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1 Jur. Krean Earth Science Sciety, v. 30, n. 1, p , February 2009 (w ) š û sw» y ü ³ s w š 1 Á 2 Á 3 Á½ 4, * 1 w œw, , Ÿ Ÿ û w y w, , Ÿ w 79 3 w w, , z w wáy w, , û š 315 Palestress frm Healed Micrcracks and Fluid Inclusins in Quartz f the Jurassic Granites in the Suthwestern Ogchen Flded Belt Seng-Seung Kang 1, Bng Chul Y 2, B-An Jang 3, and Cheng-Bin Kim 4, * 1 Resurces Engineering, Chsun University, Gwangju , Krea 2 Department f gelgy and envirnmental sciences, Chungnam Natinal University, Daejen , Krea 3 Department f gephysics, Kangwn Natinal University, Gangwn , Krea 4 Divisin f Science and Envirnmental Educatin, Sunchn Natinal University, Jennam , Krea Abstract: Palestress was interpreted by analyzing the healed micrcracks and the secndary fluid inclusins in quartz f the Jurassic granites distributed in the suthwestern Ogchen Flded Belt, Suth Krea. The mst dminant directin f healed micrcracks in the study area was riented N30 W, and N70 W directin was als recgnized. The frmatin temperatures f fluid inclusins were ranged C and the age f healed micrcrack frmatins might have been apprximately Ma. Cmparing the palestress rientatin btained frm the directin f healed micrcracks t the frmatin age f healed micrcracks estimated frm the secndary fluid inclusins, it is cnsidered that granitic rck bdy in study area was subject t a maximum hrizntal principal stress alng the NNW-SSE and WNW-ESE directins in the early Jurassic t middle Jurassic.,FZXPSET Ogchen Flded Belt, healed micrcrack, fluid inclusin, palestress, maximum hrizntal principal stress : š û sw» y ü w ³ s w w š w w. ùkù ³ w N30 W w ƒ w N70 W w ùkù. ³ C, ³ Ma» x. ³ w m w š w s w ³ x» w, ü w y NNW-SSE WNW-ESE w s š»»»»» w. š, ³, s, š, s *Crrespnding authr: Tel: Fax:

2 20 Á Á Á½ y ü ³ Ÿ w w yƒ f ³ w œ ùkù y w p w e. ³ w ü w ü ³ (intragranular crack), mw m ³ (intergranular crack), š w ³ (grain bundary crack) ù (Nur and Simmns, 1970; Simmns and Richter, 1976; Kranz, 1983). w ³ ü s ³ (pen micrcrack) ³ (healed micrcrack) w. ³ (healed micrcrack) y ù Mde I xk ü ³ wù w ƒ š (Kwallis et al., 1987; Jang et al., 1989; Ren et al., 1989). ³ q (Knapp and Knight, 1977), y (Sheltn and Orville, 1980; Smith and Evans, 1984; Brantley et al., 1990), (Nrtn, 1982; Kranz, 1983; Plumb et al., 1984; Fredrich and Wng, 1986; Hmand-Etienne and Huper, 1989), (Mawer and Williams, 1985) w w š. ³ ƒ š p w w ³ x w w ew š, w š w w w (Tuttle, 1949; Pêcher et al., 1985; Lespinasse and Pêcher, 1986; Kwallis et al., 1987; Jang et al., 1989; Laubach, 1989; Ren et al., 1989; Jang and Wang, 1991; ½, 1996; w, 2004). w ³ ü s d ³»ƒ x mw x š w» ³ w w (Pêcher et al., 1985; Lespinasse and Pêcher, 1986; Jang et al., 1989; Ren et al., 1989; Jang and Wang, 1991; ½, 1996; w, 2004). š w ww w e œ. p y y w» x ¾ w w š. š û y p»»»» ew y»» 3»» y y (½, 1990; Jin, 1995). š û sw» y y ü ³ w s d wš y þƒ w w š w» ³ w. š û w w e» w» w y y w. e» w, p»» y y w y y, d d d š y y (Fig. 1). w w e û,» š û, û» w š» û š w, û ww w w (Chugh et al., 2000). w û š y û ƒ s km, 400 km -ûû w mw (Yanai et al., 1985). yû w w w d x, ù w w w wù. s ƒ w ƒ y ƒ š sw ƒ y y y w w. sw y p w w wš, Ÿ w y,

