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1 GIS GP S D ev elopm ent of GP S dat a proce s s in g m odule for im prov in g po s ition accuracy of GIS dat a

2 GIS GP S D ev elopm ent of GP S dat a proce s s in g m odule for im prov in g po s ition accuracy of GIS dat a

3

4 GIS. GIS, GIS GIS. GPS GIS GIS. GPS OLE/ COM. GIS GIS GEOMania GDK. - i -

5 ABSTRACT Now a day s, the inform ation technology of GIS is highly progr essing, its amount is heavily increasing and refined service of spatial inform ation is being r equired. GIS ' in strument s for accuracy improv ement of position and effective m anagem ent of data hav e been needed and softw ar es hav e been dev eloped for the replacement of for eign GIS engine which could be separated by it s function on economy. Another thing s is that div er sity of GIS softw ares ' function and protection of duplicate inv estm ent by adding GPS data pr ocessing m odule w hich is expected to induce spreading of GIS softw are ' s dev elopment and adv ancem ent on the basis of component technique. In this resear ch, GPS data pr ocessing module on the basis of OLE/ COM is developed for r equirem ent of diver se analy sis and lot s of expect ed effect s and the second, application program u sing soft w ar e of GEOMania of GDK for activating use of domestic softw are and it s method ' s research too. - ii -

6 < > GP S GPS GPS GPS GPS DGPS GPS GPS Matrix Smoothing GP S COM COM (Component Object Model) COM (Interface) IUnknown IDL (Interface Definition Language) 24 - iii -

7 5. GP S GPS Setup Network Point Positioning DGPS GPS GPS Data Load Process Advanced Control Point Positioning GDK GDK (GeoMania Development Kit ) GIS (Geographic Information Sy stem ) GDK GPS GPS GPS GPS GPS GDK iv -

8 < > 1 GPS Zoom WGS v -

9 < > GPS Setup Network Point Positioning DGPS Data Load Data processing Data Processing Option GUI DLL GPS DXF vi -

10 1. GPS.. GPS GPS GPS S/ W. GIS GPS COM.. COM DLL GPS,. GPS, GIS GIS, GPS. 1.1 GPS, GIS GIS

11 1.2 GPS Point Positioning, DGPS. GPS, GDK Map Display Layer

12 2. GPS GPS FOC(Full Operation Capability ) 20,183km 24 NAVST AR. GPS Hz (Jamming ). 2.1 GPS GPS. RINEX(Receiver INdepen dent EXchange format ). RINEX Observation Data file( ), Navigation Data file( ), Meteorological Data file( ) GPS L GHz L GHz. PRN (Pseudo- Random Noise) (Navigation Message). PRN - 3 -

13 . PRN (Random Noise). PRN Coasrse Acquisition C/ A P (Precise code). GPS. Code Phase. Code - C1 - P 1 - P2 Carrier Phase - L1 - L2 2.2 GPS Single GPS Differential GPS. GPS 1 C/ A P. 1) Standard Positioning System (SPS ) SPS

14 SPS SPS. SPS. 100 m 156 m 167 nanosecond 95%. 2) Precise Positioning Sy stem (PPS) PPS.,, PPS m 27.7 m 100 nanosecond C/ A meter. GPS SA (Selective Availability ). 2 Differential GPS DGPS. GPS. GPS - 5 -

15 Differential GPS. DGPS GPS m, 1 m. GPS DGPS GPS GPS C/ A code. GPS. : = r R C VR - r SA T + c( t R - t T ) (2-1) Given :, Unknow n : r SA T, t T r R C VR, t R m : = - r r 1 + c( t R - t 1 ) (2-2) = - r r m + c( t R - t m ) General Equation. = - r r i + - i + I i + T i + M i + i (2-3) I i T i M i = Ionospheric Delay = T ropospheric Delay = Multipath Delay - 6 -

