210 mlldang, occupy the southern half of the peninsula. The border between the two are regarded as the South Han River. In general, a spirit-descended

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1 The Sacred and the Profane in Korean Shamanistic Music Music of Three Shamanistic Traditions in Central Korea Yong-Shik Lee Yang-In University Introduction T he Korean shamanistic ritual, called kut, is a cumulation of various cultural assets; philosophy, literature, fine arts, dance, and music. Among these elements, music is the core element because the deities for whom the kut is held for are invoked, entertained, and parted by the shaman's music. Without music, the deities cannot exist at the ritual site. In this paper, I will investigate the relationship between music and religiosity in Korean shamanism. Korean shamanistic music shows different traits - strict formality or artistic creativity - in accordance with its function and usage and with the region: in fact, the nature of the shaman. My study is focused especially on the central region of Korea, Seoul and Kyonggi-do Province, where spirit-descended and hereditary shamans coexist and where different styles of shamanistic musics are performed. Two types of shamans in Korea In Siberia and northeast Asia, induding Korea, a person becomes a shaman by hereditary transmission of the shamanistic profession or by spontaneous vocation or "election" (Eliade 1964: 20-21). Most scholars agree that Korean shamans - by means of the methods of shaman recruit, the manners of conducting ritual, ritual materials, and shamanistic performing arts - can roughly be divided into two types: spirit-descended shaman and hereditary shaman. The former, called naerim mudang, are typically found in the northern half of the Korean peninsula, while the latter, called tangol

2 210 mlldang, occupy the southern half of the peninsula. The border between the two are regarded as the South Han River. In general, a spirit-descended shaman denotes the one who has experienced the following procedures in her lifetime: 1) she has been suffering from a spirit illness which is interpreted as a symptom of shamanistic calling, a sine qua non of the shaman; 2) she has received an initiation ritual under the guidance of her "spirit mother" and becomes the "medium" through whose mouth the deity tells fortunes to the people; 3) she has learned ritual knowledges and techniques from her spirit mother for an extensive period of time; and 4) she eventually has become a full-fledged shaman who can conduct rituals by herself. Hereditary shamans do not have experiences of a spirit illness or an initiation ritual. Therefore, they do not believe "in a god existing in the 'real' <Map 1> Division of two types of Korean shamans

3 The Sacred and the Profane in Korean Shamanistic Music 211 <Map 2> Three types of shamans in central Korea world" (Kim I.G. 1998: 15). They have "only the role of a priest 'conducting' the ceremony, which regards the god and the mudang as separate entities" (Kim I.e. 1998: 15). In central Korea, specifically Seoul and Kyonggi-do Province, two types of shamans exist side by side; the spirit-descended shaman in the northern part and the hereditary shaman 1 in the southern part. Northern spiritdescended shamans are divided by their place of origin; one is the native shamans 2 who have resided in the region for a long time and the other is the migrate shamans 3 who came from the northern provinces to the Kyonggido Province after the Korean War ( ). In short, there are three traditions of shamans in central Korea; two different spirit-descended shamans of Hwanghae and Seoul and the hereditary shaman in Suwon. Musical areas of Korean shamanism As the ritual practices of spirit-descended shamans and hereditary shamans are different, musics of two types of shamans - spirit-descended lhereafter I will refer to a Suwon shaman as the representative of the hereditary shaman. 2Hereafter I will refer to a Seoul shaman as the representative of the native spirit-descended shaman. 3Hereafter I will refer to a Hwanghae shaman as the representative of the migrate spiritdescended shaman.

4 212 and hereditary - are different in many ways. Yi Po-hyong (1982: ) argues that there are four musical areas in Korean shamanism based on their musical traits; northwestern ("kyongso tori"4), southwestern ("sinawi" or "Yllkcha-paegi tori"), eastern coast ("menari tori") and Cheju Island. The northwestern area is subdivided into two areas of northwestern ("sodo tori") and central ("kyong tori"). Three shamanistic traditions of Hwanghae, Seoul, and Suwon stands for each musical areas: the music of Hwanghae shaman represents soda tori, that of Seoul shaman typifies kyong tori, and that of the Suwon shaman denotes sinawi music. <Map 3> Four musical areas of Korean shamanism -IThe term "tori" denotes the musical idiom of a specific area.

5 The Sacred and the Profane in Korean Shamanistic Music 213 Instrumentation The Suwon sinawi is an instrumental ensemble consisting of the piri (double-reed oboe), taegllm (transverse flute), haegllm (2-stringed fiddle), changgo (hourglass drum), and ching (gong). The sinmvi is regarded as the representative improvisatory music in Korea. Byong-Won Lee(1997: 36), in his writing of the variation and improvisation in Korean music, states that the sinawi performance depends upon "the highly developed spontaneous creativity of the musicians. The prescribed rhythmic patterns and abstract modal configuration are only points of reference for extemporization in the entire duration of the performance which may last for hours. The melodic multipart juxtaposition in sinawi is highly unpredictable; the music will be different each time it is played, even if it is performed by the same musicians." The ultimate purpose of the sinawi music is to exhibit the musicians' artistic creativity as much as possible. Seoul shaman's music is accompanied by the piri, taegllm, haeg1l11l, clzanggo, and J-7llk (barrel drum). The accompanimental ensemble in this tradition is not called sinawi but samhyon yuggak. Although the term samhyol1 yuggak literally means "three strings and six winds," the ensemble does not include any chordophones at all. The ensemble was developed in the late Joseon dynasty to accompany not only shamanistic ritual and folk dance but also court dance. Presently, Seoul shamans do not use all these instruments; they employ one to three instruments depending upon the size of the ritual. In other words, melodic instruments are optional in Seoul samhyon yuggak while melodic instruments are more or less compulsory in Suwon sillawi. In Hwanghae shamanistic ritual, there is no melodic instruments: only percussive instruments are played. 5 As a norm, a c/zallggo accompanies the shaman's song and a c!zing is added when accompanying the shaman's dance. As in many cultures, a percussive instrument is closely linked to the trance state in Korea. It is an instrument through which the shaman communicates with the spirit and the other world through its rhythmic "noise" (Needham 1972: 392). The "loud" sound made by the reverberation of the membrane of the drum produces not only an acoustic effect but also a psychological effect through the physical response of the nervous systems of the human body. The "deafening" sound of the ching enhances the trance SThe piri and the 11Ojok (conical oboe) are played in some occasions - mostly public performances. They are merely a recent insertion in the Hwanghae shamanistic music. Hwanghae shamans insist that these melodic instruments have been used after they resided in the South Korea after the Korean War ( ).

