In future lessons, you will learn about many more of these additions. For example, some of them are: ~ ㄴ / 은후에 to mean after ~ 기전에 to mean before ~ 기때

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1 Nouns: 눈썹 = eyebrow 교사 = teacher 반 = class of students in school 직장 = location of work 벽 = wall 털 = hair (not on head)/fur 머리카락 = hair (on head) 저녁식사 = dinner 저녁시간 = evening time 점심식사 = lunch 점심시간 = lunch time (It is also common to omit the word 식사 and use 아침, 점심 and 저녁 to refer to the respective meals). Verbs: 찾다 = search for 공부하다 = study 가르치다 = teach 일하다 = work 짓다 = build 가지다 = own/possess 잠그다 = to lock something 잊다 = forget 돕다 = help 주다 = give Adjectives: 쉽다 = easy 덥다 = hot 그립다 = to miss (a thing) 귀엽다 = cute 춥다 = cold 어렵다 = difficult 더럽다 = dirty 바쁘다 = busy 같다 = same 안전하다 = safe 딱딱하다 = hard 부드럽다 = soft 가능하다 = possible 불가능하다 = impossible 맞다 = correct Adverbs and Other Words: 지각 = late 일찍 = early 오전 = morning 오후 = afternoon 매일 = everyday 여름 = summer 가을 = fall 겨울 = winter 봄 = spring Irregulars As with all languages, there are some irregular conjugations that you need to know. Irregulars are applied to certain verbs or adjectives when adding something to the stem of the word. Korean grammar is based on these additions that are added to stems. I mentioned this in Lesson 5, but I want to reiterate it here. There are hundreds of additions that you can add to the stem of a verb or adjective. Some of these are conjugations and some of them are grammatical principles that have meaning in a sentence. You have learned about some of these additions now. For example: ~ ㄴ / 는다 to conjugate to the plain form ~ 아 / 어요 to conjugate to the informal high respect form ~ ㅂ / 습니다 to conjugate to the formal high respect form ~ 았 / 었어 to conjugate to the informal low respect form in the past tense ~ ㄴ / 은 added to an adjective to describe an upcoming noun HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 1

2 In future lessons, you will learn about many more of these additions. For example, some of them are: ~ ㄴ / 은후에 to mean after ~ 기전에 to mean before ~ 기때문에 to mean because ~ 아 / 어서 to mean because ~( 으 ) 면 to mean when ~ 아 / 어야하다 to mean one must ~ 아 / 어서는안되다 to mean one should not Notice that some of these additions start with a vowel, and some of them start with a consonant. Most of the irregulars are applied when adding a vowel to a stem. The ㄹ irregular that is introduced at the end of the lesson is the only irregular that applies when adding a consonant to a stem. Let s look at one example before I introduce each irregular one by one. Let s say we want to conjugate the word 어렵다 into the past tense using the informal low respect form. The following would happen: 어렵다 + ~ 았 / 었어 = 어려웠어 Here, you can see that the actual stem of the word changed. This is referred to as the ㅂ irregular because the same phenomenon happens with many (but not all) words whose stem ends in ㅂ. As I mentioned previously, most of these irregulars are applied when adding a vowel to a stem. Although there are many additions that start with a vowel, the only ones that you have learned about to this point are the conjugations taught in Lessons 5 and 6: ~ 아 / 어 ~ 아 / 어요 ~ 았 / 었어 ~ 았 / 었어요 ~ 았 / 었습니다 ~ 았 / 었다 As such, this lesson will present the Korean irregulars and how they change as a result of adding these conjugations. In later lessons when you learn about other additions, you can apply what you learned in this lesson to those concepts. For now, let s get started. HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 2

