2 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

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1 GLOBAL SW EDUCATION FORUM 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop 09:00~18:00 컨퍼런스룸 #307A 주최 주관

2 2 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

3 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop 초등세션 Elementary School Session 표준기반컴퓨터과학교육초등과정 Standards-Based Elementary Computer Science Education 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 3

4 Bryan Twarek 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 교육과정 / 인증팀장 Curriculum & Certification Team Lead, Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) 샌프란시스코통합교육구교육과정관리담당 샌프란시스코통합교육구컴퓨터과학담당 샌프란시스코통합교육구교육기술콘텐츠전문가 미국뷰캐넌 YMCA 제로로보틱스여름캠프캠프장 Program Administrator, San Francisco Unified School District Computer Science Coordinator, San Francisco Unified School District Educational Technology Content Specialist, San Francisco Unified School District Camp Leader, Buchanan YMCA Zero Robotics Summer Program 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍초등세션에서는미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 의초중고 (K-12) 표준과초등학교교실에서그표준을어떻게활용할수있는지배울수있다. 본워크숍에서는모든표준을다루되, 5개의주요과정중하나인알고리즘과프로그래밍은더심도있게다룰예정이다. 표준에명시되어있듯이, 더나은교습의과정과결과를도출하기위해컴퓨터를이용한실습과컴퓨터를이용하지않는실습을직접체험할될것이며다양한활동을통해주요교육전략과표준과의연계성에대해알아볼것이다. Participants will learn about the Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) K-12 standards and how to use them to guide instruction in an elementary school classroom. We will preview all standards but focus on one of five main concept areas, algorithms and programming. Participants will engage in hands-on learning both on and off the computer to better understand the progression of learning outcomes defined in the standards. Through a variety of learning activities, participants will identify key pedagogical strategies and connections to standards. 4 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

5 표준기반컴퓨터과학교육초등과정 개요본실습에서는, 컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 의초 중등컴퓨터과학표준과초등학교수업에서이를어떻게사용할수있는지에대해배우게될것이다. 주어진시간내에모든초등교육에서의컴퓨터과학표준을살펴볼예정이지만그중에서도다섯가지주요개념중하나인알고리즘과프로그래밍에보다주안점을두고학습할것이다. 참가자들은온 오프라인상의모델이되는학습활동에직접참여하며표준에서정의된학습이이루어지는과정에대한이해를높일수있게될것이다. 다양한활동을통해참가자들은핵심적인교육학적전략을이해하고표준과의연관성을살펴보는시간이될것이다. 목표 1. 모델활동을통해 CSTA K-12 표준과의연관성파악 2. 초등컴퓨터과학교육을위한교육학핵심전략설명 프로그램 시간활동자료 09:00-09:10 소개 page 1, 브라이언에대하여 (About Bryan) 프로젝트 09:10-09:30 CSTA 표준 pages 2-4, 2016 CSTA 표준 ( 초안 ) 09:30-09:50 알고리즘 : 샌드위치만들기 pages :50-10:30 로지의런타임 & 로봇 pages :30-10:50 카드컨디셔널 pages :50-11:05 휴식 11:05-11:30 짝프로그래밍 & 코드스튜디오 pages 14-15, Code Studio stage1 / stage2 11:30-12:05 스크래치를이용한창의컴퓨팅 page 16-19, Scratch 12:05-12:20 디버깅문제 page 20-22, Debugging stage1 / stage3 12:20-12:35 질의응답 12:35-1:00 마무리 page 24 Link to Agenda & Resources: tinyurl.com/gswefworkshop 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 5

6 CSTA 의초중등컴퓨터과학표준 CSTA 의초중등컴퓨터과학표준 ( 초안 ) 1 은컴퓨터과학커리큘럼에대한기초를제공하고, 초중등단계에서실현가능하도록설계된핵심학습목표를기술하고있다. 이와같은학습목표를달성함으로써학생들은새로운글로벌지식경제사회에서살아남기위한지식및기술을습득할수있게된다. 이를위해 CSTA 표준은다음과같이구성되었다. 초등학교입학단계의모든학생들을대상으로컴퓨터과학에대한기본개념소개 중등교육에서컴퓨터과학, 수학및과학졸업이수요건을충족할수있도록컴퓨터과학수업제공 관심이많은학생들이학교에서컴퓨터과학에대해보다심도있는학습을하고취업이나대학진학준비에도움이될수있도록중등교육에서추가적인컴퓨터과학수업개설 모든학생들, 특히소외계층학생들을위한충분한컴퓨터과학능력함양 표준은교사, 관리자및정책결정자들모두가이해할수있는수준으로제작되었다. 이는주교육부및교육청에가이드를제공하는내용으로, 컴퓨터과학분야에서어린이와청소년들을가르치기위한요구에맞게각주의교육부서및교육청별로커리큘럼을재구성할수있다. 이러한표준은대학진학혹은취업선택에관계없이모든학생들을대상으로컴퓨터과학의원리및방법론을제시하기위한것이다. 본표준가안은컴퓨터과학에대해세가지수준의가이드를제시한다.: 레벨 1: 유치원에서 5 학년 ( 교육과정전반에관련된지침 ) 레벨 1A: K-2 학년 레벨 1B: 3-5 학년 레벨 2: 6 학년 - 8 학년 ( 교육과정전반및개별지침 ) 레벨 3: 9 학년 - 12 학년 레벨 3A: 9-10 학년 : 고등학교졸업단계까지모든학생들이알아야하고, 할수있어야하는내용 ( 교육과정전반및개별지침 ) 레벨 3B: 학년 : 컴퓨터과학에대한심도있는연구에흥미를보이는학생들을위한학습진행과정 ( 개별지침 ) 1 CSTA K-12 CS 표준웹사이트 : 2 6 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

7 본표준은초중등컴퓨터과학의핵심개념 ( 학생들이알고이해해야하는것 ) 과활동 ( 학생들이수행할수있어야하는것 ) 을규정하는새롭고높은수준의비전이담긴 K-12 Computer Science Framework 2 에맞춰져있다. 표준에는 2,5,8 및 12 학년을마치는학생들을대상으로컴퓨터과학과관련된중요개념들을기술한내용을포함하고있다. 활동 (Practice) 학생들이수행할수있어야하는것 1. 폭넓은컴퓨팅문화조성하는것 2. 협업하는것 3. 컴퓨팅문제를인식하고정의하는것 4. 추상화기법을사용하고개발하는것 5. 컴퓨팅결과물을창작하는것 개념 (Concept) 학생들이알고이해해야하는것 1. 컴퓨팅시스템 2. 네트워크와인터넷 3. 데이터와분석 4. 알고리즘과프로그래밍 5. 컴퓨팅영향력 6. 실험하고개선하는것 7. 소통하는것 프레임워크는표준개발을이끌어내기위한일곱가지의핵심활동및다섯가지의핵심개념으로구성되어있다 ( 상기리스트참조 ). 프레임워크가학년별로폭넓게적용되는중요한가이드를제공하는반면, 표준은특정학년에대해학생성취기준을상세하게제시한다. 표준이구체적이고측정가능한반면에프레임워크의정의는보다상위수준의내용을다루고있다. 프레임워크는가장최근에개정된표준의구조와기반지식으로활용되었다. 모든 CSTA 표준은초중등컴퓨터과학프레임워크로부터나온개념과활동에맞춰져있다. 다음의예시를보면, 표준하나가개념하나와활동하나에맞춰져있음을알수있다. 활동 (Practice) + 개념 (Concept) = 표준 (Standard) 컴퓨팅결과물창작하기사회적이슈를설명하거나실용적인관심사혹은개인적인표현을위해컴퓨팅결과물창작하기 알고리즘.3-5. 컨트롤실행의흐름을명시하기위해사용되는반복문, 이벤트처리기및조건 1B-A-7-2 순차, 이벤트, 반복, 조건, 병렬및변수등을포함하는창의적표현혹은문제해결을위한프로그램구성 2 The K-12 Computer Science Framework is accessible at: 3 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 7

8 8 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop 4

9 알고리즘 알고리즘은과업수행을위한일련의지침혹은규칙을말한다. 예를들면당신은왼쪽으로돌아서 5 마일직진후오른쪽으로도는방법이학교에서집으로가는가장빠른지름길을알고있을지모른다. 이것을당신이선택한목적지에좀더빠르게도달할수있도록해주는알고리즘으로이해할수있다. 동일한목적을달성할수있는수많은알고리즘 ( 예 : 경로 ) 이존재한다 : 이경우, 학교등교길을생각해보면최단거리와지름길을결정하는 3 알고리즘 (GPS 장치또는앱과같은 ) 이존재한다. 샌드위치만들기미국의어린이들이가장좋아하는샌드위치는땅콩버터와젤리샌드위치이다. 샌드위치를만드는로봇에게명령을내린다고상상해보자. 땅콩버터젤리샌드위치를만들기위한알고리즘을어떻게작성할수있을까? 4 버전 1 버전 2 3 Adapted from Computing at School s Jumpstart Computing: Computational Thinking: 4 See a lesson plan for this activity at: 5 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 9

10 Standards Connection(s) Key Pedagogy 여러분의학생들에게이활동을어떻게적용하면좋을까요? 로지의런타임 & 로봇 이번시간에는여러분중절반은로지의런타임활동을먼저시작하고, 나머지절반은로봇활동을먼저시작할 것이다. 그리고나중에서로바꾸어서활동하게될것이다. 모든참가자가두활동모두참여하게된다. 목표 : 이번활동을통하여 K-5 학년학생들은다음과같은능력을키울수있게된다. 미로혹은퍼즐과같은문제를분석하고단계적코딩명령을사용함으로써문제의해결책을구상할수있다. 사람들이어떻게컴퓨터를제어하는지설명할수있다. 컴퓨터가수행할수있는언어로작성된명령으로서프로그램을정의할수있다. 프로그램을테스트하고, 에러를발견하고, 버그 를수정하는반복적과정을계속할수있다. 3-5 명이그룹으로활동을진행한다. 양쪽활동마다각각다음과같이역할을분담한다. Navigator(1-2) Driver(1) Debugger (1-2) 적절한순서를나타내도록카드를배치함으로써코드를기획한다 명령어시퀀스를로봇이나로봇개 ( 로지 ) 를움직이게하도록입력한다 프로그램내의에러 ( 버그 ) 를고치도록도와주거나찾아준다 한가지활동후에는서로역할을바꾸어본다 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

11 로지의런타임 5 개요 : 로지의런타임게임에서는로지라는이름을가진로봇개가뼈다귀를얻어서이것을개집으로가지고올수 있도록해야한다. 그렇지만로지는발을더럽혀서는안된다. 로지의코드카드를이용하여로지에게어떻게하면 뼈다귀를얻어서개집으로돌아올수있는지명령을내린다. 진흙웅덩이를뛰어넘어야한다는것을잊지말것! 규칙 : 로지는뼈다귀를얻은후에만그것을집어올릴수있다. 게임구역밖으로벗어나는방향으로점프를할수없다. 로지가개집에도달해야만게임이종료된다. 게임플레이게임방법 1. Navigator(s): 코드카드를순차적으로배열하여로지가해야할일을명령하는프로그램을구성한다. 이러한카드시퀀스는로지의프로그램이될것이다. 정확하게명령을따를경우프로그램은로지가게임매트상에웅덩이를넘어뼈다귀를물고개집으로다시돌아올수있도록지시할것이다. 2. Driver: 로지의역할을하며출발점에서기다리도록한다. 3. Navigator(s): 맨위첫번째명령으로카드더미로서매트를당신의프로그램으로가지고간다. 로지에게한번에한장의코드카드를넘겨준다. 로지는카드의명령을따른뒤다음카드를기다린다. 로지는프로그램을팀에게다시돌려주어야할경우를대비하여카드를순서대로보관할것이다. 로지는로봇이므로컴퓨터로이루어진뇌를가지고있음을기억할것. 이는로지가코드카드위의명령만을따를수있으며카드에서말한대로만수행할수있음을의미한다. 로지는모든지침을있는문자그대로수행하기위하여모든주의를기울여야한다. 4. Debugger(s): 로지가웅덩이를밟거나, 선밖으로벗어나거나뼈다귀가없는채로개집으로돌아온경우 Bug in the program( 프로그램에버그발생 ) 이라고이야기하고, 코드카드를회수하여네비게이터와함께필요한대로재정비를통해프로그램을수정한다 ( 디버그 ). 그후다시시도해본다 (3 단계반복 ). 5. Driver: 로지가웅덩이도밟지않고뼈다귀를가지고개집으로돌아온경우, 모든참가자가 Program successful( 프로그램성공 ) 이라고말한다. 5 Access lesson plans and materials for this activity, courtesy of Project Lead the Way, at: https://www2.pltw.org/pltwmicrosite/rosies-runtime. 7 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 11

12 게임내용 : 이름 행동 바로앞에있는지점으로이동. 앞쪽에지점이없는경우, 경로이탈 직진 그지점에서서왼쪽으로 4 분의 1 바퀴 ( 혹은 90 도 ) 회전 좌회전 그지점에서서오른쪽으로 4 분의 1 바퀴 ( 혹은 90 도 ) 회전 우회전 바로앞에있는지점을뛰어넘을것. 앞쪽에지점이없는경우혹은 뛰어넘기 뛰어넘어내딛을지점이없는경우, 경로이탈 지금서있는지점에뼈다귀타일이있으면집어들것 뼈다귀획득 8 12 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

13 바닥타일 : 이름 행동 로지는출발타일에서서첫번째명령을기다릴것 출발 로지는뼈다귀타일을집에들고개집으로가지고와야만한다 뼈다귀 진흙웅덩이타일은피해야만하는지점을의미 진흙웅덩이 로지가개집에도달 집 9 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 13

14 게임구성 : 로봇 우리는 Seymour Papert s robot turtles 과유사하게탐색을하는단순한로봇을사용하게될것이다. 그중에서도인기가있는버전은귀엽게생긴호박벌모양의 Bee-Bot 이다. 또다른버전으로는귀여운생쥐모양의 Code & Go Robot Mouse 가있다. 우리는비용이저렴하고기능도거의유사한 Code & Go Robot Mouse 를이용하게될것이다. 페퍼트와로봇거북이비봇 (Bee-Bot ) 코드 & 고로봇쥐 (Code & Go Robot Mouse) Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

15 게임방법 1. 디버거 ( 들 ): 콜비 ( 로봇쥐 ) 가탐험할미로설계및구축. 치즈는출발선에서멀리놓아둔다. 2. 네비게이터 ( 들 ): 코드카드를순차적으로배치하여콜비가미로를통과하여치즈를얻을수있도록 프로그램을구성한다. 3. 드라이버 : 버튼을눌러정해진순서대로명령어를제시하여콜비를프로그래밍한다. 4. 디버거 ( 들 ): 명령이제대로실행되는지프로그램을지목함으로써각명령을확인한다. 콜비가잘못된길로들어서거나, 트랙에서벗어나거나, 벽에가로막히게되는경우 프로그램버그 라고외치고에러가발생한지점을지목한다. 네비게이터와함께프로그램을수정한다 ( 디버그 ). 콜비를다시출발선에데려다놓고다시시작한다. ( 스텝 #3 부터되풀이 ). 5. 콜비가치즈를획득하면, 역할을바꾸어다시반복하여스텝 #1-4 까지실시한다. 11 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 15

16 ( 변형 ) 수학과의통합시도! 1. 트랙조각들을하나로조립하여큰직사각형혹은정사각형을만든다. 2. 숫자 2-12 까지사각형위에무작위로배치한다. 3. 주사위두개를굴린다. 4. 굴려서나온두개의숫자를더해서트랙위에합계숫자가위치한지점을찾는다. 5. 로봇이가장단거리를거쳐합계수가위치한지점에도달할수있도록프로그램을구성한다. 6. 역할을바꾸어반복한다. Standards Connection(s) Key Pedagogy 여러분의학생들에게이런활동을어떻게적용할수 있을까요? 다른과목들과어떻게연계할수있을까요? Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

17 카드로하는조건문 6 개요 : 조건문은특정조건혹은상황하에서만동작가능한명령문을말한다. 1. 밖에비가온다면, 나는우산이필요하다. 2. 신호등이빨간색인경우, 나는정지해야한다. 다른경우에는계속해서운전을한다. 지시사항 : 1. 파트너를찾는다. 각팀별로카드뭉치를나누어준다. 2. 첫번째알고리즘을읽고어떻게따를것인지의논한다. 3. 차례대로카드를뽑고, 알고리즘을따른다. 그결과대로점수를계산한다.. 4. 몇분후다른알고리즘으로전환하여다시스텝 #2-3 을반복한다. 5. 다시몇분후에, 시간이남아있는경우, 파트너와협력하여새로운게임을위한자신만의알고리즘카드를작성해본다. 종이위에이를적는다. 6. 스텝 #3 을반복한다. 필요한경우자신의알고리즘을수정한다. 알고리즘 #1 알고리즘 #2 6 Conditionals with Cards is a lesson created by Code.org, accessible at: https://code.org/files/conditionalshoc.pdf. 13 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 17

18 나만의알고리즘 ( 시간이있는경우 ) 학습확인아래의프로그램을살펴보자. 아래의단계는각팀이차례대로돌아가며컨디셔널게임을행하는과정을보여준다. 매번뽑힌카드별로어떻게진행되었는지유추해본다. 각단계마다점수를계산하여이를적는다. 3 라운드가끝난후에승리팀에동그라미표시를한다 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

19 Standards Connection(s) Key Pedagogy 여러분의학생들에게이런활동을어떻게적용하면좋을까요? 짝프로그래밍 7 드라이버 모니터, 키보드및마우스앞에앉는다. 컴퓨터의동작을제어한다. DO: 존중하는태도로임한다. DO: 임무에대해서이야기한다. DO: 지금무엇을하고있는지이야기한다. DO: 앞을내다보고제안을한다. DO: 자주역할을바꾼다. 네비게이터 드라이버를돕는다. 큰그림을그린다. 아이디어를제안한다. 질문에답변한다. DON T: 강압적인네비게이터가되어서는안된다. DON T: 드라이버의마우스 / 키보드를뺏어서는안된다. 7 Tips for pair programming were taken from Code.org s Pair Programming video, accessible at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgkahozfh2q. 15 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 19

20 코드스튜디오를활용한짝프로그래밍실습 8 방법 1. 파트너를정한다. 드라이버와네비게이터의역할을정한다. 2. 하나의컴퓨터만사용한다. 선택한임무를수행한다. Bee 와의컨디셔널게임 (Conditionals with Bee) 식물대좀비의미로컨디셔널게임 (Maze Conditionals with Plants vs. Zombies) ( 난이도가더높음 ) 3. 드라이버와네비게이터의역할을수행하면서단계를완성한다 단계완성후혹은 5-10 분이지난후에드라이버와네비게이터의역할을바꾼다. 5. 남은시간동안 3-4 단계를되풀이한다. 코드스튜디오언어설정 1. 언어설정변경을위해코드스튜디오의페이지하단에 영어 라고표시된부분을클릭한다. 2. 다양한언어선택옵션중원하는언어를선택한다. 3. 블록및지침등을포함한전체페이지가선택된언어로변경한다. Standards Connection(s) Key Pedagogy 여러분의학생들에게이런활동을어떻게적용하면좋을까요? 8 Code Studio is part of Code.org s elementary grades curriculum, which is accessible at: https://code.org/educate/curriculum/elementary-school Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

21 스크래치 (SCRATCH) 에대하여 초등컴퓨터과학교육과관련하여가장중요한학술적연구는 1970 년대와 80 년대시모어페퍼트 (Seymour Papert) 에의하여이루어졌다.MIT 미디어랩에서수행한그의연구는 Logo 프로그래밍언어의창조로이어졌으며이후에는 Scratch 라는블록기반프로그래밍언어를따르게했다. 스크래치는풍부한관련미디어를가지고있으며, 창의력촉진을위한우수한도구로사용되고있다. 9 페퍼트의연구내용에기반하여, 컴퓨터과학교구는쉽게접근이가능하도록저상구조로구축되었다. 천정은 높게설계하여학생들이제약없이멀리까지갈수있도록하였다. 넓은벽은다양한용도로활용될수있다. 스크래치를활용하여사용자는애니메이션, 게임, 예술작품, 과학실험및기타우리가상상하지못했던많은다양한결과물을만들어낼수있다. 또한 Windows connects to other subjects and High Ceilings few limitations Low Floors 다른과목이나개인적으로관심있는 다른분야와연계될수있도록 Wide Walls 한다. 스크래치는이와같은집이라는개념을실제교보재에적용한훌륭한예시가된다 See Creative Computing, a complete curriculum created by Professor Karen Brennan s ScratchEd lab at Harvard University. Download the student workbook and teacher guidebook at You can access a version of the same curriculum translated to Korean at: 17 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 21