3 š û sw»y ü ³ s wš 21 Fig. 1. Gelgical map f study area and sampling lcatins (Mdified after the map (1:1,000,000) by Krea Institute f Gescience and Mineral Resurces (2001). HSZ: Hnam Shear Zne. y, š y, Ÿ y (Turek and Kim, 1995). Ÿ w y y w š, w ù Ÿ w w.» Ma p»»» w w (Turek and Kim, 1995). e» w wš z» d w w (½, 1990).» y x mú p y w w,, Ÿ w Ÿ y, ƒw y, y, ù y (½, 1993). e» r wš z» y w.» Ma(Turek and Kim, 1995)» yû w w w. y Ÿ š y, y y,,, ù ³ sw» w (, 2002). ty w y kw sww w d w w (riented sampling methd) w w (Fig. 2), w x r w w w. ³ (Tuttle, 1949; Kwallis et al., 1987)» w s r w. r ùkù ³ w s w ew. ³ w d w» w r mm Ì w, ³ w w» w 1µm w r t Áòw w. ü w ³ w rÿx 4 (4-axis universal stage) r š 100 w

4 22 Á Á Á½ Fig. 2. Rck samples crrected by the riented sampling methd n an utcrp. Daeb granite: GC-1, GJ-1, YA-1 and HN-1, Fliated granite: DY-2, YG-1, HP-1 and MA-2. w d wš p» w. w r 100 ³ d w š, d w 10 ùkü txw. s d w» w r ³ wš s w kw. s d r 1µm w r t Áòw w. s sz p q w» w r j» 15 mm s d e k z, ³ ü s þƒ-ƒ x m w (melting temperature, Tm) ³ y (hmgenizatin temperature, Th) d w. s ƒ w z j s ü d w, ³ y s ƒ w s ü»sƒ d w. s wš, ³ y s x sz w.

5 š û sw»y ü ³ s wš 23 Fig. 3. Directin f healed micrcracks develped in quartz f the Jurassic granite. Daeb granite: GC-1, GJ-1, YA-1 and HN- 1, Fliated granite: DY-2, YG-1, HP-1 and MA-2. ³ w š û sw y y 16 w z r w ü ³ y w 8 (GC-1, GJ-1, YA-1 HN-1 y, DY-2, YG-1, HP-1 MA-2 y ) ³ w w, ³ w d w. ³ w p w, ³ wù ü x ü ³ w, w Mde I ³ (Fig. 3).» y ƒ d ³ w ww ùkü z w (Fig. 4). GC-1

6 24 Á Á Á½ Fig. 4. Cmpsite rse diagram f healed micrcrack rientatin in the rck samples GC-1 (N: 103), YG-1 (N: 105), MA-2 (N: 104), HP-1 (N: 100), DY-2 (N: 106), GJ-1 (N: 100), YA-1 (N:100), HN-1 (N:102). Daeb granite: GC-1, GJ-1, YA-1 and HN-1 (N70 W), Fliated granite: DY-2, YG-1, HP-1 and MA-2 (N30 W). N: a number f measured healed micrcracks. N50 W w ƒ w. GJ-1 N10 W N70 E w y ùkù, YA-1 HN-1 ƒ ƒ N60 W N70 W w ƒ w ùk ù. DY-2 N20 W w ƒ w, YG-1 N20-40 W w w ùkù. HP-1 N40 W w w ùkù, MA-2 N20 W w ƒ w ùkù. w w, NW-SE w w ù kùš ù y y w ƒ. ƒ d ³ w w txw y N70 W, y N30 W w w ùkû. s d d ³ ü s ³ y s w 5 (GC-1, YA-1 y, YG-1, HP-1, DY-2 y ) kw d. s w œwš, ³ y ³ w s d ³» w» z w. ³ ü sw 2 s (secndary fluid inclusin) d w. s k, ƒ þƒ x gx Linkam THMSG 600 w d w. s d Linkam THMSG 600 U.S.G.S. t (H 2O, H 2O+CO 2) w w. d þƒ x ±0.1 C, ƒ x ±0.5 C ü. d r Ÿx w w w ³ ü w 2 s wš x k» w z, d s ƒ w z j s ù» ³ y d w. ³ w d ³ y» w, ƒ w wù s w ³ y