6 214 state of the shaman. Thus, the percussion is the primary and elemental instrument: an instrument that makes the shaman's transition from this world to the other (Needham 1972: ). In other words, the music of the Hwanghae shaman is primary and elemental because it is accompanied only by percussive instruments. For this reason, the Hwanghae shaman is regarded as the genuine spirit-descended shaman who is associated to the Siberian shamans, the genesis of Korean spirit-descended shaman, who use only percussions in their rituals (Bogoras 1972: 383). Shamanistic songs Shamanistic songs can be sorted in accordance with their subjects and functions. As the subject matter, there are four kinds of shamanistic songs; magical, lyrical, epic and dramatic (Cho T.I. 1980: 232). The function of the shamanistic songs are to usher deities to the ritual site, to send them off, and to entertain and revere the descended deities. Various songs are performed in different points of a ritual for different functions and subjects. In a Hwanghae ritual, magical songs are performed to usher spirits to the ritual site and then send them off. Lyrical and dramatic songs are sung to entertain the descended spirits. No epic song is performed in this ritual. Among the various songs, the ushering song, called manse baji, 6 is the most important one in a Hwanghae ritual. The ritual site transforms from a mundane space to a sacred one only when deities are brought there; it returns to being a mundane space when they leave. In order for deities to descend, the shaman sings a "sacred" ushering song. The beginning part of a kut emphasizes the logical order of songs to establish the initial communicative code between the human in this world and the deity in the other. The ushering song follows the sequence of Susanne K. Langer's (1967) symbolic function, subject-symbol-conception-object. The audience (subject), listening to manse baji (symbol), conceptualizes and envisions the existence of the deities at the site by listening to the ushering song (object). On the other hand, the shaman (subject), while listing names of deities (symbol) in a musical expression (object) asks them to descend to the site "There are three kinds of ushering songs in Hwanghae shamanism; manse baji, kin manse baji, and clwjin lilanse baji. The term IIwnse baji is a compound word of "manse," meaning "a long life" and "/mji," the noun form of "to respond" which is derived from the response part of the accompanist. Mallse baji is in two groups of asymetric rhythm of triple and duple meters (l0/8). Kin (lit. "long") lilallse /mji is in four groups of triple meters (12/8) and chajin (lit. "fast") lilanse baji is in four groups duple meters (4/4).

7 The Sacred and the Profane in Korean Shamanistic Music 215 (conceptualization). In either cases, the symbol stands for the word, the conception denotes the words signification, and the object specifies the musical type (Lee Y ). The most important element in the Hwanghae ushering song is the clear deliverance of texts. Since the song is the code to establish the communication with the deities and is the medium to make the place sacred, the shaman must deliver the texts as clearly as she can. If she sings it artistically the texts may not be delivered clearly to the clients. In order to avoid a vague delivery, the shaman minimizes articulation as much as she can. As Clifford Geertz (1973: 90) advocates, the ritual, unlike the arts, should produce "powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men." There is little flexibility in the Hwanghae ushering song. For example, only three melodic cells are performed throughout the song (Lee YS. 2001). In this way, there is no room for the musician, i.e., the shaman, to show her artistic creativity. As Maurice Bloch (1989: 35-36) insists, the transformation from ordinary, free language to extremely limited song is the most powerful weapon to make the ritual sacred. The repetition of simple melodic patterns is the only possibility for emphasis of sacredness in the ritual. Unlike most Korean music whose accompanist plays not the basic rhythmic pattern but unlimited variation in order to suit the melodic rhythm or to express rhythmic virtuosities (Lee B.W. 1997: 63), the Hwanghae changgo player beats the basic rhythmic pattern with little variation throughout the song. The aim of the instrumental accompanist is to minimize artistic creativity and to maximize the clear deliverance of texts (Lee YS. 2001). The almost total absence of individual creativity in drumming results in an extreme formalization of the song that leads to a specially stylized form of communication with the deity: polite, respectful, and holy (Bloch 1989: 27). The ushering song seems to be less important in Seoul and Suwon shamanistic musics than that of Hwanghae music. Two kinds of ushering songs are peformed in a Seoul ritual; cllongbae and mansu baji. Chollgbae, literally means "to usher," is performed at the beginning part of a ritual, i.e., plljollg and kamang koris. The meter is in two groups of asymetric rhythm of triple and duple meters, i.e., 10/8, like manse baji of Hwanghae music. Unlike Hwanghae 11lanse baji that is performed in the call-and-response form and is strictly formalized, Seoul cllollgbae is performed by the shaman who beats the changgo herself. There is much flexibility in singing of the cllongbae. The other ushering song in Seoul music is nwnsli baji which is the same term as Hwanghae manse baji. Seoul IIWllSlI baji is similar to Hwanghae