22 주 : 어린학생들과수업하는경우 ( 유치원에서 2 학년 ), 스크래치주니어 (Scratch Jr.) 가보다적합하다. 11 스크래치 주니어의경우스크래치와동일한기능을구비하고있지만단순화된버전으로읽기능력이없어도사용이 가능하며태블릿 ( 크롬북도 ) 상에서만활용이가능하다. 스크래치언어설정 1. Scratch 에로그인하여 Create 를클릭한다. 2. Scratch 로고와 File 사이에지구모양을클릭한다. 3. 드롭다운박스에서언어를선택한다. 4. 블록과튜토리얼을포함한모든페이지의언어가설정된언어로변경될것이다. 스크래치를통한창의컴퓨팅 파트너와함께두가지활동중하나를완수한다 : 1. 단계적튜토리얼 2. 창의적애니메이션프로젝트 ( 이전에스크래치사용경험이있는경우 ) 옵션 #1: 튜토리얼튜토리얼은단계적으로스크래치인터페이스에익숙해지고기능을익히면서도몇가지창의적인활동도병행할수있는좋은방법중하나이다. 1. Scratch 를열고 Create 을클릭한다. ( 좌측상단 ). 2. 오른쪽위의표시를클릭하여튜토리얼창을연다. 3. 튜토리얼을선택한다. 처음시작으로는스크래치, 댄스파티, 이름으로애니메이션만들기및결승선까지경주등을추천한다. 4. 창에나타나는지시에따라프로젝트를완료한다. 원하는스프라이트, 배경혹은명령어등을선택하는등스스로창의적인결정을내리는것도얼마든지가능하다. 옵션 #2: 애니메이션프로젝트 ( 세부내용은 18 페이지참조 ) 1. Scratch 를열고 Create 를클릭한다. ( 좌측상단 ). 10 This house metaphor is explained in greater detail in Connected Code (2014) by Yasmin Kafai and Quinn Burke. 11 The Scratch Jr. team from Tufts University has created lessons and curriculum, which are accessible at: https://www.scratchjr.org/teach.html#curricula Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

23 2. 나만의애니메이션프로젝트를만든다. 짧은이야기, 농담을들려주거나좋아하는책이나영화의주요장면을재구성하거나혹은원하는어떤내용으로도구성할수있다. 기본요건 : 캐릭터와장소를나타낼수있도록스프라이트혹은배경을추가한다. 선택한스프라이트가말할수있도록한다. 선택한스프라이트가움직이고의상을갈아입을수있도록한다. CS 개념 이벤트 : 애니메이션을시작하기위해명확한이벤트사용 ( 녹색깃발 ). 초기화 : 애니메이션시작시에스프라이트, 의상및배경재설정. 루프 : 루프지침을위해서는반복 (repeat) 혹은영구 (forever) 명령어사용 힌트 : 모든블록은이벤트에첨부된다. ( 예 : 녹색깃발을클릭하면 ) 사건이순차적으로발생하도록하기위해서대기 (wait) 블록혹은방송 (broadcast) 블록을사용한다. 애니메이션시작시스프라이트초기화를위해특정장소에가도록한다. ( 예 : 녹색깃발클릭 ) 스프라이트를반복적으로움직이거나, 의상을갈아입거나 ( 시뮬레이션모션으로 ) 혹은음악재생을위해루프를사용할수있다. 채점기준 불충분 충분 훌륭함 (1 pt) (2 pts) (3 pts) 요건 프로젝트를완료하지못하거나프로젝트요건중절반이상을충족하지못함 대부분의프로젝트요건을충족혹은초과달성 모든프로젝트요건을충족혹은초과달성 이벤트 애니메이션을어떻게, 언제시작해야할지불분명. 애니메이션시작을위해이벤트 ( 예 : 녹색깃발 ) 를사용하였으나, 실행되지않음. 애니메이션시작을위해이벤트 ( 예 : 녹색깃발 ) 를사용하였으며. 모든것이예상대로실행 초기화 스프라이트초기화누락. 애니메이션이시작될시스프라이트의위치재설정 애니메이션이다시시작될때마다스프라이트위치를재설정하여초기화 모든스프라이트, 의상및배경을초기화하여매번애니메이션이시작될때마다재설정 누락. 되도록함 루프 명령어반복을위한루프사용없음 시도는하였으나프로그램상명령어반복을위한루프사용에완전하게성공하지못함. 프로그램상에서명령어반복을위한루프를효과적으로사용. 루프사용으로프로그램을 예상한대로실행되지못함. 더욱개선함 인내 도전과제를통해인내하지못하고너무 쉽게포기함. 스스로시도해보기전에 도움을구함 대부분의도전과제에인내심을발휘하며자원활용, 문제해결및필요한경우도움을프로젝트내용에대해열심히임함. 너무쉽게청하는등도전과제를통해인내심을발휘함. 도움을청하는경향이있음열심히임하고스스로도전함 19 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 23

24 학우가작성해주는피드백 피드백제공자 [ 레드 ] 잘안되거나개선이 [ 옐로우 ] 혼동되는부분이나다른 [ 그린 ] 매우잘진행되어 어려웠던부분은? 방식으로했으면싶었던부분은? 프로젝트에서가장좋았던 부분은? 피드백제공시다음을참고하시기바랍니다. 명확성 : 프로젝트가목표하는바가무엇인지이해할수있었나요? 특징 : 프로젝트는어떤특징을가지고있었나요? 프로젝트가예상대로잘수행되었나요? 흥미유발 : 얼마나프로젝트에참여하셨나요? 상호적이며독창적이고재미있고흥미가가는프로젝트라고생각하나요? Standards Connection(s) Key Pedagogy 여러분의학생들에게이런활동을어떻게적용하면 좋을까요? 다른과목과어떻게연계할수있을까요? See examples of interdisciplinary Scratch projects at: Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

25 디버깅작업 ( 시간이있는경우 ) 디버깅은프로그램의문제 ( 버그 ) 를찾아내어해결하는작업이다. 디버깅작업을구체적으로가르치고 13 학생들이직접디버깅을실습해볼수있도록하여자신들의 프로그램에서에러를발견하고수정할수있도록하는것이중요하다. 창의적컴퓨팅커리큘럼에서는처음 4 단원들과관련하여다섯가지디버깅활동이있다. 스크레치활용경험이많지않은경우 1 단원디버깅활동 (debugging activities from chapter 1) 을완성한다. 경험이많은경우 3 단원디버깅활동 (debugging activities from chapter 3) 을완성한다. Standards Connection(s) Key Pedagogy 여러분의학생들에게이런활동을어떻게적용하면좋을까요? 13 See tips for avoiding mistakes and debugging, from Code.org: https://goo.gl/xvvayj. 21 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 25

26 26 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop 22

27 23 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 27

28 되짚어보기 1. 본워크숍에서배운것중가장중요한내용은무엇인가? 인덱스카드에트위터포스팅길이정도로읽기쉽게내용을적는다. 본인이름은적지않는다. 2. 인덱스카드뒷면에는다섯개의박스를그린다. Write your takeaway (about 1-4 sentences) on the front side. 3. 음악이재생되는동안가능한빨리다른사람과카드를교환한다. 4. 음악이멈추면가지고있는카드를가지고파트너와함께중요한교훈을살펴본다.. a. 가까이에있는파트너를찾는다. 양쪽의카드를모두읽는다. b. 파트너와함께두가지가장중요한교훈을선정하고두개의카드간에 7 점을나누어배분한다. 3 점과 4 점, 5 점과 2 점, 1 점과 6 점혹은 0 점과 7 점등의방식으로배분이가능하며 0.5 점혹은기타소수점점수로는나눌수없다. c. 자신의카드에배정된점수를뒷면의박스중하나에기록한다 단계를몇번더되풀이한다. 6. 카드뒷면의다섯개의점수를합산하여카드위에합계점을기록한다. 7. 인간모양의막대그래프를만든다. 다른참가자들과함께가장낮은점수에서가장높은점수가기록된카드순으로순차적으로줄을선다. 높은점수를획득한교훈부터시작하여그룹전체와함께공유한다. 핵심용어 추상 : 하나의해결책이다양한문제에적용될수있도록구체적인차이점을뽑아냄 알고리즘 : 태스크를완수하기위한단계의목록 바이너리 : 두가지옵션만을가지고정보를나타내는방법 컨디셔널 : 특정조건혹은상황하에서만작동되는지시내용 데이터 : 프로그램의인풋혹은아웃풋이되는수치, 문자및기호 디버깅 : 프로그램에서문제점 ( 버그 ) 을찾아내어수정함 이벤트 : 어떤일이발생하도록하는행동 기능 : 쉽게반복적으로불러올수있는코드혹은 절차 의일부 초기화 : 변수및대상으로초기 ( 시작 ) 값으로재설정 루프 : 어떤일을계속반복하는것 프로그램 : 기계에의해수행가능한방식으로코드화된알고리즘, 코드 라고도불림 변수 : 정보에서변화할수있는부문 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

29 Standards-Based Elementary Computer Science Education DESCRIPTION In this hands-on workshop, participants will learn about the Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) K-12 standards and how to use them to guide instruction in an elementary school classroom. With limited time, we will preview all elementary standards but focus on algorithms and programming, one of five main concept areas. Participants will engage in model learning activities both on and off the computer to better understand the progression of learning outcomes defined in the standards. Through a variety of activities, participants will identify key pedagogical strategies and connections to standards. OBJECTIVES 1. Identify connections from model activities to CSTA K-12 standards. 2. Explain key pedagogical strategies for teaching elementary computer science. AGENDA Time Activity Resources 09:00-09:10 Introduction page 1, About Bryan project 09:10-09:30 CSTA Standards pages 2-4, 2016 interim CSTA standards 09:30-09:50 Algorithms: Sandwich Making pages :50-10:30 Rosie s Runtime & Robots pages :30-10:50 Card Conditionals pages :50-11:05 Break 11:05-11:30 Pair Programming & Code Studio pages 14-15, Code Studio stage1 / stage2 11:30-12:05 Creative Computing with Scratch page 16-19, Scratch 12:05-12:20 Debugging Challenges page 20-22, Debugging stage1 / stage3 12:20-12:35 Questions & Answers 12:35-1:00 Reflection & Close-out page 24 Link to Agenda & Resources: tinyurl.com/gswefworkshop 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 29

30 CSTA K-12 COMPUTER SCIENCE STANDARDS 1 The Interim CSTA K 12 Computer Science Standards delineate a core set of learning objectives designed to provide the foundation for a complete computer science curriculum and its implementation at the K 12 level. By meeting these learning objectives, students will have the knowledge and skills to enable them to thrive in this new global information economy. To this end, the CSTA Standards: Introduce the fundamental concepts of computer science to all students, beginning at the elementary school level. Present computer science at the secondary school level in a way that can fulfill a computer science, math, or science graduation credit. Encourage schools to offer additional secondary-level computer science courses that will allow interested students to study facets of computer science in more depth and prepare them for entry into the workforce or college. Increase the availability of rigorous computer science for all students, especially those who are members of underrepresented groups. These standards have been written to be coherent and comprehensible to teachers, administrators, and policy makers. They provide a guide within which state departments of education and school districts can revise their curricula to better address the need to educate young people in this important subject area. These standards are intended to introduce the principles and methodologies of computer science to all students, regardless of their eventual college or career pathway. These interim standards provide a three-level guide for computer science: Level 1 : kindergarten through 5th grade (cross-curricular instruction) Level 1A : grades K-2 Level 1B : grades 3-5 Level 2 : 6th through 8th grade (cross-curricular or discrete instruction) Level 3 : 9th through 12th grade Level 3A : grades 9-10: represents what all students should know and be able to do by the time they graduate high school (cross-curricular or discrete instruction) Level 3B : grades 11-12: represents the progression of learning for students who express an interest in further study of computer science (discrete instruction) 1 The CSTA K-12 CS Standards are accessible at: Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

31 2 The standards are aligned to the K-12 Computer Science Framework, a new, high-level vision that identifies the core concepts (what students should know or understand ) and practices (what students should be able to do ) of K-12 computer science. It includes statements that detail powerful ideas in computer science for students exiting grades 2, 5, 8, and 12. Practices what students should be able to do 1. Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture 2. Collaborating 3. Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems 4. Developing and Using Abstractions 5. Creating Computational Artifacts 6. Testing and Refining 7. Communicating Concepts what students should know or understand 1. Computing Systems 2. Networks and the Internet 3. Data and Analysis 4. Algorithms and Programming 5. Impacts of Computing The framework contains seven core practices and five core concepts (see the list above) to guide standards development. The framework provides overarching guidance per grade bands, while the standards provide detailed student performance expectations at particular grade levels. Standards are specific and measurable, while the framework statements are higher level. The framework was used as an input to and structure for the latest revision of the standards. All CSTA Standards are aligned to a concept and practice from the K-12 CS framework. Here is one example of one standard s alignment to a concept and practice: Practice Creating Computational Artifacts + Concept = Standard Algorithms.3-5.Control 1B-A-7-2 Create a computational artifact for practical intent, personal expression, or to address a societal issue. Control structures, including loops, event handlers, and conditionals, are used to specify the flow of execution. Construct programs, in order to solve a problem or for creative expression, that include sequencing, events, loops, conditionals, parallelism, and variables. 2 The K-12 Computer Science Framework is accessible at: 3 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 31

32 CSTA K-12 CS Standard Identifiers: 4 32 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

33 ALGORITHMS An algorithm is a sequence of instructions or a set of rules to accomplish a task. You probably know the fastest route from school to home, for example, turn left, drive for five miles, turn right. You can think of this as an algorithm a sequence of instructions to get you to your chosen destination. There are plenty of algorithms (i.e., routes) that will accomplish the same goal; in this case, there are even algorithms (such as in your GPS navigation device or app) 3 for determining the shortest or fastest route. SANDWICH MAKING A favorite sandwich among American children is peanut butter and jelly. Imagine you are giving instructions to a sandwich- making robot. How would you write an algorithm for making a 4 peanut butter and jelly sandwich? Version 1 Version 2 3 Adapted from Computing at School s Jumpstart Computing: Computational Thinking: 4 See a lesson plan for this activity at: 5 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 33

34 Standards Connection(s) Key Pedagogy How would you adapt this activity for your students? ROSIE S RUNTIME & ROBOTS During this time, half of the group will start with Rosie s Runtime, while the other half will start with robots. Then, we will switch. All participants should try both activities. Objectives: By the end of these activities, your K-5 students will be able to: Evaluate a problem, such as a maze or a puzzle, and design a solution by using step-by-step coding instructions. Explain how people control computers. Define a program as instructions written in a language that a computer can follow. Persevere through the cycle of testing a program, finding errors, and fixing bugs. You will work in groups of 3-5. For both activities, assign the following roles: Navigator (1-2) Driver (1) Debugger (1-2) plans the code by laying out cards to indicate the proper sequence inputs the sequence of commands into the robot, or plays the robotic dog (Rosie) finds and helps to fix errors (bugs) in the program Please switch roles after each activity Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

35 5 ROSIE S RUNTIME Overview: In the Rosie s Runtime game, Rosie the robotic dog wants to get her bones and bring them back to her doghouse, but she must not get her paws dirty! Use the Rosie code cards to make a program that tells Rosie how to get to her bones and then go to her doghouse. Remember to jump over mud puddles! Rules: Rosie must land on a bone before she can pick it up. Rosie cannot jump over a spot if doing so would take her off of the game grid. Rosie has to land on her doghouse to finish the game. Playing the Game 1. Navigator(s): Build a program by putting code cards in a sequence to tell Rosie the steps she should take. This sequence of cards will be known as Rosie s program. When followed exactly, the program will direct Rosie through the spots on the game mat so that she jumps over puddles, picks up her bones, and makes her way to her doghouse. 2. Driver: Play the part of Rosie and wait on the starting spot. 3. Navigator(s): Bring your program to the mat as a stack of cards with the first instruction on top. Hand Rosie one code card at a time. Rosie follows the instruction on the card and then waits for the next card. Rosie will keep the cards in order just in case she needs to give the program back to the team. Remember, Rosie is a robot, so she has a computer for a brain. That means she can only follow the commands on the code cards, and she will do exactly what the cards say. Rosie should be extra careful to take each instruction literally! 4. Debugger(s): If Rosie steps in a puddle, goes off the grid, or doesn t have both bones with her upon arriving at the doghouse, then say, Bug in the program! Fix (debug) the program by taking back the code cards and work with the navigator(s) to rearrange them as needed. Then, try again (repeat step 3). 5. Driver: When Rosie arrives at her doghouse with both of her bones and without having stepped in any puddles, then everyone says, Program successful! 5 Access lesson plans and materials for this activity, courtesy of Project Lead the Way, at: https://www2.pltw.org/pltw-microsite/rosies-runtime. 7 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 35

36 Game Pieces: Name Move Forward Action Step onto the spot directly in front of you. If there is no spot in front of you, fall off the path! Turn Left Stand in place and turn to the left 1 4 turn, or 90 degrees. Turn Right Stand in place and turn to the right 1 4 turn, or 90 degrees. Jump Over Jump over the spot directly in front of you. If there is no spot in front of you, or if there is no spot to land on, fall off the path! Take Bone If there is a bone tile on the spot on which you are standing, pick it up. Floor Tiles: Name Start Action Rosie stands on the Start tile and waits to receive her first instruction. Bone Rosie must pick up Bone tiles and carry them to her doghouse. Mud Puddles Mud Puddle tiles mark spots that must be avoided. Doghouse Rosie must step onto the Doghouse 8 36 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

37 Game Arrangement: ROBOTS We will be using simple robots that navigate similar to Seymour Papert s robot turtles. A popular version is the Bee-Bot, shaped like a friendly bumble bee. Another version is the Code & Go Robot Mouse, shaped like a cute mouse. We will be using the Code & Go Robot Mouse because they are significantly cheaper and are functionally very similar. Papert and his robot turtle Bee-Bot Code & Go Robot Mouse 9 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 37

38 Code & Go Robot Mouse Commands: Playing the Game 1. Debugger(s): Design and build the maze for Colby (the robot mouse) to navigate. Place the cheese away from the starting point. 2. Navigator(s): Build a program by putting code cards in a sequence to tell Colby the steps to take to navigate the maze and get to the cheese. 3. Driver: Program Colby, using button presses to input commands in a precise sequence. 4. Debugger(s): Track each command by pointing to the program cards as they are executed. If Colby goes the wrong way, off the track, or into a wall, then say, Bug in the program! and point to where the error occurred. Work with the navigator(s) to fix (debug) the program. Reset Colby back at the start. Then, try again (repeat step #3). 5. When Colby gets the cheese, switch roles and repeat steps # Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

39 (Variation) Try integrating with math! 1. Assemble the track pieces into a large square or rectangle. 2. Place numbers 2-12 on random squares. 3. Roll two dice. 4. Add the digits together, and find the sum on the track. 5. Program the robot to reach the sum, using the shortest route. 6. Switch and repeat. Standards Connection(s) Key Pedagogy How would you adapt these activities for your students? 6 How could you connect to other subjects? 6 For more ideas for teaching with floor robots (and to integrate with other subjects), view these resources: Bee-Bot YouTube Playlist ICT Learning Innovation Centre Bee-Bot Guide Bee-Bots Activity sample lessons from teachers in California 11 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 39

40 7 CONDITIONALS WITH CARDS Review: Conditionals are statements that only run under certain conditions or situations. 1. If it is raining outside, then I need an umbrella. 2. If the traffic light is red, then I need to stop. Else, I continue driving. Directions: 1. Find a partner. Each team should have a deck of cards. 2. Read the first algorithm and discuss how to follow it. 3. Take turns drawing cards and following the algorithm. Keep track of score. 4. After a few minutes, switch to a different algorithm and repeat steps # After a few more minutes, if you have time, collaborate with your partner to write your own algorithm for a new card game. Write it down on paper. 6. Repeat step #3. Adjust your algorithm as needed. Algorithm #1 Algorithm #2 7 Conditionals with Cards is a lesson created by Code.org, accessible at: https://code.org/files/conditionalshoc.pdf Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

41 Our Own Algorithm (if you have time) Check for Understanding Look at the program below. The steps below show each team taking turns to play the Conditionals Game. Try figure out what happens for each card draw. Write down the score during each round along the way. After three rounds, circle the winner. 13 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 41