7 š û sw»y ü ³ s wš 25 Fig. 5. Healed micrcracks f the NW-directin and fluid inclusin f NaCl-H 2O type in healed micrcrack. d w š w, s j»ƒ (5 µm w) ù ³ y d. š û» y ü w ³ NW-SE w w ùkù, w s w. d ³ ü s Fig. 5 ùkþ b a 25 y w. ƒ w s ³ y d Fig. 6. GC-1 ƒ 5-2 C š 2 C še ƒ, ³ y C š 310 C še ƒ. YA-1 ƒ 2-1 C š 2 C še ƒ, ³ y C š C še ƒ. w YA-1 d ƒ ƒ û ³ y ùký wì ƒ s. YG-1 ƒ 4-1 C swš 2 C še ƒ, ³ y C swš C še ƒ. HP-1 ƒ 3-1 C š 2 C še ƒ, ³ y C š 170 C še ƒ. DY-2 ƒ 15-5 C ƒ û ùkü 6 11 C še ƒ. ³ y C swš 250 C

8 26 Á Á Á½ Fig. 6. Histgrams f melting and hmgenizatin temperatures and plts f fluid inclusin in (a) GC-1, (b) YG-1, (c) HP-1, (d) DY-2 and (e) YA-1. Daeb granite: GC-1 and YA-1, Fliated granite: DY-2, YG-1, HP-1.

9 š û sw»y ü ³ s wš 27 Fig. 6. Cntinued. še ƒ. še DY-2 w ù, ³ y YA-1 w ù w ³ y. H 2O-NaCl s NaCl l s x k w (Ptter, 1977). s NaCl GC wt.%, YA wt.%, YG wt.%, HP wt.%, DY wt.%, DY-2 ƒ ƒ ùkü (Table 1). s sz ³ s ³ y w. ³ ü s š ¼ q s x w, ƒw t ƒ w xkƒ q mx ù x w x (necking dwn) w ³ ü w :»s s w (Redder, 1984; Smith and Evans, 1984). ³ ü w s ³ y ³ y s ƒ sz w» w w

10 28 Á Á Á½ Table 1. Results f melting (Tm), hmgenizatin (Th) and crrectin (Tt), and trapping (Tt) temperatures f fluid inclusins in Daeb granite and fliated granite Sample Tm( C) NaCl (wt, %) Th( C) Thc( C) Tt( C) GC YG HP DY YA *Daeb granite: GC-1 and YA-1, Fliated granite: YG-1, HP-1 and DY-2 w. w w ³ ü w s wù s x w ƒ w w ³ ü d w s ³ y s ³ s ³ y w w. w s w w z w» t k w» d ³ y s sz. w w» w w w w (Ingersn, 1947; Ptter, 1977), Brwn and Lamb(1989) H 2O-NaCl w s w FLINCOR fu l v w w. w Table 1. GC-1 y ü s ³ y C ù (Thc) z C ³ y ƒ, z sz (Tt) C. YA-1 ³ y C ù z C ³ y ƒ, z s z C ƒ. YG-1 ³ y C ù z C ³ y ƒ, z sz C ùk û. HP-1 ³ y C ù z C ³ y ƒ, z sz C. DY-2 ³ y C ù z C ³ y ƒ, z sz C ƒ. l ³ y d ³ y w w w ùkû. w GC-1, YA- 1, YG-1, HP-1 z sz ƒ w ³ w w., DY-2 z sz r, ³ ƒ. y þƒ ³ x» y» þƒ (cling histry) ³ w d w ³ š w» w w wù. y þƒ ƒ, e w z x ¾ þƒ s (clsure temperature)ƒ ƒƒ ù Ÿ w d w ƒ w. s Ÿ l w» w» (Apparent age), Ÿ (Ddsn, 1973). Ÿ w d Rb-Sr, K-Ar Fissin-track w. swš y y w d w š w y þƒ w. y y w» š w Table 2. d (whle rck) Ÿ s mw w y þƒ Fig. 7. ½ ½ (1990) w sw y y» y ùkùš y» šwš. ù, w y y

