1 Original Article Korean J Child Stud 2016;37(2): pissn: eissn: X The Effects of Ego Strength, Failure Tolerance, and Performance Anxiety on School-Age Children s School Class Adjustment: A Focus on Gender Differences Se Young Kim Department of Social Welfare, Shingyeong University, Hwaseong, Korea, : Objective: The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of school-age children s ego strength, failure tolerance, and performance anxiety on their school class adjustment, and to model the relation structure of the variables. Method: For these purposes, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 562 6th graders. Results and Conclusion: The results of this study are summarized as follows. First, ego strength, failure tolerance, and performance anxiety were significantly different according to gender. Second, in male students, ego strength, failure tolerance, and performance anxiety had a significant direct effect on school class adjustment. In addition, ego strength and failure tolerance had a significant indirect effect on school class adjustment. Third, female students paths to school class adjustment were similar to male students but the effect of failure tolerance on performance anxiety and the effect of performance anxiety on school class adjustment were not significant. Fourth, in the results of multi-group analysis, the effect path from ego strength to school class adjustment was different between male and female students, and the effect was higher in female students than in male students. Keywords: ego strength, failure tolerance, performance anxiety, school class adjustment (Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHSA], 2013; Lim, 2015)., OECD 30 (KIHSA, 2013). (S. Y. Kim, 2015; B. J. Lee, Son, & Kim, 2015)., Corresponding Author: Se Young Kim, Department of of Social Welfare, Shingyeong University, Namyangjungang-ro, Namyang-eup, Hwaseong-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea The Korean Association of Child Studies This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
2 Se Young Kim 14, (B. J. Lee et al., 2015; Statistics Korea, 2014). (Kang & Han, 2015; Yu & Lee, 2014). M. S. Kim (2015), OECD 30, 5. (KIHSA, 2013),. (H. Park, 2014), (Koo & Kim, 2014). (S. H. Jeong, 2007; S. R. Lee, 2001),,, (B. J. Lee et al., 2015; Y. J. Moon & Jwa, 2008),.,.,.,,,, (K. I. Choi, 2012; H. Jung & Lee, 2009; I. T. Kim & Heo, 2004; E. Kim & Kim, 2013; Y. S. Lee, 2004; H. S. Lee & Bang, 2012; Yu & Lee, 2014),,, (J. H. Kim, 2006; Yoo & Synn; 2013), (K. I. Choi, 2012; J. W. Choi & Park, 2011). (Cha & Kim, 2015; T. Jung, 2015; Yu & Lee, 2014),, (Cha & Kim, 2015; T. Jung, 2015; Y. J. Kwon & Kim, 2011; Yu & Lee, 2014)., (S. Y. Kim & Choi, 2013a; Markstrom & Marshall, 2007).,,, (S. Y. Kim & Choi, 2013b; S. Y. Kim & Park, 2013)., (Chai & Lee, 2011; S. Y. Kim & Choi, 2013a; S. Y. Kim & Park, 2013; Markstrom, Li, Blackshire, & Wilfong, 2005), (Chai & Lee, 2011; H. K. Kwon & Lee, 2004)., (H. M. Jung, 2010), (J. Y. Park, 2011; S. H. Park, 2013), (Sung, 2012), (S. Y. Kim, 2015).,,., (B. H. Park, Youk, & Kim, 2013).,, (E. Kim & Kim, 2013). E. Kim Kim (2013), Y. H. Kim Kang (2008), S. H. Park (2009).,,, Freeman (2001), Kirsch, Lubart Houssemand (2015),
