yong in Univ Analysis of objective and error source of ski technical championship Jin Su Seok 1, Seoung ki Kang 1 *, Jae Hyung Lee 1, & Won Il Son 2 1 yong in University & 2 Kang Won University [Purpose] [Methods]

More information

00내지1번2번

00내지1번2번 www.keit.re.kr 2011. 11 Technology Level Evaluation ABSTRACT The Technology Level Evaluation assesses the current level of industrial technological development in Korea and identifies areas that are underdeveloped

More information

02이용배(239~253)ok

02이용배(239~253)ok A study on the characteristic of land use in subcenter of Seoul. - Cases of Yeongdeungpo and Kangnam Ok Kyung Yuh* Yong-Bae Lee**,. 2010,,..,.,,,,.,,.,,.,,,, Abstract : This study analyzed the land use

More information

Microsoft Word - 1st-revise_Elements-and-structure-of-the-smart-lighting-design-in-the-office_1_

Microsoft Word - 1st-revise_Elements-and-structure-of-the-smart-lighting-design-in-the-office_1_ Title Elements and Structure of the Smart Lighting Design in the Office ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this research is to extract factors affecting office lighting and their relations,

More information

-09-......

-09-...... The Values, Consumption Culture, and Clothing Attitudes of a Modern New Generation as the Primary Consumer of Modern Korean Culture: From the 1920 s to the 1930 s Department of Fashion Design, Osan College

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI: 3 * The Effect of H

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI:   3 * The Effect of H Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp.577-601 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.4.201812.577 3 * The Effect of Home-based Activities Using Traditional Fairy Tales

More information

Abstract Background : Most hospitalized children will experience physical pain as well as psychological distress. Painful procedure can increase anxie

Abstract Background : Most hospitalized children will experience physical pain as well as psychological distress. Painful procedure can increase anxie Volume 12, Number 1, 92~102, An Intervention Study of Pain Reduction during IV Therapy in Hospitalized Children Myo-Jin Kim 1), Joung-Hae Bak 1), Won-Seok Seo 2) Mi-Young Kim 3), Sun-Kyoung Park 3), Jai-Soung

More information

untitled

untitled 2005. 6. 11. *, **, ***, * * ** *** Acknowledgement 2005 BTP. 1. 1-1. 1. (Green Logistics) - 90 2 ( - ) EU - ISO 14001 ( ) -, - 3 1. Liberal Return Policy - (South Florida Stock 2000 1000 ) - (,TV, )

More information

11¹Ú´ö±Ô

11¹Ú´ö±Ô A Review on Promotion of Storytelling Local Cultures - 265 - 2-266 - 3-267 - 4-268 - 5-269 - 6 7-270 - 7-271 - 8-272 - 9-273 - 10-274 - 11-275 - 12-276 - 13-277 - 14-278 - 15-279 - 16 7-280 - 17-281 -

More information

278 경찰학연구제 12 권제 3 호 ( 통권제 31 호 )

278 경찰학연구제 12 권제 3 호 ( 통권제 31 호 ) 여성경찰관의직업윤리의식결정요인분석 * An Analysis of Determinantal Factors Influencing Professional Ethical Standards of South Korean Police Women 신문희 ** 이영민 *** Ⅰ. 서론 Ⅱ. 이론적배경 Ⅲ. 연구방법 Ⅳ. 연구결과 Ⅴ. 결론 Ⅰ. 서론 278 경찰학연구제 12

More information

<C7F6B4EBBACFC7D1BFACB1B8203136B1C72033C8A328313331323330292E687770>

<C7F6B4EBBACFC7D1BFACB1B8203136B1C72033C8A328313331323330292E687770> 현대북한연구, 16권 3호(2013), C 2013 북한대학원대학교 북한미시연구소, pp.272~304. 김정은 시대의 대( 對 )러시아 정책 지속과 변화 박정민(북한대학원대학교) 이 연구는 김정일 사망 이후 북한의 대( 對 )러시아 정책이 어떻게 변화하고 있고, 어떠한 성격을 띠고 있는지를 분석한다. 특히, 김정은 체제의 대러 시아 정책이 김정일 시대의 대러시아

More information