12.30_3권 Geospatial Data Standards.hwp

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "12.30_3권 Geospatial Data Standards.hwp"


1 Geospatial Data Standards

2 This primer aims to share the knowledge and experiences of territorial planning and policy in Korea for the past 60 years. After undergoing turbulent times of colonial rule and war in the first half of 20th century, Korea has accomplished a remarkable economic and social development since the 1960s. Now Korea becomes a favorite benchmark of many developing countries, and is performing an important role to disseminate its knowledge and policy experiences to global friends. On such a track, KRIHS publishes this primer which consists of 8 topics dealing with National Geospatial Data Policies ranging in either comprehensive or specific themes. More primers will be forthcoming with a wider variety of subjects year after year. Title Author Advisor Editors Coordinator Geospatial Data Standards Dr. Haekyong Kang, Associate Research Fellow, Geospatial Information Research Division, KRIHS Prof. Professor Ki-Joune Li, Pusan National University Dr. Dongju Kim, Vice President, KRIHS Dr. Jeongho Moon, Director, Global Development Partnership Center(GDPC), KRIHS Dr. Hosang Sakong, Director, Geospatial Information Research Division, KRIHS Dr. Jincheol Jo, Vice Director, GDPC, KRIHS Jeongmin Lee, Assistant Research Fellow, GDPC, KRIHS Louchung Chang, Editor, GDPC, KRIHS Dr. Chunman Cho, Chief, Global Network Team, GDPC, KRIHS Published by Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements (KRIHS) Designed by Namo Co., Ltd. Cataloging-in Publication Data Publisher Kyunghwan Kim Publication Registration Printed on Dec., 31, 2014 ISBN (set) All Right Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, used or stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of Korea Research Institute of Human Settlements (KRIHS), except in the case of brief quotation embodies in critical articles or reviews. Please address your question to: Global Development Partnership Center 254 Simin-daero, Dongan-gu, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea Tel: Fax: Website: Copyright 2014 by Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements Printed and Bound in the Republic of Korea Please note that the arguments in this primer are solely upon the authors perspectives, and may differ from the official position of KRIHS.

3 Geospatial Data Standards

4 Korea s Geospatial Policy Series Geospatial Data Standards Ⅰ Overview of Geospatial Standards 1. Needs for Geospatial Standards 8 2. Definition and Classification of Geospatial Standards 16 Ⅱ International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems 1. ISO/TC OGC Geospatial Standards System in the United States Geospatial Standards System in Canada Geospatial Standards System in Korea 48

5 Ⅰ 공간정보표준개요 1. 공간정보표준필요성 9 2. 공간정보표준정의및분류 17 Ⅱ 국내외공간정보표준체계 1. ISO/TC OGC 미국공간정보표준체계 캐나다공간정보표준체계 한국공간정보표준체계 49

6 Korea s Geospatial Policy Series Geospatial Data Standards Ⅲ Policies for Geospatial Standards 1. Geospatial Standards as a Geospatial Data Infrastructure Establishment of the Role of Geospatial Standards 78 as Geospatial Data Infrastructure 3. Institutions to Promote Polices for Geospatial Standards (as Examples) Examples of Operating Guideline for Geospatial Data Standardization System Conclusion 106 Further Readings 110

7 Ⅲ 공간정보표준정책 1. 공간정보인프라로서공간정보표준 공간정보인프라로서공간정보표준역할정립 공간정보표준정책추진을위한제도 ( 예시 ) 공간정보표준체계운영지침예시 소결 107 더읽을거리 111

8 I. Overview of Geospatial Standards 1. Needs for Geospatial Standards Geospatial Standards: A Strategic Tool for the International Technology Market Preemption geospatial standards in the global geospatial market have been utilized as a tool for ensuring interoperability, but in recent years as a strategic one for dominating relevant markets in advance. As the number of successful use-cases developing a state-of-the-art technology with standards preemption in geospatial market is increasing, the competitiveness of a country s technology is judged by how much the technology of the country has led and preoccupied international geospatial standards. In general, the need for geospatial standards is not much different from the purpose of operating standards, which is for minimizing national costs caused by redundant construction in pursuing national and public geospatial data projects, ensuring interoperability and expansion between built systems, and for guaranteeing quality of products or business outcomes to some degree on the basis of geospatial standards 1). In addition, the technologies, products, and business results suitable for international geospatial standards are not only certified under international standards of quality, but are also allowed to increase awareness in the international community, so they help strengthen the competitiveness in overseas markets. geospatial standards are needed for Technology Exchanges in the Overseas Market, based on International Trade Aggreements Geospatial data environment surrounding Korea and other nations suggests that the importance of geospatial standards will be even higher in the future. First, in the international geospatial community, the compliance of technologies with international standards has become mandatory for all countries in accordance with the regulations of World Trade Organization (WTO). As a result, the technology that does not conform to international standards may be modified to meet the standards when trade between countries takes place. In other words, when a technology is developed without considering international standards, it may cost a lot more to modify the technology in the future. Therefore, in the case of developing a new technology for example, developing a geospatial data-related technology through R&D there is a need to develop both domestic and international standards at the same time. In areas such as u-city which is promoted by the government, relevant international standards are being developed or have yet to be developed. So in the future when international standards are developed, it is likely to modify techniques already developed to meet the standards. In order to prevent such cost redundancy, technology development and standards preemption need to be promoted simultaneously. It is important that when geospatial data technology development or new businesses are promoted, the efforts to preempt the international geospatial standards market be made. 1) Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs National Geospatial Data Support Research: National geospatial standards and Standard Management, p1. 8

9 I. 공간정보표준개요 1. 공간정보표준필요성 공간정보표준 : 해외기술시장선점을위한전략적도구 세계공간정보시장에서공간정보표준은상호호환성확보를위한도구로활용되었으나최근에는시장확보, 시장선점을위한전략적도구로사용되고있다. 첨단기술을개발는경우기술개발과표준선점을동시에추진하면서, 세계시장에서우위를선점하는사례가증가함에따라, 한나라의국가기술경쟁력은그나라가보유하고있는기술이국제표준을얼마나주도 선점하는가로판단되고있다. 공간정보표준의필요성은일반적으로표준을운영하는목적과크게다르지않은데, 국가및공공공간정보사업을추진할때중복구축으로인한국가적비용을최소화하고, 구축된시스템간에상호운영성및확장성을확보하며, 공간정보표준을기준으로제품혹은사업결과물의품질을일정수준보장하는데있다 1). 이외에도국제공간정보표준에적합한기술 / 제품 / 사업결과물은국제수준의품질을인증받는것뿐만아니라국제사회에서인지도를높일수있으므로해외시장에서의경쟁력을강화시키는데도움이된다. 국제무역협정에따라해외시장기술교류에공간정보표준필요 우리나라를둘러싼국내외공간정보환경은앞으로공간정보표준의중요성이더욱높아질것임을시사하고있다. 먼저, 공간정보국외환경으로국제무역협정 (WTO) 에의해기술의국제표준부합화는국가들간의강제준수조항이되었다. 그결과국제표준을따르지않는기술은국가간무역이발생할경우표준에부합하도록기술을수정해야할가능성이있다. 즉, 표준에부합하지않는기술개발시, 기술수정비용이추가로소요될수있음을의미한다. 그래서공간정보 R&D처럼신기술을개발하는경우국내외공간정보표준을동시에개발할필요가있다. 정부주도로추진하고있는 u-city 등의분야도국제표준이이개발중이거나아직마련되지않은상태이므로, 현재는준수할국제표준이없는상황이지만, 향후국제표준이개발될경우에는지금개발된기술들을수정해야할가능성이높다. 이런비용중복을방지하기위해서는기술개발과표준선점을동시에추진할필요가있다. 공간정보기술개발혹은새로운사업을추진할경우국제공간정보표준을선점하는노력이중요하다. 1) 국토해양부 년도국가공간정보지원연구 : 국가공간정보표준체계확립및표준관리, p1. 9