3 15 Ego Strength, Failure Tolerance, and Performance Anxiety. (Kirsch et al., 2015), (S. H. Park, 2009).,,., (Bögels & Mansell, 2004; H. S. Moon & Oh, 2002), (S. K Jeong, 2010; M. S. Kim, 2001; Machell, Blalock, Kashdan, & Yuen, 2016; Y. H. Park, 2005).. Woo Oei (2006), Nilly Jennifer (2002).,,..,.,. (King, McInerney, & Watkins, 2012), (H. S. Jung, 2014; S. H. Lee & Ha, 2009; Yoo & Synn, 2013).,,,.,.,.,,.. Figure 1. Ego strength Failure tolerance Performance anxiety Figure 1. Hypothesized research model.,,.,,. School class adjustment,. (S. Y. Kim & Choi, 2013a; S. J. Kim & Kim, 2015), (S. H. Park, 2009) (Cho & Choi, 2014; Hart, 2016), (Jang, Kim, & Song, 2014; S. C. Kim & Kwak, 2011) (S. J. Kim & Kim, 2015; Y. S. Lee, 2004). S. J. Kim Kim (2015),.,.,
4 Se Young Kim ,. S. Kim Hong (2011). 6,,,., 6.,.. 1,? 연구도구자아강도 S. Y. Kim Park (2013) (Ego Strength Scale for Children [ESS-C]).,,, 4, 26,,. Likert Cronbach s α.92. 실패내성 A. Kim (2002). 18,. Likert , Cronbach s α.89. 2,,? 연구대상,, ,, 10% (47.8%), 278 (52.2%). 수행불안 Beidel, Turner Moris (1995), LaGreca Stone (1993) H. S. Moon Oh (2002). 10 Likert 5, ,. Cronbach s α.91. 학교수업적응 A. Kim (2002) 5.,
5 17 Ego Strength, Failure Tolerance, and Performance Anxiety Likert 5, Cronbach s α.76. 연구절차,,, 1, 3.,,.,,,,.,. 자료분석 SPSS 20.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY) AMOS 20.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY)., Cronbach s α.,. t, Pearson, (maximum likelihood estimation)., (item parcels), 2. RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation), CFI (Comparative Fit Index), TLI (Tucker-Lewis Index), (Bootstrapping).05. 성별에따른차이검증및변인간상관관계검증, Table 1, Table 2.,,, Table 1,., 3.72 (SD =.55), 3.61 (SD =.65) (t = 2.21, p <.05), 3.11 (SD =.82), 2.86 (SD =.83) (t = 3.58, p <.001) (SD =.87), 2.53 (SD =.97) (t = -3.80, p <.001).., (Variance Inflation Factor [VIF]), Table 1 Differences of Ego Strength, Failure Tolerance, Performance Anxiety, and School Class Adjustment by Gender M (SD) Variable Boy Girl Ego strength 3.72 (.55) 3.61 (.65) 2.21* Failure tolerance 3.11 (.82) 2.86 (.83) 3.58*** Performance anxiety 2.22 (.87) 2.53 (.97) -3.80*** School class adjustment 3.44 (.74) 3.40 (.84) 0.47 *p <.05. ***p <.001. t
6 Se Young Kim 18 Table 2 Correlations of Ego Strength, Failure Tolerance, Performance Anxiety, and School Class Adjustment by Gender Variable Gender Ego strength Failure tolerance Performance anxiety Failure tolerance Boy.48*** Girl.62*** Performance anxiety Boy -.32*** -.33*** Girl -.39*** -.30*** School class adjustment Boy.55***.67*** -.23*** ***p <.001. Girl.70***.73*** -.32***. 5 ( : ; : )., ( : r =.48; : r =.62), ( : r = -.32; : r = -.39), ( : r=.55; : r =.70) (p <.001). ( : r = -.33; : r = -.30), ( : r =.67; : r =.73) (p <.001), ( : r = -.23; : r = -.32) (p <.001).,..,. 자아강도, 실패내성및수행불안이학교수업적응에미치는영향에관한구조방정식모형탐색 측정모형의검증 Kline (2011) 2 (Table 3 ),, χ 2 = (df = 56), χ 2 /df = 2.61, CFI =.95, TLI =.93, RMSEA =.08, χ 2 = (df = 56), χ 2 /df = 2.35, CFI =.97, TLI =.96, RMSEA =.07. χ 2 /df 3, CFI TLI.90, RMSEA.10 (Hong, 2000; Kline, 2011)..50,.63, ,.80 r.85 (p <.05) (S. B. Moon, 2009).,. 구조회귀모형의검증,, (Figure 2, Figure 3 Table 4 ). χ 2 = (df = 56), χ 2 /df = 2.61, CFI =.95, TLI =.93, RMSEA =.08, χ 2 = (df = 56), χ 2 /df = 2.35, CFI =.97, TLI =.96, RMSEA =.07,