42 Standards Connection(s) Key Pedagogy How would you adapt this activity for your students? 8 PAIR PROGRAMMING Driver sits in front of the monitor, keyboard, and mouse controls the actions of the computer Navigator helps the driver thinks about the BIG picture offers suggestions answers questions DO: Be respectful. DO: Talk about the work. DO: Explain what you are doing. DO: Think ahead and make suggestions. DO: Switch roles often. DON T: Be a bossy navigator. DON T: Grab the driver s mouse/keyboard. 8 Tips for pair programming were taken from Code.org s Pair Programming video, accessible at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgkahozfh2q Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

43 9 PRACTICE PAIR PROGRAMMING USING CODE STUDIO Directions 1. Find a partner. Assign roles as driver and navigator. 2. Use just one computer. Go to the set of challenges you select: Conditionals with Bee Maze Conditionals with Plants vs. Zombies (more challenging) 3. Complete the levels, while practicing your driver and navigator roles. 4. After 2 levels or 5-10 minutes, switch driver and navigator roles. 5. Repeat steps #3-4 for the remainder of the time. Translate Code Studio 1. On the bottom of any page in Code Studio, click on the box that says English to select a new language. 2. Select the language from the long pop-up list of options. 3. The entire page, including blocks and instructions, will appear in the target language. Standards Connection(s) Key Pedagogy How would you adapt this activity for your students? 9 Code Studio is part of Code.org s elementary grades curriculum, which is accessible at: https://code.org/educate/curriculum/elementary-school. 15 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 43

44 ABOUT SCRATCH The most significant academic research regarding elementary computer science education was conducted by Seymour Papert in the 1970s-80s. His work at the MIT Media Lab led to the creation of the Logo programming language and later inspired the block-based programming language called Scratch. Scratch is rich with relevant media and fosters creativity. 10 Based on Papert s work, CS instructional tools should have low floors to allow an easy entry point. They must have high ceilings so that students can go far and have few limitations. Wide walls allow for many different uses. Scratch allows users to create animations, games, artwork, science experiments, and things we haven t yet imagined. And, they also need windows, to allow for connections to other disciplines and areas of personal interest. Scratch is an excellent example of an instructional tool that 11 exemplifies this house metaphor. 10 See Creative Computing, a complete curriculum created by Professor Karen Brennan s ScratchEd lab at Harvard University. Download the student workbook and teacher guidebook at You can access a version of the same curriculum translated to Korean at: 11 This house metaphor is explained in greater detail in Connected Code (2014) by Yasmin Kafai and Quinn Burke Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

45 Note: If you are working with younger children (kindergarten to second grade), Scratch Jr. is a 12 more appropriate tool. It has many of the same features as Scratch, but it is simpler, does not require reading, and is only available on tablets (and Chromebooks). Translate Scratch 1. Log in to Scratch. Then click Create. 2. Between the Scratch logo and File, click on the globe: 3. Choose a language from the dropdown box. 4. Now, the entire page, including blocks and tutorials - are in the new language. CREATIVE COMPUTING WITH SCRATCH With a partner, complete one of two activities: 1. A step-by-step tutorial 2. A creative animation project (if you have some experience with Scratch) Option #1: Tutorial Tutorials are a great, scaffolded way to become familiar with the Scratch interface and learn its functionality, while still having the chance to make some creative choices. 1. Open Scratch, and click Create (top left). 2. Click the symbol in the upper right corner to open the tutorials window. 3. Select a tutorial. Suggestions are Getting Started with Scratch, Dance Party, Animate Your Name, and Race to the Finish. 4. Follow the directions in the window to complete a project. Feel free to make your own creative decisions; select the sprites, backgrounds, or commands that you like. Option #2: Animation Project (see page 18 for more details) 1. Open Scratch, and click Create (top left). 2. Create your own animation project. Your animation could tell a short story or joke, recreate part of a scene from a favorite book or movie, or something else of your choice. 12 The Scratch Jr. team from Tufts University has created lessons and curriculum, which are accessible at: https://www.scratchjr.org/teach.html#curricula. 17 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 45

46 Basic requirements: Add sprite(s) and background(s) to represent the characters and location. Make your sprite(s) speak. Make your sprite(s) move and/or change costumes. CS concepts: Event: Use a clear event (green flag) to start your animation. Initialization: Reset the your sprite(s), costumes, and background(s) when the animation is started. Loops: Use the repeat or forever block to loop instructions. Hints: All blocks need to be attached to events (e.g., when green flag is clicked). To make things happen in sequence, use the wait blocks or broadcast. To initialize sprites, make them go to a specific location when the animation starts (e.g., when green flag is clicked). You might want to use loops to repeatedly move sprites, change costumes (to simulation motion), or play music. Suggested Rubric for students Not Yet Satisfactory (1 pt) Require ments Events Initializ ation Loops Perseve rance Did not complete project, or met fewer than half of the project requirements. It is unclear how to start the animation. Did not initialize sprites. When the animation is started, the locations of sprites do not reset. Did not use a loop to repeat commands. Did not persevere through challenges, or gave up too easily. May have asked for help before trying by oneself. Satisfactory (2 pts) Met or exceeded most of the project requirements. Used event (e.g., green flag) to start the animation, but not everything works as expected. Initialized sprites to reset their locations each time the animation is restarted. Attempted to, but did not fully succeed, in using a loop to repeat commands in a program. It may not work as expected. Persevered through most challenges, and worked hard throughout most of project. May have asked for help too quickly. Outstanding (3 pts) Met or exceeded all of the project requirements. Used event (e.g., green flag) to start the animation. Works as expected. Initialized all sprites, costumes, and backgrounds so that they are reset each time the animation is started. Effectively used a loop to repeat commands within the program. Use of the loop enhances the program. Persevered through all challenges by utilizing resources, problem solving, and asking for support when necessary. Worked hard and challenged oneself Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

47 Suggested Peer Feedback Form FEEDBACK BY [RED] What is something that doesn t work or could be improved?! [YELLOW] What is something that is confusing or could be done differently?! [GREEN] What is something that works well or you really like about the project?! When giving feedback, it may be helpful to think about: Clarity: Did you understand what the project is supposed to do? Features: What features does the project have? Does the project work as expected? Appeal: How engaging is the project? Is it interactive, original, sophisticated, funny, or interesting? Standards Connection(s) Key Pedagogy How would you adapt these activities for your students? 13 How could you connect to other subjects? 13 See examples of interdisciplinary Scratch projects at: 19 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 47

48 DEBUGGING CHALLENGES (if time allows) Debugging is finding and fixing errors ( bugs ) in programs. 14 It is important to explicitly teach debugging challenges and to provide opportunities for students to practice debugging so that they are better able to find and fix errors in their own programs. In the Creative Computing curriculum, there are five debugging activities associated with the first four chapters. If you are less experienced with Scratch, complete the debugging activities from chapter 1. If you have more experience, complete the debugging activities from chapter 3. Standards Connection(s) Key Pedagogy How would you adapt this activity for your students? 14 See tips for avoiding mistakes and debugging, from Code.org: https://goo.gl/xvvayj Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

49 21 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 49

50 50 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop 22

51 REFLECTION 1. What is your most important learning from this session? Write your Tweet-length reflection legibly on an index card. Do not write your name. 2. On the backside of your index card, draw five boxes. 3. While the music plays, swap cards with others as quickly as possible. 4. When the music pauses, keep the card you have, and judge the takeaway with a partner. a. Find a nearby partner. Read both cards. b. With your partner, judge the two takeaways, and distribute 7 points between the two cards. You can give the cards 3 and 4 points, 5 and 2 points, 1 and 6 points, or 0 and 7 points. Do not award half or partial points. c. Write the number of points assigned to your card in one of the boxes on the backside. 5. Repeat steps #3-4 for four more rounds. 6. Add the five numbers on the backside and write the sum on the card. 7. Make a human histogram. Work with other participants to place the cards in sequence, from smallest number at one end to largest number at the other end. We will share the top-rated takeaways to the whole group. ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY abstraction: pulling out specific differences to make one solution work for multiple problems. algorithm : a list of steps to finish a task binary : a way of representing information using only two options conditionals : statements that only run under certain conditions or situations data : quantities, characters, or symbols that are the inputs and outputs of programs debugging : finding and fixing errors ( bugs ) in programs event : an action that causes something to happen function : a piece of code, or procedure, that you can easily call over and over again initialize : assign an initial (beginning) value to a variable or object loop : the action of doing something over and over again program : an algorithm that has been coded into something that can be run by a machine; also called code variable : a placeholder for a piece of information that can change 23 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 51

52 52 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

53 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop 중등세션 Secondary School Session 중등교실에서의표준과능동학습사용법 Using Standards and Active Learning in the Secondary Classroom 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 53

54 Tammy Pirmann 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 교육구대표 School District Representative, Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) 미국필라델피아템플대학교교수 National Center for Women & Information Technology 명예표창 The POGIL Project 명예표창 Springfield Township 교육구 K-12 컴퓨터과학교육과정조정자 Professor, Temple University Career Honors, National Center for Women & Informational Technology Career Honors, The POGIL Project K-12 CS Coordinator, Springfield Township School District 능동적학습을통해이끌어지는탐구수업과우수한프로세스기법 (process skills) 함양에주안점을두고, 학생들에의해완성된모의프로젝트의기획에서부터결과물까지를포함하는교수방법을설계 Designing instruction from the desired end product of authentic projects completed by students, through active learning, guided inquiry and an emphasis on good process skill development. 54 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

55 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) K-12 컴퓨터과학 (CS) 표준가안 2.0 TAMMY PIRMANN 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 표준이란무엇인가? 2 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 55

56 비 전 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 는컴퓨터과학교육목적과관련하여 K-12 CS 표준을마련하여발표하였다. 이표준은교사및교육행정담당자들이컴퓨터과학교육관련활동을설계및시행하는데있어서지침을제공하는역할을담당한다. 3 역 사 미국컴퓨터학회 (ACM) 와미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 는 2003 년 K-12 를위한시범커리큘럼을개발했다. 그리고 2006 년미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 는해당시범커리큘럼을개정했다. 시범커리큘럼은 2011 년표준화작업을거쳐 2016 년다시한번더수정되었다. 56 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

57 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 표준개정 1. 교사를위한, 교사에의한 ( 교사의경험을기반으로함 ) 2. 연구결과를바탕으로함 ( 학생발달과정에맞춤 ) 3. 대학진학및직업교육을고려함 4. 모든학생들을위한 참여의범위확대 5. 한단계더높은단계로의발전 ( 발달과정고려 ) 5 질문? 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 57

58 참여해주셔서감사합니다! 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) K-12 컴퓨터과학 (CS) 표준가안의 PDF 파일이필요하신분들은 CSTA 웹사이트를 방문해주시기바랍니다. 58 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

59 컴퓨터사이언스 - 스크레치 홀리데이에니메이션인사 - 개별프로젝트 프로젝트시작전에전체프로젝트시트를읽어주세요. 다음단계로진행전에교사의승인이필요하다는것을표시한다 동료들로부터피드백을받을필요가있다는것을표시한다. 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 59

60 CSTA 프로젝트표준 : 2-A-2-1: 프로그램개발혹은수정을위해필요한동료집단피드백을요청및통합 2-A-5-6: 개별적으로그리고협력을통해프로그램개발 [ 주의 : 이단계에서학생들은블록기반혹은텍스트기반 프로그래밍언어를사용할수있다. ] 2-A-5-7: 서로다른종류의데이터를나타내는변수를만들고그값을조작한다. 2-A-6-10: 개별적혹은협력에기반해문제해결을위해반복적인설계프로세스를이용한다 ( 예 : 문제정의, 아이디어 생성, 구축, 테스트및해결책개선 ). 2-A-7-3: 코드차용혹은생성시에적절한속성을제공한다. 60 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

61 Econ 활동 (EconActivity): 신용부도거래 신용부도거래란무엇이며, 이것이 금융위기에어떠한영향을미쳤는가? 모델 1: 주택소유보험 만약집이파손되는경우보험회사는주택소유주에게 $200,000 을지급할것이다. 비판적사고질문 1. 모델 1 에해당되는가족은매년보험회사에얼마를지불하는가? ( 지불금액은보험료 ) 2. 보험회사는위모델 1과동일한조건을가진 1000 가구의보험증서를보유하고있다 ($200,000 상당의주택과 $2000 상당의보험료 ). 그해에보험가입가구중 5개가구가파손되었다. 해당보험회사가위보험가입자들로부터그해벌어들인순수익 ( 순수익 = 수익 - 지출 ) 은얼마인가? 모델 2: 채권보험연금기금이한은행에 200억달러의채권을지급했으며, 이채권은 5년후에 300억달러의가치를가지게된다. 은행 A는 200억달러를투자했으며, 은행 A의계획은 5년후에연금기금측에게원금 200억달러와이자 100억달러를돌려주고이익도남기는것이다. 은행 A가투자에실패할경우를대비해연금기금은연간 10억달러의보험을은행 B로부터가입했다. 만약은행 A가채무불이행상태가되는경우은행 B가 200억달러를갚아야한다. 비판적사고질문 1. 모델 2의모든거래를고려해볼때, 만약은행 A가자신의의무를성공적으로수행하는경우연금기금이 5년후에가지게되는이익은얼마인가? 2. 만약은행 A가첫해에채무불이행상태가되고은행 B가책임지게되는경우연금기금측에게발생되는손해는얼마인가? 모델 3: 위험의전파 이와같은보험을판매하기위해서은행 B는연금기금에지급할수있는충분한자금을보유하고있거나혹은해당금액의지급을보장하는또다른보험에가입해야한다. 그런데사실상은행 B는그렇게큰자금을보유하고있지못해은행 C로부터보험에가입하게된다. 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 61

62 " 만약은행 B가연금기금측에게 200억달러를지급해야하는상황이발생된다면, 은행 C가 200억달러를지급해야한다. 이와같은보험에가입하기위해은행 B는은행 C측에게매년 8억달러의보험료를지불해야한다." 비판적사고질문 1. 모델 1 3 에서실선과점선을사용하는것과관련된의미는무엇인가? 2. 모델 C에서의은행 B와은행 C의관계를설명하기위한도표를그릴때실선과점선을사용한다. 3. 은행 C는 200억달러를지불할수있는충분한자금을보유하고있지못하다. 은행 C가은행 B에의해발생된리스크를어떻게해결할수있을지설명한다. 4. 은행 B 와은행 C 의관계를설명하는데은행 A 가언급되었는가? 5. 은행 C는리스크에결부되어있는은행 A의존재를알지못한다. 그런데우연하게도은행 A를은행 B와관련된리스크를책임질보험회사로선택하게되었다. 모델 3에내포되어있는이와같은리스크관계설명을위해화살표를추가한다. 6. 은행 A 가파산하는경우다음과같은각각의당사자들에게발생되는영향을설명한다. 연금기금 : 은행 A: 은행 B: 은행 C: 62 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

63 과정기술 개인기술 학습진행상황을스스로평가 ( 예 : 컨셉, 테크닉및스킬 ) 동료들의평가수용 비판적사고 시각화 유사성개발 유사성 / 차이점발견 요약 규칙정의 결론도출 커뮤니케이션 생각표현 문법에맞는문장으로컨셉, 정의및설명을표현 활동을수행하는동안아이디어를그룹구성원들에게설명 목적정의 바꾸어말하기 자기자신만의언어로컨셉개발 기술적인세부사항을기반으로작문 과학적으로올바른언어를사용해컨셉, 정의및설명표현. 그룹토론시기여 관리 관리시간 자원을효율적으로사용 인적및물적자원모두포함 정보처리 관찰 / 인식 듣기 예측 읽기 그래프 / 모델해석 문제해결 고집 / 위험감수 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 63

64 핵심사안식별 가정식별 보유지식적용 내용이해 팀워크 모든사람들의의견존중 이해의공유형성 타협 / 협력 동의구축 아이디어공유 모든그룹구성원포함 64 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

65 조력자 업무분장 : 그룹이신속하게시작해활동이진행되는동안집중력을잃지않도록한다. 사용하기좋은도구 / 구절 : 필요에따라자료를수집하고배포하는작업배정 계산기또는주요숫자검사기와같은역할배정 " 저는우리가모든준비를마쳤다고생각합니다. 이제시작해볼까요?" 시간관리에신경쓰기. 사용하기좋은도구 / 구절 : 시계를지속적으로보고있는다 그룹이계속활동을진행할수있게한다. 토론마감시간에대해그룹과의사소통 " 정해진시간내에활동을완료하기위해서우리는지금 에집중해야한다고생각합니다." " 이섹션에대한논의를시작하기전에 분이남았습니다. 이제끝마칠시간입니다." 그룹구성원들모두의목소리가반영될수있도록한다. 사용하기좋은도구 / 구절 : 그룹구성원의이름을부른다. 모은그룹구성원들이참여할수있도록보장한다. 그룹구성원들이돌아가면서활동에관한부분을읽게한다. ( 이름 ), 이것에대해어떻게생각하나요....? 저는당신의의견을듣고싶습니다, ( 이름 ). 대변인 업무분장 : 그룹의질문사항및설명에대해교사또는다른그룹과의사소통 ( 이런역할을담당하는그룹내유일한사람 ) 사용하기좋은도구 / 구절 : 저희그룹은 이어떻게 과관련되어있는지혼란스럽습니다. 저희그룹은숫자 이 라는합의에도달했습니다. 외부자원으로부터도움을받기전에모든그룹구성원들이질문에답변할수있는기회를가질수있도록보장한다. 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 65

66 사용하기좋은도구 / 구절 : 우리그룹구성원중에서 에대한답을알고있는사람이있나요? 선생님께질문하기전에, 우리그룹에서답변을내놓을수있는사람이있나요... 만약외부의도움을받아야하는상황이라면그룹구성원모두가어떤질문에대해그런도움을받아야할지전원동의하도록해야한다. 사용하기좋은도구 / 구절 : 여러분모두 에대해알아보는것에동의하나요? 필요한경우그룹이찾은결론을학급전원을대상으로설명한다. 사용하기좋은도구 / 구절 : 숫자 이라는정답을찾기위해우리그룹이사용한논리는... 품질관리 업무분장 : 합의구축과정을지도 ; 그룹전원이질문에대한답변에동의해야한다. 사용하기좋은도구 / 구절 : 우리모두숫자 에대한답변이 라는점에동의하나요? 방금말한것을다시설명해줄수있나요? 당신의답변 / 해답은온전히당신의설명 / 결론에기초하고있나요? 다른그룹에서온누군가에게그것을이해시킬수있나요? 모든개별답변에대해다음사항을보장 : 1) 적힌내용과일치, 2) 그룹구성원들의합의에기초, 그리고 3) 고품질. 사용하기좋은도구 / 구절 : 개별배포된종이에적힌답변을본다 ( 샘플링!). 모든그룹구성원들이양적문제를해결하는활동에참여했는가? 모든구성원들의답변이완벽한생각혹은설명을바탕으로가는가? 학급토론이후에정확하게수정될수있도록한다. 사용하기좋은도구 / 구절 : 모든그룹구성원들이자신들이무엇을학습했는지에대한질문에명확하게답변할수있는가? ( 이름 ) 당신이 ( 구성원이름 ) 의답변을들었을때, 차이점을발견할수있었나요? 66 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

67 프로세스분석 업무분장 : 보고서식을사용해학습과정과관련된그룹의행동과역학관계를관찰 사용하기좋은도구 / 구절 : 그룹구성원모두가참여했는가? 그룹구성원들은서로의의견에귀기울이고있는가? 모든그룹구성원들이참을성을가지고있으며서로존중하는가? 활동을위해수집된보고서식을작성한다. 활동이진행되는동안그룹활동의진행상황을정기적으로그룹구성원들에게보고한다. 사용하기좋은도구 / 구절 : 잠깐만쉬었다합니다. 우리가잘하고있는지에대한코멘트와더불어생산성을좀더향상시킬수있는방법에대해제안을받았습니다. 다음단계로넘어가기전에 ( 이름 ) 이진행상황을이해할수있도록기다려줍시다. 그룹이어떻게잘운영되었는지에대해전체학급을대상으로보고할수있는준비가되어있어야한다. 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 67