8 216 manse baji in its performing practice: call-and-response form. It is performed in four groups of triple meter, i.e., 12/8. It was, however, originally performed in 10/8, like Hwanghae manse baji, in the earlier times and has changed to 12/8 (Yi PH. 1992: 7-8). This implies that this music is not strictly formalized as the Hwanghae manse baji. In a Seoul ritual, two songs are more important and are frequently performed than any other songs; norae karak and taryong. Both songs are performed in the middle of a ritual to revere and entertain descended deities. While "sacred" ushering songs are accompanied only by the clwnggo, these "profane" entertain songs are accompanied by the samhyon Yllggak ensemble. The melodic interaction of voice and instruments is heterop honic. The rhythmic structure of norae karak consists of combined beats of five and eight that is derived from rhythmic structure of the classical song, sijo. For this reason, norae karak is regarded as prestige artistic music because it shares the same rhythmic structure as the song of the upper class. T' anjol1g is performed in four groups of triple meter (12/8). Various themes are sung in accordance with the content of a kori. In pulsa kori, for instance, para t'aryong - "para" is the cymbals - is performed to describe the Buddhist deities. In ch'angbll kori, Clz'angbll t'aryong is sung to revere the clz'al1gbll deity, the spirit of a musician or an actor. Since the late Chosun dynasty, this song has been performed outside the ritual context and has become one of the most popular folk songs in Korea. In short, the "sacred" ushering songs are performed to the deity while the exuberant "profane" songs are performed to the human. An epic shamanistic song is performed in a Seoul ritual. The epic song is a long narrative music which has a lot of prestige because it depicts the myth; it sings the life of a hero or heroine who becomes a tutelary deity of the shaman. The epic song performed in Seoul seance is Ch'il Kongju, a variation of Princess Pari, a famous epic song distributed widely in the southern part of Korea (Hong T.H. 1998: 25-28). In a Suwon ritual, ushering song is less important than that in Hwanghae and Seoul rituals. Unlike the spirit-descended shaman who has to sing the ushering song in order to invite the deities to the ritual site, the hereditary <Table 1> Dual traits of Seoul shamanistic music sacred ushering songs accompanied by the cllili1gg0 performed to the deity profane entertainment songs accompanied by the sal1lizyoll l/liggnk performed to the human

9 The Sacred and the Profane in Korean Shamanistic Music 217 Suwon shaman may not perform the ushering song because she does not have the spiritual power. As I mentioned earlier, hereditary shaman is not the medium to whom the deities descend but is only a priest who is not able to communicate with deities directly. The Suwon shaman occasionally performs the ushering song. The ushering song is performed either in karaeja or tasaip'uri rhythmic patterns; the former consists of two groups of asymetric rhythm of triple and duple meters (10/8) and the latter, six groups of duple meter (6/4). It should be noted that asymetric rhythm of triple and duple meters (10/8) is performed for ushering songs in all three shamanistic traditions. The lo-beat music is closely related to religious character in Korea. In pansari, it is performed to describe an extraordinary character such as a Buddhist monk, a Taoist divine man, or a powerful general (Yi P.H. 1969: 89- CHINA Central area 11 Southwestern area 17 Cheju Island 0 CHijU- JAPAN <Map 4> Distribution of Princess Pari

10 218 91). In a Suwon ritual, epic song is very important. Nojonggi, literally means "the song of travel," is performed in the Suwon ritual. It is performed in son kut to describe the travel of the deity of smallpox, called sonnim, and in kunung kut to depict the heroic achievements of the deities of general. The performance of the Suwon epic song is similar to that of pansori, epic vocal music. It is performed by a solo singer accompanied by a changgo7 in a various rhythmic patterns of tosalp'liri (6/4), mori (4/4) and tongdokkungi (12/8). Like pansori, the singer alternates between singing and speech to tell the long story. In fact, epic shamanistic songs are mostly performed by hereditary CHINA YEl..LOWSE"A Northwestern area 2 Estern coastal area 10 Eastern coastal area 10 Southwestern area 10 Cheju Island 5 rv" ~c'l' JAPAN <Map 5> Distribution of Chesok p(jiii"liri 7Pallsori is accompanied not by the c1wllggo but by the puk, or barrel drum.

11 The Sacred and the Profane in Korean Shamanistic Music 219 shamans. Spirit-descended shamans seldom perform the epic song. For example, Princess Pari is not performed by spirit-descend shamans from the northern half of Korea; it is only the Seoul shaman who sings the Princess Pari among the spirit-descend shamans (Hong T.H. 1998: 25-28). Another popular epic shamanistic song, Chesok ponp'uri,8 which is sung to revere Buddhist deities, is also widely distributed in the area where the hereditary shamans occupy (So T.S. 1980: 23). Why do hereditary shamans perform long narrative epic song? A spiritdescended shaman can display her spiritual power through kongsu, speech of diety, and the acrobatic performances, such as the dance on the edge of sharp blades. A hereditary shaman who does not have the spiritual power has to have a skillful manifestation to attract the clients' attention. It is the music, especially an epic song, with which the hereditary shaman can show her ability. The epic song is not accompanied by melodic instruments. The only reference for the performance is the prescribed rhythmic patterns performed by a clzanggo. It is the proper moment that the shaman can exhibit her artistic creativity without any instrumental interruption. It can be said that a powerful spirit-descended shaman fascinates clients with kongsu and a skillful hereditary shaman attracts them with music. Conclusion Three shaman traditions intermingle in the central Korea; spiritdescended shamans of Hwanghae and Seoul, and hereditary shaman of Suwon. The Hwanghae shaman is regarded as bona fide spirit-descend shaman whose music is the simplest among three traditions. The strictly formalized ushering song, accompanied only by a changgo, is the most important one in Hwanghae shamanism since it is the communicative code between the human and the deity. The hereditary shaman's music is accompanied not only by the percussive instruments but also by such melodic instruments as the piri, taegunl, and haegum. The accompanying ensemble and the character of the music is called sinawi, in which the musicians' artistic creativity is expressed. Ushering song is not important in this tradition because the hereditary shaman is not a medium but merely a "human" priest. The Seoul shaman places the midpoint of the two traditions. She is a spirit-descended shaman whose ritual includes melodic 8Cllcsok pollp'liri and Princess Pari are two epic shamanistic songs that are widely distributed in Korea. While Cllesok pollp'uri is related to the deity of the life, Princess Pari is linked to the deity of the death. Therefore, the Princess Pari is generally performed at a seance (So TS. 1980: 23).