3 ㅅ Irregular If the last letter of a word stem ends in ㅅ (for example: 짓다 = to build), the ㅅ gets removed when adding a vowel. For example, when conjugating: 짓다 = to make/build 짓 + 어 = 지어나는집을지어 = I build a house 짓 + 었어요 = 지었어요저는집을지었어요 = I built a house Notice that this only happens when adding a vowel. When conjugating to the plain form, for example, you only add ~ 는다 to the stem and thus ㅅ does not get removed: 집을짓는다 = to build a house The reason this irregular is done is to avoid changing the sound of a word completely after conjugating it. Pronouncing 짓다 sounds like jit-da. Pronouncing 지어 sounds like ji-uh Pronouncing 짓어 sounds like jis-suh The third one (which is incorrect) completely changes the sound of the word stem when a vowel is added (from jit to jis. Whereas in the second one, the sound of the word stem only changes from jit to ji, which is much smaller of a difference (especially considering the t in the pronunciation of 짓 is not aspirated - which makes it barely audible). I know that is confusing, but if you can t understand why it is done, that s fine. Just know that it must be done. Some other examples of words that follow this irregular are (these words are too difficult for you right now, but I'm just showing you): 낫다 = better (adjective) - You will learn more about this word in Lesson 19 잇다 = to continue (verb) Common words that this does not apply to are: 웃다 (to laugh) = 저는웃었어요 = I laughed 벗다 (to take off clothes) = 저는저의옷을벗었어요 = I took off my clothes 씻다 (to wash) = 저는저의손을씻었어요 = I washed my hands HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 3

4 Here is a table with the word 짓다 (to build) being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned. The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~ 아 / 어 (or one of its derivatives like ~ 았 / 었어요 ) is added to the verb stem. 짓다 = build Past Present Future Informal low 지었어 지어 짓겠어 Informal high 지었어요 지어요 짓겠어요 Plain form 지었다 짓는다 짓겠다 Formal high 지었습니다 짓습니다 짓겠습니다 Note that when a word stem has ㅅ as the fourth consonant, this irregular does not apply. For example, this does not apply to 없다, which you will learn about in the next lesson. ㄷ irregular If the last letter of a word stem ends in ㄷ ( 걷다 = to walk), the ㄷ gets changed to ㄹ when adding a vowel. This is only done with verbs. For example: 걷다 = to walk 걷 + 어 = 걸어저는걸어요 = I walk 걷 + 었어요 = 걸었어요저는걸었어요 = I walked I don t mean to confuse you, but I will: 걷다 means to walk. When conjugating, by adding a vowel it changes to 걸어 Another meaning of 걷다 is to tuck. But this meaning of 걷다 does not follow the irregular rule. So, when conjugating, by adding a vowel is simply stays as 걷어. In addition, 걸다 means to hang. When conjugating, by adding a vowel it stays as 걸어 Confusing enough? Let s look at all three: 걷다 = To walk 걷다 = To tuck 걸다 = To hang Past Formal 걸었어요 걷었어요 걸었어요 Present Formal 걸어요 걷어요 걸어요 Future Formal 걷겠어요 걷겠어요 걸겠어요 Honestly, though, the whole 걷다 / 걷다 / 걸다 thing is probably the most confusing part of this conjugation, and don t worry too much about it. Walk is a word that is used much more frequently than tuck, so it is not something that comes up a lot. HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 4

5 The reason this conjugation is done is simply because the sounds flows off your tongue better. It is similar to pronouncing the word butter in English. When pronouncing butter we don t say butt-tter, we just say bud-er. Like the ㄷ irregular, it is simply to avoid saying a hard consonant. This is done to most stems ending in ㄷ, common words that this does not apply to (like 걷다 = to tuck) are: 받다 (to get/receive) = 저는돈을받았어요 = I received money 묻다 = 묻어요 (to bury) = 저는저의강아지를묻었어요 = I buried my dog 닫다 = 닫아요 (to close) = 저는문을닫았어요 = I closed the door Here is a table with the word 걷다 (to walk) being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far. The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~ 아 / 어 (or one of its derivatives like ~ 았 / 었어요 ) is added to the verb stem. 걷다 = walk Past Present Future Informal low 걸었어 걸어 걷겠어 Informal high 걸었어요 걸어요 걷겠어요 Plain form 걸었다 걷는다 걷겠다 Formal high 걸었습니다 걷습니다 걷겠습니다 ㅂ Irregular If the last letter of a word stem ends in ㅂ ( 쉽다 = easy), the ㅂ changes to 우 when adding a vowel. 우 then gets added to the next syllable in the conjugated word. This is mostly done with adjectives. Many verbs end with ㅂ but this rule is rarely applied to verbs (some of the few verbs where this rule applies are: 줍다 (to pick up), 눕다 (to lie down)). For example: 쉽다 = to be easy 쉽 + 어 = 쉬 + 우 + 어 = 쉬워그것은쉬워 = That thing is easy 어렵다 = to be difficult 어렵 + 어요 = 어려 + 우 + 어요 = 어려워요그것은어려워요 = That was difficult 귀엽다 = cute 귀엽 + 어요 = 귀여 + 우 + 어요 = 귀여워요그여자는귀여워요 That girl is cute HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 5