16 r - r i = ( x - x i ) 2 + (y - y i ) 2 + ( z - z i ) 2 (2-4) r - r i. r = r * + r. r * RINEX. 1. r * + r - r i = r - r i + ( r * - r * - r i ) T r i r (2-5) Unknown r,. = r - r i + ( r * - r * - r i ) T r i r + - i + i (2-6) (3) Delay error. (6) (Least Square Solution ). - r - r i + i = ( r * - r * - r i ) T r i r + + i (2-7) y = - - r * - r : : : : : : r * - r m + m (mx 1), H = ( r * - r 1 ) T r 1 r * - 1 : : : : : : ( r * - r * - r m ) T r m 1 (mx4) - 7 -

17 x = [ r ] = x y z (4x 1), = 1 : : (mx 1) m y = H x + i (2-8) J = T J = ( y - H x ) T ( y - H x ) (2-9) x J x = 2 ( y - H x ) T H = 0 y T H = x T H T H ( H T H ) T x = H T y x = ( H T H ) - 1 H T y (2-10) x, y, z, = x r r * + r. * r x,. r Phase code Phase. i = - i= i + - i + N i - I i + T i + M i + i i = r - r i + - i + N i - I i + T i + M i + i (2-11) = c f c = speed lignht f = fr equency - 8 -

18 L1 = MHz, L2 = MHz C/ A code (11). Phase code Cycle Silp. code (11)., r = r * + r i - ( r * r r i - N i = i r * - ) T r i r i r + + i (2-12) (12). code Matrix DGPS DGPS Single DGPS. DGPS. D i R 1, R 2 = D i R 1, R 2 ( ) + c D i R 1, R 2 ( t) + D i R 1, R 2 ( I) + D i R 1, R 2 ( T ) (2-13) Double DGPS.( ) DD i, j R 1, R 2 = DD i, j R 1, R 2 ( ) + DD i R 1, R 2 ( I) + DD i R 1, R 2 ( T ) (2-14) (13),(14) code. (13), (14) - 9 -

19 ,, GPS GPS. code code phase. C1 P 1 P2 L1 L2 C1&L1&L2 P 2&L1&L2 C1&D1 [=P 1&D1] L1&P2 C1&L1 [=P 1&L1] L2&P 1 C1&L1&P2&L2 C1&P 2 [=P 1&P 2] L 1&L2 P 1&L1&P 2&L2 1 GPS 1 Single GPS DGPS GPS Matrix Matrix. Matrix. epoch (, Sequential Method) epoch Matrix (, Batch Method). (2-10)

20 Matrix H, y Matrix. epoch Matrix H y Matrix. Matrix. epoch H, y Matrix Matrix, H = ( r * t1 r * t1 ( r * t1 r * t1 ( r * tn r * tn ( r * tn r * tn - - ) T r 1 r 1 1 : : : - - r m ) T r m 1 : : : - - r 1 ) T r 1 1 : : : - - r m ) T r m 1 ({m *n }x4) n : epoch - r * t1 - + r 1 1 : : : y = - r * t1 - + r m m : : : ({m *n}x 1) - r * tn - + r 1 1 : : : - r * tn - r m + m

21 Matrix Smoothing Phase. i, L 1 = i + - i + T i - I i, L 1 + L 1 N i, L 1 + i, L 1 i, L 2 = i + - i + T i - I i, L 2 + L 2 N i, L 2 + i, L 2 i, L 1 - i, L 2 = ( - 1) I i, L 1 + L 1 N i, L 1 - L 2 N i, L 2 + i, L 1 - i, L 2 Ionospheric Delay. I i, L 1 = ( i, L 1 - i, L 2 ) ( i, L 2 - i, L 1) (2-15) 1-1 ( L 2 N i, L 2 - L 1 N i, L 1 ) code = i + - i + T i + I i, L 1 + i, L 1 i, L 1 i, L 2 = i + - i + T i + I i, L 1 + i, L 2 Ionospheric Delay. I i, L 1 = 1-1 ( - i, L 2 ) + i, L ( i, L 1 - i, L 2 ) (2-16), epoch Phase Ionospheric Delay Code Ionospheric Delay, Integer Ambiguity epoch. ( Error. ),