12 220 Area Hwanghae Seoul Suwon Type of shaman genuine spiritdescended shaman spirit-descended shaman genuine hereditary shaman Accompaniment of ushering songs changgo changgo changgo Accompaniment of revering and entertainment songs changgo samhyon yuggak sinawi Shaman's artistic crativity Strictly restricted Mostly welcomed instruments. The shaman's "sacred" ushering song is accompanied only by the changgo as in the Hwanghae music; the "profane" entertainment songs are accompanied not only by the percussive instruments but also by melodic instruments. In sum, the music of spirit-descended shaman is more strictly formalized than that of the hereditary shaman. The music for the spirit-descended shaman is a medium to establish a communicative code between the human and the deity. It should be formalized in order to produce an aura of "sacred" atmosphere. On the other hand, the music for hereditary shaman is to exhibit her artistic creativity as much as she can. It should be elaborated in order to make a joyful "profane" performance. References Cited Bloch, Maurice 1989 Ritual, History, and Power: Selected Papers in Anthropology. London School of Economic Monographs on Social Anthropology No. 58. London: The Athlone Press. Bogoras, Waldemar 1972 Shamanic performance in the inner room. In Reader in Comparative Religion: An Anthropological Approach, 3rd ed. Edited by William A. Lessa and Evon Z. Vogt. New York: Harper & Row Publishers. Cho, Tong-Il 1980 Kubi Munhak ui Segye. Seoul: Saemunsa. Eliade, Mircea 1964 Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy. Translated by Willard R. Trask. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Geertz, Clifford 1973 The Interpretation of Culture. New York: Basic Books. Hong, T'ae-han 1998 Sosa Muga Pari Kongju Yon'gu. Seoul: Minsogwon.

13 The Sacred and the Profane in Korean Shamanistic Music 221 Kim, T' ae-gon 1998 Korean Shamanism: Muism. Translaetd and edited by Chang Soo-kyung. Seoul: Jimoondang Publishing Company. Langer, Susane K Philosophy in a New Key. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Lee, Byong-Won 1997 Styles and Esthetics in Korean Traditional Music. Seoul: The National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts. Lee, Yong-Shik 2001 Sacred music: symbol and power in Korean shamanistic music. Paper presented at the Conference for Korean Musiclogy, Honolulu, Hawaii. Needham, Rodney 1971 Percussion and transition. In Reader in Comparative Religion: An Anthropological Approach, 3rd ed. Edited by William A. Lessa and Evon Z. Vogt. New York: Harper & Row Publishers. So, Tae-sok 1980 Han'guk Muga ui Yon'gu. Seoul: Munhak Sasangsa. Yi, Po-hyong 1969 Muga wa p'ansori wa sanjo eso ui otmori karak pigyo. In Umakhak Nonch'ong. Seoul: Korean Musicological Society Han'guk mu uisik ui umak. Han'guk Musok ui Chonghapchok Koch'a/. Edited by Kim Inhoe. Seoul: Koryo University, Minjok Munhwa Yon'guso Chont'ong umak ui pak pubak ui pyonhwa e taehan koch'al. Han'guk Umak San 'go. v. 3.

14 222 Appendix <Appendix 1> Accompanying instruments in each regional shamanistic rituals Type Region Instruments Spirit- Hwanghae-do Chang go, Ching, + Kkwenggari, descended Chegum, Kyongsoe ( + piri, Hojok) Kyonggi-do Chang go, Ching + pitt, Taegum. Hereditary Chungnam-do Chonbuk-do Chonnam-do K yongnam-do Eastern coast Haegum + Puk, Kkwenggari, Chegum Changgo, Ching + piri, Taegum. Haegum Changgo, Ching, Puk + piri, Taegum. Haegum + Kyongsoe, Chegum Changgo, Ching, Puk + piri, Taegum. Haegum + Ajaeng, Kayagum Changgo, Ching, Puk + piri, Taegum. Haegum Changgo, Ching, Kwenggari, Chegum

15 <Appendix 2> Song types performed at a Hwanghae boat ritual -- Stage Song --- Func Subj Insts --._-- Rhym Poem VM MI Voc Mode Sinchong Ullim Pujong U M Ca Free TC S Hm S Tang Maji Manse baji U M Ca 10/8 TC SIR Hm S K Paech'igi sori E ML Ca/Ci/K 12/8 St SIC Hm S S Pujong Puri Pujong puri U M Ca Free TC S Hm S >-l ::T Paech'igi sori E ML Ca/Ci/K 1018 St SIC Hm S S I'll [fl Cho-pujollg Cho- Kin manse baji U M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm S... I'll kamhllng kut Nalmanse baji S M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm S K w Yongjong mullim Chajin manse baji U M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm ::l S K Sodang chesok kut Manse baji U M Ca 10/8 TC SIR Hm S K st- I'll >-;:j <Hwajang nori> E 0 Ca SIR... 0 Nal manse baji S M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm S K ~ --- ::l I'll Monsan changgun Manse baji U M Ca 10/8 TC SIR Hm S K s kori Sasul baji R M Ca 10/8 TC SIR Hm S K 7\ 0 Nal manse baji S M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm S K... I'll w Taegam nori Manse baji U M Ca 10/8 TC SIR Hm S K ::l [fl <Taegam nori> E 0 Ca SIR ::T w S Yongsan nori Manse baji U M Ca 10/8 TC SIR Hm S K w 2. < Yongsan nori> E 0 Ca SIR ;!i. ri Nanbongga E L Ca/Ci 12/8 St S Hm S S ~ Sulbi sori R ML Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm S K >= CJ> Paech'igi sori E ML Ca/Ci/K 12/8 St SIC Hm S S ri Ssunggo chumm Ssunggo t'aryong R ML Ca/Ci 12/8 St SIR Hm S K kut Paech'igi sori E ML Ca/Ci/K 12/8 St SIC Hm S S Nal manse baji S M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm S K Yongsin kut Chajin manse baji U M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm S K N Kangbyon kut Chajin manse baji U M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm S K N W w n

16 224 <Appendix 3> Song types performed at a Hwanghae seance Stage Song Func Subj Insts Rhym Sinchong Ullim Pujong U M Ca Free Andungsin kori Manse baji U M Ca 10/8 Yongsil kllmhung Manse baji U M Ca 10/8 kori Nal manse baji S M Ca 12/8 Siwang cllesok kori Manse baji U M Ca 10/8 Nal manse baji S M Ca 12/8 Saje puri Manse baji U M Ca 10/8 Noktae ollim Pujong U M Ca Free Malgun hon mosim Manse baji U M Ca 10/8 Siwang karum R M Ca 12/8 Kangbyon kori Nal manse baji S M Ca 12/8 Stage Song Poem VM MI Voc Mode Sinchong Ullim Pujong IC S Hm S Andungsin kori Manse baji IC SIR Hm S K Yongsil kllmhung Manse baji IC SIR Hm S K kori Nal manse baji TC SIR Hm S K Siwang cllesok kori Manse baji IC SIR Hm S K Nal manse baji IC SIR Hm S K Saje puri Manse baji IC SIR Hm S K Noktae ollim Pujong IC S Hm S Malgun hon mosim Manse baji IC SIR Hm S K Siwang karum IC SIR Hm S K Kangbyoll kori Nal manse baji IC SIR Hm S K