6 In the words 돕다 (to help) and 곱다 (an uncommon way to say beautiful ) ㅂ changes to 오 instead of 우. For example: 돕다 = to help 돕 + 았어요 = 도 + 오 + 았어요 = 도왔어요저는저의어머니를도왔어요 = I helped my mother Because this irregular is found in adjectives, you will be conjugating it not only at the end of a sentence, but also in the middle of a sentence (before a noun). Remember the difference between these two sentences. 사과는크다 = Apples are big 나는큰사과를좋아한다 = I like big apples In the first sentence, big is an adjective that describes the noun (apple) at the end of the sentence. In the second, big describes the apple (as a big apple ) and then like acts on the noun. In Lesson 4, you learned how to describe a noun by placing an adjective with ~ ㄴ / 은 before it. Adding ~ ㄴ / 은 to adjectives where the stem ends in ㅂ causes this irregular to come into play. When placing an adjective (who's stem ends in " ㅂ ") before a noun to describe it, you add ~ ㄴ to the newly formed 우 / 오 syllable: 귀엽 + ㄴ = 귀여 + 우 + ㄴ = 귀여운저는귀여운여자를좋아해요 = I like cute girls More examples: 쉽다 = easy 쉽 + ㄴ = 쉬 + 우 + ㄴ = 쉬운저는쉬운일을했어요 = I did easy work 부드럽다 = soft 부드럽 + ㄴ = 부드러 + 우 + ㄴ = 부드러운나는부드러운손이있어 = I have soft hands 춥다 = cold 춥 + ㄴ = 추 + 우 + ㄴ = 추운저는추운날씨를좋아해요 = I like cold weather Note that in most irregulars, the word changes differently if the last vowel in the stem is ㅗ OR ㅏ. However, in the ㅂ irregular, except for 돕다 and 곱다, all applicable words are changed by adding 우. HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 6

7 아름답다 = beautiful: 아름답 + 어요 = 아름다 + 우 + 어요 = 아름다워요그여자는아름다워요 = That girl is beautiful 새롭다 = new 새롭 + 어요 = 새로 + 우 + 어요 = 새로워요그학교는새로워요 = That school is new 그것은새로운학교예요 = That (thing) is a new school Probably the most confusing of all irregulars, mainly because it seems strange that ㅂ can change to 우 / 오. The reason this happens is similar to the ㅅ irregular. As you know, when pronouncing a syllable with the last letter ㅂ, you don t really pronounce the B sound. But, if you add a vowel after ㅂ the sound of B would be pronounced. The purpose of the irregular is to eliminate the B sound which isn t actually in the word. This is done to some words ending in ㅂ. Some common words where this does not apply: 좁다 (narrow) = 이방은좁아요 = This room is narrow 넓다 (wide) = 이방은넓어요 = This room is wide (Korean people often describe a room/place being big by saying it is wide 잡다 (to catch/grab) = 저는공을잡았어요 = I caught the ball Here is a table with the word 춥다 (cold) being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far. The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~ 아 / 어 (or one of its derivatives like ~ 았 / 었어요 ) is added to the verb stem. 춥다 = cold Past Present Future Informal low 추웠어 추워 춥겠어 Informal high 추웠어요 추워요 춥겠어요 Plain form 추웠다 춥다 춥겠다 Formal high 추웠습니다 춥습니다 춥겠습니다 Adjective form 추운날씨 = cold weather ㅡ Irregular If the final vowel in a stem is ㅡ (for example: 잠그다 = to lock), when adding ~ 아 / 어, you can not determine whether you need to add ~ 어 or ~ 아 to the stem by looking at ㅡ. Instead, you must look at the vowel in the second last syllable. For example, in the word " 잠그다 ", the second last syllable in the stem is " 잠 ", and the vowel here is ㅏ. Therefore, as usual, we add ~ 아 to 잠그. HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 7

