1 : :., 1,136.,,,,.,,..,. 1, :,, ,
2 ., (transformational leadership). Bass(1985), Burns(1978),, (, 2001; Conger, 1999; Yukl, 1998).,. (Bass & Avolio, 1993)., (O'Reilly & Chatman, 1986), (Dvir, Eden, Avolio, & Shamir, 2002)., (Kark, Shamir, & Chen, 2002).. (dependency) (Howell, 1988).., ( ) (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Mishra & Spreitzer, 1998). -. (independence) (Bass, 1985)., (self-esteem) (Bennis & Nanus, 1985; Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990).,., Kark (2003),
3 (identification)....,., (perceived control).,., (self-enhancement), 1 6 (Fu, Tsui, Liu, & Li, 2000).. (, 4I),.,., (cognitive competence).,,. (framework),,.,,,.
4 Burns(1978). Bass(1985),., (Bass, 1985; Podsakoff, Mackenzie, & Moorman, 1990).,, (House, Woycke, & Foder, 1988).. (Bass & Avolio, 1993)., ( charisma),,, 4 (Bass & Avolio, 1994).,..,,., (Avolio, Waldman, & Einstein, 1988).,,,, (Bass, 1985), (Podsakoff, Todor & Schuler, 1983)., (Howell & Avolio, 1993; O'Reilly & Chatman, 1986). (Shamir, House, & Arthur, 1993), (,, ) (,, 2001; Bycio, Hackett, & Allen, 1995)., (Dvir, Eden, Avolio, & Shamir, 2002; Wang, Law, Hackett, Wang, & Chen, 2005), (Kark et al., 2003).
5 -. (co-determination) (Shamir, 2007).,. (shared leadership) (Morgeson, 2005; Pearce, 2004). (,, 1999).,. (Mayer, Davis, & Shoorman, 1995), (McCallister, 1995)., (trust-based trust) (affect- based trust).,.. Mayer, Davis, & Shoorman(1995), (vulnerability).,., (Rousseau, Sitkin, Burt, & Camerer, 1998).,.,. (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996),.,.,.,.
6 .,, (control mechanism) (, 2000; Kramer, 1999)., (Rousseau et al., 1998).,, (OCB) (Gambetta, 1988; Lewicki, McAllister, & Bies, 1996; McAllister, 1995),, (,, 2004; Boss, 1978; Cook & Wall, 1980; Morgan & Hunt, 1994; Whitener, Brodt, Korsgaard, & Werner, 1998).,., (Kets de Vries, 1988).,,., (Conger & Kanungo, 1998)..,, (,, 1999).,, (Mishra & Spreitzer, 1998), (Kark et al., 2003).,,., (, 2008).., (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).,.,.,,,
7 (Mishra & Spreitzer, 1998).,,.,. 1.., (perceived control). (Greenberger et al, 1989; Hui & Bateson, 1991; White, 1959). Elliot Dweck (2005), Heckhausen Schulz (1995) (agent),,... (selfdetermination theory), - (job demands-control model).,, (autonomy) (competence), (positive connection) (Deci & Ryan, 1985)., (Deci & Ryan, 2000).. (origin),..,.., (Deci & Ryan, 2000)..,.,.
8 , (,,,, 2008)., - (Karasek, 1979). -,,,, (mastery).,.,,, (De Croon et al., 2004; Fox et al., 1993).,. (,, 2005; Dweyer & Ganster, 1991)., (Evans & Fischer, 1992).,.,, (Skinner, 1996). (Greenberger et al., 1989)., (intrinsic reward), (Parker & Price, 1994)..,.., (Katzenbach & Santamaria, 1999).,., (Conger & Kanungo, 1988).,,,.
9 ., (Mishra & Spreitzer, 1988).,., (,, 2003)..,.,,.. (ownership).,., (psychological safety)., (Edmonson, 1999).. (empowerment). Bass(1995),,,,,. (, 2001; Conger & Kanungo, 1988; Seltzer & Bass, 1990)., (Kark et al., 2003)..,,. 2..,.
10 . (Foster-Fishman & Keys, 1997). (self -determination),.,., Moorman(1991), Niehoff Moorman(1993).. (McLean Parks, 1992; Van Dyne, Graham, & Dienesch, 1994),.,,,,.,,,,.,.,.,,. ( 1, 2). 3.., , 1,136..