17 -- <Appendix 4> Song types performed at a Seoul household ritual Stage Song Func Subj Insts Rhym Poem VM MI Voc Mode Pujong Ch'ol1gbae U M Ca 10/8 TC S Hm S K Kamang Ch'ongbae U M Ca 10/8 TC S Hm S K >-l :T Norae karak R ML Ca/PTH 5/8+8/8 TC S Ht N K f!) _ ~ (fj PJ Chinjok Norae karak R ML Ca/PTH 5/8+8/8 TC S Ht N K rl -----_ f!) "' 0.. Pulsa Mansu baji U M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm N K PJ :oj T'aryong E L Ca/PTH 12/8 TC S Ht S K 0.. Tangak E L Ca/PTH 12/8 TC SIC Hm S K S- f!) >-;:j Norae karak R ML Ca/PTH 5/8+8/8 TC S Ht N K "' 0 Pi' Hogu Mansu baji U M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm N K :oj f!) Malmyong Norae karak R ML Ca/PTH 5/8+8/8 TC S Ht N K s-._---- ~ 0 Changgun Norae karak R ML Ca/PTH 5/8+8/8 TC S Ht N K f!) "' PJ T'aryong R ML Ca/PTH 12/8 TC S Ht S K :oj (fj :T PJ Chesok Mansu baji R M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm N K S PJ T'aryong E L Ca/PTH 12/8 TC S Ht S K 2- ;!;. Songju Tangak R L Ca/PTH 12/8 TC SIC Hm S K r;- Norae karak R ML Ca/PTH 5/8+8/8 TC S Ht N K ~ c en r;- Ch'angbu Mansu baji U M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm N K E L Ca/PTH 12/8 TC S Ht S K Tuitchon Mansu baji U M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm K E L Ca/PTH 12/8 TC S K K N N (Jl

18 N N ~ <Appendix 5> Song types performed at a Seoul seance --- Stage Song Func Subj Insts Rhym Poem VM MI Voc Mode Pujong Ch'ongbae U M Ca 10/8 TC S Hm S K Kamang Ch'ongbae U M Ca 10/8 TC S Hm S K Norae karak R ML Ca/PTH 5/8+8/8 TC S Ht N K Chinjok Norae karak R ML Ca/PTH 5/8+8/8 TC S Ht N K Changgun Norae karak R ML Ca/PTH 5/8+8/8 TC S -- Ht N K T'aryong E L Ca/PTH 12/8 TC S Ht S K Sajae samsong Norae karak R ML Ca/PTH 5/8+8/8 TC S Ht N K Mansu baji R M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm N K T'aryong E L Ca/PTH 12/8 TC S Hm S K Malmi ClI'il Kongju R E Ca Free TC, S Hm S K Toryong tolgi Norae karak R ML Ca/PTH 5/8+8/8 TC S Ht N K Mansu baji R M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm N K Pae karugi T'aryong R ML Ca/PTH 12/8 TC S Ht S K Mansu baji R M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm N K Norae karak R ML Ca/PTH 5/8+8/8 TC S Ht N K Norae karak R ML Ca/PTH 5/8+8/8 TC S Ht N K Tangak E L Ca/PTH 12/8 TC SIC Hm S K TuitclIon Mansu baji U M Ca 12/8 TC SIR Hm N K

19 <Appendix 6> Song types performed at a Suwon communal ritual Stage ---- Song Fune Subj Insts Rhym - Poem VM MI - - Voc Mode Kil Kunak No song Kori Pujong Pujong U M Ca/PTH 12/8 TC S Ht S Y ---- Anjull Plljong ---- Pujong U M --- Ca/PTH 12/8 TC S Ht --- S Y Son Pujong Pujong U M Ca/PTH 6/ TC S -- Ht S Y Todang nlosigi ---- Toldori No song No song Changmun chapki No song Chilsong -- Chongbac U M Ca/Ci/PTH 10/8 - TC S --- Ht S y - Chesok Tobollim Son kut - CllOsang Todallg daegam KllIllIng - Tli itclloll -- Chllllg t'aryollg Namu t;aryong No song Nojonggi Byolsang Chongbae No song Chongbae Chllgwon Nojonggi Mliga R E - R R U U R R M Ca/PTH 4/4 M Ca/PTH 6/4 M M Ca Ca/PTH Ca/PTH M M M Ca/PTH Ca/PTH Ca R M Ca TC - S Ht TC S Ht 12/8-6/4-4/4 TC S Ht 6/4 TC S Ht - 10/ TC S Ht 6/4 6/4 6/4-12/8 12/8-6/4 TC TC TC TC - S S S S Ht Ht Ht S S S S S S S S y y y y y y y ;i rtl Cfl OJ n rtl '"' 0- OJ ::l 0- g. rtl '""d o '"' OJ' ~ 5" ~ rtl '"' OJ ::l Cfl ::r"" OJ 5 OJ ::l :a" i=)" $:: C 'f> i=)" tv tv '-l