22 ) ( I i, L 1 ) L 1, L 2, t 1 = ( I i, L 1 ) P 1, P2, t 1 : ( I i, L 1 ) L 1, L 2, t 2 = ( I i, L 1 ) P 1, P2, t 2 ( I i, L 1 ) L 1, L 2, t 1 ( I i, L 1 ) L 1, L 2, t 2 ( N i, L 1 ) P 1, P2, L 1, t 1 = ( N i, L 1 ) P 1, P2, L 1, t 2 ( N i, L 2 ) P 1, P2, L 2, t 1 = ( N i, L 2 ) P 1, P2, L 2, t 2 ( N i, L 1 ) P 1, P2, L 1, t 1 ( N i, L 2 ) P 1, P2, L 2, t 1 (2-15) (2-16), ( i, L 2 - i, L 1 ) = ( i, L 1 - i, L 2) t1 + ( L 2 N i, L 2 - L 1N i, L 1 ) t1 t1 ( i, L 2 - i, L 1 ) t2 = ( i, L 1 - i, L 2) t2 + ( L 2 N i, L 2 - L 1N i, L 1 ) t2, ( L 2 N i, L 2 - L 1 N i, L 1 ) t 1 = ( L 2 N i, L 2 - L 1 N i, L 1 ) t 2 (. i, L 2 - i, L 1 ) = ( i, L 1 - i, L 2) t2 + ( L 2 N i, L 2 - L 1N i, L 1 ) t1 t2. 1) Epoch 1 N i, L 1 = L 1 ( - 1) ( 2 - ( + 1) i, L 2 i, L 1 ) + 1 L 1 i, L 1 (2-17) Integer Ambiguity. i, L 1 = i + - i + T i - I i, L 1 + L 1 N i, L 1 + i, L 1 (2-18) r,. ( L 2 N i, L 2 - L 1 N i, L 1 ) t1 = ( i, L 1 - i, L 2 ) t1 - ( i, L 2 - i, L 1 ) t1 (2-19)

23 2) epoch (2-19) ( i, L 2 * ) = ( i, L 1 - i, L 2) t2 + ( L 2N i, L 2 - L 1N i, L 1 ) t1 + ( i, L 1 ) t2 N i, L 1 = 1 L 1 ( - 1) ( 2 ( i, L 2 * ) - ( + 1) i, L 1 ) + 1 L 1 i, L 1 i, L 1 = i + - i + T i - I i, L 1 + L 1 N i, L 1 + i, L 1 (2-20) (2-20) r,. 1), 2) epoch

24 3. GPS GPS W GS84. Bessel T M. GPS T. WGS84 Bessel 7- Para meter, Molodensky, MRE. Molodensky. T ransver se Mercator. 3.1 GPS WGS84. W GS84 WGS84, Bessel.. 3 Molodensky. Parameter 5, a, f X, Y, Z DMA. Molodensky ( X, Y, Z ).. Molodensky

25 ' ' = [ - X s in cos - Ysin s in + Z cos + a ( N e 2 s in cos ) a + f [ M ( a b ) + N ( b a ) ] s in cos ] [ ( M + H ) s in 1' ' ] - 1 (3-1) ' ' = [ - X sin + Y cos ] [ (N + H ) s in 1' ' ] - 1 (3-2) H m = X cos cos + Y cos s in + Z s in - a( a N ) + f ( b a )N sin 2,, H : W GS84.,, H : X, Y, Z : a, f :. N : ( = a 1 - e 2 s in 2 ) (3-3) M : ( = a( 1 - e 2 ) ( 1 - e 2 sin 2 ) 3 ) (,, h ) (X, Y, Z ). Molodenky.. X = ( N + h) cos cos (3-4) Y = (N + h) cos s in (3-5) Z = {N ( 1 - e 2 ) + h}s in (3-6) N : h : e :. = t an - 1 ( Y / X ) (3-7) p = ( N + h) cos (3-8)