10 Ⅰ. Overview of geospatial standards Increasing Importance of geospatial standards in Accordance with Convergence Environment Changes Figure 1. Increasing the Importance of geospatial standards for Geospatial Convergence The character-oriented technology society has been changing rapidly into the space-oriented information & knowledge society thanks to the development of high technologies. Unlike the 1990s which saw the building of geospatial systems for the efficient management of environmental pollution or disasters, the current geographic information is positioned as basic information always used in our daily life. This geographic information that has become part of life adds to the importance of standards for convergence among disparate systems and data for the purpose of the convergence of more complex and sophisticated technologies. For example, a little more than ten years or so has passed since the late 1990s when web-based mapping services like Yahoo Map were launched, and currently a wide range of mapping services (such as Friend Finder) have been provided on mobile terminals such as cellular phones, navigation devices, and PDAs. With growing expectations among users, not only three-dimensional map services but a virtual life environment identical with a real life is wanted. In recent years, user activities in new complex space like Second Life, which integrates real life space and virtual space, are being spread. Converging geospatial technology, which is one of the future major geospatial markets, requires interoperability of geospatial technologies and other areas of technologies. This means that the range of geospatial standards would be further expanded and that the role of those standards would become more important. 10

11 Ⅰ. 공간정보표준개요 융복합환경변화에따라공간정보표준의중요성증가 그림 1. 융 복합공간정보를위한공간정보표준의중요성증가 문자중심의정보화사회는기술의발달과더불어공간중심의정보 지식사회로급변하고있다. 환경오염이나재난재해의효율적관리를위해공간정보시스템을구축하던 90년대와는달리, 지금의지리정보는생활속에서항상사용하는기초정보로서자리매김하고있다. 이러한지리정보의생활화는기술의융복합과더불어더욱복잡 고도화되고있으며, 이기종시스템및데이터들간의융복합을위해표준의중요성을더하고있다. 예를들어, 야후맵처럼웹을통한지도서비스가출시되기시작했던 90년대후반으로부터 10년남짓이흐른지금, 휴대전화기, 네비게이션, PDA 등과같은이동단말기상에서지도서비스 ( 예 : 친구찾기 ) 가사용되고있다. 사용자기대치도갈수록높아져서, 3차원지도서비스뿐만아니라, 실생활공간과동일한가상환경을요구하고있다. 최근에는세컨드라이프처럼, 현실생활공간과가상공간이통합된신복합공간에서의사용자활동이확산되고있다. 미래의주요공간정보시장중의하나인, 융복합공간정보는공간정보기술뿐만아니라타분야기술과공간정보기술이상호호환되어야함을전제로한다. 이것은공간정보표준의범위가더욱확대될것이며, 그역할이중요해질것을의미한다. 11

12 Ⅰ. Overview of geospatial standards Increasing Importance of geospatial standards for Linkage and Integration among Geospatial Information Utilization Systems Third, the geospatial information maturity level of central and local governments has become so high that they develop, build, and manage a variety of geospatial data systems for themselves. The central government agencies the Forest Service, the National Police Agency, the Statistics Korea, the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs, and the Ministry of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport are promoting informatization projects on the basis of geospatial data. As a result, the demand for common rules of sharing the heterogeneous geospatial data is increasing. Figure 2. Comparison of Geospatial Informatization Quotient by Administrative District The trend is also supported by a study 2) which analyzed the level of local governments advancement of geospatial data. According to the research, metropolitan cities have left from the utilization stage and entered the phase of connection and integration, while cities and provinces are mainly staying in the utilization stage and have started to enter the connection and integration stage slowly. geospatial standards are a key factor that can link and integrate a host of disparate geospatial data systems being built and operated domestically. For the standards to play a proper role, current national standards should be reviewed whether they can be used in projects for linkage and connection, and further standards can be developed when necessary. 2) Sagong Hosang et. al. 2008, Municipalities Current Status of Geospatial Data and their Competency Enhancement Measures. Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements. p.38, p

13 Ⅰ. 공간정보표준개요 공간정보활용시스템들간의연계 통합을위하여공간정보표준중요성증가 셋째, 지자체및정부의공간정보활용능력수준이높아져서, 다양한공간정보시스템들을자체적으로개발 구축 운영하고있다. 이산림청, 경찰청, 통계청, 행정안전부, 국토해양부등중앙정부들도공간정보를기반으로한정보화사업들을추진하고있다. 그결과상호이질적인공간정보들을공유할수있는공통규칙에대한수요가증가하고있다. 그림 2. 행정규모별공간정보화지수의비교 이것은지자체의공간정보수준을분석한연구 2) 에서도잘나타나는데, 이연구에의하면광역시는활용단계를벗어나주로연계통합단계에이르렀고, 도와시는아직활용수준이지만, 연계통합으로의진입이서서히이루어지고있었다. 또, 시의경우에는주로활용단계에머무르고있었으며연계통합으로의진입이이루어지고있다. 공간정보표준은국내에구축 운영중인다양한이질적인공간정보시스템들을연계 통합시킬수있는핵심요소이다. 공간정보표준이제역할을하기위해서는현국내표준들을연계 통합사업에활용될수있는지를검토하고, 추가로필요한표준을제정할필요가있다. 2) 사공호상외 지자체공간정보수준분석및역량제고방안. 국토연구원. p.38, p

14 Ⅰ. Overview of geospatial standards Figure 3. Increasing Importance of geospatial standards As we have discussed earlier, the trade barrier for technology exchange in the international community, the mutual linkage of heterogeneous technologies and data, and the increasing demands for linkage and integration show that the demands for and the importance of geospatial standards will be much higher in the future. 14

15 Ⅰ. 공간정보표준개요 그림 3. 공간정보표준의중요성증가 이상지금까지살펴본바와같이국제사회에서기술교류를위한무역장벽과, 가속화되는융복합환경에서 이질적기술과데이터간의상호연계, 그리고연계통합에대한수요증가는향후공간정보표준에대한수요와 중요성이갈수록높아질것임을잘보여주고있다. 15

16 Ⅰ. Overview of geospatial standards 2. Definition and Classification of Geospatial Standards What are geospatial standards? Definition of geospatial standards A geospatial standard refers to a document on methodology, rules, services required for compatibility among different geospatial data users who take advantage of systems, DB, and locational information, relative to geospatial data 3). In a narrow sense, it means the specifications necessary for the common use of geospatial data made by means of agreements among interested parties. In a broad sense, it includes all kinds of activities related with the production and consumption of the specifications as well as the whole geospatial standards structure, including organizations or institutions that support these activities. Figure 4. Definition of geospatial standards 3) Definition of geospatial standards - Definition of ISO/TC211: An international GIS standards organization, ISO/TC211, defines GIS standards as documents to specify, for geographic information, methods, tools and services for data management (including definition and description), acquiring, processing, analyzing, accessing, presenting and transferring such data in digital / electronic form between different users, systems and locations. - Definition of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium), an international voluntary consensus standards organization: According to this organization, GIS standards are approved interfaces and encoding specifications to enable the compatibility between various geographic information data storage media, services, and applications - Definition of geospatial standards specified in a domestic study: GIS standards are specifications which are commonly and repetitively used to realize the objectives of GIS written through the consensus of all relevant areas of GIS, and authorized by government (Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs National GIS support research in National GIS standards system establishment ) * Note: general definition of standards - Wikipedia, 2008): A standard is a set of quantitative or qualitative attributes of products or services, interfaces and materials, which can appear in various forms. For instance, the forms of standards include definitions of terms, designs or architecture guidelines, detailed procedures, and criteria of products or procedures. 16