20 한측굿음악의생 ( 훨 ) 과속 (1 양 ) 서율과경기세샤치유형의뮤당을중심으로 이용식 ( 용인대학교 ) 들어가는말 ~l 국샤머니즘의의식인굿은철학, 문학. 미술, 무용, 음악등의전통문화가어끄우러진판이다. 굿을이루는여러요소중음악은가장핵심적인것이다. 이는무당의음악에의해서신 ( 神 ) 이굿판에강럼하고, 굿판에서놀려지고, 굿판을떠나기때문이다. 음악이없이는신은굿판에존재할수없는것이다. 음악과종교는멜수없는관계를갖는다. 이논문은한국샤머니즘에서의음악과종교성의관계를살펴보는것음그목적으로한다한국의굿음악은그기능과용도에따라서, 또한지역에따라서 실제로는무당의성격 - 엄격한형식미혹은창조적예술미와갇은다른특정을보여준다. 이글에서밝히고자하는것은의식이신성 ( 神聖 ) 할수록음악은단순해진다는점이다. 이글은강신무와세습무가공존하고, 이에따라다양한음악이행해지는경기도지역의굿음악을연구대상으로한다 c ~ E 01 Prl. T τ-rr~ 1 '0 시베리아나한국을포함하는동북아시아에서한사람이무당이되는것은무당이라는직엽의세습적전승혹은우연한기회에선택되어진다 (Eliade 1964: 20-21). 한국무당은무당이되는업무 ( 入꼬 ) 과정, 의식을행하는방법, 의식에쓰이는의물 ( 懷物 ), 연행예술등에따라크게강신무와세습무로나쉰다강신무는내럼무당이라고도하며한반도의북부에존재하며, 세습무는단골무당이라고도하며한반도의남부에존재한다이들의경계는대개담한강이다. 일반적으로강신무는일생을통해다음과같은네단계를거친다. 첫번째로신병을겪는데, 이는그녀가무당이될조짐을보여주는필수요건이다. 신병을겪으

21 한국굿음악의성 ( 딸 ) 과속 (1fì-) 229 ζ.h INA YELL OWSEA 얹 앓 CI1 바 fι & Q?!~ö. 1 톨 j.-0 oc.. ι eμ fνf... IJ:'"! <t' JAPAN 지도 1) 한국의강신무와세습우 면 신어머니 의주재로내럼굿을하게되고, 신과인간의.. 중재자 medium" 가되 어사람에게신의뜻을전할수있는능력을부여받는다내럼굿을받으면신어머 니에게서일정기간학습을받는다학습이끝나면스스로굿을주재할수있는본 격적인무당의길을걷는다. 세습무는신병이나내럼굿을경험하지않는다. 그러므로세습무들은 이 세상에 존재하는신의존재 를믿지않는다그들은단지 의식을주재하는사제자이며신과무탕이별개의존재로여긴다 " ( 김태곤 1998: 15) 경기도에는북부의강신무와남부의세습무라는두종류의무당이공존한다북 부의강신무는그기원에따라두종류로나년다. 하나는토착무당이고다른하나 는한국전쟁 ( ) 이후북쪽에서남하한이주무당이다결국경기도에는남부 의세습무 ( 앞으로는수원무당으로약칭한다 ) 와북부의두종류의강신무 ( 서울무

22 230 지도 2> 경기도의무당권 당과황해무당으로약칭한다 ) 라는세종류의무당이공존하는것이다 한국샤머니즘의음악권 강신무와서l 습무의음악은매우다르다. 이보형 (1982: ) 에의하면한국굿음악은서북무가권 ( 경서토리권 ) 서 1남무가권 ( 시나위권혹은육자배기토리권 ). 동부무가권 ( 에나리토리권 ). 그리고제주무가권의넷무로나뉘어진다셔북무가권은서도토리권과경토라권드로세분된다경기도의셔l 종류의무당은세음악권을대표한다즉 황해도무당은서도토리권, 서울무당은경토리권. 그리고수원무당은시나위권의음악을연행한다. 굿음악의반주악기 수원시나위는피리, 대금. 해금, 장고, 정으로구성된기악음악이다. 시나위는즉흥음악을대표하는것무로여겨진다. 시나위음악은 고도로발전한음악가의창조적즉흥성에의존한다. 몇시간이냐계속되는연주에서음악을규정하는것은장단과추상적인조성 ( 調性 ) 뿐이다시나위에서가락의다성적흐름은예측할수없다음악은할때마다달라지고, 심지어한약사가연주하더라도같은가락을연주하는경우가없다.. (Lee B.W. 1997: 36). 시나위음악의궁극적목척은음악인의예술적창조성을최대한발휘하는것이다. 서울무당의음악도피리 대금, 해금. 장고, 북에의해반주되어진다이음악은

23 한국굿음악의성 ( 팔 ) 과속 ( 1 유 ) 231 { 얘J녀. c - + o 1<, l" 우 JAPAN 지도 3) 한국무가권 시나위라불리지않고, 삼현육각이라불린다. 상현육각은.. 세현과여섯관 이라는명칭과는달리현악기를포함하지않는다. 삼현육각은조선후기에발전한, 굿음악이나민속무용, 그리고궁중음악을반주하는음악이다, 오늘날서울무당은삼현육각에쓰이는악기를다쓰지는않고, 의식의규모에따라하나흑은세가지정도의악기를쓴다. 즉, 서울삼현육각에서가락을연주하는선율악기가선택적인것이라면수원시나위에서선율악가는어느정도필수적인것이다황해도굿에서는선율악기가쓰이지않고단지타악기만이쓰인다 1 대개무당의노래에는장고반주를하고춤을출때는정이첨가된다다른많은문화에서와 l 어떤경우에는파라와호적이쓰이기도하는데. 야는대개무대공연에서만연주된다두 악기는최근에야황해도굿에서쓰이기시작한다 황해도무당들은한국전쟁후그틀이월 남하면서두악기가굿에서연주되기시작했다고들한다