68 Searching in Hi Lo page 1 도입 시작시간 : 컴퓨터작업을실행할때에우리는종종특정아이템을검색해야한다. 컴퓨터과학자로서우리는수천혹은수백만의가치를가진매우큰집합을검색하는데특별히관심을가지고있다. 예를들어, 하버드대학도서관은대략 16,000,000 권의도서를보유하고있으며, 미국국회의사당도서관은약 2 천 2 백만권의도서와 100,000,000 건이넘는아이템을보유하고있다. 우리는여기서몇가지기본적인검색알고리즘을탐색하기위해간단한게임을사용할것이다. 이는우리로하여금보다일반적인알고리즘설계및분석컨셉을이해할수있도록돕는다. 효과적인검색테크닉은대부분의소프트웨어도서관의일부분에해당되므로우리들중실제로검색알고리즘을사용하게될사람이그렇게많지않다하더라도검색에관한연구는매우유용하다. 시작하기전에각멤버에게역할을할당하기위해아래서식을완성한다. 만약참여인원이 3 명인경우, 스피커 (Speaker) 와리플렉터 (Reflector) 를한사람으로한다. 팀날짜팀역할팀멤버품질관리 : 모든질문과답변을기록, 및팀원들과강사에게사본을배부대변인 : 다른팀과강사와대화조력자 : 시간을잘활용할수있도록하며모든팀원들이적절하게기여할수있도록도움프로세스분석가 : 어떻게팀이운영되는지그리고보다효과적인학습방법이무엇인지고민상기해야할사항 : 1. 팀이새로운섹션혹은질문을시작할때마다시간을적는다. 2. 모든사람들이읽고이해할수있도록깔끔하게기재한다. 68 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

69 Searching in Hi Lo page 2 I. (6 분 ) 하이 - 로게임 ( 하이 - 로 Game) 하이 - 로게임은학생들이즐겨하는숫자를연상하는간단한규칙을가진게임이다. 시작시간 : a. 두명의참여자가있다. A 와 B. b. 참여자 A 는 1 에서 100 까지숫자중에하나의숫자를생각한다. c. 참여자 B 는숫자를맞춘다. d. 참여자 A 는 " 너무높아 ", " 너무낮아 " 혹은 " 네가이겼어 " 라고답한다. e. 참여자 B 와 A 는참여자 B 가이길때까지 ( 혹은포기할때까지 ) 숫자를연상하고맞추는게임을계속한다. 1. (1 분 ) A 가할수있는답변의수는? 2. (1 분 ) 게임은언제끝나는가? 3. (2 분 ) 모든사람들이게임에대해잘이해할수있도록몇번게임을반복해본다. 4. (2 분 ) 선택적 : 규칙을명확히이해하기위해 3 가지방법을나열한다. 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 69

70 Searching in Hi Lo page 3 II. (12 분 ) 게임참여자전략 시작시간 : 하이-로게임 : 워크시트그리고하이-로게임 : 문서끝부분그래프. 묶어져있는페이지가있으며서로분리해서워크시트와그래프를보기편하게한다. 1. (3 분 ) 참여자 B 가숫자를맞추기위해사용할수있는 4-5 가지방법을설명한다. 간단하고영리한전략으로구성한다. - 컴퓨터과학에서는우리는이것을알고리즘이라한다. 예를들어, 한가지전략은 "1 부터시작해점점숫자를증가시키는것이다." 각각의전략에이름을붙이고하이-로게임워크시트의첫번째열에목록화한다. 계속하기전에강사와함께진행상황을검토한다. 2. (2 분 ) 얼마나신속하게정답을찾아내는가를기준으로각각의알고리즘을평가한다. 평가는 1~5 점을기준으로하며 1 은가장적은정답을맞춘경우이며, 5 는정답을가장많이맞춘경우로한다. 워크시트에서신속성이라고이름붙여진열에점수를적는다. 3. (2 분 ) 얼마나설명하기쉬운가를기준으로각각의알고리즘을평가한다. 평가는 1~5 점을기준으로하며 1 은가장쉬운경우이고, 5 는가장어려운경우이다. ( 게임을처음접한사람이게임에참여할수있도록알고리즘을설명해야한다고가정해본다 ) 워크시트에서쉬움이라고이름붙여진열에점수를적는다. 4. (1 분 ) 각알고리즘에대해하이-로게임의신속성과쉬움의값을표시한다 : 그래프 5. (3 분 ) 그래프를통해본것을포함해완벽한문장으로신속성과쉬움순위간의관계를설명한다. 계속하기전에강사와함께진행상황을검토한다 70 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

71 Searching in Hi Lo page 4 III. (10 분 ) 최악 & 평균의경우 시작시간 : 1. (3 분 ) 추측횟수를이용해알고리즘의속도를비교할수있다. 각알고리즘에대해이기기위해필요한추측횟수에대한최악의경우 ( 가장많은추측 ) 를결정한다. 최악이라고이름붙여진워크시트의열에숫자를넣는다. 2. (3 분 ) 각알고리즘에대해이기기위해필요한추측횟수에대한평균의경우 ( 일반적 ) 를결정한다. 평균이라고이름붙여진워크시트의열에숫자를넣는다. 최소추측의수는언제나 1 이라는점을상기한다. - 운이좋은경우. 힌트 : 최악과평균의경우사이에는일정한패턴이존재한다. 그러나그러한패턴이모든전략에적용되는것은아니다. 3. (2 분 ) 추측의횟수가알고리즘을비교하는좋은방법인이유 3 가지를목록으로작성한다. 계속하기전에강사와함께진행상황을검토한다 IV. (10 분 ) 대입값의크기가미치는영향 1. (3 분 ) 게임참여자가 1~1000 사이의숫자를선택했다고가정한다 (1~100 이아님 ). 각알고리즘에대해최악의경우및평균의경우에해당되는추측의횟수는얼마인가? 1K 최악 및 1K 평균 이라고이름붙여진워크시트의열에숫자를적는다. 시작시간 : 2. (4 분 ) 선택적 : 게임참여자가 1~ N 사이의숫자를선택했다고가정한다. ( 예를들어, N=100, N=1000, N=1,000,000 등 ) 각알고리즘에대해 N 을찾기위해필요한최악의경우및평균의경우에해당되는추측의횟수는얼마인가? N 최악 및 N 평균 이라고이름붙여진워크시트의열에숫자를적는다. ( 힌트 : 당신은이미 N=100 및 N=1000 의경우를경험했다. N 으로일반화하기전에다른값을대입해본다.) 3. (3 분 ) N 값을대입했을경우분석능력에대한장점과단점을설명한다. 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 71

72 Searching in Hi Lo page 5 응용 1. 팀회의록 (TMM) 공통설명 ( 별도의문서 ) 및지시문 ( 아래 ) 참고. 2. 개인적생각메모 (PRM) 공통설명참고 ( 별도의문서 ). 3. 각알고리즘을이용해게임을할수있는프로그램을적는다. 프로그램은추측하는횟수를계산해야하며, 게임이종료되면최종횟수를기재해야한다. 알고리즘을코드화하는데시간이얼마나걸리는지기록한다. 당신의 쉬움 평가와일치하는가? 각알고리즘을이용해게임을 5 회씩진행한다. 추측의횟수가당신의 신속성 평가와일치하는가? 팀회의록 (TMM): 지시문특정기준 평가 코멘트 I: 종합적으로합성된추측알고리즘. / 4 II: 종합적으로합성된순위및득과실. / 4 III: 종합적으로합성된최악 & 평균의경우. / 3 IV: 종합적으로합성된 N- 분석. / 3 공통기준 평가 코멘트 활동에대한요약으로시작 ; 질문요약으로마무리, 그리고필요한경우작업아이템목록 / 3 메커니즘및형식 : 작업은깔끔하고체계적으로이루어져야하며, 필요한모든정보를명백하게제공해야한다. 이에는팀원들의역할과시간데이터가포함된다. / 3 총 / Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

73 Searching in Hi Lo page ^N N^2 N log N N log N 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 73

74 목차도입... 오류! 책갈피가정의되어있지않습니다. I. (6 분 ) 하이-로게임... 2 II. (12 분 ) 게임참여자전략... 3 III. (10 분 ) 최악 & 평균의경우... 4 IV. (10 분 ) 대입값의크기가미치는영향... 4 응용... 오류! 책갈피가정의되어있지않습니다. 팀회의록 (TMM): 지시문... 5 조력자정보... 오류! 책갈피가정의되어있지않습니다. 조력자 정답...10 하이-로게임워크시트...12 하이-로게임 : 그래프...13 무작위숫자배분...14 조력자정보 학습목표 ( 내용및과정 ) 이활동을마친후학습자는반드시다음사항이가능해야한다 : 여러가지의간단한검색알고리즘의장단점설명. 복잡성과알고리즘의성능사이의득실관계설명 대입값 N 의함수로써간단한알고리즘의성능에접근이활동은학습자들의팀워크와비판적사고능력을향상시키는데도움이된다. 전제조건 ( 내용및과정 ) 활동을시작하기전에, 학습자는다음사항을갖추어야한다. POGIL 에대한경험 ( 유용하지만필요하지않음 ). 활동을수행하는데있어서프로그램을만들어본경험이필요한것은아니지만응용을위해필요함. 준비 1. 학생 2~3 명당활동프린트 1 장배부 ; 워크시트와그래프를각기다른종이에프린트 ( 앞뒷면으로프린트하면안됨 ) 2. 선택적 : 다른팀의작업을쉽게볼수있도록칠판, 포스터혹은프레젠테이션소프트웨어를통해워크시트제공 74 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

75 활동노트 만약학생들이 POGIL 에익숙하지않은경우, 3 인으로팀을구성하면된다 ( 리플렉터없이 ). 강사는활동을설명하는데 1~2 분사용. 팀워크가진행되는동안강사는진행과정을모니터링하기위해각팀을둘러보아야하며, 문제가있는 경우도와주어야한다. 그러나절대로핵심절인질문에대한답변을제공하거나확신을주어서는안된다. 보다자세한사항은다음을참고한다 : 또는 II. 게임참여자전략 o II.1. 리포트작성 : 알고리즘을설명한다. 다른사람들을위해표에요약한다. o II.4. 리포트작성 : rankings. 다른사람들을위해표에요약한다. o II.5. 작은강의 : 다른결과를도출시키는다른예시를들어설명. III. 최악 & 평균의경우 o III.1. 일부팀은임의적으로추측하는데한계에도달했을수있다. 모두 1-2 개의숫자를임의로적고, 칠판에목록화한다. 주의 : 중복 ; 최소및최대 ; 5, 10 의배수 ; 홀수 vs. 짝수 ; 등. ( 예시가필요한경우무작위숫자배분표를참고 ) o III.2. 리포트작성 : 최악및평균의경우의결과. 다른사람들을위해표에요약한다. IV. CS0/CS1 학생들의경우부분적으로조금어려움을겪을수있다. 해야할일 섹션 II 의끝부분에 Qs 를추가 득과실에대한다른예시 추측횟수 추측가능한값 값의수 값의총수? 평균 & 최악의경우 ( 오른쪽참고 ) 을보다잘이해할수있도록히스토그램만들기 , 평균및최대횟수에대해보다많은지침추가 3 12,37,62, 다음부분에섹션추가 : 검색에미치는영향 : 분류하기위해필요한노력, 득과실 응용, 자원및지시문추가 o 분석할수있는다른간단한알고리즘 요약섹션추가. o 2 N,N 2,N, 로그 N 을비교할수있는그래프보여주기 O() 표기법에섹션추가 ( 선택적 ). 뒷받침자원추가. 역사 클리프쿠스마울 (Clif Kussmaul) 이초안마련 가지활동으로분할 ( 검색및 O() 표기법 ), 개정 시험, 개정 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 75

76 개정 인도에서의경험을바탕으로개정 POGIL 프로젝트에의한검토및승인 76 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

77 강사 정답 I. (6 분 ) 하이 - 로게임 ( 하이 - 로 Game 1. 3 가지답변이가능 너무높다. 너무낮다. 네가이겼다. 2. 게임은 B 가이기거나혹은포기하는경우끝난다. II. (12 분 ) 게임참여자전략 1-4. 아래워크시트정답참고. 5. 일반적으로, 간단한알고리즘은느리며, 보다복잡한알고리즘은빠르다 III. (10 분 ) 최악 & 평균의경우 1. 스톱워치로시간을측정하는것이객관적이며정량적방법이지만다른요소들에의해영향을받을수있다. - 게임참여자의수학적사고력, 타이머의반응시간등 2-3. 아래워크시트키참고. 4. 추측횟수를측정하는것이보다좋은방법일수있다. 그이유는이방법은다른요소들에의해받는영향이더적기때문이다. IV. (10 분 ) 대입값의크기가미치는영향 1-2. 아래워크시트키참고. 3. 대입값 N 을기준으로성과를분석하는방법이가지는장단점. 장점 : 특정예로부터일반화단점 : 계산과논리가훨씬더어려움. 만약무작위추측에대한질문이있는경우, 각각의학생들이 1-2 개의수를무작위로적는다. 그리고나서이것을목록화해서전체학급의결과를표시한다. 전형적인결과 : 5 혹은 10 의배수는없으며, 짝수보다홀수가많음. 90 X 80 X 70 X X X 60 X 50 X X 40 XX X X X 30 X 20 X X 10 X X XX X X 0 XX XX XX 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 77

78 하이 - 로게임워크시트 정답 # 게임참여자알고리즘 A 1 부터위로숫자를센다 ( 혹은 100 부터시작해아래로센다 ) B 하이-로 피드백을무시하고무작위로숫자를추측한다. ( 추측을반복한다 ) C 하이-로 피드백을무시하고무작위로숫자를추측한다. 그러나추측을반복하지는않는다. D 10 단위로숫자를센다. 그리고 1 단위로내려온다. ( 다수의경우가존재가능 ) E 50 을추측하고 25 혹은 75, 그리고나서 12 혹은 38 혹은 62 혹은 88 최소및최대값을따라가며, 범위를반으로나눈다 II.1. 신속성 II.2. 쉬움 II.3. 프로드 (Prod) III.2. 최악 III.3. 평균 3, N N/ K 50 10K N N/ N N/2 IV.1. ik 최악 (30) IV.1. 1K 평균 55 (15) log 2 N log 2 N IV.3. N 최악 IV.3. N 평균 78 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

79 #A1BCDE하이 - 로게임워크시트 F정답을맞출때까지부터센다알고리즘이름신속성쉬움최악평균 1K 최악 1K 평균 N 최악 N 평균 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 79

80 하이 - 로게임 : 그래프 5 쉬움 ~ 어려움 신속성 가장낮은정답률 ~ 가장높은정답률 80 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

81 무작위숫자배분 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 81

82 자원 논의주제에대한수많은자원이존재한다. 컴퓨터과학교사연합 구글은 CS 퍼스트 (CS First) 라는컴퓨터과학및계산적사고에대한중학교학생들을위한프로그램을제공한다. 학생들이계산원리탐구를위한관심영역을선택할수있다. https://www.cs-first.com/ 타미피르만 (Tammy Pirmann) 은템플대학교 (Temple University) 교수로 3 기연속컴퓨터과학교사연합 (CSTA) 의임원으로활동하고있다. 현재는과학교사들에게동기를부여하는방법에대한논문을쓰기위해안식년을보내고있다. 그녀는능동학습 (active learning) 을실천하고있으며능동학습이학생들의학습결과에미치는영향에대한연구를수행하고있다. 클리프쿠스마울 (Clif Kussmaul) 은뮬렌버그대학교 (Muhlenberg College) 의부고수로재직중이며 POGIL 프로젝트의운영위원으로활동했다. (http://pogil.org) 그는엘레강스테크놀로지 (Elegance Technologies) 의 CTO 였으며네스트테크놀로지 (NeST Technologies) 에서일한바있다. 그는근거중심학습 (evidence-based learning) 분야및자유공개소스소프트웨어 (Free & Open Source Software: FOSS) ( 예 : 드루팔 (Drupal), 무들 (Moodle), 위키스 (wikis)) 에관심을가지고있다. 그는 CS-POGIL 프로젝트 (http://cspogil.org), 인트로씨에스 (IntroCS-POGIL) 프로젝트, 그리고오픈패스 (OpenPath) 프로젝트 (http://foss2serve.org) 의 PI 이다. 이프로젝트는교사와학생들이인도주의적 FOSS 에참여하도록돕는다. 그는미국과인도전역에걸친대학및고등학교교사들을위한다수의컨퍼런스 ( 예 : SIGCSE, SIGITE, CCSC, ASEE, T4E, AAC&U) 와행사에서 50 개이상의워크샵을주도했다. 그는 년풀브라이트- 네루 (Fulbright-Nehru) 학자로인도에서연구활동을수행했으며, 현재풀브라이트전문가프로그램 (http://www.cies.org/program/fulbright-specialistprogram) 에포함되어있다. 이프로그램은국제기구와의 2-6 주에걸친협력프로젝트에자금을지원해주고있다. 그는한국을방문하여자신의경험을공유하고다양한협력활동을전개해보고싶어한다. 82 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

83 2016 CSTA K-12 INTERIM CS STANDARDS 2.0 TAMMY PIRMANN WHAT ARE THE CSTA STANDARDS? 2 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 83

84 VISION The CSTA has created and published K-12 CS standards of computer science learning objectives. The standards serve as a guide to inform teachers and administrators in the design and implementation of CS activities. 3 HISTORY ACM and CSTA created a model curriculum for K-12 in 2003 CSTA revised the model curriculum in 2006 The model curriculum was rewritten as standards in and revised in Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

85 CSTA STANDARDS REVISION 1. For teachers, by teachers (grounded in teachers experiences) 2. Informed by research (aligned with student development) 3. Takes into account college and career readiness 4. For all students - broadening participation 5. A step towards something more (considers evolving landscape) 5 QUESTIONS? 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 85

86 THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION! Please visit the CSTA website for a PDF copy of the 2016 CSTA interim K-12 computer science standards. 86 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

87 Tammy Pirmann, CSTA, Board of Directors Computer Science Teachers Association is an international membership organization of teachers of computing, computer science and related subjects. Over 26,000 members overall, approximately 40% outside of the USA 58 members in the Republic of Korea (as of August 15, 2016) CSTeachers.org is the web address of CSTA The site provides resources and community connections for CS teachers (in English) 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 87

88 Standards in education serve a very similar role as standards in industry They help ensure a consistent product and provide a way to measure variations Academic standards in Computer Science help to focus the classroom on the commonly agreed upon knowledge and skills that comprise the foundation of computer science One way the teacher or school can use the standards is to design the instructional program for a grade or course Standards are written from an end of course viewpoint Student should be able to meet the standard by the end of the course, or year of instruction. 88 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

89 This book provides a framework for designing courses through Backward Design. Backward in this case means starting with the end in mind Teaching is a means to an end. Having a clear goal helps us educators to focus our planning and guide purposeful action toward the intended results. 1.Identify desired results a. Use the standards to help focus the course design process b. Use local priorities to choose the most important outcomes for the course - these are the enduring understandings that you want your students to still have 5 years after they leave your classroom c. Choose the skills and knowledge your students should master within the course. d. Determine which standards are worth being familiar with, but will not be of primary focus 2.Determine acceptable evidence a. The standards often provide a suggestion for assessment b. Big ideas should be assessed several times to measure growth 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 89

90 3.Plan learning experiences and instruction a. Design student learning activities and your instructional strategies b. Devise active and collaborative exercises that encourage students to struggle with new concepts in order to own them c. Students need opportunities to practice the skills you want them to learn Excerpted from Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching (https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub- A project is something you want to share! This is a good definition for students and parents. When developing a good project in computer science, there are several elements to consider: Relevance, time, complexity, intensity, connections, access, shareable, novelty 90 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

91 Is the project meaningful to the student? This happens when students are given the ability to choose the topic of their project. A personally meaningful project creates an investment and interest not often found in assigned work. Student choice in projects, not the ability to choose from a list, but the ability to create something of personal interest, develops creativity and passion for learning. Sufficient time must be provided for students to brainstorm, plan, execute, debug, change course, expand, and edit their projects. Class time is best used for portions of the project that rely on equal access to materials (programming environment, robots, other devices) and expertise (teacher, reference books, advanced students). Out of school time is best used for portions of the project that rely on introspection and reflection. 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 91

92 Good projects combine multiple subject areas of knowledge or even knowledge sets that are not typically taught in school. The individual students prior knowledge and expertise should be brought in to the project. Insights and connections to big ideas are two of the results of an interestingly complex project for a student. Think about how intense children can be when mastering a video game, reading a book series, or memorizing Pokemon. Good projects tap into a child s ability to devote complete attention to something, to be intense. Intensity, or passion, is a favored attribute among employers...we should seek to cultivate it in children. 92 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

