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1 Jour. Korean Earth Science Society, v. 31, no. 2, p , April 2010 (w ) 3D v y w w w z - w 2w - ù Á Á * w w, , 410 The Effects of Science Instructions Applying 3D Planetarium Software - using the unit Earth and Star for the 8th grade - Jae-Joon Na, Jong-Bum Park, and Dong-Sik Kook* Department of Earth Science Education, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk , Korea Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of instruction applying 3D Planetarium Software (Starry Night Pro 6.0) in terms of the learners science achievement, changes of attitude (attitude toward science as well as scientific attitude), and self-directed learning ability. Participants were th graders. This study adopted a quasiexperimental research design in which experimental group was taught with 3D planetarium software vs. control group with traditional lecture-centered teaching method for 6 hours. The effects were investigated by independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test The results are as follows. The instruction using 3D planetarium software was more effective than the traditional lecture-centered curriculum in science achievement and self-directed learning ability.however, there were not meaningful differences in analyzing attitudes related science, the results that were so effective in elevation for self-directed learning could be gained. Students were interested in instruction applying 3D planetarium software, which was helpful for them to understand the content knowledge. Results showed that instruction with 3D planetarium software applied was effective in 8 th grade science learning.,fzxpset Earth and Star, Science Instructions, 3D planetarium software : w 2w w w 3D v (Starry Night pro 6.0) y w w z w w, w k,» w e w w w z w. w 2w 198 w 6 3D v (Starry Night pro 6.0) y w w z w» z mw w z w. t t- t t- w w., 3D v y w m w w z ƒ ùkû (p<.05). ù 3D v y w w k e z w z ƒ ùkû (p>.05),» w w z (p<.05). 3D planetarium software y w 8w w z. š ó eš., w w, 3D v k vp w w w ù x w w *Corresponding author: *Tel: *Fax: y š, w y y ƒ w š w. ù Áœ w x ù w y w w (, 1999). wš xw w w w z»

2 % v y w ww z w w 165. x w š w t w Ï k w k ƒ wš y w w w» w» z e w w w w k (wk, 1998). ful y»» x x v ù, x x v y š (½ ³ k, 2002). ful» ful x ƒ w, ful š y w y w y ƒ j (Choi, 2001). w ful y w w y w x w y w w z š w (Hooper and Hannafin, 1991). f ul mw w w w w w w ful w 70% y wš š w (Lehman, 1994). w w ƒ š y k š k, w w š w (Njoo and Jong, 1993). w y x» w, y x, SF(science fiction) y y w w w w xk p y w š. ù x x š p w Á œ š ƒ w gld š w w 2 ù w txw eš. 3 œ ƒ x» w. 3 œ tx w 3D v y w w wš w. 3D v y w w, w, w y š,, y w. w p ƒ» w x y mw tx w ƒ z w w y» w. w 2w w y w š ƒ vp wš, w y gld yw x(learning Cycle Model) w -w w x w w w w k š» w e z. û ü ew G w 2w 6w ûw x 3w 99 m 3w 99 w. - z m (pre-posttest control group design)» w 3D v y w x, m m ù x w. w x m w w w w k,» w w z, 3 r 3D v Starry Night pro 6.0 y w 2 w x m w w 1 6 w. w w ƒ w sƒ w w. 6 x, m w z w k w mw. š z, w w w k y» w» w z w. w k Fraser(1978) w TOSRA(Test of Science Related Attitudes). TOSRA w (x, 1993) k w w k 7ƒ w 70 w ƒƒ 35 w ù Á z y w.» w (2003)ƒ w Áš w» w w. Á z w w.

3 166 ù Á Á Study process Experiment O 1 X 1 O 3 Control O 2 O 4 O 1, O 2: Pre-inspection(w, w k,» w ) O 3: Post-inspection(w, w k,» w, ) O 4: Post-inspection(w, w k,» w ) X 1: Teaching by using 3D Planetarium Software(3D v y ) Fig. 1. study plan. x m Á z mw 3D v y z» w w (Fig. 1). x m ƒƒ w k» w w z x 3D v y ew š, m m ww. x e z x m ƒƒ w w k» w w š, x 3D v y w w w. 3D v z w 2w w III. 6 (1 - k, 2Á3 -k, 4 -, 5 -, 6 - w) w z yw x w ƒ w w 6 -w 3D v w. w w š w., w s w w ü ƒ e» w w ü ƒ? (2003) w w ü w x, œ ƒ w w ü» w ¾., v š, w, w» w œ w» w x., 3D v x ƒ w w ƒ? 3D v w w w ü w txw. 3D v w ü ƒ w z xw ý w., w k ƒ? w ü z óù w w k w w» w w. w 2w w ü. t ƒ wš, j» d w w. ƒ» w dwš, ƒ k w w. k k w,, w, x p w.»q w.» ùkü w w. p w. w j» w. š (Fig. 2). w (1999) w w (III) ü. w ü ƒ l ƒ mw w wš, x w j» d w w.» j» d w x x w ü w z, j» d y j w., j» d m l d w» w š w w. k k w p, w k w dw»z œw., k d w w w w., l w k k w k w p