17 Ⅰ. 공간정보표준개요 2. 공간정보표준정의및분류 공간정보표준이란무엇인가 공간정보표준정의 공간정보표준이란 서로다른공간정보사용자 ( 시스템, DB, 위치 ) 들간에호환을가능하게하는데필요한방법 / 규칙 / 서비스들에대한명세 를말한다 3). 협의로는이해당사자들이합의에의해만든공간정보의공동활용에필요한명세서를말하며, 광의로는협의개념을확장하여명세서의생산, 소비에관련된제반활동과이활동을지원하는조직 제도등의공간정보표준체계를모두포함한개념이다. 그림 4. 공간정보표준의정의 3) 공간정보표준의정의 - 공간정보국제표준기구 (ISO/TC211) 의정의 : 국제GIS표준기구인 ISO/TC211은 GIS표준을 서로다른사용자 ( 시스템 ) 들및위치들간에지리정보를교환 관리 획득 처리 분석 접근 묘사하는데필요한방법 / 툴 / 서비스들에대한명세 라고정의 - GIS분야국제단체표준기구인 OGC(Open Geospatial Consortium) 의정의 : GIS표준을 다양한지리정보데이터저장매체, 서비스들, 및어플리케이션들간에호환을가능하게하는승인된인터페이스및인코딩명세서 라고정의 - 국내공간정보표준연구의정의 : GIS관련분야의합의에의해작성되고, 국가의승인을통해 GIS목표에대한성취가가능한공통적이고반복적인사용에대한규정 이라고정의 ( 국토해양부 년도국가GIS지원연구 - 국가GIS표준체계확립 ) 참고 : 일반적인표준의정의 - 일반적표준정의 ( 위키피디아, 2008): 제품이나서비스, 인터페이스와재료등의정량적, 혹은정성적인특성의집합을말하는것으로다양한형태로나타날수있다. 예를들면용어의정의, 설계나건축지침, 세부절차양식, 혹은제품이나절차의성능기준등 17

18 Ⅰ. Overview of geospatial standards Geospatial Standardization A geospatial 4) data standardization refers to all kinds of activities and procedures necessary for inducing geospatial standards by the consensus. These activities can largely be divided into five kinds: planning, development, enactment, application (or compliance) and management. Each activity is organically connected to each other and should be in a virtuous circle, rather than being concentrated on one of the standards activities. First, geospatial standards planning involves activities needed to plan standards to be newly developed, consistently monitor technological and environmental changes surrounding geospatial information, and meet the demands of users. geospatial standards development refers to activities needed to make rules that should be followed in a set of procedures through consultation by users. The enactment of geospatial standards refer to the approval process of official authorities about geospatial standards draft developed by the consensus. For example, in order to enact a standard which belongs to Korean Industrial Standard, the national standard of South Korea, we need the approval by Korean Agency for Technology and Standards authorized to enact domestic standards by Government. The application of geospatial standards means to inspect and certify whether products that applies the standards meet the standards or whether geospatial information and functions among products are mutually compatible, to explore standards application practices, and to manage the status of geospatial standards compliance. geospatial standards operations and management refer to all activities needed to provide users with the latest geospatial standards and collect extensive opinions of users for geospatial standards maintenance and management. Figure 5. Definition of geospatial standards Activities 4) According to OGC, standardization is defined as a consensus process to elicit approved specifications. 18

19 Ⅰ. 공간정보표준개요 공간정보표준화공간정보표준화 4) 란 합의에의해공간정보표준을도출하는데필요한제반활동및절차 를말한다. 이러한활동은크게다섯종류, 즉기획, 개발, 제정, 적용 ( 준수 ), 관리로나눌수있다. 각활동은유기적으로연결되어있으며, 어느하나의표준활동에집중되기보다는선순환적으로순환되어야한다. 먼저공간정보표준기획이란신규개발해야할표준을계획하는활동으로, 공간정보를둘러싼기술 사회환경의변화를지속적으로모니터링하고, 사용자요구를수렴하는등의활동들을말한다. 공간정보표준개발이란공간정보표준체계가제공하는일련의절차안에서여러사용자들이합의하여공동으로준수할규칙 ( 내용 ) 을만드는활동을말한다. 공간정보표준제정이란합의에의해작성된공간정보표준 ( 안 ) 을공식기관이승인하는과정이다. 예를들어우리나라의국가표준인한국산업표준 (KS) 을제정하기위해서정부로부터우리나라의표준제정권한을인정받은기술표준원의승인이필요하다. 공간정보표준적용이란표준을적용한성과품이공간정보표준내용을만족하는지, 혹은성과품들간에공간정보 / 기능이상호운용되는지를검사 / 인증하고표준적용사례들을발굴하고 공간정보표준준수현황 을관리하는것이다. 공간정보표준운영 관리란최신공간정보표준정보를사용자에게제공하고의견수렴하는공간정보표준유지관리활동을말한다. 그림 5. 공간정보표준활동의정의 4) OGC 는표준화를 승인된명세서를도출해내는합의과정 이라고정의함. 19

20 Ⅰ. Overview of geospatial standards Geospatial Standards System A geospatial standards system refers to a place of standardization where users develop standards, offering opportunities that they come to agreements through adequate discussion in relation to standards activities and a structure or system that enables standardization work or procedures such as verifying standards. It also refers to the construct of a logical and physical platform to develop, enact and manage common rules to be observed, and to perform related activities in order to share geospatial information. For the geospatial standards system to operate successfully, geospatial standards resources are needed to perform geospatial standardization. These resources can be categorized into four types: first, institutions that offer logical basis for continual standards activities; second, organizations that offer a physical bedrock for the activities; third, standard experts who carry out the activities; and finally, the results of the activities, or geospatial standards (specifications) and the best practices including compliant and implementation products. And social capability that secures such resources and puts them into geospatial standards systems to create a virtuous circle of production, supply, and management is called geospatial standards capability. 20

21 Ⅰ. 공간정보표준개요 공간정보표준체계공간정보표준체계는표준화의 장 ( 場 ) 으로서, 사용자들이표준을개발하고, 이와관련해서충분한토의를거쳐합의를모을수있는기회들을제공하며, 표준을검증하는등의표준화업무및절차들이일어나는조직 (structure, system) 을말한다. 공간정보를공유하기위하여준수할공통규칙을개발하고제정 관리하는활동, 활동의결과, 활동을수행하기위한논리적, 물리적기반 (platform) 의구성체라고할수있다. 공간정보표준체계가성공적으로운영되기위해서는공간정보표준화를수행하는데필요한자원 ( 공간정보표준자원 ) 이필요하다. 이러한공간정보표준자원은네가지로나눌수있는데, 먼저지속적표준활동의논리적근거를제공하는제도와둘째, 지속적표준활동의물리적기반을제공하는조직, 셋째, 표준활동을수행하는주체인표준전문가, 넷째표준활동의결과물인공간정보표준 ( 스펙 ) 과적용사례 (Best practices, compliant/implement products) 가있다. 그리고이러한자원을확보하여공간정보표준체계에투입하여표준생산 공급및관리활동을선순환시키는사회의능력을공간정보표준역량이라고한다. 21

22 Ⅰ. Overview of geospatial standards Table 1. Definition of Terms of geospatial standards Term Definition geospatial standard (Broad meaning) A document needed for the common use of geospatial information, established through the agreement of stake-holders (Narrow meaning) An extended concept that comprehensively includes the geospatial standards system: the production of specifications, various activities related to consumption, and organizations and institutions supporting those activities All activities to produce and consume agreed-upon geospatial standards Planning: Activities conducted to plan standards to be newly developed; various activities to keep monitoring technology, society, and environment involving geospatial data and to meet user needs Development: Activities conducted to develop rules (or content) within a series of procedures provided through the geospatial standards system; these rules are made through the consensus of users and should be kept by them geospatial standardization Enactment: Process of an official agency approving the agreed-upon geospatial standards (draft) Application: Activities conducted to inspect products to which standards are applied to know whether those products meet the content of the standards as well as to inspect and certify the geospatial data and functions between those products are consistent or interoperable, and to identify the best practices of the application of standards and manage the status of the compliance with geospatial standards Operation and management: activities to maintain geospatial standards by providing the newest information on geospatial standards to users and acquiring feedback from them geospatial standards system A logical and physical infrastructure (platform) for activities conducted to develop, enact, and manage the common rules needed to share geospatial data as well as to manage the results of those activities geospatial standards resources People and things needed to perform geospatial standardization within the geospatial standards system Institutions: provide a logical basis for ongoing standards activities Organizations: provide a physical basis for ongoing standards activities Standard specialists: subjects that perform standards activities Application of standards and the best practices: results of standards activities geospatial standards capability A capability of the geospatial standards system that has a virtuous cycle to produce, supply, and manage standards 22