7 19 Ego Strength, Failure Tolerance, and Performance Anxiety Table 3 Factor Loading of Measurement Model by Gender Variable Parameter Standardized estimates Ego strength Competence.70***.70*** Boy Girl Initiative.67***.70*** Resilience.67***.61*** Sociality.82***.78*** Failure tolerance ft1.87***.88*** ft2.85***.88*** ft3.88***.93*** Performance anxiety pa1.83***.83*** pa2.84***.89*** pa3.84***.90*** School class adjustment sca1.72***.62*** Note. ft = failure tolerance; pa = peformance anxiety; sca = school class adjustment. ***p <.001. sca2.72***.81*** sca3.63***.75***. 30%, 21% 77%.,, (β=.55, p <.001) (β =.22, p <.01), (β = -.54, p <.001). (β =.15), (β =.45)., (β = -.27, Figure 2. Estimates of standardized parameter for the structural equation model of boys. Figure 3. Estimates of standardized parameter for the structural equation model of girls.
8 Se Young Kim 20 Table 4 Standardized Estimations of Structural Regression Model by Gender Variable Parameter Gender Total effects Direct effects Indirect effects Ego strength Failure tolerance Boy.55*.55*** - Girl.69*.69*** - Performance anxiety Boy -.39* -.54***.15* Girl -.46* -.46***.00 School class adjustment Boy.67*.22**.45* Girl.85*.47***.38* Failure tolerance Performance anxiety Boy -.27* -.27** - Girl School class adjustment Boy.65*.70*** -.05* Girl.56*.56***.00 Performance anxiety School class adjustment Boy -.18* -.18** - *p <.05. **p <.01. ***p <.001. Girl p <.01), (β =.70, p <.001), (β = -.05). (β = -.18, p <.01). Bootstrap (p <.05). 48%, 21%, 89%.,, (β =.69, p <.001) (β =.47, p <.001), (β = -.46, p <.001), (β =.38). Bootstrap (p <.05)., (β =.56, p <.001).,,. (Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, & Tatham, 2006).,,..,,.,,. 성별에따른자아강도, 실패내성, 수행불안및학교수업적응관계경로의차이, Table 5.,
9 21 Ego Strength, Failure Tolerance, and Performance Anxiety Table 5 Critical Ratios for Differences by Gender Variable Parameter Boy Girl Critical ratios for differences Ego strength Failure tolerance.55***.69*** 1.12 Performance anxiety -.53*** -.39*** 0.67 School class adjustment.24**.49*** 2.97* Failure tolerance School class adjustment.73***.51*** *p <.05. **p <.01. ***p <.001. (p <.05), (β =.49, p <.001) (β =.24, p <.01).. 6,,.,,. Chai Lee (2011), S. Y. Kim Choi (2013a), Markstrom (2005).,,., (Bjorklund, 2000; S. Y. Kim, 2015).,.,.,. (Y. H. Kim & Kang, 2008; E. Kim & Kim, 2013; S. H. Park, 2009), 6. (E. Kim & Kim, 2013). (A. Kim, 2002; Y. H. Kim & Kang, 2008).. (S. Y. Kim & Park, 2013).,,,. (Markstrom & Marshall, 2007),, (B. H. Park et al., 2013)..,.,
10 Se Young Kim 22 (Gao, 2012),,.,.,. Bjorklund (2000) S. Y. Kim Choi (2013b). K. N. Lee (2008) Joo Ha (2005),. Kong Min (2011) Y. H. Park (2005).,.,,.,,,,.,.,., 6,..,,..,..,,.,,.,, 3..,,. Note This article was presented as a poster at the 2015 Annual Spring Conference of the Korean Association of Child Studies. Conflict of Interest No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.
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