11 š û sw»y ü ³ s wš 29 Table 2. Istpic age f igneus rcks in the suthwestern part f Ogchen Flded Belt (Kim and Kim. 1990; Kim et al., 1995) Rck name Area Istpic age (Ma) Material analysed Reference Namwn gr. Osu 211±3(Rb-Sr) WR Ch (1986) Unbng 203.3±10.2(K-Ar) Hrnblende Kim and Lee (1988) Kwangju gr. Kwangju 222±5(Rb-Sr) WR Ch and Chi (1990) Sungjen 229.3±3.6(K-Ar) Hrnblende Kim et al. (1993) Sanni 93.77±1.43(K-Ar) Bitite Kim et al. (1993) Mnjang 172±5(K-Ar) Hrnblende Kim et al. (1994) Kwangju 210±3(Rb-Sr) WR Ch and Chi (1990) Daegang fliated gr. Namwn 228±5(Rb-Sr) WR Ch (1986) Hb-bt fliated gr. Jangs 198.7±9.9(K-Ar) Hrnblende Kim and Lee (1988) Sunchang fliated grd. Sunchang 222±5(Rb-Sr) WR Ch (1986) Hamyang 179.2±0.5(Ar 39 -Ar 40 ) Muscvite Kim (1986) Osu 159(K-Ar) Bitite Kim (1971) Samri fliated gr. Ogkwa 159(Ar 39 -Ar 40 ) Muscvite Kim (1986) 156(K-Ar) Muscvite Kim (1990) *Hb-bt: Hrnblende bitite, gr: granite, grd: grandirite, WR: Whle rck. d y ³ y C x, x» Ma q. w ³»»-»» x w,» w y y ƒ w û NW-SE w» ww (Kim et al., 2008). Fig. 7. Cling histry f Daeb and fliated granites (Kim and Kim. 1990; Kim et al., 1995). j ƒ ùkù d w w þƒ ƒ š w. p»» ew y»»¾ s³ 9.0 C/Ma þƒw, z s³ 3.1 C/Ma þƒ x q. s d mw ³ y y þƒ g ³ x» w. GC-1 YA-1 d y ü ³ C x, y þƒ w Ma» x q. YG-1, HP-1 DY-2 š r ³ w, y þƒ, š s d w ³ w ³ x» ww w š w., y ü ³ mw Ma(»»-»»)» N30 W w š w q. w y ü ³ mw N70 W w š Ma(»»)» w. k»»»»» w û w š w.»»»»» š NNW-

12 30 Á Á Á½ Fig. 8. Perid f healed micrcrack frmatin and palestress directin in Inje, Jechen, Wlaksan, Skrisan and study area. SSE w w. y ùkù w w N20-30 E w w ùkù w ew. y N70 W w ³ x w š w w w. w»» š N70 W w N30 W w ù kù. y w WNW-ESE w wì w. š w w š w t ( v, 1979; Kh, 1995;, 1995). v (1979) œ ùkù š w š p p» y w» w NW-SE š,» NE-SWƒ w w. Kh (1995) š w š p» WNW-ESE w»»-» NW-SE w» N-S w y š w. (1995) š,,, sw y ³ s d w š ³ w. w N30-40 W E-W w š Ma» w š, N40-50 W N80 E w š Ma» w š, N40-50 W N-S w š Ma» w, N-S w š Ma» w w. ³ x» š w w ùkü Fig. 8.» š ³ w, s d d w y þƒ mw š w r, NNW-SSE WNW-ESE w š»»»»» w q,» ww. w» x šw w y y w ùkù. ½ ½ (1990) w y ƒ ƒ w y y yw d w» w mw š z y ³ w v ƒ. š û swš» y ü ³ w, š s d y þƒ w w š w» ³ w. ³ w GC-1 N50 W w ƒ wš, GJ-1 N10 W N70 E w, š YA-1 HN-1 N60 W N70 W w ƒ w ùkù. YG-1 N20-40 W w, MA-2 N20 W w, HP-1 N40 W w, DY-2 N20 W w w. s /³ y GC C/ C, YA C/ C, YG C/ C, HP C/ C š DY C/ C. ³ y