93 During the execution of a good project, students will connect with each other through collaboration They will connect multiple subject areas and powerful ideas to develop a more integrated view of knowledge Connecting to local experts and to remote experts through the Internet allows students to see themselves as effective participants in the community Students need access to both physical and digital materials while working on their projects. If the project involves physical materials, such as building blocks, robot parts, or craft supplies, sufficient quantities must be available to all students. Students need to be able to access digital materials, computers, software, testing platforms, and the Internet as needed during their project 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 93

94 An authentic audience is required! Student projects should be able to be shared as widely as possible or feasible. The classroom teacher should be part of the audience, but the audience for the project should be much wider. Share projects with the entire school, the community, or on the Internet when possible. Students should WANT to share their project! Allow students to develop novel project ideas and gently discourage tried and true repeats that do not develop creativity This means that each student project will be different, this is a good thing Students will be interested in the other projects developing around them and should have periodic opportunities to investigate others projects 94 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

95 Example project sheet provided This project is a mid course project in Scratch providing an assessment instrument for the teacher and a creative project for the student This particular project is an individual project, however, a later project in this course would be collaborative. Typically two students work together to produce one program. After assessments are developed, they are analyzed to determine what students need to learn in order to successfully complete the assessment. Learning activities are developed based on this analysis When assessing collaboration and creativity, students must engage in these practices during learning activities, not just in assessments. Learning activities focus on specific tiers of the Bloom s Revised Taxonomy. Students should move up the tiers as they prepare for the creativity of the project. 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 95

96 Active learning is almost anything that is not passively listening to a lecture. In an active learning classroom students are talking about the subject, relating it to real life, writing about it and applying it to current events. Students become part of an engaged community, leading and contributing, this leads to ownership of their education. Active learning addresses the higher levels of Bloom s Taxonomy 96 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

97 Guided inquiry Open inquiry Peer-led instruction Project based learning And many other strategies that involve students as active agents in their education. Please take a short break and when you return, sit in groups of 3 or 4, preferably with people you do not already know. 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 97

98 Computer Science - Scratch Holiday Animated Greeting - Individual Project Please read the entire project sheet before starting to work on your project. indicates that you need teacher approval before moving on indicates that you need to get feedback from peers 98 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

99 CSTA Standards met in this project: 2-A-2-1: Solicit and integrate peer feedback as appropriate to develop or refine a program. 2-A-5-6: Develop programs, both independently and collaboratively, that include sequences with nested loops and multiple branches. [Clarification: At this level, students may use blockbased and/or text-based programming languages.] 2-A-5-7: Create variables that represent different types of data and manipulate their values. 2-A-6-10: Use an iterative design process (e.g., define the problem, generate ideas, build, test, and improve solutions) to solve problems, both independently and collaboratively. 2-A-7-3: Provide proper attribution when code is borrowed or built upon. 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 99

100 100 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

101 Introduction to POGIL: The Fundamentals Welcome! Please sit in groups of three or four, with people you do not know, and make the groups as heterogeneous as possible. Facilitator(s) Tammy Pirmann Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Introduction to POGIL: The Fundamentals The Facilitation Team Tammy Pirmann Temple University, CS Faculty School District of Springfield Township, K-12 Coordinator of Computer Science and Business 2 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 101

102 Objectives and Outcomes After attending this session, participants will be able to: Name crucial elements of POGIL pedagogy and philosophy List desirable student learning outcomes from a POGIL classroom Create strategies to begin implementing POGIL in their classrooms 3 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project The POGIL Project Launched by sequential National Science Foundation ( ) and other grants Based on curricular work done by a variety of like-minded people in the mid-1990s Became a not-for-profit organization in 2010 The mission of The POGIL Project is to connect and support educators from all disciplines interested in implementing, improving, and studying student-centered pedagogies and learning environments. 4 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 102 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

103 The POGIL Project The POGIL Project is run by: A Board of Directors A Director (Rick Moog, Franklin & Marshall College) A Steering Committee of experienced practitioners (eight college and high school faculty) Eight part-time and full-time staff in the POGIL National Office (Lancaster, PA) 5 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project The POGIL Project Offers faculty development More than 20 workshops each year for high school and college faculty Institutes for workshop facilitators Actively involves almost 1,000 individuals each year Workshop attendees, workshop facilitators, curriculum developers Has touched thousands of people More than 1,000 people are implementing POGIL pedagogy across multiple disciplines 6 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 103

104 A POGIL Classroom Experience 7 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Comprehension Question Assume that in Model 2 the Pension Fund purchases insurance for $2 billion per year from Bank B. In this case, how much profit or loss will the pension fund have made at the end of five years, assuming that Bank A fulfills its obligation? $10 billion profit $5 billion profit $2.5 billion profit $0 profit $10 billion loss 8 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 104 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

105 Whole Class Discussion Incorporate reporting out of answers in a POGIL classroom 9 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Reflector s Report Reflectors, report to your group: One strength of the group and why it is important for an effective group One area of improvement for the group and a possible way to make it 10 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 105

106 Sharing Your Reflector s Report 11 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Student Outcomes Other than content knowledge, what might your students gain from this type of learning environment? Individually: Group: Presenters report out 12 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 106 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

107 What is POGIL? Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning 13 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project What is POGIL? Process Oriented (Cooperative Learning): Develop Key Process Skills Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning 14 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 107

108 Process Skills Information Processing Critical Thinking Problem Solving Communication Teamwork Management Assessment 15 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project What is POGIL? Guided Inquiry (Constructivism): Learning Cycle Activities Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning 16 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 108 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

109 Learning Cycle Activities 17 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project What is POGIL? Process Oriented (Cooperative Learning): Develop Key Process Skills Guided Inquiry (Constructivism): Learning Cycle Activities Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning 18 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 109

110 Information Johnstone, A.H. (1997). Chemistry Teaching- Science or Alchemy? Journal of Chemical Education, 74, Gazzaniga, M. S., Ivry, R. B., & Mangun, G. R. (2008). Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind (3rd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Constructivist Model of Learning Learning is not the transfer of material from the head of the teacher to the head of the learner intact, [but] the reconstruction of material in the mind of the learner. It is an idiosyncratic reconstruction of what the learner... thinks she understands, tempered by existing knowledge, beliefs, biases, and misunderstandings. Johnstone, A.H. (1997). Chemistry Teaching Science or Alchemy? J. Chem. Educ., 74, Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 110 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

111 New Paradigm Knowledge results only through active participation in its construction. Students teach each other and they teach the instructor by revealing their understanding of the subject. Teachers learn by this process... by steadily accumulating a body of knowledge about the practice of teaching. Teaching is enabling. Knowledge is understanding. Learning is active construction of subject matter. Elmore, R. F. (1991). Foreword. In C.R. Christensen, D.A. Garvin, & A. Sweet (Eds.), Education for Judgment (pp. ix xi). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 21 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Guided Inquiry Approach Students work in groups Students construct knowledge Activities use the Learning Cycle paradigm Students teach, discuss and learn from other students Instructors facilitate learning 22 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 111

112 Analysis of Student Outcomes Data on the use of POGIL in a variety of academic settings 23 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project General Chemistry at Franklin & Marshall College Lecture : F1990 S1994: n = 420 POGIL: F1994 S1998: n = 485 Sections of approximately 24 students Same instructors Students randomly placed Fall semester and designate preference Spring semester (but not guaranteed to get their choice) Compare course grades (ABC s vs. DFW s) 24 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 112 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

113 General Chemistry at Franklin & Marshall College Data from classrooms of Moog, Farrell, and Spencer Farrell, J.J., Moog, R.S., & Spencer, J.N. (1999). A Guided Inquiry Chemistry Course. J. Chem. Educ., 76, Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Organic Chemistry at a Regional Liberal Arts College Two sections--one lecture style, one POGIL--taught at the same time Students randomly placed in sections Common exams prepared and graded by both instructors Compare course grades (ABC s vs. DFW s) 26 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 113

114 Organic Chemistry at a Regional Liberal Arts College Randomized enrollment, different instructors, single exam given concurrently, prepared and graded by both instructors 27 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Anatomy & Physiology at King College (TN) Spring 2008 lecture Fall 2008, Spring 2009, Fall semesters of POGIL (50% of lectures replaced with POGIL activities) Same instructor Compare course grade (AB s vs. DF s) and final exam grade distributions 28 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 114 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

115 Anatomy & Physiology at King College (TN) A/B s vs. D/F s Final Exam grades POGIL LECTURE Brown, P.J.P (2010) Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning in an Introductory Anatomy and Physiology Course with a Diverse Student Population. Advances in Physiology Education, 34, Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Organic Chemistry 1 at a Large Public University Two sections--one lecture, one POGIL--taught at the same time Students randomly placed in sections Compare withdrawal rate and common exam scores Final exam created solely by lecture instructor and administered to both groups 30 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 115

116 Organic Chemistry 1 at a Large Public University 31 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Year-Long General Chemistry at a Small Liberal Arts College 1993 ACS general chemistry final exam, approximately 40 students Previous 10 years Average percentage correct = 55.5 Highest average = 65.2 (2001) Lowest average = 47.0 (2003) POGIL class average percentage correct = 68.5 (2004) 32 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 116 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

117 Comparison of common exam scores: PLGI Group with Control Group (taught by same instructor) Control Group Three one-hour lectures/week Capped at 190 students Peer-Led Guided Inquiry at a Large Research University PLGI Group Two one-hour lectures/week Lewis, S.E., & Lewis, J.E. (2005). Departing from Lectures: An Evaluation of a Peer-Led Guided Inquiry Alternative. J. Chem. Educ. 82: One PLGI session/week 33 Capped at 100 students Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Peer-Led Guided Inquiry at a Large Research University Students work on POGIL chemistry activities in groups of four Student group work is typically led by an undergraduate peer leader who: Successfully completed general chemistry Received training on how to lead groups in a guided inquiry style Students and peer leaders review concepts via faculty-led guided inquiry 34 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 117

118 Peer-Led Guided Inquiry Intervention Results Comparison of Average Test Scores Average Test Score 35 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Organic Chemistry 2 Pre-Quiz at a Large Public University Classes of about 250 Unannounced quiz given on first day of Organic 2 (written by a non-pogil instructor) Students had taken Organic 1 With lecture (two different instructors) With POGIL 36 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 118 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

119 Organic Chemistry 2 Pre-Quiz at a Large Public University Organic 2 Pre-quiz Results (Lecture vs. POGIL Organic 1) Ruder, S.M., & Hunnicutt, S.S. (2008). POGIL in Chemistry Courses at a Large Urban University: A Case Study. In R.S. Moog, & J.N. Spencer (Eds.), Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning: ACS Symposium Series 994 (pp ). Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. 37 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Organic Chemistry 2 at a Midwest Liberal Arts College Comparison of grades in a single section of Organic 2 taught with lecture style Some students took POGIL Organic 1 Some students took lecture Organic 1 Some students from each cohort did not enroll in Organic 2 Compare grade distributions 38 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 119

120 Organic Chemistry 2 at a Midwest Liberal Arts College Is Guided Inquiry Organic 1 better preparation for Organic 2 Lecture? Grade in Organic 2, Winter Quarter 39 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Undergraduate Biomechanics at Boise State University Upper division Biomechanics (in Kinesiology Dept.) Large diversity of STEM preparation Comparison of quizzes/tests and grades for lecture and POGIL Same instructor 40 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 120 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

121 Undergraduate Biomechanics: Boise State University S.R. Simonson & S. E. Shadle (2013). Implementing process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) in undergraduate biomechanics: lessons learned by a novice, J. STEM Educ. 14(1): Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Undergraduate Biomechanics: Boise State University S.R. Simonson & S. E. Shadle (2013). Implementing process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) in undergraduate biomechanics: lessons learned by a novice, J. STEM Educ. 14(1): Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 121

122 Questions? Take one minute to write down any questions that you have, then think about which question is most important to you. As a group, take three minutes to discuss your questions and come up with a list of up to three questions you would like to ask, in rank order of importance. Answers to many questions can be found at 43 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project Wrap Up 44 Copyright 2015 The POGIL Project 122 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

123 EconActivity: Credit-Default Swaps What are Credit Default Swaps, and How Did They Contribute to the Banking Crisis? Model 1: Home Owner s Insurance If the house is destroyed the insurance company will pay the owners $200,000. $2000 per year $200,000 Value Owners $200,000 Insurance Company Critical Thinking Questions 1. How much does the family in Model 1 pay the insurance company each year? (This payment is the insurance premium.) 2. The insurance company holds policies for one thousand families identical to that in Model 1 (a $200,000 house and a $2000 premium). In a given year, five of these houses are destroyed. How much money does the insurance company net [net = $$ in $$ out ] that year from these policies? $1 billion per year $20 billion Pension Fund Manager $20 billion $30 billion 5 years later $$ Bank B Bank A Model 2: Bond Insurance Pension Fund gives Bank A $20 billion for a bond that will be worth $30 billion after five years. Bank A invests this $20 billion and plans to make enough in five years to give Pension Fund back its $20 billion plus the promised $10 billion in interest, and make a profit. To cover possible failure of Bank A, Pension Fund also purchases insurance for $1 billion/ year from Bank B. The terms of this insurance policy state that if Bank A defaults on the bond, Bank B will pay the fund $20 billion. Critical Thinking Questions 3. Considering all the transactions in Model 2, how much profit will Pension Fund have made at the end of five years assuming Bank A fulfills its obligation? Show your work. 4. How much does Pension Fund lose if Bank A defaults in the first year, but Bank B fulfills it obligation? Show your work. INTRODUCTION TO POGIL: THE FUNDAMENTALS Copyright 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 123

124 Model 3: Propagation of Risk Bank C Bank B Pension Fund Manager $1 billion per year $20 billion $20 billion $30 billion 5 years later $$ Bank A To take on this insurance policy, Bank B must either have money on hand to cover a large portion of a possible payout to Pension Fund, or purchased insurance to cover such a payout. Bank B does not have enough money so it purchases the following insurance policy from Bank C: In the event Bank B must pay Pension Fund $20 billion, Bank C agrees to pay Bank B $20 billion. In exchange for this coverage, Bank B agrees to pay Bank C $800 million/year. Critical Thinking Questions 5. In Models 1 3, what meaning is associated with the use of a solid versus dotted arrow? 6. Use solid and dotted arrows to diagram the various parts of such the arrangement between Banks B and C described in Model Bank C does not generally have enough capital on hand to cover a $20 billion payout. Describe how Bank C might cover its risk with respect to Bank B. 8. Is Bank A mentioned in the agreement between Banks B and C? 9. Bank C is blind to Bank A s involvement in this network of risk, and by coincidence chooses to use Bank A to insure its possible obligation to Bank B. Add arrows to Model 3 to represent this network of risk. 10. Describe the consequences of Bank A going bankrupt on each of the following: Pension Fund: Bank A: Bank B: Bank C: INTRODUCTION TO POGIL: THE FUNDAMENTALS ECONACTIVITY Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

125 Process Skills Personal Skills Judging own progress in learning (i.e. Concepts, techniques and skills) Accepting peer review Critical Thinking Visualizing Building analogies Identifying similarities / differences Summarizing Defining rules Drawing conclusions Communication Articulating an idea Expresses concepts, definitions and explanations in grammatically correct sentences Verbally expresses ideas to group members during activity Defining purpose Rephrasing Develop concept in own words Writing with technical detail Express concepts, definitions, and explanations using scientifically correct language. Contributions to group discussion Management Managing time Utilizing resources effectively both people and materials 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 125

126 Information Processing Observing / recognizing Listening Predicting Reading Interpreting graphs / models Problem Solving Persisting / taking risks Identifying key issues Identifying assumptions Applying prior knowledge Understanding context Teamwork Respecting everyone s opinions Forming shared understanding Compromising/Cooperating Building consensus Sharing ideas Including all group members 126 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

127 FACILITATOR Job Description: Make sure group starts quickly and remains focused during the entire activity. Good tools/phrases to use: Assign tasks for collecting and distributing materials as needed. Assign roles like calculator or significant figure checker. I think we have everything, are we ready to begin? Takes care of time management. Good tools/phrases to use: Keep an eye on the clock. Keep group moving forward. Communicate with group on discussion deadlines. I think we need to focus on now in order to complete this section of the activity on time. We have minutes before we need to be ready to discuss this section. Let s get this done. Make sure all voices in the group are heard. Good tools/phrases to use: Address group members by name. Ensure every group member contributes. Assign different members to read sections of activity on a rotating basis. (Name), what do you think about....? I would like to hear what you think, (name). 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 127

128 SPOKESPERSON Job Description: Communicates group questions and clarifications with the teacher or other groups. (This is the only group member designated to do so.) Good tools/phrases to use: Our group is confused about how relates to. Our group reached consensus that the answer to number was. Ensures all group members have had the opportunity to respond to the question before asking outside sources. Good tools/phrases to use: Does anyone in our group know the answer to? Before we ask the teacher, could someone in our group clarify the answer to... Ensures that everyone in the group agrees on what question to ask if an outside source is needed. Good tools/phrases to use: Does everyone agree we need to find out...? Presents conclusions of the group to the class, as requested. Good tools/phrases to use: The reasoning we used to answer number was Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

129 QUALITY CONTROL Job Description: Guides consensus-building process; group must agree on responses to questions. Good tools/phrases to use: Would you all agree that is an acceptable answer for question number? Could you please rephrase what you just said? Is your response/answer completely supported by your explanation/calculations? Would that response make sense to someone from another group? Verifies that ALL individual responses are: 1) consistent on paper, 2) reflect the group s consensus, and 3) are high quality. Good tools/phrases to use: Look at responses from individual papers (sampling!). Have all group members shown work on quantitative problems? Do all group members responses have complete thoughts or explanations? Ensures that accurate revisions happen after class discussions. Good tools/phrases to use: Can all group members respond correctly to a question about what you learned? (Name) when you read (name s) answer, do you see any differences? 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 129

130 PROCESS ANALYST Job Description: Observes group dynamics and behavior with respect to the learning process, using report format. Good tools/phrases to use: Is everyone in the group participating? Are group members listening carefully to each other? Are group members being patient and respectful of each other? Fill out the report form that may be collected for the activity. Reports to the group periodically during the activity on how the group performs. Good tools/phrases to use: Let s stop for a minute. I have a couple comments on what we are doing well and a suggestion on how we could be more productive. Let s wait for (name) to catch up before we move on. Be ready to report to the entire class about how well the group is operating 130 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

131 Searching in Hi-Lo page 1 Introduction start time: In computing, we often must search in a set for a particular item. As computer scientists, we are particularly interested in searching very large sets, with thousands or millions of values. For example, the Harvard University Library has roughly 16,000,000 volumes, and the US Library of Congress has roughly 22 million cataloged books, and over 100,000,000 total items. In this activity, we use a simple game to explore some basic searching algorithms. This will also help us explore more general concepts in algorithm design and analysis, so studying searching is useful even though very few of us may need to implement searching algorithms, since efficient techniques are part of most software libraries (APIs). Before you start, complete the form below to assign a role to each member. If you have 3 people, combine Speaker & Reflector. Team Team Roles Recorder: records all answers & questions, and provides copies to team & facilitator. Speaker: talks to facilitator and other teams. Date Team Member Manager: keeps track of time and makes sure everyone contributes appropriately. Reflector: considers how the team could work and learn more effectively. Reminders: 1. Note the time whenever your team starts a new section or question. 2. Write legibly & neatly so that everyone can read & understand your responses. 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 131

132 Searching in Hi-Lo page 2 I. (6 min) Hi-Lo Game Hi-Lo is a number guessing game with simple rules, played by school children. a. There are two players A and B. b. Player A thinks of a number from 1 to 100. c. Player B guesses a number. d. Player A responds with too high, too low, or you win. e. Players B and A continue to guess & respond until B wins (or gives up). start time: 1. (1 min) How many different responses can player A give? 2. (1 min) When does the game end? 3. (2 min) Play the game a few times to ensure that everyone understands the rules. 4. (2 min) Optional: List up to 3 ways to clarify the rules. 132 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