23 Ⅰ. 공간정보표준개요 표 1. 공간정보표준용어정의 용어 정의 공간정보표준 ( 협의 ) 이해당사자들이합의에의해만든공간정보의공동활용에필요한명세서 ( 광의 ) 협의개념을확장하여명세서의생산, 소비에관련된제반활동과이활동을지원하는조직 제도등의공간정보표준체계를모두포함한개념 합의된공간정보표준을생산하고소비하는제반활동들 기획 : 신규개발해야할표준을계획하는활동으로, 공간정보를둘러싼기술 사회환경의변화를지속적으로모니터링하고, 사용자요구를수렴하는등의활동들 개발 : 공간정보표준체계가제공하는일련의절차안에서여러사용자들이합의하여공동으로준수할규칙 ( 내용 ) 을만드는활동 공간정보표준화 제정 : 합의에의해작성된공간정보표준 ( 안 ) 을공식기관이승인하는과정 적용 : 표준을적용한성과품이공간정보표준내용을만족하는지, 혹은성과품들간에공간정보 / 기능이상호운용되는지를검사 / 인증하고표준적용사례들을발굴하고 공간정보표준준수현황 을관리하는것 운영 관리 : 최신공간정보표준정보를사용자에게제공하고의견수렴하는공간정보표준유지관리활동 공간정보표준체계 공간정보를공유하기위하여준수할공통규칙을개발하고제정 관리하는활동, 활동의결과, 활동을수행하기위한논리적, 물리적기반 (platform) 의구성체 공간정보표준자원 공간정보표준체계내에서공간정보표준화를수행하는데필요한것 제도 : 지속적표준활동의논리적근거를제공 조직 : 지속적표준활동의물리적기반을제공 표준전문가 : 표준활동을수행하는주체 표준및적용사례 : 표준활동의결과물 공간정보표준역량 표준생산 공급및관리활동을선순환시킬수있는공간정보표준체계의능력 23

24 Ⅰ. Overview of geospatial standards Classification Criteria and Types of geospatial standards Classification of Standards Standards can be classified, depending on the subject of the enactment, the possibility of the compulsory application, the institution of the enactment and the content of standards. Standards are divided into De-jure and De-facto Standards, depending on the enactment subject. Standards are split into Regulatory and Voluntary Standards, depending on the possibility of the compulsory application. The institution of the enactment is a criterion by which to divide standards into International, Regional, National, and Industry or Organizational Standards. Finally, the standard content is used to bracket standards into Data, Service, Organization Standards, etc. Table 2. Classification Criteria and Types of Standards Criteria Types Subjects of enactment Possibility of compulsory application Enactment Institution Standard content De-jure vs. De-facto Regulatory vs. Voluntary International, Regional National, Industry or Organizational Fundamental, terminology, products (devices), inspection, safety, service, implementation, organizational procedures, compatibility, performance, data, etc. A De-jure Standard is established by an official standard establishment organization through an agreement between the parties. It takes a relatively long period of time (on average 3 years) to establish this standard because it is difficult to reach consensus. So some high technology fields with a very fast development may often lose their market share or marketability as soon as relevant standards are established because the technologies are already outdated. Moreover, the standards are easy to be obsolete and outdated since the parties tend to be reluctant to review their agreement once they reach an agreement. A De-facto Standard is naturally evolved from corporate standards available in the free competitive market system. This standard may ignore public interest because it is handled by firms that control the market. In addition, if the predominance of standards is not determined in the market competition, the market may be filled with redundant standards. It may lead to a lack of interchangeability and redundant investment. 24

25 Ⅰ. 공간정보표준개요 공간정보표준분류기준및종류 표준의분류표준은표준제정주체, 강제적용여부, 제정기구, 표준내용에따라분류될수있다. 제정주체에따라서는공식표준과실질표준으로나누어진다. 강제적용가능성에따라서는강제표준과자의표준으로나누어진다. 제정기구에따라서는국제표준, 지역표준, 국가표준, 단체표준으로나누어진다. 표준내용에따라서는자료표준, 서비스표준, 절차표준등으로나눌수있다. 표 2. 표준의분류기준및종류 분류기준 표준종류 제정주체 공식 (De-jure) 표준 vs. 실질 (De-facto) 표준 강제적용여부 강제 (Regulatory) 표준 vs. 자의 (Voluntary) 표준 제정기구 국제 (International) 표준, 지역 (Regional) 표준, 국가 (National) 표준, 단체 (Industry or Organizational) 표준 표준내용 기반, 용어, 제품 ( 장치 ), 검사, 안전, 서비스, 구현, 조직절차, 호환, 성능, 자료등 공식표준 (De-jure Standard) 은이해당사자들간의합의를통해공식적인표준제정기구가제정한표준이다. 공식표준은합의도출과정이어렵기때문에표준이제정되는데상대적으로장기간이소요되는데평균 2~3년이걸린다고한다. 그래서기술의진보속도가매우빠른첨단기술분야는, 공식표준제정이끝난시점이되면이미해당기술이낙후되어시장성을잃게되는경우가존재하기도한다. 또, 한번합의가이루어진것에대해서는검토하지않으려는성향이있어표준이진부하고고루한것이될위험이있다. 실질표준 (De-facto Standards) 은자유경쟁시장체제하에서기업규격이자연스럽게표준으로발전된경우이다. 실질표준은시장을지배하는기업에의해표준이지배된경우이므로, 공익적측면이무시될우려가있다. 또, 시장경쟁에서우위의판가름이나지않고복수표준이난립할수있어, 이는결국상호호환성결여, 중복투자로이어질수도있다. 25

26 Ⅰ. Overview of geospatial standards A Regulatory Standard is mandatorily applied based on statutes, ordinances or technical standards. For example, this standard include traffic signs, pursuant to Road Traffic Act, and KS standards in accordance with Law for Industrial Standardization. A Voluntary Standard, comparative to Regulatory Standard, refers to a document whose compliance is not legally mandatory. Examples of this type of standard include standards of OGC and TTA. An International Standard refers to a document developed through the coordination of organizations representing the interests of each country and internationally applied. Examples of this standard include ISO and IEC standards established, each by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electronical Commission (IEC). A Regional Standard refers to a standard developed and followed by multiple countries or regional groups to achieve their common goals and applied in certain regions. This standard includes CEN standards established by European Committee for Standardization. A National Standard is developed by a national standards establishment organization through the coordination of stakeholders. These standards are applied in the whole territory of a country. Both Korean Industrial Standards (KS) and Korea Information Communication Standards (KICS) belong to National Standards. Industry or Business Standards are enacted through the coordination of internal parties working for firms, groups and academic communities and applied within those parties. For example, these standards include standards established by standards of TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association) Organizational Standards are enacted through the coordination of internal parties and applied within a certain organization or company. This type of standards is systematically described in details. An example of this standard can be S company s System Development Methodology. A Basic Abstract Standard is a common and general standard that can be basically applied to any field. This type of standards includes ISO standards developed by ISO/TC211 and Korean Industrial Standards (KS) which are established, based on the ISO standards. Terminology Standards are standards pertaining to the definition, explanation and symbol of the terms used in a certain field. These standards contain definitions, symbols, descriptions and examples. A Testing Standard is a document that describes matters needed to investigate whether products or the components of the products satisfy the requirements. Service Standards refer to documents that specify the characteristics and range of services to achieve the purpose of the service provided. Engineering or Design Standard is the one that stipulates work instructions and operating methods required to design, produce, and install a certain device or system. An Organization Standard refers to a standard stipulating organizations and business procedures so that each of the departments can be efficiently operated and managed. A Compatibility Standard is a document which stipulates the interface between systems or between networks. A Performance Standard is a standard that specifies functional requirements of products. 26