26 Z = [N ( 1 - e 2 ) + h ] sin (3-9) (3-8) (3-9), h. p Z.. = t an - 1 ( Z + e' 2 bsin 3 p - e 2 acos 3 ) (3-10) = t an - 1 ( Z a p b ) h = = t an - 1 Y X p cos - N e : 1, e ' : 2 (3-11) (3-12) 3.2 GPS W GS84 3. Bessel T M (T ransver se Mercator ) 2. Gauss- Kruger,. 3,,. T okyo Datum, T M

27 Mo = a { ( 1 - e e e ) 0 - (3 e e e ) sin (2 0) + ( 15 e e ) sin (4 0) - (35 e ) sin (6 0) } M = a { ( ( 15 e4 256 e e e ) - (3 e e e e ) sin (4 ) - (35 e ) sin (6 ) } ) sin (2 ) e' 2 = e e 2, N = a 1 - e 2 sin 2, T = t an 2 C = e' 2 cos 2, A = cos ( - 0) x = kon [ A + ( 1 - T + C) A 3 y = ko [ (M - M 0 + N tan { ( A (5-18 T + T C - 58 * e ' 2 ) A ] 2 + (5 - T + 9 C + 4 C2 ) A (61-58 T + T C e' 2 ) A }] 0, 0 :, :, k o, a, e : scale factor,, (3-14) (3-13) (3-13) (3-14) x,y

28 1. 1 GPS.. 7- parameter 1. Molodensky

29 4. COM 4.1 COM(Component Object Model) (Component Object Model, COM ),..,,..,.,.,..,

30 COM COM Win32DLL EXE. COM. COM C C++ OOP (Object - Oriented Programming ), Visual Basic, COM. COM (binary )., COM Win32 DLL EXE. COM. COM COM., COM. COM (location transparency ). COM COM COM. COM ( - ), ( ), ( ),. COM COM, COM (Interface)

31 4.2 (Interface) (Interface) COM. (method, ). COM IUnknown, COM. I '. COM. COM,,, COM. COM. COM IUnknown COM.. COM COM COM. COM IUnknown. COM. IUnknown

32 . 1) QueryInterface IUnknown COM QueryInterface.. IID( ). HRESULT stdcall QueryInterface(REFIID riid, void** ppv ) riid. ppv NULL. 2) AddRef Release COM, COM COM, 0. IUNknown AddRef Release. ULONG AddRef(void); ULONG Release (void); AddRef, Release. Releae 0. COM AddRef, Relese COM, 0 COM

33 AddRef. Release, AddRef IDL(Interface Definition Language) COM IDL (Interface Definition Language). COM IDL OSF (Open Software Foundation) RPC(Remote Procedure Call) IDL. IDL MIDL(Microsoft IDL). IDL MIDL, (local server ) (remote server ) (marshaling ) (proxy ) (stub). (Automation) (T ype Library )

34 5. GPS 5.1 GPS 2. GPS GPS

35 5.1.1 Setup 3. Setup Setup GPS. Advanced Contorol

36 5.1.2 Network 4. Netw ork Netw ork GPS Static Kinematic Static. Kinematic Static. DGPS Base Netw ork. GPS Base Rover Rover Base 100% Check

37 5.1.3 Point Positioning DGPS 5. Point Positioning DGPS GPS. Single GPS (Point positioning ) Differential GPS (DGSP ), GPS GPS. IEphemeris ILeastSquare

38 IC1 GPS C1 code IC1L1 GPS C1 code L1 Phase ICP GPS C1 code P code ISmoothed GPS Smooth ICoordinateXYZtoLL IMolodensky IGLDcfEngine 2.. IC1. DGPS. 5.3 GPS COM GPS,. DLL. DLL. GDK (GEOMania Development Kit )

39 GIS Data Load 6. Data Load GPS data Low data S/ W Format l Load. RINEX format Observation data Navigation data Process 7. Data processing

40 Data (Setup) (Data T ype). Single GPS (Point Positioning ) DGPS (BaseLine[DGPS]) Adva nced Control. 8. Data Processing Option GUI delay