133 Searching in Hi-Lo page 3 II. (12 min) Player Strategies start time: Find the Hi-Lo Game: Worksheet and Hi-Lo Game: Graph near the end of this document. If you have pages stapled together, separate them so you can easily refer to the Worksheet and Graph. 1. (3 min) Describe 4-5 different strategies that Player B could use to guess numbers. Try to have a mixture of simple and clever strategies in computer science, we call these algorithms. For example, one strategy is Count upwards, starting from 1. Name each strategy and list it in the first column of the Hi-Lo Game: Worksheet. Before you continue, review progress with the facilitator. 2. (2 min) Evaluate each algorithm (strategy) with regard to how quickly it will find the right answer, by ranking from 1 (fewest guesses) to 5 (most guesses). Add the rankings to the worksheet in a column labeled Quick. 3. (2 min) Evaluate each algorithm with regard to how easy it is to describe or specify, by ranking from 1 (easiest) to 5 (hardest). (Suppose you had to explain each algorithm to a first-grader so that she could play the game.) Add the ranking to the worksheet in a column labeled Easy. 4. (1 min) For each algorithm, plot its Quick and Easy values on the Hi Lo Game: Graph. 5. (3 min) In complete sentences, describe the relationships between the Quick and Easy rankings, including what you see from the graph. Before you continue, review progress with the facilitator. 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 133

134 Searching in Hi-Lo page 4 III. (10 min) Worst & Average Case Performance start time: 1. (3 min) We could compare the algorithms speeds using the number of guesses. For each algorithm, determine the worst case (maximum) number of guesses required to win. Add the numbers to the worksheet in a column labeled Worst. 2. (3 min) For each algorithm, determine the average case (typical) number of guesses required to win. Add the numbers to the worksheet in a column labeled Average. Note that the minimum number of guesses is always 1 it s nice to be lucky. Hint: there is a pattern between worst and average cases, but it does not apply for all strategies. 3. (2 min) List 3 reasons why the number of guesses could be a better way to compare algorithms. Before you continue, review progress with the facilitator. start IV. (10 min) Effect of Input Size time: 1. (3 min) Assume that Player A chooses a number from 1 to 1000 (instead of 1 to 100). For each algorithm, what are the worst case & average case number of guesses? Add the numbers to the worksheet in columns labeled 1K Worst and 1K Average. 2. (4 min) Optional: Assume that Player A chooses a number from 1 to N. (For example, N=100, N=1000, N=1,000,000) For each algorithm, what are the worst case & average case number of guesses in terms of N? Add the expressions to the worksheet in columns labeled N Worst and N Average. (Hint: you ve already done N=100 and N=1000; consider other values before generalizing to N.) 3. (3 min) Describe the pros & cons of analyzing performance in terms of input size N. 134 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

135 Searching in Hi-Lo page 5 Applications 1. Team Meeting Minutes (TMM) see common description (separate doc) and rubric (below). 2. Personal Reflection Memo (PRM) see common description (separate doc). 3. Write a program (or set of programs) to play the game using each algorithm. The program should count the guesses and print the total when the game ends. Record how much time it takes to code each algorithm. Is this consistent with your Easy rating? Play the game 5 times with each algorithm. Is the guess count consistent with your Quick rating? Team Meeting Minutes (TMM): Rubric SPECIFIC CRITERIA RATING COMMENTS I: Comprehensively synthesizes guessing algorithms. / 4 II: Comprehensively synthesizes rankings & tradeoffs. / 4 III: Comprehensively synthesizes worst & average case performance. / 3 IV: Comprehensively synthesizes N-analysis. / 3 COMMON CRITERIA RATING COMMENTS Begins with a summary of the activity; ends with a summary of questions, and a list of action items, if needed. / 3 Mechanics & format: Work is neat, well organized, & clearly provides all required information, including team member roles & timing data. / 3 TOTAL / 20 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 135

136 Searching in Hi-Lo page ^N N^2 N log N N log N Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

137 Contents Introduction... 1 I. (6 min) Hi-Lo Game... 2 II. (12 min) Player Strategies... 3 III. (10 min) Worst & Average Case Performance... 4 IV. (10 min) Effect of Input Size... 4 Applications... 5 Team Meeting Minutes (TMM): Rubric... 5 Facilitator Information... 7 Facilitator Answer Key... 9 Hi-Lo Game Worksheet Hi-Lo Game: Graph Random Number Distribution Facilitator Information Learning Objectives (for content & process) After completing this activity, learners should be able to: Explain the pros & cons of various simple search algorithms. Explain common tradeoffs between the complexity and performance of algorithms. Assess the performance of simple algorithms as a function of their input size N. This activity should help learners develop teamwork and critical thinking skills. Prerequisites (for content & process) Before starting this activity, learners should have: Previous experience with POGIL (useful but not necessary). Programming experience is not required for the activity, but is for some applications. Preparation 1. Print 1 activity per 2-3 students; print worksheet and graph on separate pages (not 2-sided) 2. Optional: Provide the worksheet on the board, a poster, or in presentation software, so teams can see each others work easily. 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 137

138 Activity Notes If students are unfamiliar with POGIL, it may be simpler to have teams of 3 (no Reflector). The facilitator should spend a minute or two introducing the activity. While teams work, the facilitator should circulate among the teams to monitor progress and help with problems, but should try not to provide or confirm answers to key questions. For more information, see or II. Player Strategies o II.1. Report out: describe an algorithm. Summarize in table for class. o II.4. Report out: rankings. Summarize in table for class. o II.5. Mini-lecture: Invite or describe other examples where O() performance changes. III. Worst & Average Case o III.1. Some teams may get stuck on random guessing. Have everyone write down 1-2 random numbers, then list on board. Notice: duplicates; min & max; multiples of 5, 10; odd vs. even; etc. (see Random Number Distribution Table for example) o III.2. Report out: worst & average case results. Summarize in table for class. IV. Parts of this may be too complex for some CS0/CS1 students. Things to Do App Qs at end of section II other examples of tradeoffs? Build histograms to better understand average & worst case (see right) Add more guidance on mean & max counts Add sections on: implications for search: effort required to sort, tradeoffs. Add applications, resources, rubrics o other simple algorithms to analyze Add summary section. o show graphs to compare 2 N,N 2,N,logN Add (optional) section on O() notation. Add supporting resources. # of guesses possible values guessed # of values total # values , ,37,62, Activity History drafted by Clif Kussmaul split into 2 activities (search and O() notation), revised piloted, revised revised revised based on experiences in India reviewed and endorsed by The POGIL Project 138 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

139 Facilitator Answer Key I. (6 min) Hi-Lo Game 1. There are 3 possible answers too high, too low, you win. 2. The game ends when B wins or gives up. II. (12 min) Player Strategies 1-4. See worksheet answer key below. 5. In general, simple algorithms tend to be slower, and faster algorithms tend to be more complex. III. (10 min) Worst & Average Case Performance 1. Measuring time with a stopwatch is objective & quantifiable, but may be affected by other factors math aptitude of the person playing the game, reaction time of the timer See worksheet key below. 4. Number of guesses is a better measure because it depends less on other factors. IV. (10 min) Effect of Input Size 1-2. See worksheet key below. 3. Pros & cons of analyzing performance in terms of input size N. Pros: generalizes from specific examples Cons: more difficult calculations & logic. If teams have questions about random guessing, have each student write down 1-2 random numbers, then list or plot for entire class. Typical outcomes: no multiples of 10 or 5, more odds than evens 90 X 80 X 70 X X X 60 X 50 X X 40 XX X X X 30 X 20 X X 10 X X XX X X 0 XX XX XX 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 139

140 Hi-Lo Game Worksheet Answer Key # Player Algorithm A Count up from 1 (or down from 100) II.1. Quick II.2. Easy II.3. Prod III.2. Worst III.3. Avg IV.1. ik Worst IV.1. 1K Aver IV.3. N Worst IV.3. N Aver 3, N N/2 B C D Guess numbers at random, ignoring hi-lo feedback, without memory (repeat guesses possible) Guess numbers at random, ignoring hi-lo feedback, but don t repeat guesses Count up by 10s, then down by 1s (many variations) K 50 10K N N/ N N/ (30) 55 (15) E Guess 50, then 25 or 75, then 12 or 38 or 62 or 88 keep track of min & max possible values, divide range in half log2 N log2 N 140 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

141 Hi-Lo Game Worksheet # A B C D E F Algorithm Name Count up from 1 until answer found Quick Easy Worst Average 1K Worst 1K Average N Worst N Average 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 141

142 Hi-Lo Game: Graph 5 Easiest to Hardest Quick fewest guesses to most guesses 142 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

143 Random Number Distribution 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 143

144 Resources There are many resources available for the topics discussed. Computer Science Teachers Association Google offers a middle school program in Computer Science and computational thinking, called CS First. Students can choose an area of interest to explore computing principles. https://www.cs-first.com/ Tammy Pirmann ( ) is a Professor at Temple University, and has been a board member of Computer Science Teachers Association for three terms. She is currently on an educational sabbatical from the School District of Springfield Township to write her dissertation on what motivates teachers to teach computer science at the secondary level. She has embraced active learning and regularly conducts research on the effects of active learning on student academic outcomes. Clif Kussmaul is Associate Professor at Muhlenberg College, and was on the Steering Committee for The POGIL Project ( ). He is the former CTO of Elegance Technologies and worked at NeST Technologies. His interests include evidence-based learning and Free & Open Source Software (FOSS) (e.g. Drupal, Moodle, and wikis). He is the PI or co-pi for the CS-POGIL project ( ), the IntroCS-POGIL project, and the OpenPath project ( ), which prepares teachers and students to participate in Humanitarian FOSS. He has led over 50 workshops at conferences (e.g. SIGCSE, SIGITE, CCSC, ASEE, T4E, AAC&U) and multi-day events for college and high school teachers across the US and India. He was a Fulbright-Nehru Scholar in India, and is on the roster for the Fulbright Specialist Program ( ), which funds 2-6 week collaborations at international institutions. He is very interested in visiting Korea to share experiences and explore collaborations. 144 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

145 [INTERIM] CSTA K 12 COMPUTER SCIENCE STANDARDS REVISED 2016 CSTA STANDARDS TASK FORCE 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 145

146 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) The Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. (ACM) 2 Penn Plaza, Suite 701 New York, NY Copyright 2016 by the Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) and the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. (ACM). Permission to make digital or hard copies of portions of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee, provided that the copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Obtain permission to republish from Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) by submitting a written request to For other copying of articles that carry a code at the bottom of the first or last page, copying is permitted, provided that the per-copy fee indicated in the code is paid through the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA CSTA/ACM ISBN: # CSTA/ACM Order Number: # Cost: $7.00 US/$8.00 International Additional copies may be ordered prepaid from: CSTA Order Department Attn: CSTA Standards PO Box 767, Springfield, OR Phone: Fax: INTERIM DRAFT 146 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

147 CSTA STANDARDS REVISION TASK FORCE Leadership Deborah Seehorn Co-Chair, CSTA Board of Directors Past Chair, Retired North Carolina Department of Public Instruction Tammy Pirmann Co-Chair, CSTA Board of Directors School District Representative, Springfield Township, PA K 5 Team Todd Lash Grade Level Lead, K 5 Instructional Coach and Teaching Specialist for Computer Science and Computational Thinking Kenwood Elementary, IL Dylan Ryder Leticia Batista Vicky Sedgwick Intermediate Division Kindergarten Teacher K 8 Technology Teacher Educational Technologist Apple Distinguished Educator and Tech Trainer The School at Columbia McKinna Elementary, Oxnard, CA St. Martin's Episcopal School, CA University 6 8 Team Irene Lee Grade Level Lead, 6 8 Research Scientist MIT's Scheller Teacher Education Program/Education Arcade, MA Dianne O Grady-Cunniff Instructional Specialist for Computer Science and Technology Education Charles County Public Schools, MD Julia Bell Associate Professor of Computer Science Walters State Community College, TN 9 12 Team Bryan Twarek Computer Science Coordinator San Francisco Unified School District Daniel Moix Grade Level Lead, 9 12 Arkansas K 12 Computer Science Education Specialist Arkansas School for Mathematics, Sciences & Arts INTERIM DRAFT Lori Pollock Professor of Computer and Information Sciences University of Delaware Laura Blankenship Chair of Computer Science and Interim Dean of Academic Affairs The Baldwin School, PA Chinma Uche Computer Science and Math Teacher Greater Hartford Academy of Mathematics and Science and CREC's Academy of Aerospace and Engineering, CT 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 147

148 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The CSTA K 12 CS Standards Review Task Force Co-Chairs gratefully acknowledge the pioneers in K 12 computer science education who contributed to the revision of the CSTA K 12 CS Standards. The groups listed below graciously shared their time and expertise with the task force members, thereby providing inspiration and guidance as the revisions took place. We salute you for your dedication to K 12 computer science education and appreciate your collaborative spirit CSTA K 12 CS Standards Revision Task Force Members CSTA Membership Community Achieve Code.org K 12 CS Framework Florida Department of Education Maryland CS Matters Steering Committee Washington Department of Education and University of Washington CS Faculty Anthony Owen, Arkansas Department of Education Jim Stanton, MassCAN Volunteer Reviewers, including o Chris Stephenson o Deepa Muralidhar o Sheena Vaidyanathan o Debbie Carter We also wish to extend our heartfelt gratitude to Google, one of CSTA s most supportive partners. Thank you for providing us with the capacity to work on this important project. We are grateful for your contributions and support. DEDICATION The CSTA Standards Revision Task Force dedicates this revision of the CSTA K 12 Computer Science Standards to our friend and colleague, Karen Marie Putman. Karen was an ardent supporter of CSTA and the CSTA K 12 CS standards. She was a Computer Science teacher at the University of Chicago Laboratory School, where she had taught for 45 years. She was one of the earliest K 8 Computer Science educators, transitioning from teaching German to teaching Logo Programming. INTERIM DRAFT Karen enthusiastically joined the CSTA Standards Revision Task Force in early September She was serving as the K 5 Grade Level Lead on the task force at the time of her sudden and untimely death. We have lost a special CS educator who had much history and knowledge in the field of K 8 CS education. The task force members wish to dedicate these standards in memory of Karen, who would have loved to see the standards come to fruition. 148 Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

149 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 6 INTRODUCTION... 7 Purpose & Objectives Revision Process Implementation Challenges Conclusion INTERIM CSTA K 12 COMPUTER SCIENCE STANDARDS... 9 Level 1 (Grades K 5)... 9 Level 2 (Grades 6 8) Level 3A (Grades 9 10) Level 3B (Grades 11 12) APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY OF TERMS APPENDIX B: LEGEND FOR STANDARDS IDENTIFIERS INTERIM DRAFT 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 149

150 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Although the recent flurry of activity and exposure around computer science (CS) education has increased visibility in recent years, the general public, administration, and most legislators are not as well educated about CS as they should be, and a serious shortage of information about computer science exists at all levels and may continue into the foreseeable future. The [Interim] CSTA K 12 Computer Science Standards aim to help address these problems. They provide a guide within which state departments of education and school districts can revise their curricula to better address the need to educate young people in this important subject area. These interim standards provide a three-level guide for computer science. The first two levels are aimed at grades K 5 and 6 8, respectively. It is expected that the learning outcomes in Level 1 (K 5) will be addressed cross-curricularly, that is, in the context of other academic subjects. The learning outcomes in Level 2 (6 8) may be addressed either cross-curricularly or in discrete computer science courses. Level 3 is divided into two separate levels. Level 3A (9 10) represents what all students should know and be able to do by the time they graduate high school. Level 3B (11 12) represents the progression of learning for students who express an interest in further study of computer science. We believe that computational thinking is a problem solving methodology that expands the realm of computer science into all disciplines, providing a distinct means of analyzing and developing solutions to problems that can be solved computationally. With its focus on abstraction, automation, and analysis, computational thinking is a core element of the broader discipline of computer science and for that reason it is interwoven through these computer science standards at all levels of K 12 learning. These recommendations are not made in a vacuum. We understand the serious constraints under which school districts are operating and the uphill battle that computer science faces in the light of other priorities, as well as time and budget constraints. Many follow-up efforts are still needed, however, to sustain the momentum we hope these standards will generate. Teacher professional development, curriculum innovation, in-class testing, textbook and website development, and dissemination are but a few of the challenges. We hope these standards will serve as a catalyst for widespread discussions and the initiation of many projects that can take the evolution of K 12 computer science to the next level. We invite you to read the entire document, and then to take part in this discussion in a way that mutually benefits both you and the K 12 education community. More information about ongoing activities to support computer science education in K 12 can be found at INTERIM DRAFT Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

151 INTRODUCTION Purpose & Objectives The purpose of this document is to set forth, at all stages of their learning, the knowledge and skills that students must have to enable them to thrive in this new global information economy. It defines a set of national standards for K 12 computer science and suggests steps that will be needed to enable their wide implementation. It is intended to introduce the principles and methodologies of computer science to all students, whether they are college bound or career bound after high school. The interim standards outlined in this document address the entire K 12 range. They complement existing K 12 computer science and IT curricula where they are already established, especially the advanced placement (AP) computer science curricula (AP, 2010). Additionally, the standards complement existing curricula in other disciplines. The Interim K 12 CS Standards are intended to: 1. introduce the fundamental concepts of computer science to all students, beginning at the elementary school level; 2. present computer science at the secondary school level in a way that will be both accessible and worthy of a computer science credit, or, for the Level 3B courses, as a required graduation credit for math or science; 3. offer additional secondary-level computer science standards that will allow interested students to study facets of computer science in depth and prepare them for entry into a career or college; 4. increase the knowledge of computer science for all students, especially those who are members of underrepresented groups. Revision Process All drafts of this report have been informed by feedback from many sources; we hope that this interim draft will receive widespread dissemination and continued scrutiny from everyone who has interests or experience in K 12 computer science education. To that end, these standards are published online, along with feedback that has been actively sought from many professional organizations, curriculum experts, and community members. For more information on the process, please visit the CSTA website at We recognize that many of the recommendations in this report are ambitious but we believe that they are critical to ensuring that students achieve the necessary level of knowledge, skills, and experience. We offer this work as a comprehensive and coherent set of standards an ideal toward which many districts can evolve over time. This report thus provides a catalyst for a long-term process. It defines the what from which the how can follow during the next several years. Implementation Challenges INTERIM DRAFT Teaching any subject effectively depends on the existence of sound learning standards for students, explicit teacher certification standards, appropriate teacher professional development programs, and effective curricular materials. K 12 computer science education faces unique challenges along these lines. For schools to widely implement these standards, work is needed in three important areas: teacher preparation, state-level content standards, and curriculum materials development. In addition, persons in local and state leadership positions must acknowledge the importance of computer science education for the future of our society. States and accrediting organizations should make this a factor in overall school accreditation. Some states have begun to establish computer science content standards, define models for teacher certification, provide in-service professional development in computer science, and experiment with developing new curricular materials. However, a much wider and continued effort and commitment are required. 7 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 151

152 Improving computer science education is a significant challenge that will require attention and interventions from multiple institutions. Professional organizations in computer science can make an important contribution. CSTA, for example, is a professional organization that supports and promotes the teaching of computer science and other computing disciplines. CSTA provides a large number of programs that include the development and dissemination of learning resources, the provision of professional development, and advocating for state and federal level policies to improve computer science education. Other organizations, such as ACM, the IEEE Computer Society, institutions of higher education, and national and local teacher organizations, can also work toward addressing these issues in K 12 computer science education. Industry is also deeply affected by pipeline issues and the need to produce workers who have the skills needed to support and build the technology tools of the future. It is therefore in their best interest to contribute significantly to improving access and quality of computer science courses in K 12. Conclusion Computer science education is a dynamic discipline. This document serves as an interim draft document and represents changes to the previous standards in order to address recent changes in the computer science education landscape. The launch of the K 12 CS Framework, the Maker movement, and a national focus on cybersecurity are just some of the changes that are still in motion during this document s release. Due to rapid growth and changes in our field, computer science standards cannot be static. These standards must be reviewed and updated on a regular basis, and not considered complete and finalized. CSTA is committed to an inclusive, iterative process that allows multiple drafts and revisions of the CSTA K 12 CS Standards. CSTA is one of several supporters of the K 12 CS Framework project. The Standards influence the Framework and the Framework influences the Standards. For more information, visit the CSTA Standards FAQ at It is not an exaggeration to say that our lives depend upon computer systems and the people who maintain them to keep us safe on the road and in air, help physicians diagnose and treat health care problems, and play a critical role in the design of new drug therapies. A fundamental understanding of computer science enables students to be both educated users of technology and innovators capable of designing computing systems to improve the quality of life for everyone. We understand that many obstacles lie in the way of the ideal of a K 12 computer science education for all students. How will room be found in the jam-packed curriculum? How will qualified teachers be recruited, trained, and credentialed? In the world of standards-centric evaluation of schools, should computer science support existing standards, or should new ones be designed for computer science? These and other questions and challenges are significant, but so are the benefits to students and to society of computer science finding its rightful place as a component of high-quality education for all students. INTERIM DRAFT Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