8 For example: 잠그다 + ~ 아 / 어 = 잠그아 In cases like this where a word ends in " ㅡ " (that is, there is no final consonant after " ㅡ ") and is followed by ~ 아 / 어 (or any of its derivatives), the ~ 아 / 어 ~ the " ㅡ " is eliminated and the addition of ~ 아 / 어 ~ merges to the stem. For example: 잠그다 = to lock The last vowel in the stem is ㅡ. The vowel in the second last syllable is ㅏ, so we add 아. For example: 잠그 + 아 Because there is no final consonant after ㅡ, ~ 아 replaces ㅡ. 잠그 + 아 = 잠가 This would be the same in the past tense as well, for example: 잠그 + 았어요 = 잠갔어요저는문을잠갔어요 = I locked the door Let s look at another example: 바쁘다 = to be busy The last vowel in stem is ㅡ. The vowel in the second last syllable is ㅏ, so we add 아. For example: 바쁘 + 아 Because there is no final consonant after ㅡ, ~ 아 replaces ㅡ. 바쁘 + 아요 = 바빠요저는바빠요 = I am busy Let s look at another example: 예쁘다 = pretty The last vowel in the stem is ㅡ. The vowel in the second last syllable is not ㅏ or ㅗ, so we add 어. For example: 예쁘 + 어 Because there is no final consonant after ㅡ, ~ 어 replaces ㅡ. 예쁘 + 어요 = 예뻐그여자는예뻐요 = That girl is pretty If the word ends in a consonant (for example: 긁다 = to scratch), you just add the ~ 아 / 어 as you would to a normal word and nothing needs to merge. For example: 저는머리를긁었어요 = I scratched my head HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 8

9 Another example where we find a single-syllable word with " ㅡ " as the only vowel is " 듣다 (to hear)" 듣다 = to hear Last vowel in stem is ㅡ. There is no syllable preceding 듣, so we must add 어. 듣 ends in a consonant, so 어 does not get added directly to the syllable. 듣 + 었어요 = 듣었어요 But! Don t forget the ㄷ irregular. In this example, both ㅡ and ㄷ irregulars are used: 듣 + 었다 = 들었다 저는쥐를들었어요 = I heard a mouse This same rule applies when adding ~ 아 / 어 to words where, not only is the last vowel in the stem ㅡ, but all the vowels in the stem are ㅡ. For example, in the word 슬프다. 저는아주슬퍼요 = I am very sad An irregular to this already irregular rule is " 만들다 (to make)." Even though the second last syllable in the stem has the vowel " ㅏ ", ~ 어 ~ is added instead of ~ 아 ~. For example: 만들다 + ~ 아 / 어요 = 만들어요 Here is a table with the word 잠그다 (to lock which is a verb) being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far. The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~ 아 / 어 (or one of its derivatives like ~ 았 / 었어요 ) is added to the verb stem. 잠그다 = lock Past Present Future Informal low 잠갔어 잠가 잠그겠어 Informal high 잠갔어요 잠가요 잠그겠어요 Plain form 잠갔다 잠근다 잠그겠다 Formal high 잠갔습니다 잠급니다 잠그겠습니다 And here is a table with the word 예쁘다 (pretty which is an adjective) being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far. The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~ 아 / 어 (or one of its derivatives like ~ 았 / 었어요 ) is added to the verb stem. HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 9