11 , %, 9.7%, 8.3%, 11.1%, 2.3%, 7.4%, 7.4%, 6.0%.,, 40% 7 ( 6.9%, 7.4%, 6.5 %, 4.6%, / 9.7%, 6.0%, 6.9% ) (50-99 ) %, 2 ( ) %, 3 ( ) %, 4 (500 ) %. 818 (72%), 318 (28%), (43.3 %), (40.2%), (16.5%). 4 (500, 44%), (383, 33.7%), (197, 17.3%), (40, 3.5%), (16, 1.4%). 508 (44.7%), / / 290 (25.5%), 275 (24.2%), / 63 (5.5%). Bass(1985) MLQ(Multiple Leadership Questionnaire) MLQ-5X(Multiple Leadership Questionnaire Form 5X).,,, 12. (1 ), (5 ) 5.. Cumming & Bromiley(1996) (Organizational Trust Inventory Short Form) (2002). (, ) (,, ). 6, 5, 5., Greenberger(1982) Greenberger & Strasser(1986) Greenberger, Stephan, Larry, & Randall(1989) (2000).?,? Allen & Mayer
12 (1991) 4.,. (1 ) (5 ) 5.,,,, (reliability) (Cronbach Alpha)..925,.884,.784,.717,.736., (construct validity) (exploratory factor analysis). (promax) (principal component). (eigen value) 1.0, (factor loading) 0.5., 5, 12, 6, 5, 3, 4 30., 12. Bass & Avolio(1994) 4, (Lievens, Van Geit, & Coetsier, 1997). (,,,,, 2009;,, 2000).., (discriminant validity) AMOS 17.0 (confirmatory factor analysis) ** **.593 ** **.239 **.132 ** **.423 **.272 **.214 ** - *p<.05, **p<.01.
13 , 747.8, p<.001. CFI =.977, NFI =.956, RMSEA =.030.,,,,, 1.,,,.., AMOS 17.0 (Structural Equation Modeling: SEM). CFI, NFI, GFI (RMSEA). CFI, NFI.90, RMSEA.05 (, 2000)., Russel, Kahn, Spoth, & Altmaier(1998) (latent variables).,, Russel (1998),.,, (communality)..(,, 2009).,,,,. (, )., 3, ( ). ( 1) (df = 66, N = 1136) = (, ( ), ***p<.001, **p<.01)
14 (, ( ), ***p<.001, **p<.01) , p<.001; CFI =.985; NFI =.975; GFI =.979; RMSEA =.038(90% = ). 1 2,.,. ( 2), ( (df = 70, N = 1136)= , p<.001; CFI =.949; NFI =.940; GFI =.953; RMSEA =.067(90% = ). ( 2) CFI, GFI, RMSEA., AIC ECVI. 3, Sobel, Sobel-Z p<.001, Sobel-Z 5.62 p<.001.,.,, df p CFI NFI GFI RMSEA AIC ECVI ***p<.001.
15 .,.,,. 3 t. t A A *** A *** B B *** C *** C *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ** ***. 1, A1-A3, B1-B2, C1-C2, ***p<.001, **p<.01.
16 ,,..,,,,,., (Mishra & Spreitzer, 1998; Shamir, House, & Arthur, 1993)., (, 2001; Conger & Kanungo, 1988; Seltzer & Bass, 1990).,,.,. ( )..,.,.,.,,.,..,,., /.,
17 .,,....,,,,..,., Kark (2003)., (self-report).,,,,.,,. (common method bias)..,, (dyadic relationships) (matrix).,, (supervisor rating) (peer rating). (1,136 )., (2001).., (2000).
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24 : Harmonizing dependency and independence: The ambidextrous effects of transformational leadership and mediating role of trust and perceived control Byung-Jik Kim Seoul National University Myung-Ho Chung Ewha Womans University Transformational leadership produces ambidextrous effects: followers' dependence on leaders and independent competence. These two effects represent affective and cognitive aspects of psychological process in the functioning of transformational leadership. This study examined the mediating role of trust and perceived control as the link between transformational leadership and organizational commitment. With analysis of data from 1,136 employees using structural equation modeling(sem), we tested the hypothetical model explaining the structural relationships among the variables and interpreted the fitness and robustness of the suggested model. The results showed that (1) trust partially mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment, and (2) the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment was also partially mediated by perceived control. The results suggest that transformational leaders need to harmonize both dependency and independence of followers. The implications and the directions for future studies were also discussed. Key words : Transformational leadership, Dependency and independence, Trust, Perceived control, Organizational commitment