153 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 1 (Grades K 5) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard K 2 1A-A-7-1 Give credit when using code, music, or pictures (for example) that were created by others. K 2 1A-A-5-2 K 2 1A-A-5-3 K 2 1A-A-4-4 K 2 1A-A-3-5 K 2 1A-A-3-6 Construct programs, to accomplish a task or as a means of creative expression, which include sequencing, events, and simple loops, using a block-based visual programming language, both independently and collaboratively (e.g., pair programming). Plan and create a design document to illustrate thoughts, ideas, and stories in a sequential (step-by-step) manner (e.g., story map, storyboard, sequential graphic organizer). Use numbers or other symbols to represent data (e.g., thumbs up/down for yes/no, color by number, arrows for direction, encoding/decoding a word using numbers or pictographs). Decompose (break down) a larger problem into smaller sub-problems with teacher guidance or independently. Categorize a group of items based on the attributes or actions of each item, with or without a computing device. Framework Concept Algorithms and Programs Algorithms and Programs Algorithms and Programs Algorithms and Programs Algorithms and Programs Algorithms and Programs Framework Practice Communicating about Computing Creating Computational Artifacts Creating Computational Artifacts Developing and Using Abstractions Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems INTERIM DRAFT 9 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 1 July 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 153

154 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 1 (Grades K 5) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard K 2 1A-A-3-7 K 2 1A-A-6-8 K 2 1A-C-7-9 K 2 1A-C-7-10 K 2 1A-C-6-11 Construct and execute algorithms (sets of step-by-step instructions) that include sequencing and simple loops to accomplish a task, both independently and collaboratively, with or without a computing device. Analyze and debug (fix) an algorithm that includes sequencing and simple loops, with or without a computing device. Identify and use software that controls computational devices (e.g., use an app to draw on the screen, use software to write a story or control robots). Use appropriate terminology in naming and describing the function of common computing devices and components (e.g., desktop computer, laptop computer, tablet device, monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer). Identify, using accurate terminology, simple hardware and software problems that may occur during use (e.g., app or program not working as expected, no sound, device won't turn on). Framework Concept Algorithms and Programs Algorithms and Programs Computing Systems Computing Systems Computing Systems K 2 1A-D-7-12 Collect data over time and organize it in a chart or graph in order to make a prediction. Data and Analysis K 2 1A-D-4-13 Use a computing device to store, search, retrieve, modify, and delete information and define the information stored as data. Data and Analysis Framework Practice Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems Testing and Refining Communicating about Computing Communicating about Computing Testing and Refining Communicating About Computing Developing and Using Abstractions INTERIM DRAFT K 2 1A-D-4-14 Create a model of an object or process in order to identify patterns and essential elements (e.g., water cycle, butterfly life cycle, seasonal weather patterns). Data and Analysis Developing and Using Abstractions 10 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 1 July Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

155 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 1 (Grades K 5) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard K 2 1A-I-7-15 K 2 1A-N-2-16 K 2 1A-N-7-17 Compare and contrast examples of how computing technology has changed and improved the way people live, work, and interact. Use computers or other computing devices to connect with people using a network (e.g., the Internet) to communicate, access, and share information as a class. Use passwords to protect private information and discuss the effects of password misuse. Framework Concept Impacts of Computing Networks and the Internet Networks and the Internet Framework Practice Communicating about Computing Collaborating Communicating about Computing INTERIM DRAFT 11 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 1 July 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 155

156 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 1 (Grades K 5) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard K 2 1A-I-7-15 K 2 1A-N-2-16 K 2 1A-N-7-17 Compare and contrast examples of how computing technology has changed and improved the way people live, work, and interact. Use computers or other computing devices to connect with people using a network (e.g., the Internet) to communicate, access, and share information as a class. Use passwords to protect private information and discuss the effects of password misuse. Framework Concept Impacts of Computing Networks and the Internet Networks and the Internet Framework Practice Communicating about Computing Collaborating Communicating about Computing INTERIM DRAFT 11 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 1 July Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

157 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 1 (Grades K 5) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard 3 5 1B-A B-A B-A B-A-5-4 Apply collaboration strategies to support problem solving within the design cycle of a program. Use proper citations and document when ideas are borrowed and changed for their own use (e.g., using pictures created by others, using music created by others, remixing programming projects). Create a plan as part of the iterative design process, both independently and with diverse collaborative teams (e.g., storyboard, flowchart, pseudo-code, story map). Construct programs, in order to solve a problem or for creative expression, that include sequencing, events, loops, conditionals, parallelism, and variables, using a block-based visual programming language or text-based language, both independently and collaboratively (e.g., pair programming) B-A-5-5 Use mathematical operations to change a value stored in a variable B-A-3-6 Decompose (break down) a larger problem into smaller sub-problems, independently or in a collaborative group. Framework Concept Algorithms and Programs Algorithms and Programs Algorithms and Programs Algorithms and Programs Algorithms and Programs Algorithms and Programs Framework Practice Collaborating Communicating about Computing Creating Computational Artifacts Creating Computational Artifacts Creating Computational Artifacts Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems INTERIM DRAFT 12 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 1 July 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 157

158 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 1 (Grades K 5) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard 3 5 1B-A B-A B-C B-C B-C B-D B-D-5-13 Construct and execute an algorithm (set of step-by-step instructions) that includes sequencing, loops, and conditionals to accomplish a task, both independently and collaboratively, with or without a computing device. Analyze and debug (fix) an algorithm that includes sequencing, events, loops, conditionals, parallelism, and variables. Model how a computer system works. [Clarification: Only includes basic elements of a computer system, such as input, output, processor, sensors, and storage.] Use appropriate terminology in naming internal and external components of computing devices and describing their relationships, capabilities, and limitations. Identify, using accurate terminology, simple hardware and software problems that may occur during use, and apply strategies for solving problems (e.g., reboot device, check for power, check network availability, close and reopen app). Create a computational artifact to model the attributes and behaviors associated with a concept (e.g., solar system, life cycle of a plant). Answer a question by using a computer to manipulate (e.g., sort, total and/or average, chart, graph) and analyze data that has been collected by the class or student. Framework Concept Algorithms and Programs Algorithms and Programs Computing Systems Computing Systems Computing Systems Data and Analysis Data and Analysis Framework Practice Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems Testing and Refining Communicating about Computing Communicating about Computing Testing and Refining Creating Computational Artifacts Creating Computational Artifacts INTERIM DRAFT 13 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 1 July Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

159 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 1 (Grades K 5) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA Standard 3 5 1B-D B-I B-I B-I-1-17 Use numeric values to represent non-numeric ideas in the computer (binary, ASCII, pixel attributes such as RGB). Evaluate and describe the positive and negative impacts of the pervasiveness of computers and computing in daily life (e.g., downloading videos and audio files, electronic appliances, wireless Internet, mobile computing devices, GPS systems, wearable computing). Generate examples of how computing can affect society, and also how societal values can shape computing choices. Seek out and compare diverse perspectives, synchronously or asynchronously, to improve a project B-I-1-18 Brainstorm ways in which computing devices could be made more accessible to all users B-I B-N-7-20 Explain problems that relate to using computing devices and networks (e.g., logging out to deter others from using your account, cyberbullying, privacy of personal information, and ownership). Create examples of strong passwords, explain why strong passwords should be used, and demonstrate proper use and protection of personal passwords. Framework Concept Data and Analysis Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Networks and the Internet Framework Practice Developing and Using Abstractions Communicating about Computing Communicating about Computing Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture Communicating about Computing INTERIM DRAFT 3 5 1B-N-4-21 Model how a device on a network sends a message from one device (sender) to another (receiver) while following specific rules. Networks and the Internet Developing and Using Abstractions 14 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 1 July 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 159

160 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 2 (Grades 6 8) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard A A A A A A-5-6 Solicit and integrate peer feedback as appropriate to develop or refine a program. Compare different algorithms that may be used to solve the same problem in terms of their speed, clarity, and size (e.g., different algorithms solve the same problem, but one might be faster than the other). [Clarification: Students are not expected to quantify these differences.] Provide proper attribution when code is borrowed or built upon. Interpret the flow of execution of algorithms and predict their outcomes. [Clarification: Algorithms can be expressed using natural language, flow and control diagrams, comments within code, and pseudocode.] Design, develop, and present computational artifacts such as mobile applications that address social problems both independently and collaboratively. Develop programs, both independently and collaboratively, that include sequences with nested loops and multiple branches. [Clarification: At this level, students may use blockbased and/or text-based programming languages.] Framework Concept Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Framework Practice Collaborating Communicating about Computing Communicating about Computing Communicating about Computing Creating Computational Artifacts Creating Computational Artifacts INTERIM DRAFT 15 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 2 July Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

161 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 2 (Grades 6 8) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard A A A A C C-4-12 Create variables that represent different types of data and manipulate their values. Define and use procedures that hide the complexity of a task and can be reused to solve similar tasks. [Clarification: Students use and modify, but do not necessarily create, procedures with parameters.] Decompose a problem into parts and create solutions for each part. Use an iterative design process (e.g., define the problem, generate ideas, build, test, and improve solutions) to solve problems, both independently and collaboratively. Justify the hardware and software chosen to accomplish a task (e.g., comparison of the features of a tablet vs. desktop, selecting which sensors and platform to use in building a robot or developing a mobile app). Analyze the relationship between a device's computational components and its capabilities. [Clarification: Computing Systems include not only computers, but also cars, microwaves, smartphones, traffic lights, and flash drives.] Framework Concept Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Computing Systems Computing Systems Framework Practice Creating Computational Artifacts Developing and Using Abstractions Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems Testing and Refining Communicating about Computing Developing and Using Abstractions INTERIM DRAFT 16 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 2 July 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 161

162 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 2 (Grades 6 8) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard C D D D D I-7-18 Use a systematic process to identify the source of a problem within individual and connected devices (e.g., follow a troubleshooting flow diagram, make changes to software to see if hardware will work, restart device, check connections, swap in working components). Describe how different formats of stored data represent tradeoffs between quality and size. [Clarification: compare examples of music, text and/or image formats.] Explain the processes used to collect, transform, and analyze data to solve a problem using computational tools (e.g., use an app or spreadsheet form to collect data, decide which data to use or ignore, and choose a visualization method.). Revise computational models to more accurately reflect real-world systems (e.g., ecosystems, epidemics, spread of ideas). Represent data using different encoding schemes (e.g., binary, Unicode, Morse code, shorthand, student-created codes). Summarize negative and positive impacts of using data and information to categorize people, predict behavior, and make recommendations based on those predictions (e.g., customizing search results or targeted advertising, based on previous browsing history, can save search time and limit options at the same time). Framework Concept Computing Systems Data and Analysis Data and Analysis Data and Analysis Data and Analysis Impacts of Computing Framework Practice Testing and Refining Communicating about Computing Communicating about Computing Creating Computational Artifacts Developing and Using Abstractions Communicating about Computing INTERIM DRAFT I-7-19 Explain how computer science fosters innovation and enhances nearly all careers and disciplines. Impacts of Computing Communicating about Computing 17 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 2 July Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

163 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 2 (Grades 6 8) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard I I I I N N-4-25 Provide examples of how computational artifacts and devices impact health and wellbeing, both positively and negatively. Describe ways in which the Internet impacts global communication and collaborating. Describe ethical issues that relate to computing devices and networks (e.g., equity of access, security, hacking, intellectual property, copyright, Creative Commons licensing, and plagiarism). Redesign a computational artifact to remove barriers to universal access (e.g., using captions on images, high contrast colors, and/or larger font sizes). Summarize security risks associated with weak passwords, lack of encryption, insecure transactions, and persistence of data. Simulate how information is transmitted as packets through multiple devices over the Internet and networks. Framework Concept Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Networks and the Internet Networks and the Internet Framework Practice Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture Testing and Refining Communicating about Computing Developing and Using Abstractions INTERIM DRAFT 18 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 2 July 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 163

164 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 3A (Grades 9 10) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard A-A A-A A-A A-A A-A-5-5 Design and develop a software artifact working in a team. Demonstrate how diverse collaborating impacts the design and development of software products (e.g., discussing real-world examples of products that have been improved through having a diverse design team or reflecting on their own team's development experience). Compare and contrast various software licensing schemes (e.g., open source, freeware, commercial). Design, develop, and implement a computing artifact that responds to an event (e.g., robot that responds to a sensor, mobile app that responds to a text message, sprite that responds to a broadcast). Use user-centered research and design techniques (e.g., surveys, interviews) to create software solutions. Framework Concept Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Framework Practice Collaborating Collaborating Communicating about Computing Creating Computational Artifacts Creating Computational Artifacts INTERIM DRAFT A-A-5-6 Integrate grade-level appropriate mathematical techniques, concepts, and processes in the creation of computing artifacts. Algorithms and Programming Creating Computational Artifacts 19 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 3A July Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

165 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 3A (Grades 9 10) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard A-A A-A A-A A-A A-A-3-11 Understand the notion of hierarchy and abstraction in high-level languages, translation, instruction sets, and logic circuits. Deconstruct a complex problem into simpler parts using predefined constructs (e.g., functions and parameters and/or classes). Demonstrate the value of abstraction for managing problem complexity (e.g., using a list instead of discrete variables). Design algorithms using sequence, selection, and iteration. Explain and demonstrate how modeling and simulation can be used to explore natural phenomena (e.g., flocking behaviors, queueing, life cycles). Framework Concept Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Framework Practice Developing and Using Abstractions Developing and Using Abstractions Developing and Using Abstractions Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems INTERIM DRAFT A-A-6-12 Use a systematic approach and debugging tools to independently debug a program (e.g., setting breakpoints, inspecting variables with a debugger). Algorithms and Programming Testing and Refining 20 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 3A July 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 165

166 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 3A (Grades 9 10) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard A-C A-C A-C A-C A-D-5-17 Develop and apply criteria (e.g., power consumption, processing speed, storage space, battery life, cost, operating system) for evaluating a computer system for a given purpose (e.g., system specification needed to run a game, web browsing, graphic design or video editing). Create, extend, or modify existing programs to add new features and behaviors using different forms of inputs and outputs (e.g., inputs such as sensors, mouse clicks, data sets; outputs such as text, graphics, sounds). Demonstrate the role and interaction of a computer embedded within a physical system, such as a consumer electronic, biological system, or vehicle, by creating a diagram, model, simulation, or prototype. Describe the steps necessary for a computer to execute high-level source code (e.g., compilation to machine language, interpretation, fetch-decode-execute cycle). [https://www.cise.ufl.edu/~mssz/comporg/cdaintro.html] Create computational models that simulate real-world systems (e.g., ecosystems, epidemics, spread of ideas). Framework Concept Computing Systems Computing Systems Computing Systems Computing Systems Data and Analysis Framework Practice Communicating About Computing Creating Computational Artifacts Developing and Using Abstractions Developing and Using Abstractions Creating Computational Artifacts INTERIM DRAFT A-D-4-18 Convert between binary, decimal, and hexadecimal representations of data (e.g., convert hexadecimal color codes to decimal percentages, ASCII/Unicode representation). Data and Analysis Developing and Using Abstractions 21 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 3A July Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

167 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 3A (Grades 9 10) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard A-D A-D A-D A-I A-I-7-23 Analyze the representation tradeoffs among various forms of digital information (e.g., lossy versus lossless compression, encrypted vs. unencrypted, various image representations). Discuss techniques used to store, process, and retrieve different amounts of information (e.g., files, databases, data warehouses). Apply basic techniques for locating and collecting small- and large-scale data sets (e.g., creating and distributing user surveys, accessing real-world data sets). Debate the social and economic implications associated with ethical and unethical computing practices (e.g., intellectual property rights, hacktivism, software piracy, diesel emissions testing scandal, new computers shipped with malware). Compare and contrast information access and distribution rights. Framework Concept Data and Analysis Data and Analysis Data and Analysis Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Framework Practice Developing and Using Abstractions Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems Collaborating Communicating about Computing INTERIM DRAFT A-I-7-24 Discuss implications of the collection and large-scale analysis of information about individuals (e.g., how businesses, social media, and government collect and use personal data). Impacts of Computing Communicating about Computing 22 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 3A July 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 167

168 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 3A (Grades 9 10) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard A-I A-I A-I A-I A-I A-N-7-30 Describe how computation shares features with art and music by translating human intention into an artifact. Compare and debate the positive and negative impacts of computing on behavior and culture (e.g., evolution from hitchhiking to ridesharing apps, online accommodation rental services). Demonstrate how computing enables new forms of experience, expression, communication, and collaborating. Explain the impact of the digital divide (i.e., uneven access to computing, computing education, and interfaces) on access to critical information. Redesign user interfaces (e.g., webpages, mobile applications, animations) to be more inclusive, accessible, and minimizing the impact of the designer's inherent bias. Describe key protocols and underlying processes of Internet-based services (e.g., http/https and SMTP/IMAP, routing protocols). Framework Concept Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Networks and the Internet Framework Practice Communicating about Computing Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture Testing and Refining Communicating about Computing INTERIM DRAFT A-N-4-31 Illustrate the basic components of computer networks (e.g., draw logical and topological diagrams of networks including routers, switches, servers, and end user devices; create model with string and paper). Networks and the Internet Developing and Using Abstractions 23 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 3A July Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

169 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 3A (Grades 9 10) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard A-N A-N A-N A-N-6-35 Compare and contrast multiple viewpoints on cybersecurity (e.g., from the perspective of security experts, privacy advocates, the government). Explain the principles of information security (confidentiality, integrity, availability) and authentication techniques. Use simple encryption and decryption algorithms to transmit/receive an encrypted message. Identify digital and physical strategies to secure networks and discuss the tradeoffs between ease of access and need for security. Framework Concept Networks and the Internet Networks and the Internet Networks and the Internet Networks and the Internet Framework Practice Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems Testing and Refining INTERIM DRAFT 24 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 3A July 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 169

170 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 3B (Grades 11 12) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard B-A B-A B-A B-A B-A B-A B-A-5-7 Use version control systems, integrated development environments (IDEs), and collaborating tools and practices (code documentation) in a group software project. Demonstrate software life cycle processes (e.g., spiral, waterfall) by participating on software project teams (e.g., community service project with real-world clients). Modify an existing program to add additional functionality and discuss intended and unintended implications (e.g., breaking other functionality). Explain security issues that might lead to compromised computer programs (e.g., circular references, ambiguous program calls, lack of error checking and field size checking). Compare a variety of programming languages and identify features that make them useful for solving different types of problems and developing different kinds of systems (e.g., declarative, logic, parallel, functional, compiled, interpreted, real-time). Describe how artificial intelligence drives many software and physical systems (e.g., autonomous robots, computer vision, pattern recognition, text analysis). Decompose a problem by creating new data types, functions, or classes. Framework Concept Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Framework Practice Collaborating Collaborating Communicating about Computing Communicating about Computing Communicating about Computing Communicating about Computing Creating Computational Artifacts INTERIM DRAFT B-A-5-8 Demonstrate code reuse by creating programming solutions using libraries and APIs (e.g., graphics libraries, maps API). Algorithms and Programming Creating Computational Artifacts 25 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 3B July Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

171 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 3B (Grades 11 12) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard B-A B-A B-A B-A B-A B-A B-A-3-15 Implement an AI algorithm to play a game against a human opponent or solve a problem. Develop programs for multiple computing platforms (e.g., computer desktop, web, mobile). Critically analyze classic algorithms (e.g., sorting, searching) and use in different contexts, adapting as appropriate. Evaluate algorithms (e.g., sorting, searching) in terms of their efficiency, correctness, and clarity. Compare and contrast fundamental data structures and their uses (e.g., lists, maps, arrays, stacks, queues, trees, graphs). Discuss issues that arise when breaking large-scale problems down into parts that must be processed simultaneously on separate systems (e.g., cloud computing, parallelization, concurrency). Provide examples of computationally solvable problems and difficult-to-solve problems. Framework Concept Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Framework Practice Creating Computational Artifacts Creating Computational Artifacts Developing and Using Abstractions Developing and Using Abstractions Developing and Using Abstractions Developing and Using Abstractions Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems INTERIM DRAFT 26 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 3B July 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 171