27 Ⅰ. 공간정보표준개요 강제표준 (Regulatory Standards) 은법령이나법령에근거한조례, 기술기준에의거해강제적으로적용되는표준이다. 예를들어, 도로교통법에의거한교통표지, 한국산업표준화법에의한 KS표준이강제표준에해당한다. 자의표준 (Voluntary Standards) 은강제표준에대한상대적의미의표준으로써준수가법적으로의무화되어있지않은표준으로, 예를들어 OGC표준, TTA표준이여기에해당한다. 국제표준 (International Standards) 은다수의국가가각국의이해를회의형식으로조정하여, 국제적으로적용되는표준을말한다. 국제표준의예로서국제표준화기구 (International Organization for Standardization : ISO) 가제정하는 ISO 표준과, 국제전기표준회의 (International Electronical Commission : IEC) 가제정하는 IEC 표준등이있다. 지역표준 (Regional Standards) 은복수의국가또는지역단체들이공통의이익을위해일정한지역내에서적용되는표준을제정하고준수하는것으로유럽지역표준기구인 CEN 표준이여기에해당한다. 국가표준 (National Standards) 는국가표준을제정하는기관이한나라의영토내에서적용되는표준을, 이해관계자의합의를얻어제정한것이다. 우리나라의경우한국산업규격 (KS) 과한국정보통신규격 (KICS) 이국가표준에해당한다. 민간표준 ( 혹은단체표준 : Industry or Business Standards) 는업계, 단체, 학회등의내부구성원사이에서적용되는표준을관계자의합의를통해서제정하고그것을관계자가사용한다. 예를들어한국정보통신기술협회 (TTA) 의 TTA표준이여기에해당한다. 기관표준 (Organizational Standards) 은기관 ( 회사 ) 내부에서적용되는표준으로써내부관계자의합의를통해서제정하고그것을내부의관계자가사용하는표준이다. 이기관표준은체계적이고구체적으로상세히규정하며, S사의 S사시스템개발방법론 이해당된다. 기반표준 (Basic Abstract Standard) 은어떤분야에적용되는일반적인표준으로모든분야에기초적으로통용될수있는표준이다. ISO/TC211에서제정된 ISO표준들이이에해당하고, 이 ISO표준을국가표준으로채택한 KS표준들도모두기반표준에해당한다. 용어표준 (Terminology Standard) 은일정분야에서사용되는용어의정의그리고설명이나기호등에관한표준으로정의또는상징, 설명, 예를포함하는표준이다. 검사표준 (Testing Standard) 은제품이나제품의구성요소가조건을갖추었는지의여부를검사하는데필요한사항들을기술한표준이다. 서비스표준 (Service Standard) 은서비스를제공하는목적에부합하도록서비스의특성과허용범위등을명시한표준이다. 구현표준 (Engineering or Design Standard) 은일정기기나시스템등의설계, 생산혹은설치를위해필요한작업지침및운영방식등에관한표준을말한다. 절차표준 (Organization Standard) 은조직의각부서를효율적으로운영할수있도록조직구성및업무절차를규정한표준이다. 호환표준 (Compatibility Standard) 은시스템혹은네트웍간의인터페이스를규정하는표준이다. 성능표준 (Performance Standard) 은제품의기능적요구조건만을규정하는표준이다. 27

28 Ⅰ. Overview of geospatial standards Classification of Geospatial Standards The standards in the field of the current geospatial data include the international geospatial standards (ISO standards and OGC standard) and the domestic geospatial standards (Korea Industrial Standard KS, Korea Information Communication Standard - KICS, and Korea Telecommunications Technology Association Standard TTA). Based on the standard classification described above, the standards developed by ISO/TC211 (International Organization for Standardization/Technical Committee 211) belong to De-jure Standard, Voluntary Standard, International Standard, and Basic Abstract Standard. Table 3. Characteristics of Geospatial Standards according to Classification Criteria Criteria Type ISO/TC211 standards OGC standards KS standards KICS standards TTA standards Subject of the enactment De-jure Standard De-jure Standard De-jure Standard De-jure Standard De-jure Standard Possibility of mandatory application Voluntary Standard Voluntary Standard Regulatory Standard Regulatory Standard Voluntary Standard Organization of the enactment International Standard International Standard/ Industry or Business Standard National Standard National Standard Industry or Business Standard Content of the standards Basic Abstract Standard Basic Abstract Standard/ Engineering or Design Standard Basic Abstract Standard Basic Abstract Standard/ Engineering or Design Standard Basic Abstract Standard/ Service Standard/ Engineering or Design Standard Since ISO/TC211 is an official organization that develops international GIS standards, the ISO/TC211 s standards belong to De-jure Standard. Therefore, the GIS standard operating in ISO/TC211 has no standard parallel to the standard within ISO/TC211 because there exists only a single standard for an object. Since ISO/TC211 standards have no power to enforce their standards, the standards belong to Voluntary Standard. And since countries around the world involve the standard development, the standards belong to International Standard. Also, the standards belong to Basic Abstract Standard because the standards define something abstract. 28

29 Ⅰ. 공간정보표준개요 공간정보표준의분류현재공간정보분야에서운영중인공간정보표준에는국제공간정보표준인 ISO표준, OGC표준과국내공간정보표준인국가산업표준 (KS), 정보통신표준 (KICS), 한국정보통신기술표준 (TTA) 이있다. 이를앞에서기술한표준분류로구분해보면, 먼저 ISO/TC211에서제정된표준들은공식표준, 자의표준, 국제표준, 기반표준에해당한다. 표 3. 표준분류기준에따른공간정보표준의성격 분류기준 종류 ISO/TC211 표준 OGC 표준 KS 표준 KICS 표준 TTA 표준 제정주체공식표준실질표준공식표준공식표준실질표준 강제적용여부자의표준자의표준강제표준강제표준자의표준 제정기구국제표준국제 단체표준국가표준국가표준단체표준 표준내용기반표준기반 구현표준기반표준기반 / 구현표준 기반 서비스 구현표준 ISO/TC211이국제GIS표준제정공식기구이기때문에 ISO/TC211에서개발된표준들은공식표준이다. 그러므로 ISO/TC211에서운영중인 GIS표준은 ISO/TC211 내에서는이와동일한내용을다루는다른표준이있을수없으며, 하나의내용에대해서는표준이하나만존재해야한다. ISO/TC211 표준은표준준수를강제할수없기때문에자의표준이고, 세계국가들의참여에의해표준이개발되므로국제표준이며, 추상적인내용을기술하는기반표준이다. 29

30 Ⅰ. Overview of geospatial standards Standards established by OGC fall into De facto Standard, Voluntary Standard, International Standard, Industry or Business Standard, Basic Abstract Standard (OGC Abstract Specifications) and Engineering or Design Standard (OGC Implementation Specifications). OGC s standards fall into De facto Standard (and Industry or Business Standard) because OGC is a standard organization aimed at companies. Since OGC s standards similar to ISO/TC211 standards have no power to enforce their standards, the standards belong to Voluntary Standard. And since global firms and government agencies across the world involve the standard development, the standards belong to International Standard. Most of the standards provided by OGC also fall into Engineering or Design Standard. Korea s national standards KS Standards and KICS Standards fall into De-jure Standard, Voluntary Standard (government s standards which belong to Regulatory Standard, in accordance with Article 14 of Industry Standard Act, are the exception), National Standard and Basic Abstract Standard. TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association) Standard which falls into Industry or Business Standard in GIS field has such characteristics as De facto Standard, Voluntary Standard, and Industry or Business Standard; in terms of the contents, the TTA standard has such characteristics as Basic Abstract Standard, and Engineering or Design Standard. 30

31 Ⅰ. 공간정보표준개요 OGC 에서제정한표준들은사실표준, 자의표준, 국제표준, 단체표준, 기반표준 (OGC Abstract Specifications), 구현표준 (OGC Implementation Specifications) 에해당한다. 이는 OGC가기업을주축으로운영되는표준조직이기때문에사실표준 ( 단체표준 ) 이고, ISO/TC211표준들처럼준수를강제할수없기때문에자의표준이며, 범세계적기업및정부조직들이표준활동에참여하고있기때문에국제표준이다. OGC에서공급하는대부분의표준은구현표준이다. 우리나라의국가표준인 KS표준과 KICS표준은공식표준, 자의표준 ( 단, 산업표준법 24조에의해정부기관에한해서는강제표준임 ), 국가표준, 기반표준에해당한다. GIS분야단체표준인 TTA표준은사실표준, 자의표준, 단체표준의성격을가지며, 표준내용측면에서는기반표준, 서비스표준, 구현표준등의성격을가진다. 31