10 예쁘다 = pretty Past Present Future Informal low 예뻤어 예뻐 예쁘겠어 Informal high 예뻤어요 예뻐요 예쁘겠어요 Plain form 예뻤다 예쁘다 예쁘겠다 Formal high 예뻤습니다 예쁩니다 예쁘겠습니다 Finally, here is a table with the word 만들다 (to make which is a verb) being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far. 만들다 = to make Past Present Future Informal low 만들었어 만들어 만들겠어 Informal high 만들었어요 만들어요 만들겠어요 Plain form 만들었다 만든다 만들겠다 Formal high 만들었습니다만듭니다 만들겠습니다 You will learn how 만든다 and 만듭니다 are formed later in the lesson when you learn about the ㄹ irregular. 르 Irregular If the final syllable in a stem is 르 ( 마르다 ), it is conjugated differently when adding ~ 아 / 어. This irregular only applies when adding ~ 아 / 어 (or any of its derivatives) to a stem and not when adding any other grammatical principles that starts with a vowel or consonant. Up until now, you haven't learned about any of these other grammatical principles, that can start with anything other than ~ 아 / 어 ~, so don't worry about this distinction too much. When adding ~ 아 / 어 to these words, an additional ㄹ is created and placed in the syllable preceding 르 as the last consonant. The 르 also gets changed to either 러 or 라 (depending on if you are adding 어 or 아 ). This is done to both verbs and adjectives (the only exception is 따르다 = to follow/to pour). For example: 다르다 = different 다르 + 아요 = 다 + ㄹ + 라요 = 달라요그것은달라요 = That thing is different 빠르다 = to be fast 빠르 + 아요 = 빠 + ㄹ + 라요 = 빨라요그남자는빨라요 = That man is fast 부르다 = to call somebody s name 부르 + 었어요 = 부 + ㄹ + 렀어요 = 불렀어요저는저의누나를불렀어요 = I called my sister HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 10

11 Here is a table with the word 고르다 (to choose which is a verb) being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far. The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~ 아 / 어 (or one of its derivatives like ~ 았 / 었어요 ) is added to the verb stem. 고르다 = choose Past Present Future Informal low 골랐어 골라 고르겠어 Informal high 골랐어요 골라요 고르겠어요 Plain form 골랐다 고른다 고르겠다 Formal high 골랐습니다 고릅니다 고르겠습니다 And here is a table with the word 빠르다 (fast/quick which is an adjective) being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far. The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~ 아 / 어 (or one of its derivatives like ~ 았 / 었어요 ) is added to the verb stem. 빠르다 = fast Past Present Future Informal low 빨랐어 빨라 빠르겠어 Informal high 빨랐어요 빨라요 빠르겠어요 Plain form 빨랐다 빠르다 빠르겠다 Formal high 빨랐습니다 빠릅니다 빠르겠습니다 Adjective form 빠른남자 = Fast man ㄹ Irregular If the final letter of a stem is ㄹ AND you add ~ ㄴ /~ ㅂ to that stem, the ㄹ is removed and the ㄴ / ㅂ get added on directly to the stem. However, if you are adding 는 or something starting with ㅅ to the stem the ㄹ is removed and ~ 는 /~ ㅅ is added directly after the stem. In addition, when adding ㄹ / 을 to a stem that ends in ㄹ, you actually eliminate the ㄹ / 을. That is a lot, so let s look at each in more detail: ㄹ Irregular Adding ㄴ to words You have learned about adding ㄴ / 은 to adjective stems when modifying nouns: 크다 = 큰남자작다 = 작은남자 When adding ~ ㄴ / 은 to a stem that ends in ㄹ, ㄹ is removed and ㄴ is added to the stem: 길다 = long 길 + ㄴ = 긴저는긴거리를건넜어요 = I crossed the long street HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 11

12 멀다 = far away 멀 + ㄴ = 먼저는먼병원에갔어요 = I went to a far away hospital (a hospital that is far away) You have also learned about adding ㄴ / 는다 to verbs when conjugating to the plain form: 나는집에간다 = I go home 나는잔다 = I sleep But when adding ㄴ / 는다 to a verb stem that ends in ㄹ, you must remove ㄹ and add ㄴ다 to the verb stem: 나는문을연다 = I open the door 나는케이크를만든다 = I make a cake ㄹ Irregular Adding ㅂ to words You have also learned about adding ㅂ to verb and adjective stems when conjugating in the Formal high respect form: Verbs: 저는집에갑니다 = I go home 저는잡니다 = I sleep Adjectives: 그여자는예쁩니다 = That girl is beautiful 그것은불가능합니다 = That thing is impossible But when adding ㅂ니다 to verbs or adjectives whose stems end in ㄹ, you must remove ㄹ and add ㅂ directly to the stem: Verbs: 저는문을엽니다 = I open the door 저는케이크를만듭니다 = I make a cake Adjectives: 그병원은멉니다 = That hospital is far 그여자의머리는깁니다 = That girls hair is long 머리 can mean head or hair depending on the context. If you want to specifically mention your hair, you can say 머리카락 always means the hair on one s head. 머리 or 머리카락 does not refer to the hair on an animal, or the body hair of a human. This hair is referred to as 털 and extends to most of the hair that can be found on animals (fur, the wool on a sheep, etc) HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 12