13 š û sw»y ü ³ s wš 31 mw w ³ GC C, YA C, YG C, HP C š DY C ƒ. w d mw y þƒ w ³ x» š w w, NNW-SSE WNW-ESE w š Ma(»»-»») w q,» ww ( w ) w w (KRF C00012). š x v, 1979, ûw œ w. wz, 15, ½, 1971, ûw»y» ƒ. Ÿ, 4, ½, 1986, û sw š» yƒ w. Ÿ, 19, ½,,, 1994, yû ü sw y w. y, 27, ½,,, ½, 1995, ù - - s sw y yw y y w. w wz, 16, ½,,, 1993, ù -wû sw y yw. w wz, 14, ½,, 1988, - sw y y y w. wz, 24, ½, 1990, - sw y w yw. û w w w, 182 p. ½, ½, 1990, - sw y w w. Ÿ, 23, ½ y, š,, «, y,, x,», z, zk,, 1993, y Ÿ k (3). w», KR-92(T)-25, 209 p., 1995, š y ü sw ³ w š. w w, , ½, 1996,, y ü sw ³ s w» š. wz, 32, w,, 2004, y ü ³ s w š. wz, 40, y, 1986, û Rb-Sr d (III). w š, KB , 28 p. y,, 1990, Ÿ y Rb-Sr d (IV). w š, KB-90-1B-2, 52 p., y w, š,, ½, x,», ½,,, 2002, 1:250,000 sá s š, w, 45 p. Brantley, S.L., Evans, B., Hickman, S.H., and Crerar, D.A., 1990, Healing in micrcracks in quartz: Implicatins fr fluid flw. Gelgy, 18, Brwn, P.E. and Lamb, W.M., 1989, P-V-T prperties f fluids in the implicatins f fluid inclusin studies. Gechimica et Csmchimica Acta,, 53, Chugh, S.K., Kwn, S.-T., Ree, J.-H., and Chi, D.K., 2000, Tectnic and sedimentary evlutin f the Krean peninsula: A review and new view. Earth-Science Reviews, 52, Ddsn, M.H., 1973, Clsure temperature in cling gechrnlgical and petrlgical systems. Cntributin Mineralgy and Petrlgy, 40, Fredrich, J.T. and Wng, T.F., 1986, Micrmechanics f Thermally induced cracking in three crustal rcks. Jurnal f Gephysical Research, 91, Hmand-Etienne, F. and Hupert, R., 1989, Thermally induced micrcracking in granites: Characterizatin and analysis. Internatinal Jurnal f Rck Mechanics and Mining Science, 26, Ingersn, E., 1947, Liquid inclusins in gelgic thermmetry. American Mineralgist, 32, Jang, B.A. and Wang, H.F., 1991, Micrmechanical mdeling f healed micrcrack rientatins as a palestress indicatr: Applicatin t Precambrian granite frm Illinis and Wiscnsin. Jurnal f Gephysical Research, 96, Jang, B.A., Wang, H.F., Ren, X., and Kwallis, B.J., 1989, Precambrian palestress frm micrcracks and fluid inclusins in the Wlf River bathlith f central Wiscnsin. Gelgical Sciety f America Bulletin, 101, Jin, M.S., 1995, Gechrnlgy and cling histry f the Meszic granite plutns in the central part f the Ogchen Fld Belt, Suth Krea. Jurnal f Petrlgical Sciety f Krea, 4, Krea Institute f Gescience and Mineral Resurces, 2001, Tectnic map f Krea. Krea Institute f Ge-