32 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems 1. ISO/TC211 Establishment Goals and Organization Structure of ISO/TC211 Since ISO was launched with the aim of international standardization of industrial products in 1947, the organization has involved international standardization activities in almost all fields except for electrical and electronic technology (led by International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) and electronic communications technology (led by International Telecommunication Union, ITU). ISO has various specialized subcommittees each of which is concerned with for standardization in different areas. ISO/TC211 5) is tasked with developing standards for geospatial data. In June 1994, ISO/TC211 was formed as part of ISO to enact information standards about objects or phenomena related to Earth s geographical locations directly or indirectly. In particular, the purposes of establishing ISO include the following: understanding of geographic information, the response to the increase in its use; securement of geography information availability, accessibility, integration, increased sharing, and interoperability; promotion of effective, efficient, economical use of hardware and software systems related to geographic information; contributions to the integrated approach for solving global, human and ecological problems. The ISO/TC211 organizational system consists of a chairman and a secretary, 31 Participating countries (P-members 6) ), 31 Observer countries (O-members 7) ), 27 liaisons 8) and 13 ISO liaisons. Actual tasks for standards are assigned to different working groups, depending on the associations between standards and the coverage of standards. Working groups are organized and operated in a flexible way; sometimes working groups are dismantled or newly formed, according to the degree of progress in standardizations. Currently, there are 5 working groups and 8 coordination committees (i.e., PMG, TMG, HMMG, JAG, etc) within the ISO/TC211. 5) 6) The countries have obligations to actively participate in the work of the organization s committees and to vote for international standards drafts. 7) The countries as observers have obligations to attend associated committees, and to involve the business of the committees, as well as rights to receive documents and submit comments, and to attend meetings. 8) The liaisons have relations with various agencies related to information technology areas and geographic information. 32

33 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 1. ISO/TC211 ISO/TC211 설립목적및조직구조 ISO는 1947년공업제품의국제규격화를목표로발족한이후, 현재전기전자기술 (IEC;International Electrotechnical Commission 담당 ) 과전자통신기술 (ITU;International Telecommunication Union 담당 ) 부문을제외한모든분야의국제표준화를담당하고있다. 각분야별로표준화를담당하는전문분과를두는데, 공간정보에관한표준은 ISO/TC211에서추진한다. ISO/TC211 5) 는 1994년 6월에지구의지리적위치와직 간접으로관계가있는객체나현상에대한정보표준규격을제정하기위해 ISO산하로설립되었다. 특히, 지리정보에대한이해와사용증가에대응, 지리정보의활용성, 접근성, 통합및공유증대와상호운영성확보, 지리정보와관련 H/W와 S/W 시스템의효율적이고효과적이며경제적인사용촉진, 전지구적, 인류적, 생태학적문제해결을위한통합접근방식에공헌, 지역적, 세계적차원에서의공간정보기반의원활한구축을설립목적으로한다. ISO/TC211의조직체계는의장과간사, 각나라들은참가국 (P-members 6) ) 31개나라와참관국 (O-members 7) ) 30개나라, 27개의 Liaison 8) 과 13개의 ISO Liaison으로구성된다. 표준에대한실무는표준간의연관성및적용범위등을고려한분야별작업반 (Working Group:WG) 으로운영되며, 표준화진행정도에따라진행된작업분과를해체하거나새로운작업분과를만드는등필요에따라탄력적으로조직을운영한다. 현재 5개작업반 (WG) 과 8개의조정기구 (PMG, TMG, HMMG, JAG, etc) 로운영되고있다. 5) 6) 위원회업무에적극적으로참여하고국제규격안에대하여투표할의무를가짐 7) 옵져버로해당위원회에참석하며위원회업무에관여, 문서를받아볼수있고의견을제출할권리, 회의참석의권리를가짐 8) 정보기술영역및지리정보와관련된다양한기관과 Liaison 관계를성립 33

34 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems ISO/TC211 Standardization Procedures ISO s standardization steps are largely divided into seven, and standards for a publishing phase are officially announced as International Standard (IS). Figure 6. 7 Stages of ISO standardization Procedure 34

35 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 ISO/TC211 표준제정절차 ISO 의표준화단계는크게 7 단계로나누어져있으며출판단계의표준은국제표준 (IS) 으로공표된다. 그림 6. ISO 표준제정절차 7 단계 35

36 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems 2. OGC Establishment Goals and Organization Structure of OGC In August 1994, OGC was founded with the aim of taking advantage of an open technology or advanced technology in the field of GIS by private industry including global software and computer companies, system integrators and data providers. The purpose of establishing the organization was to develop a component to be openly interoperable by providing a comprehensive form of open interface specification Figure 7. OGC official site ( The organization consists of Board of Directors, Executive Director & Staff, Specification Program, Interoperability Program and Outreach Program. Specification Program is composed of Technical Committee (TC) to develop standard specifications and Planning Committee (PC) to respond to a changing technological environment. TC has working groups and standard working groups, while PC has standard liaisons and sub-committees. Interoperability Program has IP Management Team to validate interoperability of developed standards. 36

37 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 2. OGC OGC 설립목적및조직구조 1994년 8월개방형기술이라는첨단기술을 GIS분야에활용하려는의도에서, 세계적인소프트웨어와컴퓨터업체, 시스템통합업체, 데이터제공기관등민간산업체기반을중심으로설립되었다. 설립목적은개방형인터페이스사양 (Open Interface Specification) 에대한포괄적인형태를제공해줌으로써개방적으로상호운용 (Interoperability) 할수있는컴포넌트 (Component) 를개발하는것이다. 그림 7. OGC 공식웹사이트 ( 조직구성은의장기구 (Board of Directors), 사무국 (Executive Director & Staff), 표준사양프로그램 (Specification Program), 상호운용성프로그램 (Interoperability Program), 공통프로그램 (Outreach Program) 조직들로구성된다. 표준사양프로그램 (Specification Program) 은표준사양을개발하기위해기술위원회 (TC:Technical Committee) 를두고, 기술환경변화에대응하는표준기획을위해기획위원회 (PC:Planning Committee) 로구성된다. 기술위원회 (TC) 산하에는작업분과 (WG), 표준작업분과 (Standard working groups), 기획위원회산하에는표준조직 (standard liaison) 과부속위원회 (Sub-committee) 가있다. 상호운용성프로그램 (Interoperability Program) 은개발된표준의상호운용성을검증하기위해상호운용성관리팀 (IP Management Team) 을운영하고있다. 37

38 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems Figure 8. OGC Standard Organization System Source : OGC Standardization Procedures Sectoral working groups or special interest groups formulate a proposal. When the proposed standard draft is approved, it will be adopted. Table 4. OGC Standardization Procedures Stage Contents by stage 1 OGC proposal announced 2 Development LOI (Letter of Intent) submitted 3 Proposal submitted 4 Evaluation 5 Amendment proposal submitted 6 Working group s vote for selecting specifications 7 Technical committee s vote for recommending specifications 8 Management committee s vote for approving specifications 38

39 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 그림 8. OGC 표준조직체계 자료출처 : OGC 표준제정절차 분야별워킹그룹이나특별관심분야그룹에서제안서를작성하여제안하고제안된표준 ( 안 ) 을절차에따라 통과하면채택된다. 표 4. OGC 표준화절차 단계 단계별내용 1 OGC 제안서발표 2 개발의향서제출 (Letter of Intent) 3 제안서제출 4 평가 5 개정제안서제출 6 사양선정을위한작업분과 (WG) 투표 7 사양추천을위한기술위원회 (TC) 투표 8 사양채택을위한운영위원회 (MC) 투표 39