13 Here is a table with the word 열다 (to open which is a verb) being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far. The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~ ㄴ or ~ ㅂ is added to the verb stem. 열다 = open Past Present Future Informal low 열었어 열어 열겠어 Informal high 열었어요 열어요 열겠어요 Plain form 열었다 연다 열겠다 Formal high 열었습니다 엽니다 열겠습니다 And here is a table with the word 길다 (long which is an adjective) being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far. Notice that this only occurs when ~ ㄴ or ~ ㅂ is added to the verb stem (it would happen when ~ ㄴ is added, but you don t add ~ ㄴ / 는 to an adjective when you conjugate it like this. There are times, however, when this would happen, but you haven t even gotten close to learning about them yet. For example, in Lesson 76, we talk about the addition of ~ ㄴ / 는데 to clauses. This would make 길다 turn into 긴데. Please don t even think about looking ahead until Lesson 76 until you ve finished with this lesson, and the 69 lessons in between. 길다 = long Past Present Future Informal low 길었어 길어 길겠어 Informal high 길었어요 길어요 길겠어요 Plain form 길었다 길다 길겠다 Formal high 길었습니다 깁니다 길겠습니다 Adjective form 긴거리 = long road I don t want to confuse you too much more because I am sure you are already really confused. Just the amount of content on this page alone is enough to make somebody cry. That being said, I think it is a very good exercise to try to compare how the words 듣다 and 들다 differ in their conjugations. Don t worry about the meaning of 들다 yet (it is a very complex word that has many meanings), but just assume it is a verb in this case. For now, let s just focus on how they are conjugated. Notice that when conjugating 듣다, you need to consider the following irregular patterns: - ㄷ irregular (because it ends in ㄷ ) - ㅡ irregular (because the final vowel is ㅡ ) HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 13

14 The following table shows how 듣다 should be conjugated across the honorifics and tenses you have learned so far: 듣다 = to hear Past Present Future Informal low 들었어 들어 듣겠어 Informal high 들었어요 들어요 듣겠어요 Plain form 들었다 듣는다 듣겠다 Formal high 들었습니다 듣습니다 듣겠습니다 Notice when conjugating 들다, you need to consider the following irregular patterns: - ㄹ irregular (because it ends in ㄹ ) - ㅡ irregular (because the final vowel is ㅡ ) The following table shows how 들다 should be conjugated across the honorifics and tenses you have learned so far: 들다 Past Present Future Informal low 들었어 들어 들겠어 Informal high 들었어요 들어요 들겠어요 Plain form 들었다 든다 들겠다 Formal high 들었습니다 듭니다 들겠습니다 I feel that comparing these two is a very good exercise because you can see that sometimes, because of the irregular conjugations, 듣다 might look exactly like 들다. For example, in all of the past tense conjugations, there is no way to distinguish between the two based on sound, and the only way to distinguish them is by context in a sentence. There is no easy way around memorizing stuff like this. The only words of encouragement I can give you is that as you become more and more familiar with the language, and as you expose yourself to it more and more, it does become second nature. I know you can t believe that now, but it does. ㄹ Irregular Adding Anything that Starts with a Solid ㄴ or ㅅ As of now, you have not yet learned about adding anything that starts with a solid ㄴ or ㅅ to a stem, so don t worry about this too much now. What I mean by solid ㄴ is that any addition where you add ㄴ, but there is no choice of having to add ~ ㄴ or something else. For example, even though the plain form conjugation ~ ㄴ / 는다 starts with ~ ㄴ, there is a choice of having to add ㄴ OR 는. This irregular only applies to grammar additions that start with ㄴ, and there is no alternate addition. For example, as you will learn later, a grammatical addition to form a question is ~ 니. There is no alternate addition to this. For example, it is not ~ ㄴ / 니. HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 14