4 % v y w ww z w w 167 Fig. 2. conceptual structure of the unit Earth and Star. w. w» w dwš, 2-3ƒ t» ƒ w w.» ww w.»» ùkü» w w w,. w, wwš, w p w. w w w, wù. y w š w w w w.,»q ww t»q» mw w. œ» w, w ƒ lr š w ü ƒ z xw ý 3D v š w Imaginova Starry Night pro 6.0 v w w w. Starry Night pro x ful v w x, ú w. w ƒ w w r» ƒ l w ¾ w y w vp. Starry Night pro š w 3 e ùký.» ƒ v w w ü w œ x w z ùký. 1 k w ü w k e w w, w ùkù w. w t ƒ j p j l y w š, t e t û wš»ƒ» w y k (Fig. 3). k t p ùkù. w w x» k w y k. k» ùkù d y v NASA, g ù» ƒ w (Fig. 4). 2, 3 k w ü k š w ƒ¾ w w ƒƒ w w t p. w k w t w š, w œ k

5 168 ù Á Á Fig. 3. Features of the surface of the moon. Fig. 4. Sun s surface (left) and total eclipse (right). Fig. 5. Revolution orbit of planet and Mars surface. k w œ ƒ. š ƒ k» w s ƒ¾ k k œ w ƒ w (Fig. 5). (2003) k w Áš w w j» w w w ƒ š ùkû. Starry Night pro» v» w

6 % v y w ww z w w 169 Fig. 6. The surface of Mars and Saturn. Fig. 7. Comet and Asteroid. j» w w ƒ. w k j»ƒ w w ¾ ù k ¾ ƒ w š w j ƒ ù (Fig. 6). j ƒ k w x k w k t w Õ ƒ ¼ ùkù w, x w w k r Õ ƒ ùkù x ƒ w. w ³ew y ƒ w,» w w w 2 txw. ù» w 3 e, k œ w ƒ (Fig. 7). 7 8w ( w 2w ) w 3D v y w w w, w w k,» w w w z wš w., w w e w w w e» w Á z w w w. z 30 w 30 w š ùkû (Table 1). l ƒƒ 99 w s³ m x ƒƒ š, t r ƒƒ x j ùkû, w w x j

7 170 ù Á Á Table 1. The result of pre-posttest of science achievement Inspection Pre Post **p<0.01 N Mean SD t p Control Experiment Control ** Experiment Table 2. The result of pre-posttest of science related attitude N Pretest Posttest Mean SD Mean SD Control Experiment Total Table 3. The result of pretest of science related attitude Inspection pre N Mean SD t p Control Experiment ùkû. ù s³ w ƒ š w. w, z m x s³ ƒƒ x 1.68 ù kû, t r ƒƒ m j ùkû. ù kû t 3.589, p ùkù w z w e w ƒ ùkû. 3D v y ew m w w ƒ 3D v y w w z., w k e w k w e» w Á z w k w. Á z w, 35 w 175 w. m 3D v y Á z w k (Table 2). m w m s³ , 3D v y Table 4. The result of pre-posttest of self controlled learning ability N Pretest w x z m s³ 3.20, x 2.65 w m s³ w. t t- t š, p (p<0.05) ùkù ƒ, w k ƒ š w (Table 3).,» w e» w w e» w Á z» w w. Á z w, 45 w 225 w. m 3D v y Á z» w (Table 4). m w m s³ , 3D v y w x z m s³ 1.93, x 6.99 w x s³ w. t t- t š, p (p<0.05) ùkù ƒ,» w ƒ š w (Table 5). Posttest Mean SD Mean SD Control Experiment Total Table 5. The result of pretest of self controlled learning ability Inspection Pre N Mean SD t p Control Experiment w 2w w 3D v y w w

8 % v y w ww z w w 171 z w, w k,» w. ¾ w., 3D v y w w e z w, x m s³ 1.68 ùkûš, m w z ƒ ùkû (p<0.000)., 3D v y w w k j w., 3D v y» w w z ƒ ùkû., 3D v y w w w w ü ww š, ƒ š w.. 3D v y w w wé k k w w w, w y» ƒ jš, y wš t, w mww y w z w. š x p w Áw y w w. p y w w z z p y w x Á v œw w ƒ. w p w Áw y yw w w x,» mw z w v w. š x, 1999, w w (III).,, 140 p. ½ ³, k, 2002, wk ƒ e z. wz, 23, ,, xû, Ÿ, 2003, d - m, w,» w. w š, RR , 145 p., 2003, k w Áš w. w w, 34 p. wk, 1998, w w w p l. œ w w, 24 p. x, 1993, Á Áš w w w w k. w w wz, 17, Choi, W., 2001, Critical design considerations for effective computer-based instructional simulation. Educational Technology International, 3, Fraser, B.J., 1978, Test of Science-Related Attitude. Science Education, 62, Hooper, S. and Hannafin, M.J., 1991, The effects of group composition on achievement, interaction, and learning efficiency during computer-based cooperative instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 39, Lehman, J.R., 1994, Secondary science teachers use of microcomputers during instruction. School Science and Mathematics, 94, Njoo, M. and Jong, T., 1993, Exploratory learning with a computer simulation for control theory: Learning processes and instructional support. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30, š k

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