40 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems 3. Geospatial Standards System in the United States National Standards System & Geospatial Standards System Among standardization organizations in the United States are the institutions related to GIS standards, which include American National Standards Institute (ANSI, the United States national standard), International Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS, which speaks for firms interests), Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC, Governments geospatial standards) and Office of General Services (OGS, the United States private GIS standard). ANSI does not develop standards on its own it is a non-profit, non-governmental voluntary standards association that plays a role in managing and coordinating a standardization process of each agency and determine whether or not a certain standard should be approved. NIST was established to boost the nation s overall industrial economy and to develop, apply and support technologies and standards. Figure 9. GIS standards system of the United States 40

41 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 3. 미국공간정보표준체계 국가표준체계와공간정보표준체계 미국의표준화추진조직중에서 GIS표준과관련있는기관에는미국가표준인 ANSI, ANSI 에대한기업이해를대변하는 INCITS, 정부공간정보표준인 FGDC, 민간GIS표준인 OGC가있다. 미국가표준 (ANSI): 직접표준을개발하지않고각기관들의표준과정을관리조정하는역할을하며미국국가표준으로서의승인여부를결정하는비영리적인민간차원의자발적인표준협회이다. 미표준기술원 (NIST): 미국의전반적인산업경제를향상시키기위해업계와협력하여기술, 기준, 표준을개발, 적용및지원을주목적으로설립된기관이다. 그림 9. 미국 GIS 표준체계 41

42 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems INCITS was established for information technology-based industries to respond to standardization activities. INCITS chooses and abides by some of the standards enacted by ISO/TC211 as those of ANSI/INCITS. FGDC was found to dedicate to the United States standardization in accordance with President Decree, with the aim of sharing geographic information. The organization is a member of OGC and its standards are mandatorily applied to federal agencies but not to non-federal agencies and private entities. OGC was founded by geographic information firms and its standards belong to Industry or Business Standard. OGC participates in ISO/TC211 standardization activities on its own without any support of the United States Government. geospatial standards System (FGDC Standards) The United States national GIS project started to develop National Geospatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). Since January 1995, relevant federal agencies have been officially required to conform to FGDC standards, pursuant to President Decree when developing new topographic geospatial data. Figure 10. FGDC Standards System of the United States 42

43 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 국제정보기술연합 (INCITS) 은정보기술관련산업체들이표준활동에대응하기위한설립된기관으로 ISO/TC211에서제정된표준들의일부가 ANSI/INCITS로채택 운영중이다. 연방지리정보위원회 (FGDC) 표준 : 미국 NSDI 표준화를전담하는기관으로 1994년대통령령으로설립되었으며지리정보공유가목적임, OGC활동에회원으로참가한다. FGDC 표준은연방기관에서는의무적으로적용되지만비연방이나민간부분에서는의무적이지않다. 개방형지리정보 (OGC) 표준 : 지리정보산업체가설립한단체표준기구로서 ISO/TC211활동에미국정부기관을통하지않고독자적으로참가한다. 공간정보표준체계 (FGDC 표준 ) 미국의국가차원의 GIS 구축사업은 1994 년부터국가공간정보기반 (NSDI: National geospatial Data Infrastructure) 으로시작되었으며, FGDC 는대통령령으로 1995 년 1 월부터해당연방기관들이새로운 지형공간정보를생산할때이표준안을사용하도록문서화하였다. 그림 10. 미국 FGDC 표준체계 43

44 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems FGDC dedicated 9) to the United States standardization has its nine thematic subcommittees. Each subcommittee has four task forces (i.e., distribution, standardization, meta-data, and basic geographic information). The current U.S. NSDI standardization is performed by each subcommittee s standard groups according to Standards Directives adopted by FGDC s standardization working branches 10). FGDC s standardization working branches play a part in formulation of policies and guidelines for standardization, coordination of geographic information standardization activities performed by subcommittees, and screening and approval of standards developed in each standardization step. The FGDC standardization procedure adjusted the ISO standardization procedure (which puts emphasis on stakeholders consensus) into five main stages to meet the needs of the U.S. The five stages include Proposal Stage, Project Stage, Draft Stage, Review Stage, and Final Stage. Each of the stages is broken into a total of 12 steps. FGDC is a member organization which excises the right to vote of L1 (Geographic Information) of INCITS, a standard development organization approved by ANSI. FGGS which participates in ISO/TC211 activities through INCITS is a strategic member of OGC for standardization activities. FGDC Standardization Committee is composed of government agencies in the United States. For example, United States Geological Survey (USGS), a member organization of FGDC, used to be an institution that manages FIPS173 known as ANSI NGITS , a SDTS standard (now SDTS is retired from the FGDC standards). In addition, FGDC has a working relationship with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), part of Department of Commerce, in charge of Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS). Table 5. United States FGDC Standardization Stage Stage Step Activity Proposal Stage Step 1 Step 2 Receipt of the draft new standards Review on the draft standards Project Stage Step 3 Step 4 Draft Stage Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Phase to establish a plan to review the standards, start reviewing (FGDC subcommittee or working committee), and to put in budget Standards development promoted (conducted by the standard development group) Review on the working draft Evaluation of the draft before the standard working group reviews it Draft standards approved to be publicly notified Review Stage Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 Step 11 Outside consultants review of the draft publicly notified Acquiring opinions of outside consultants Review on the opinions of outside consultants to add to the draft Final review before approving the final draft standards Final Stage Step 12 Approval 9) 10) 44

45 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 미국 NSDI 표준화를전담하는기관인 FGDC 조직 9) 은 9가지주제별소위원회 (Subcommittee) 로구성되며, 각소위원회는 4가지종류의작업반 ( 유통기구, 표준화, 메타데이터, 기본지리정보 ) 으로구성된다. 현재미국의 NSDI 표준화는 FGDC 표준화작업분과의표준화작업규칙 (Standards Directives) 에따라각소위원회별표준분과에서수행된다. 10) FGDC 표준화작업분과는지리정보표준화를위한정책및지침을개발하고, 소위원간의지리정보표준화활동에대한조정, 표준화단계에따른승인및심사등의역할을수행한다. FGDC표준의제정절차는, 표준이해당사자들의합의를끌어내는 ISO 표준제정절차를, 미국사정에맞추어단계를크게다섯단계로조정하였다. 이다섯단계에는제안단계 (Proposal Stage), 프로젝트단계 (Project Stage), 초안단계 (Draft Stage), 검토단계 (Review Stage), 최종단계 (Final Stage) 가있으며, 각단계를세분화하여총 12단계 ( 다음그림참고 ) 에걸쳐개발된다. FGDC는미국국가표준기관 (ANSI: American National Standards Institute) 이승인한표준개발기관인 INCITS, L1 - Geographic Information의투표권을행사하는회원이다. FGDC는 INCITS를통해 ISO/TC211활동에참여하며, OGC에는직접회원 (strategic member) 으로가입하여표준활동에참여한다. FGDC의표준화위원회는미국내정부기관들로구성되는데, 예를들어미국립지리원 (USGS) 은 FGDC표준화위원회회원으로참여하고있으며, SDTS 표준인 ANSI NGITS 로알려진 FIPS173을관리하는기관이었다 ( 현재 SDTS는 FGDC표준에서폐지 (retired standard) 됨 ). 아울러 FGDC는미국연방정보처리표준 (FIPS:Federal Information Processing Standard) 을관장하는미상무부소속미국국가표준연구소 (National Institute of Standards and Technology: NIST) 와도협력관계를유지하고있다. 표 5. 미국 FGDC 표준화단계 단계 과정 활동 제안단계 Step 1 신규표준초안접수 Step 2 표준초안검토 프로젝트단계 Step 3 표준검토를위한계획수립및표준개발을위한검토착수 (FGDC부위원회또는실무위원회실시 ) 예산투입단계 초안작성단계 Step 4 표준개발추진 (The standard development Group 실시 ) Step 5 작업초안 (Working Draft) 의검토 Step 6 위원회 (The Standard working Group) 검토를위한표준 ( 안 ) 의평가 Step 7 표준 ( 안 ) 의대외발표승인 검토단계 Step 8 대외발표 ( 안 ) 의대외적검토 Step 9 대외자문에따른의견수렴 Step 10 대외자문에따른의견검토및반영 Step 11 표준최종안승인을위한최종검토 최종단계 Step 12 승인 9) 10) 45