15 I will show you the examples of how this works, but you won t be able to understand them. Just try to see how the irregular works within these examples, and I will re-present these again when you learn how to deal with adding a solid ~ ㄴ and ~ ㅅ. When you add a solid ~ ㄴ or ~ ㅅ to a stem of a word that ends in ㄹ, you must drop the ㄹ from the stem, and add the solid ~ ㄴ or ~ ㅅ after the stem: For example: 열다 + ~ 나 ( 요 ) = 여나요열다 + ~ 니 = 여니열다 + ~ 는 = 여는열다 + ~ 냐 = 여냐열다 + ~ 세요 = 여세요 Again, that is just for your reference. I will teach you more about those irregulars when I teach you about the specific grammar within them. Specifically, you will learn about adding ~ 니 and ~ 나 to stems in Lesson 22; you will learn about ~ 는 in Lessons 26, 27 and 28; and will learn about~ 세요 in Lesson 40. Make sure that you realize that you have not learned any grammatical principle where "~ 는 " is added. The addition of "~ 는 " is not the diary form conjugation that you learned in Lesson 5. That conjugation is ~ ㄴ / 는다 - where, depending on the stem of the verb, you might need add ~ ㄴ다 or ~ 는다. The "~ 는 " addition is not the same, and will be talked about in Lessons 26, 27 and 28, but try not to worry about it now. Just to make my point clear - the diary form present tense conjugation of " 열다 " is " 연다 " (based on the information earlier). It is not 여는다. ㄹ Irregular Adding ~ ㄹ / 을 to words Just like the above ( 는 / ㅅ ) example, you have not learned about adding ~ ㄹ / 을 to a stem, so don t worry about this too much now either. I will show you the examples, but you won t be able to understand them. Just try to see how the irregular works within these examples, and I will re-present these again when you learn how to deal with adding ~ ㄹ / 을. When you add ~ ㄹ / 을 to a stem of a word that ends in ㄹ, you actually drop the ㄹ / 을 altogether: 갈다 + ㄹ / 을 = 갈빨다 + ㄹ / 을 = 빨 Again, that is just for your reference. I will teach you more about this irregular when I teach you about the specific grammar within it in Lesson 9. HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 15

16 Adding ~ ㄴ / 은 to Adjectives I mentioned this in some of the sections above, but I would like to organize it all here. In Lesson 4, you learned how to add ~ ㄴ / 은 to adjectives to describe an upcoming noun. Some irregulars will come into play when adding doing this because of the possibility of adding a vowel to a stem. Let s look at the word 어렵다 as an example. 어렵다 has a consonant as its final letter, which means that ~ 은 must be added (instead of ~ ㄴ ). Therefore, we end up with: 어렵은 Because of this, now we now have the final consonant ㅂ followed by a vowel, which causes the ㅂ irregular to be applied. The correct conjugation of 어렵다 + ~ ㄴ / 은 is therefore 어려운. Below is a table that shows how irregular adjectives can change because of adding ~ ㄴ / 은 : Irregular Example Word Does this apply? Application ㅅ Irregular 낫다 (better) YES 나은 ㄷ Irregular NA NA NA ㅂ Irregular 쉽다 (easy) YES 쉬운 ㅡ Irregular 바쁘다 (busy) NO 바쁜 르 Irregular 빠르다 (fast) NO 빠른 ㄹ Irregular 길다 (long) YES 긴 That s it! Wow that is a lot of irregulars. Note that these irregulars do not apply to word stems ending with a four-letter syllable. For example, the ㅅ irregular does not apply to 없다, which you will learn about in the next lesson. Check out our Irregular Guide (which is included next) if you are confused (I m sure you are!). Everybody is confused when they learn these irregulars. Eventually you will reach a point where all of these will come natural to you. Whenever you learn a new word where the stem ends in ㅅ / ㄹ / ㅂ / ㄷ / 르 / ㅡ just make a mental note about how you should conjugate that word in the futurei don t even have to think about these irregulars anymore because they just flow out naturally. If you can t memorize them all right now, just try to understand them, which will allow you to recognize them later. Eventually, you will memorize them simply from using and hearing them so much. HowtoStudyKorean.com Unit 1 16