41 5.3.4 Point Positioning 9. Display. GPS WGS

42 5.4 GDK GDK(GeoMa nia Deve lopment Kit) GDK API GIS S/ W. GIS GDK GIS GIS(Geographic Information System) GIS ( ).,,,. GIS

43 5.4.3 GDK XM_ManagerStart - XM_New - XISMAP XM_Open - XISMAP Open XM_Close - XISMAP Close 3. GDK,,. XMS - ZoomIn - XMS_Zoomout - XMS_Win - 4. Zoom Zoom /. Zoom, Factor. XMS_GetZoomInfo XMS_Set ZoomInfo, Zoom

44 XIS_LLtoT M - - > T M XIS_T MtoLL - T M - > PR_ConvertProjection XIS_CoordinateT rans PR_ConvertProjection

45 GPS GPS DLL Regsvr32 GPS. GPS DLL. 10. DLL GPS GPS RINEX Format GPS load...,, Matrix. Advanced Control

46 . Point Positioning DGPS GPS GPS WGS84 3,

47 6.2 GPS GPS 1 Static. 1 C1, L1, D1 RINEX Format GPS Processor.. WGS84 Latitude (X) ( m ) Longitude (Y) ( m ) Height m (Z) ( m ) 6. C1. < 1> (Sequential Method) X Y Z < 2> (Batch Method) X Y Z

48 ., C1. Code Phase GPS WGS84. W GS84 Latitude 37 24' "N ( ) Longitude ' "E ( ) Height m 8. W GS84 Molodensky Bessel Parameter 5. a, f : X, Y, Z : Datum T okyo Mean Value. X Y Z

49 Parameter T rimble GPSurvey. GPSurvey Latitude Longitude Height m m 9.,, 10-7, (X ) (X ) (Y ) (Y ) A m m m m B m m m m C m m m m D m m m m E m m m m F m m m m G m m m m RMSE (X) = m RMSE (Y) = m cm

50 1 / 1, m 0.3m 0.15m 0.4m 0.6m 0.3m 1 / 5, m 1.0m 0.5m 2.0m 2.0m 1.0m 1 / 25, m 3.0m 1.5m 10.0m 5.0m 2.5m

51 6.3 GDK GDK.. GDK GeoMania.GEO DXF

52 13. DXF GDK GPS, GIS GDK GeoMania,

53 14. Display.,

54 Base Station RINEX GPS. Standalone GPS

55 7. GIS GPS. GPS., GPS GPS. GDK GIS GPS, GIS. GPS GIS. GPS GPS, NMEA, Single GPS DGPS. GPS

56 [1] David Wells, Canadian GPS A ssociates, Guide to GPS Positioning [2] Alfred Leick, Wiley Inter science, GPS Sate llit e Surv eying 2nd edition [3] B. Hofm ann - Wellenhof, H. Lichtenegger, and J. Collin s, Springer Wien New York, GPS T heory and Practice 4st edition [4] Gunter Seeber, de Gruyter, Satellite Geodesy [5] Gilbert Strang, Kai Borre, W ellesley - Cambredge Pr ess, Linear Algebra, Geodesy, and GPS [6] Jay A. Farrell & Matthew Barth, Mc Graw - Hill, T he Global Positioning Sy stem & Inertial Navigation [7], 1999., MS Visual C MFC Programming [8], 1999., MS Visual C AT L COM Programming [9], 1999,, Visial C++ Programming Bible [10], 1998,, GIS S/ W GDK v2.5 [11],,, 1995, 7- W GS84 [12] NIMA, 1997, NIMA W orld Geodetic Sy stem

57 [13] John P. Snyder, 1982, USGS, Map Projection s Used by the U.S. Geological Surv ey [14] Paul R. W olf, Charles D. Ghilani, 1997, Wiley int er science, A dju stm ent Computations

58 2.,... 2.,,,. (.),. 2. 2,,,,, 1,,,, GIS,,,,...,RS,,,,.,, 12,,.,...,,