24 232 마찬가지로한국에서도타악기는빙의 ( 德依 ) 현상과관계가있다. 다악기는무당이리듭적 소음 을통하여저승의신령과소통하는매개체이다 (Needham 1972: 392) 북가죽의진동을통해만들어지는소리는음향적효과뿐만이아니라인체내신경체계의물질적반응에의한심리학적효과도만틀어낸다귀를맹맹하게하는정의소리는무당의빙의상태를더욱강화한다. 그래서타악기는가장원초적이고본절척인악기로간주된다타악기를통하여이승에서저승으로의무당의전이 ( 횡離 ~) 가가능하다 (Needham 1972: ) 다시말해다악기로만연주되는황해도굿은가장원초적이고본질적인것이라할수있다, 이런이유로황해도무당은강신무의전형으로여겨지는데, 이는황해도무당이강신무의기원이되고타악가만연주하는시베리아무당과가장유사하기때문이다 무가 무가는그주제와기능에따라분류될수있다무가는그주제에따라주술적무가, 서정무가, 서사무가, 연희무가의넷으로나뒤어진다또한무가의기능에따라신을굿판에청하는청배무가, 그들을보내는송신무가, 그리고그들을놀리는오신 ( 城神 ) 무가등으로나뒤어진다. 이러한무가틀이기능과주제에따라여러경우에불려진다. 황해도굿에서는주술적무가가선을청하고보낼때불려진다. 서정무가와연희무가는신을놀릴때불려지고, 서사무가는불려지지않는다황해도굿에서가장중요한무가는만세바지라불리는청배무가이다굿판은신의강럼에의해단순한세속척공간에서종교적으로신성한공간으로전이한다신이떠나면굿판은다시세속적공간으로돌아간다. 신이강림하기위해무당은 신성한 청배무가를부른다. 청배무가를부르는순간은이승의인간과저승의신사이의첫번째소통코드를확립한다. 그렇기때문에노래는규정된규율에따른다. 청배무가는수잔랭거 (Susanne K. Langers 1967) 가주장하는주체-상정-개념 대상의상징적기능을따른다. 단골 ( 주체 ) 은만세바지 ( 상정 ) 라는청배무가 ( 대상 ) 를들으면서신의존재를 개념화한다한편무당 ( 주체 ) 은노래라는표현 ( 대상 ) 으로신의이릅 ( 상징 ) 을열거하면서그들이강럼하기를기원 ( 상정화 ) 한다. 어떤경우에든상칭은노래의사설에담겨있고개념화는사설이노래하는것이며대상은특정한음악유형이다 (Lee Y.s. 2001) 황해도청배무가에서가장중요한것은사셜의정확한전달이다. 청배무가는신과의소통을확립하기위한것이고, 굿판을신성하게만들기위한매개체이기때문에무당은최대한사설을뚜렷하게전달해야한다- 만약무당이사설을예술적으로부르면단골에게제대로전달이안되기때문이다불명확한사설의전달을막기위해무당은예술성을극소화화해야한다. 기어츠 (Clifford Geertz 1973:

25 한국굿음악의성 ( 띨 ) 과속 (í fr) ) 가주장하듯이의식은예술과달리인간에게강력하고충만하고지속적인분위기와동기를부여해야한다황해도청배무가는극히정형화된노래이다노래를부르는동안단지세개의가락유형이반복될뿐이다 (Lee Y.s. 2001). 이런점에서청배무가에는무당이예술적창조성을보여줄여지가없는것이다. 블로흐 (Maurice Bloch 1989: 35-36) 가자중하듯이통상적인자유로운언어에서극히제한적인노래로의전환은의식을신성화시키는가장강력한수단이다. 단순한가락유형을계속적으로반복하는것은의식을신성화시키는유일한강조수단이다. 대부분의한국음악에서반주자는선율적리듬에맞추고음악성을발휘하기위해기본장단형이아닌다양한장고형을치는데 (Lee B.W. 1997: 63) 반하여, 황해도장고반주자는거의변형장고형을치지않고원형장고형을지속적으로반복한다장고반주의역할은예술적창조성을극소화하고사설의명확한전탈을극대화하는것이다 (Lee Y.s. 2001). 장고반주의예술적창조성의결여는공손함, 경건함, 신성함이라는신과의소통의특별한형태 (Bloch 1989: 27) 라는노래의형식화의극대화로나타난다. 서울굿과수원굿에서청배무가는황해도굿에서만큼중요하지는않다. 서울굿에서는청배와만수바지라는두종류의청배무가가불려진다청배는부정거리와가망거리에불려지며황해도만세바지와마찬가지로 10/8로되어있다. 황해도만세바지가메기고받는형식으로불려지고극도로정형화된반면, 서울청배는무당이장고를치면서독창으로부르고그리정형화되어있지않다. 서울만수바지는황해도만세바지와같은의미의노래이다. 서울만수바지도메기고받는형식으로불려지지만황해도만세바지와달리 3분박 4박자 (1 2/8) 로되어있다. 이보형 (1992: 7-8) 에의하면서울만수바지도이전에는황해도만세바지와마찬가지로 10/8로불려지다가 3분박 4박자로변한것이라한다. 이것은서울만수바지가황해도만세바지에비해덜형식화한것이라는것을의미한다. 서울굿에서다른어떤노래보다많이불려지는것이노랫가락과타령이다. 두노래는굿의중간에신을놀리고찬양하기위해불려진다. 청배와만셰바지와같이 신성한 노래가장고만으로반주되어지는데반하여노랫가락과타령이라는 세속적 인노래는삼현육각반주로불려진다. 노래와악기는헤테로포낙하게불려진다. 노랫가락은시조와마찬가지로 5박과 8박의혼합으로구성된다. 노랫가락이정악인시조와같은리듬구조로되어있기때문에이노래는예술적인노래로여겨진다. 타령은 3분박 4박자로불려진다. 거리에따라다른주제의노래가불려진다예를들어불교계통의선을모시는불사거리에서는불교를상정하는 바라타령 을부른다. 장부거리에서는창부신을찬양하는 창부타령 을부르는데, 이노래는조선말기이후굿판을벗어나서울지방의대표적인민요로불려진다. 결국, 신

26 234 성한 청배무가는신을위해부르는노래이지만노랫가락이나타령과같이홍겨운 세속 무가는인간을위해부르는노래이다. 서울굿에서는서사무가가불려진다. 서사무가는장시간에걸쳐신화를노래하는것이가때문에수준높은노래로여겨진다. 서울오귀굿에서불려지는칠공 주는우리나라에널리퍼진바리공주의변형무가이다 ( 홍태한 1998: 25-28). 수원굿에서청배무가는황해도굿이나서울굿에비해덜중요하다. 신을청하기위해청배무가를불러야하는강신무와는달리수원의세습무는신과소통하는능력이없기때문에청배무가를꼭부를펄요가없다. 앞서언급했듯이세습무는신이강림하고신과직접소통하는매개체가아니라단순한사제자이기때문이다. 수원무당도청배무가를부르기는한다. 청배무가는가래조나도살푸리장단으로부르는데, 가래조는 10/8박이고도살푸리는 2분박 6박자 (6/4) 이다. '-' YELLOWSEA 서북지방 O 서울 경기지방 11 동부지방 14 남서지방 17 제주 O CH~U따α., v tι < :) + JAPAN 지도 4> 바리공주분포도