172 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 3B (Grades 11 12) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard B-A B-A B-A B-A B-A-3-20 Explain the value of heuristic algorithms (discovery methods) to approximating solutions for difficult-to-solve computational problems. Decompose a large-scale computational problem by identifying generalizable patterns and applying them in a solution. Illustrate the flow of execution of a recursive algorithm. Describe how parallel processing can be used to solve large problems (e.g., SETI at Home, FoldIt). Develop and use a series of test cases to verify that a program performs according to its design specifications. Framework Concept Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Algorithms and Programming Framework Practice Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems INTERIM DRAFT B-A-6-21 Evaluate key qualities of a program (e.g., correctness, usability, readability, efficiency, portability, scalability) through a process such as a code review. Algorithms and Programming Testing & Iterative Refinement 27 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 3B July Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

173 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 3B (Grades 11 12) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard B-C B-C B-D B-D B-D B-D B-D-1-28 Explain the role of operating systems (e.g., how programs are stored in memory, how data is organized/retrieved, how processes are managed and multi-tasked). Identify the functionality of various categories of hardware components and communication between them (e.g., physical layers, logic gates, chips, input and output devices). Use data analysis to identify significant patterns in complex systems (e.g., take existing data sets and make sense of them). Discuss how data sequences (e.g., binary, hexadecimal, octal) can be interpreted in a variety of forms (e.g., instructions, numbers, text, sound, image). Evaluate the ability of models and simulations to formulate, refine, and test hypotheses. Identify mathematical and computational patterns through modeling and simulation (e.g., regression, Runge-Kutta, queueing theory, discrete event simulation). Use various data collection techniques for different types of problems (e.g., mobile device GPS, user surveys, embedded system sensors, open data sets, social media data sets). Framework Concept Computing Systems Computing Systems Data and Analysis Data and Analysis Data and Analysis Data and Analysis Data and Analysis Framework Practice Communicating about Computing Communicating about Computing Developing and Using Abstractions Developing and Using Abstractions Developing and Using Abstractions Developing and Using Abstractions Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture INTERIM DRAFT B-D-3-29 Explore security policies by implementing and comparing encryption and authentication strategies (e.g., secure coding, safeguarding keys). Data and Analysis Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems 28 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 3B July 2016 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 173

174 INTERIM 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards Level 3B (Grades 11 12) The 2011 CSTA K 12 CS Standards were categorized into five conceptual strands (Computational Thinking, Collaboration, Computing Practice & Programming, Computer & Communication Devices; and Community, Global & Ethical Impacts). The Interim 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards are categorized into five concepts of the K 12 CS Framework, which is currently under development (Computing Systems, Networks and the Internet, Algorithms and Programming, Data and Analysis, and Impacts of Computing). There is some overlap between strands and concepts, but they are not identical. Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard Framework Concept B-I B-I B-I B-I B-I B-N-4-35 Develop criteria to evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of computing innovations on people and society. Select, observe, and contribute to global collaboration in the development of a computational artifact (e.g., contribute the resolution of a bug in an open-source project hosted on GitHub). Design and implement a study that evaluates or predicts how computation has revolutionized an aspect of our culture and how it might evolve (e.g., education, healthcare, art/entertainment, energy). Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Impacts of Computing Debate laws and regulations that impact the development and use of software. Impacts of Computing Evaluate the impact of equity, access, and influence on the distribution of computing resources in a global society. Simulate and discuss the issues (e.g., bandwidth, load, delay, topology) that impact network functionality (e.g., use free network simulators). Impacts of Computing Networks and the Internet Framework Practice Communicating about Computing Creating Computational Artifacts Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture Developing and Using Abstractions INTERIM DRAFT 29 I NTERIM CSTA K 12 CS Standards: Level 3B July Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

175 INTERIM DRAFT 30 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 175

176 APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY OF TERMS K 12 CS Framework Draft (6/7/2016) Glossary The following draft glossary includes definitions of terms used in the statements in the K 12 CS Framework (https://k12cs.org/). These terms are defined for readers of the framework and are not necessarily intended to be the definitions or terms that are seen by students. CSTA would like to extend a heartfelt thank you to the K-12 CS Framework for allowing us to include this glossary as part of our supplemental materials. Term abstraction algorithm app application programming interface (API) artifact audience automate; automation backup binary Bluetooth bug civic virtues cloud code Definition (process): The process of reducing complexity by focusing on the main idea. By hiding details irrelevant to the question at hand and bringing together related and useful details, abstraction reduces complexity and allows one to focus on the problem. In elementary classrooms, abstraction is hiding unnecessary details to make it easier to think about a problem. (product): A new representation of a thing, a system, or a problem that helpfully reframes a problem by hiding details irrelevant to the question at hand. [MA-DLCS] A step-by-step process to complete a task. A type of application software designed to run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone or tablet computer (also known as a mobile application). [Techopedia] A software program that facilitates interaction with other software programs. It allows a programmer to interact with an application using a collection of callable functions, and to write programs that will not cease to function if the underlying system is upgraded. [Techopedia] Anything created by a human. See computational artifact for the computer science-specific definition. Expected end users of a computing artifact or system. automate: To link disparate systems and software in such a way that they become self-acting or self-regulating. automation: The process of automating. The process of making copies of data or data files to use in the event the original data or data files are lost or destroyed. [Techopedia] A method of encoding data using two symbols (usually 1 and 0). To illustrate binary encoding, we can use any two symbols. [MA-DLCS] Wireless technology that enables communication between Bluetooth-compatible devices. For example, it is used for short-range connections between desktop and laptop computers, digital cameras, scanners, cellular phones, and printers. An error in a software program. It may cause a program to unexpectedly quit or behave in an unintended manner. [TechTerms] The process of removing errors (bugs) is called debugging. Principles and traits of character that enable citizens to contribute to the common good by engaging in political and civil society. Reference: C3 Framework for Social Studies. Remote servers that store data and are accessed from the Internet. [Techopedia] INTERIM DRAFT Any set of instructions expressed in a programming language. [MA-DLCS] Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

177 Term command compatibility; compatible complexity component computational computational artifact computational thinking computer computer science computing computing device computing system conditional; conditional statement configuration connection connectivity control; control structure Definition A specific action assigned to a program to perform a specific task. [Techopedia] The capacity for two systems to work together without having to be altered to do so. Compatibility can refer to interoperability between any two products: hardware and/or software, products of the same or different types, or different versions of the same product. [TechTarget] The intrinsic minimum amount of resources, for instance, memory, time, messages, etc., needed to solve a problem or execute an algorithm. [NIST/DADS] An element of a larger group. Usually, a component provides a particular function or group of related functions. [TechTerms, TechTarget] Relating to computers or computing methods. An invention, creation, final product, or development by-product, created by the act or process of computing. Often, this term refers to a program. [MA-DLCS, CSP, University of Rhode Island] The thought processes involved in formulating problems and their solutions so that the solutions are represented in a form that can be effectively carried out by an informationprocessing agent (for example, a computer) [Cuny, Snyder, & Wing, 2010] A machine or device that performs processes, calculations and operations based on instructions provided by a software or hardware program. [Techopedia] The study of computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, design, implementation, and impact on society. [MA-DLCS, CSTA] Any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating algorithmic processes. [MA- DLCS] A physical device, although not necessarily in the form of a traditional computer, that performs the functions of a computer. Like a computer, a computing device uses hardware and software to receive, process, and output information. Computers, mobile phones, and computer chips inside appliances are all examples of computing devices. A computing system consists of one or more computers or computing devices, together with their hardware and software. Although a computing system can be limited to a single computer or computing device, it more commonly refers to a collection of multiple connected computers, computing devices, and hardware. A feature of a programming language that performs different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified Boolean condition evaluates to true or false. [MA-DLCS] (process): Defining the options that are provided when installing or modifying hardware and software, or the process of creating the configuration (product). [TechTarget] (product): The specific hardware and software details that tell exactly what the system is made up of, especially in terms of devices attached, capacity or capability. [TechTarget] A physical or wireless attachment between multiple computing systems, computers, or computing devices. INTERIM DRAFT A program or device's ability to link with other programs and devices. [Webopedia] control: (in general) The power to direct the course of actions. (in programming) The means of directing which actions take place, and the order in which they take place, implemented through elements of programming code. control structure: A programming structure that implements control. 32 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 177

178 Term cultural practices data data structure data transmission data type database debugging decomposition; decomposed device digital digital citizenship digital divide efficiency encryption end user (or user) event execute; execution; executable firewall function Definition The manifestations of culture or sub-culture, especially in regard to the traditional and customary practices of a particular ethnic or other cultural group. Information that is collected and used for reference or analysis. Data can be digital or nondigital and can be in many forms, including numbers, text, show of hands, images, sounds, or video. [CAS-Prim, TechTerms] A particular way to store and organize data within a computer program. [MA-DLCS] The process of sending digital or analog data over a communication medium to one or more computing, network, communication or electronic devices. [Techopedia] An attribute that tells what kind of data a value or variable can have, as well as what types of operations can be performed on it. [Techopedia, Wikipedia] An organized collection of data, an electronic system that allows data to be easily accessed, manipulated and updated. [Techopedia] The process of finding and correcting errors (bugs) in programs. [MA-DLCS] decomposition: Breaking down a problem or system into its components. [MA-DLCS] decomposed: Broken down into components. A unit of physical hardware or equipment that provides one or more computing functions within a computer system. It can provide input to the computer, accept output, or both. [Techopedia] A characteristic of electronic technology that uses discrete values, generally 0 and 1, to generate, store, and process data. [Techopedia] The norms of appropriate, responsible behavior with regard to the use of technology. [MA- DLCS] The gap between those who have access to digital technology and those who do not, which is influenced by social, cultural and economic factors. [MA-DLCS] A measure of the amount of resources an algorithm uses to find an answer. It is usually expressed in terms of the theoretical computations, such as comparisons or data moves, the memory used, the number of messages passed, the number of disk accesses, etc. [NIST/DADS] The conversion of electronic data into another form, called cipher text, which cannot be easily understood by anyone except authorized parties. [TechTarget] A person for whom a hardware or software product is designed (as distinguished from the developers, installers, and servicers of the product). [TechTarget] Any identifiable occurrence that has significance for system hardware or software. Usergenerated events include keystrokes and mouse clicks; system-generated events include program loading and errors. [TechTarget] execute: To carry out (or run ) an instruction or instruction set (program, app, etc.) execution: The process of executing an instruction or instruction set. executable: A binary file containing a program in machine language which is ready to be executed. [FOLDOC] A network security system with rules to control incoming and outgoing traffic. [MA-DLCS] A type of procedure or routine. Some programming languages make a distinction between a function, which returns a value, and a procedure, which performs some operation, but does not return a value. [MA-DLCS] Note: This definition differs from that used in math. INTERIM DRAFT Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

179 Term Definition functional programming GPS hacking hardware hierarchy humancomputer interaction (HCI) identifier input Internet iterative logic (Boolean) loop; looping memory model modularity network operating system operation A programming paradigm a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data. [Wikipedia] Functional programming languages rely heavily on recursion, using it where a procedural language would use looping. [FOLDOC] Abbreviation for "Global Positioning System." GPS is a satellite navigation system used to determine the ground position of an object. [TechTerms] Appropriately applying ingenuity (from The Meaning of Hack ), cleverly solving a programming problem (the New Hacker s Dictionary), and using a computer to gain unauthorized access to data within a system. [MA-DLCS] The physical components that make up a computing system, computer, or computing device. [MA-DLCS] An organizational structure in which items are ranked according to levels of importance. [TechTarget] The study of how people interact with computers and to what extent computing systems are or are not developed for successful interaction with human beings. [TechTarget] The user-defined, unique name of a program element (such as a variable or procedure) in code. An identifier name should indicate the meaning and usage of the element being referred. [Techopedia] The signals or instructions sent to a computer. [Techopedia] The global collection of computer networks and their connections, all using shared protocols to communicate [CAS-Prim] Involving the repeating of a process with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target, or result. [MA-DLCS] Boolean logic deals with the basic operations of truth values: AND, OR, NOT and combinations thereof. [FOLDOC] loop: A programming structure that repeats a sequence of instructions as long as a specific condition is true. [TechTerms] looping: Repetition, using a loop. Temporary storage used by computing devices. [MA-DLCS] A representation of (some part of) a problem or a system. (Modeling (v): the act of creating a model) [MA-DLCS] Note: This definition differs from that used in science. The characteristic of a software/web application that has been divided (decomposed) into smaller modules. An application might have several procedures that are called from inside its main procedure. Existing procedures could be reused by being recombined in a new application. A group of computing devices (personal computers, phones, servers, switches, routers, and so on) connected by cables or wireless media for the exchange of information and resources. Software that communicates with the hardware and allows other programs to run. An operating system (or OS ) is comprised of system software, or the fundamental files a computer needs to boot up and function. Every desktop computer, tablet, and smartphone includes an operating system that provides basic functionality for the device. [TechTerms] An action, resulting from a single instruction, that changes the state of data. [Dictionary.com] INTERIM DRAFT 34 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 179

180 Term pair programming paradigm (programming) parameter piracy procedure processor program; programming protocol prototype; prototyping pseudocode recursion; recursive function redundancy reliability routing; router Definition A technique in which two developers (or students) team together and work on one computer. [TechTarget] The terms driver and navigator are often used for the two roles. In a classroom setting, teachers often specify that students switch roles frequently (or within a specific period of time). A theory or a group of ideas about how something should be done, made, or thought about. A philosophical or theoretical framework of any kind. [Merriam-Webster] Common programming paradigms are object-oriented, functional, imperative, declarative, procedural, logic, and symbolic. [DC, Wikipedia] A special kind of variable used in a procedure to refer to one of the pieces of data provided as input to the procedure. These pieces of data are called arguments. An ordered list of parameters is usually included in the definition of a subroutine so each time the subroutine is called, its arguments for that call can be assigned to the corresponding parameters. [MA- DLCS] The illegal copying, distribution, or use of software. [TechTarget] An independent code module that fulfills some concrete task and is referenced within a larger body of source code. This kind of code item can also be called a function or a subroutine. The fundamental role of a procedure is to offer a single point of reference for some small goal or task that the developer or programmer can trigger by invoking the procedure itself. A procedure may also be referred to as a function, subroutine, routine, method or subprogram. [Techopedia] The hardware within a computer or device that executes a program. The CPU (central processing unit) is often referred to as the brain of a computer. program (n): A set of instructions that the computer executes in order to achieve a particular objective. [MA-DLCS] program (v): To produce a program by programming. programming: The craft of analyzing problems and designing, writing, testing, and maintaining programs to solve them. [MA-DLCS] The special set of rules that end points in a telecommunication connection use when they communicate. Protocols specify interactions between the communicating entities. [TechTarget] prototype: An early approximation of a final product or information system, often built for demonstration purposes. [TechTarget, Techopedia] prototyping: The process of creating a prototype. A detailed yet readable description of what a computer program or algorithm must do, expressed in a formally-styled natural language rather than in a programming language. [TechTarget] recursion: An algorithmic technique in which a function, in order to accomplish a task, calls itself with some part of the task. [NIST/DADS] recursive function: A function, implemented in a programming language, that calls (invokes) itself. [MA-DLCS, Techopedia] INTERIM DRAFT A system design in which a component is duplicated so if it fails there will be a backup. [TechTarget] An attribute of any system that consistently produces the same results, preferably meeting or exceeding its specifications. [FOLDOC] routing: Establishing the path that data packets traverse from source to destination. router: A device or software that determines the routing for a data packet. [TechTarget] Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

181 Term Definition security The protection against access to, or alteration of, computing resources, through the use of technology, processes, and training. [TechTarget] simulate; simulate: to imitate the operation of a real world process or system over time. simulation simulation: Imitation of the operation of a real world process or system over time. [MA-DLCS] software Programs that run on a computer system, computer, or other computing device. storage (1) A place (usually a device) into which data can be entered, in which it can be held, and from which it can be retrieved at a later time. [FOLDOC] (2) A process through which digital data is saved within a data storage device by means of computing technology. Storage is a mechanism that enables a computer to retain data, either temporarily or permanently. [Techopedia] string A sequence of letters, numbers, and/or other symbols. A string might represent a name, address, or song title. Some functions commonly associated with strings are length, concatenation, and substring. [TechTarget] structure A general term used in the framework to discuss the concept of encapsulation without specifying a particular paradigm. subroutine A callable unit of code, a type of procedure. switching; switching: The practice of directing a signal or data element toward a particular hardware switch destination. [Techopedia] switch: A high-speed device that receives incoming data packets and redirects them to their destination on a local area network (LAN). [Techopedia] syncing Merging data from multiple computing systems, computers, or computing devices. syntax The grammar, structure, or order of the elements in a programming language statement. [TechTarget] system; system: A collection of elements or components that work together for a common purpose. systems [TechTarget] thinking (computing) system: A collection of computing hardware and software integrated for the purpose of accomplishing shared tasks. systems thinking: A holistic approach to analysis that focuses on the way that a system's constituent parts interrelate and how systems work over time and within the context of larger systems. [TechTarget] The physical and logical configuration of a network; the arrangement of a network, including its nodes and connecting links. A logical topology is how devices appear connected to the user. A physical topology is how they are actually interconnected with wires and cables. [PC Magazine] topology The physical and logical configuration of a network; the arrangement of a network, including its nodes and connecting links. A logical topology is how devices appear connected to the user. A physical topology is how they are actually interconnected with wires and cables. [PC Magazine] troubleshooting A systematic approach to problem solving that is often used to find and resolve a problem, error, or fault within software or a computer system. [Techopedia, TechTarget] USB Abbreviation for "Universal Serial Bus." USB is the most common type of computer port used in today's computers. It can be used to connect keyboards, mice, game controllers, printers, scanners, digital cameras, and removable media drives, just to name a few. [TechTalk] user See the definition for end user. variable A symbolic name that is used to keep track of a value that can change while a program is running. Variables are not just used for numbers. They can also hold text, including whole INTERIM DRAFT 36 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 181

182 sentences ( strings ), or the logical values true or false. A variable has a data type and is associated with a data storage location; its value is normally changed during the course of program execution. [CAS-Prim, Techopedia] Note: This definition differs from that used in math. Draft Version 06/07/2016 Key to sources of multiple definitions in this glossary: CAS-Prim Computing At School. Computing in the national curriculum: A guide for primary teachers (http://www.computingatschool.org.uk/data/uploads/casprimarycomputing.pdf) CSTA CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (2011) https://csta.acm.org/curriculum/sub/k12standards.html FOLDOC Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing. (http://foldoc.org/) MA-DLCS NIST/DADS Techopedia TechTarget TechTerms Massachusetts Digital Literacy and Computer Science (DL&CS) Standards, Glossary (Draft, December 2015) National Institute of Science and Technology Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures. (https://xlinux.nist.gov/dads//) Techopedia. (https://www.techopedia.com/dictionary) TechTarget Network. (http://www.techtarget.com/network) Tech Terms Computer Dictionary. (http://www.techterms.com) Some definitions came directly from these sources, while others were excerpted or adapted to include content relevant to this framework. A few notes regarding this glossary: The first source was the draft Massachusetts glossary for their digital literacy and computer science standards. We did not define any words in which the definition is the same in common English. We only define terms that are used in the framework (the statements themselves, the subconcept headings, the core concept headings, core practice headings, the descriptive material/elaboration). After each draft of the framework, we check that there are no terms in the glossary that are no longer used in the framework. You'll notice many of the definitions include a source. The sources are all described at the bottom of the doc. Most of the definitions are rephrased from the source, but some are taken almost word-forword. Others are combinations of pieces of definitions from multiple sources. And some of the definitions are simply from the heads of the writers. INTERIM DRAFT Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

183 INTERIM DRAFT 38 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 183

184 APPENDIX B: LEGEND FOR IDENTIFIERS Unique Numbering System for the 2016 CSTA K 12 CS Standards To help organize and track each individual standard, we have developed a unique identifier for each standard. An example appears below: Grades Identifier Interim CSTA K 12 CS Standard A-A-2-1 Design and develop a software artifact working in a team. Framework Concept Algorithms and Programming Framework Practice Collaborating Use the following legend to interpret the unique identifier for each [Interim] K-12 CS Standard: The identifier code corresponds to: Level Concept Practice Identifier Identifier Key Code 1A Grades K 2 1B Grades Grades 6 8 3A Grades B Grades I Impacts of Computing Practices Concepts Levels A D N Algorithms and Programming Data and Analysis Networks and the Internet C Computing Systems 1 Fostering an Inclusive Computing Culture 2 Collaborating INTERIM DRAFT 3 Recognizing and Defining Computational Problems 4 Developing and Using Abstractions 5 Creating Computational Artifacts 6 Testing and Refining 7 Communicating about Computing Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) Workshop

185 INTERIM DRAFT 미국컴퓨터과학교사협회 (CSTA) 워크숍 185

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