14 32 Á Á Á½ science and Mineral Resurces. Kim, J.M., Jang, B.A., Obara, Y., and Kang, S.S., 2008, Palestress recnstructins based n calcite twins in the Jsen Supergrup, nrtheastern Ogchen Belt (Suth Krea). The Island Arc, 17, Knapp, R.B. and Knight, J., 1977, Differential thermal expansin f pre fluids: Fracture prpagatin and micrearthquake prductin in ht plutn envirnments. Jurnal f Gephysical Research, 82, Kh, H.J., 1995, Structural analysis and tectnic evlutin f the Ogchen supergrup, Gesan, central part f the Ogchen belt, Krea. Ph.D. thesis, Seul Natinal University, 282 p. Kwallis, B.J., Wang, H.F., and Jang, B.A., 1987, Healed micrcrack rientatins in granite frm Illinis brehle UPH-3 and their relatinship t the rck's stress histry. Tectnphysics, 135, Kranz, R.L., 1983, Micrcracks in rcks: A review. Tectnphysics, 100, Laubach, S.E., 1989, Palestress directins frm the preferred rientatin f fluid-inclusin planes (healed micrfractures) in sandstne, East Texas basin, U.S.A. Jurnal f Structural Gelgy, 11, Lespinasse, M. and Pêcher, A., 1986, Micrfracturing and reginal stress field: A study f the preferred rientatins f fluid-inclusin planes in a granite frm the Massif Central, France. Jurnal f Structural Gelgy, 8, Mawer, C.K. and Williams, P.F., 1985, Crystalline rcks as pssible paleseismicity indicatrs. Gelgy, 13, Nrtn, D.L., 1982, Fluid and heat transprt phenmena typical f cpper-bearing plutn envirnments. In Titley, S.R., ed., Advances in gelgy f the Prphyry Cpper Depsit: Tucsn, University f Arizna Press, Nur, A. and Simmns, G., 1970, The rigin f small cracks in igneus rcks. Internatinal Jurnal f Rck Mechanics and Mining Science, 7, Pêcher, A., Lespinasse, M., and Lery, J., 1985, Relatins between fluid inclusin trails and reginal stress field: A tl fr fluid chrnlgy-an example f an intragranitic uranium re depsit (nrthwest Massif Central, France). Liths, 18, Plumb, R., Engelder, T., and Yale, D., 1984, Near-surface in situ stress: 3. Crrelatin with micrcrack fabric within the New Hampshire granite. Jurnal f Gephysical research, 89, Ptter II, R.W., 1977, Pressure crrectins fr fluid-inclusin hmgenizatin temperature based n the vlumetric prperties f the system NaCl-H 2O. Jurnal f Research f the U.S. Gelgical Survey, 5, Ren, X., Kwallis, B.J., and Best, M.G., 1989, Palestress histry f the Basin and Range prvince in western Utah and eastern Nevada frm healed micrfracture rientatins in granites. Gelgy, 17, Redder, E., 1984, Fluid inclusins: Reviews in mineralgy. Mineralgical Sciety f America, Washingtn, D.C., USA, 644 p. Sheltn, K.L. and Orvile, P.M., 1980, Frmatin f synthetic fluid inclusins in natural quartz. American Mineralgist, 65, Simmns, G. and Richter, D., 1976, Micrcracks in rcks. In Sterns, R.J.G. (ed.), The physics and chemistry f minerals and rcks. Wiley-Interscience, NY, USA, Smith, D.L. and Evans, B., 1984, Diffusinal crack healing in quartz. Jurnal f Gephysical Research, 89, Turek, A. and Kim. C.B., 1995, U-Pb zircn ages f Meszic plutns in the Damyang-Gechang area, Ryengnam massif, Krea. Gechemical Jurnal, 29, Tuttle, O.F., 1949, Structural petrlgy f planes f liquid inclusins. Jurnal f Gelgy, 57, Yanai, S., Park, B.S., and Oth, S., 1985, The Hnam Shear Zne (Suth Krea): Defrmatin and tectnic implicatin in the Far East. Sci. Pap. Cllege f Arts and Science, University f Tky, 35, š k

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