27 한국굿음악의성 ( 휠 ) 과속 (jm 235 모든전통에서 5박장단의노래가청배무가로불려진다는점에주목해야할것이다. 한국에서 5박은종교적성질과관련이었다. 예를들어, 판소리에서 5박인엇모리장단은불교승려, 도교의도사, 힘센장수등비범한인물을기술하는대옥에서불려진다 ( 이보행 1969:89-91) 수원굿에서서사무가는매우중요하다. 노정기라불리는서사무가는홍역신을모시는손굿이나군웅장수를모시는군웅굿에서불려진다수원굿에서의서사무가의구연형태는판소리와유사하다노챙기는장고반주에맞추어독창으로불려지며도살푸리 (6/4), 모리 (4/4), 덩덕궁이 (1 2/8) 등의장단에노래와아니리로불려진다. 서사무가는대개세습무들에의해불려지고강신무가서사무가를부르는경우는극히드물다. 예를들어바리공주는한반도의북부에서는발견되지않는다바 서륙지방 2 서울 갱기지방 0 동부지방 10 남서지방 10 제주 5 ~ ;-~ ι~ 6 ~'V F + o JAPAN 지도 5) 제석본풀이분포도

28 236 리공주를부르는강신무는오직서울무당뿐이다 ( 홍태한 1998: 25-28). 바리공주와더불어많이불려지는서사무가가제석본풀이다. 이는불교계통의 신언제석을모시는굿에불려지는데, 다양한변형으로불려진다제석본풀이도대개셰습무들이부른다 ( 서대석 1980:23) 왜세습무당이서사무가를부르는것일까? 강신무는신의계시인공수라든가 작두를다면서그들의신통력을단골에게보여준다그러나이런신통력이없는 세습무들은무언가다른방법으로단골의흥미와관심을유발하여야한다세습무 가그러한능력을보여줄수있는것은무가, 그중에서도특히서사무가이다. 서 사무가는선율악기없이장고반주만으로연주되기때문에무당의예술적창조성 을악기의간섭없이보여줄수있는유일한기회이다. 그렇기때문에이런속언이 있다 ; 영험한강신무는공수로단골을끌고능숙한세습무는음악으로단골을매 혹시킨다 결론 한국중부지방에는세가지전통의무당이공존하는데, 이는황해도무당과서울무당의강신무와수원무당의세습무이다. 황해도무당은강신무의전범 ( 典範 ) 으로여겨지며셋중가장단순한음악을가졌다황해도굿에셔장고만으로반주되는청배무가는극히형식적인노래이지만가장중요한노래로여겨진다이는청배무가가인간과신의소통을가능하게하는코드이기때문이다세습무의노래는타악기뿐만아니라대금, 피리, 해금등의션율악기로도반주되어진다. 세습무의반주음악인시나위는음악가의예술적창조성을표현할수있는장이다. 세습무에게청배무가는그리중요한것이아닌데, 이는세습무가단순히사제, 즉 인간 이기때문이다서울무당은황해도무당과세습무의중간지점에위치한다. 황해도무당서울무당수원무당 -D 다 의 ~* 혀강신무의왼형강신무셰습무의원행 청배무가반주악기장고 ::<J.:I1. ~J-.J2. 오신무가반주악기장고삼현육각시나위 무당의예술적창조력극히제한됨최대한발휘됨 표 1) 무당의지역별유형과음악 서울무당은강신무이지만그들의음악은선율악기로반주된다. 황해도굿과마 찬가지로서울굿의 신성한 청배무가는장고로만반주되지만, 흥겹고 세속적 인 무가는타악기뿐만아니라선율악기도포함하여반주한다.

29 한국굿음악의성 ( 뿔 ) 과속 (ifr ) 237 결국강신무의음악은세습무의음악에비해훨씬더형식화 - 정형화되어있다. 강신무에게음악은인간과신간의소통코드를확립하는매개체이다. 강신무의음악은 신성한 분위기를만들기위해정형화되어야한다. 그러나세습무의음악은그들의예술적창조성을최대한발휘할수있는장이다. 세습무의음악은흥겹고 세속적인 연행을위해보다더세련되어져야한다. 참고문현 셔대석 1980 w 한국무가의연구 서울 : 문학사상사, 이보형 1969 무가와판소리와엇모리가락비교 w 이혜구박사송수기념음악학논총 ~. 서울한국국악학회 1982 한국무의식의음악 w 한국무속의종합적고찰 ~. 서울 : 고려대학교민족문화연구소, 1991 전통음악의박 - 분박의변화에대한고찰 w 한국음악산고 저 13 집조동얼 1980 [" 구비문학의세계 서울 : 새문사홍태한 1998 r 서사무가바리공주연구 서울 : 민속원. Bloch, Maurice 1989 Ritual, History, and Power: Selected Papers in Anthropology. London School of Economic Monographs on Social Anthrop 이 ogy No. 58. London: The Athlone Press. Bogoras, Waldemar 1972 Shamanic performance in the inner room. 1n Reader in Comparative Religion: An AntJz ropological Approach, 3rd ed. Edited by Wi11iam A. Lessa and Evon Z. Vogt. New York: Harper & Row Publishers. Eliade, Mircea 1964 SlzamanÎsm: Arclzaic Techniques of Ecstasy. Translated by Willard R. Trask Princeton: Princeton University Press. Geertz, Clifford 1973 Tl ze Interpretatioll of Clllture. New York: Basic Books. Kim, T' ae-gon 1998 Korean SlzamanÎsm: MuÎsm. Translaetd and edited by Chang Soo-kyung. Seoul: Jimoondang Publishing Company Langer, Susane K Philosoplzy În a New Key. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Lee, Byong-Won 1997 Styles and EsthetÎcs in Korean TraditÎonal λ1usic. Seoul: The National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts. Lee, Yong-Shik 2001 Sacred music: symbol and power in Korean shamanistic music. Paper presented at the Conference for Korean Music1ogy, Honolulu, Hawaii. Needham, Rodney

30 Percussion and transition. In Reader in Comparative Religion: An Anthropological Approach, 3rd ed. Edited by William A. Lessa and Evon Z. Vogt. New York: Harper & Row Publishers.