46 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems 4. Geospatial Standards System in Canada In May 1999, the concept of the project for the existing, national geographic information infrastructure called CGDI (Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure) was reestablished as a concept of GeoConnections. GeoConnections, a national program which adjusts the geographic information infrastructure to be used on the Internet, was established to build a reliable framework s database and formulate standards for this database. Canada s national standards is administered by Standards Council of Canada. CAC (Canadian Advisory Committee)/TC211, part of the Council, is an official agency which corresponds to ISO/TC211. Canada s standards in the field of geographic information are developed through cooperation between CGDI and CGSB-CoG (Canadian General Standard Board Committee on Geomatics) under Standards Council of Canada. Developed GIS standards are enacted into CGSB standards. Figure 11. GIS Standards Promotion System of Canada 46

47 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 4. 캐나다공간정보표준체계 1999년 5월기존의국가지리정보기반 (CGDI : Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure) 사업을 GeoConnections이라는개념으로재정립하였다. GeoConnections은지리정보기반이인터넷상에서활용가능하도록조정된국가프로그램으로신뢰할만한프레임워크데이터구축과이를위한표준마련을위해설립되었다. 캐나다국가표준은캐나다표준위원회 (Standards Council of Canada) 에의해관리되며, 이위원회산하에 CAC(Canadian Advisory Committee) 는국제표준화기구에대응조직으로 CAC/TC211에서 ISO/TC211을공식대응한다. 지리정보분야의캐나다표준은캐나다표준위원회 (Standards Council of Canada) 산하에 CGSB-CoG(Canadian General Standard Board Committee on Geomatics) 가 CGDI와협력하여개발하여, 개발된 GIS표준은 CGSB표준으로제정한다. 그림 11. 캐나다 GIS 표준추진체계 47

48 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems CGSB-CoG participates in standardization activities of ISO/TC211 through CAT/TC211, tasked with supporting and performing substantive, international standardization activities including the development of International Standard. This institution, which officially corresponds to standards activities in North America s standard activities, signed the MOU with the United States ANSI to develop North America s Standard. CGSG-CoG s standard development process is composed of four stages: - Create : Develop national standards - Adopt : Standard processing as national standards - Adapt : Change of standards to meet the requirements of Canada - Endorse : Approve the standards for use in Canada 5. Geospatial Standards System in Korea Korea s Geospatial Data Standard System Korea s geospatial standards system is operated by subcommittees under the national geospatial data promotion system and other relevant agencies. Agencies tasked with development and renewal of geospatial standards include the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards and Telecommunications Technology Association (which develops TTA standards). Procedure to enact Korea s National Standards for Geospatial Data The procedure to enact or amend KS standards has five steps: (1) a proposal to enact or amend Korean Industrial Standard, (2) consultation with relevant departments, (3) deliberation by Korea Industrial Standards Commission, (4) notice of Korea Industrial Standard s enactment, amendment, and abolition, and (5) confirmation of Korean Industrial Standard. 48

49 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 CGSB - CoG 는 CAT/TC211 을통해 ISO/TC211 표준활동에참여하며, 국제표준개발등실질적인국제표준 활동을지원 / 수행한다. 이조직은북미지역표준활동에공식대응기관으로참여하고있는데, 이북미표준의 개발을위해 CGSB - CoG 는미국 ANSI 와 MOU 체결하였다. CGSG - CoG 표준개발절차는네단계로구성된다. - create( 개발 ) : 국가표준개발 - Adopt( 채택 ) : 국가표준으로서표준처리 - Adapt( 개정 ) : 캐나다의요구사항에맞게표준을변경 - Endorse( 승인 ) : 캐나다에서사용할수있도록표준을승인 5. 한국공간정보표준체계 한국공간정보표준체계 한국의공간정보표준체계는국가공간정보추진체계산하표준화분과위원회를중심으로여러부처의참여에 의해운영되고있으며, 공간정보표준제ㆍ개정관리기구로기술표준원 (KS 표준 ) 과, 한국정보통신기술협회 (TTA 표준 ) 가있다. 한국공간정보국가표준제정절차 KS표준재 개정절차는크게다섯단계 ; (1) 한국산업규격 (KS) 제ㆍ개정안제안, (2) 관계부처와협의, (3) 산업표준심의회의심의, (4) 한국산업규격제ㆍ개정및폐지예고, (5) 한국산업규격 (KS) 의확정으로나눌수있다. 49

50 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems Figure 12. KS Standards Enactment Procedures Step 1. Korean Industrial Standard (KS) Enactment and Amendment Proposal (with two proposal routes) - Direct proposal by Government This proposal is made by the Director of Korean Agency for Technical Standard to promote the improvement of the quality of the mining and manufacturing goods through the establishment of international standards, the development of new products, the consumer protection, and securing of compatibility. The proposal for standards is written by the agency itself or by an academic community or a research institute. - Proposal by stake-holders Stake-holders such as industrial entities can apply to the enactment or amendment of KS. They should submit their application materials including proposals and specifications to the Director of Korean Agency for Technical Standard. 50

51 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 그림 12. KS 표준제정절차 단계1. 한국산업규격 (KS) 제ㆍ개정안제안 ( 두가지제안방법이있음 ) - 국가에서직접제안 국제규격의제정및신제품개발등으로광공업품의품질향상, 소비자보호및호환성확보등의필요에의해기술표준원장이제안하는경우로서, 자체적으로규격안을작성하거나학회ㆍ연구기관등에용역으로작성 - 이해관계인의제안 산업체등이해관계인은언제든지국가에 KS의제ㆍ개정을신청할수있으며, 정해진신청서에규격안및설명서를첨부하여기술표준원장에게신청 51

52 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems Step 2. Consultation with Relevant Departments - Consultation with relevant agencies When the proposal to amend and enact standards are made, they should go through consultation with relevant administrative agencies to conform to matters under the jurisdiction of the agencies, to maintain compatibility and to ensure that there are no problems in terms of coverage and use of the proposed standards. - Holding public hearing To enact and amend Korean Industrial Standard, public hearing should be held to hear the comments of stake-holders. Stake-holders can request to hold a public hearing in writing, and the Director of Korean Agency for Technical Standard, when asked to hold the meeting, must do it. Step 3. Deliberation by Korea Industrial Standards Commission - Specialized subcouncil s deliberations The proposal should be submitted to a specialized subcouncil within the Commission in charge of relevant goods to go through deliberations. The proposal can be transferred to a relevant professional committee for a further review of the proposal when necessary. - Professional committee s deliberations Professional committees, each specializing in certain fields, review the standard proposal submitted and notify the subcouncil of the deliberation results. Step 4. Notice of Korea Industrial Standard s enactment, amendment and abolition, - To enact, amend, or repeal Korea Industrial Standard, the title of a certain standard, the number of the standard, main specifications, and grounds for the submission shall be published in an official gazette notice within 60 days prior to a due date. Step 5. Confirmation of Korean Industrial Standard (KS) Once the designated procedures are complete, the Director of Korean Agency for Technical Standard shall enact, amend or abolish the standard and publish it in an official gazette notice to confirm the standard as KS. The Korea Industrial Standards should be reviewed every five years from the date of the enactment, and modified, confirmed or repealed depending upon the deliberation results. Standards within five years can be amended or abolished, if required. 52

53 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 단계2. 관계부처와협의 - 관계기관과의협의 KS 제ㆍ개정신청또는자체적으로규격안이작성되면관계행정기관과협의를거치게되는데, 이는관련행정기관의소관사항과호환성을유지하고규격의적용및사용에지장이없는지를검증하는것임 - 공청회개최 한국산업규격을제ㆍ개정하고자하는경우공청회를개최하여이해관계인의의견을들을수있으며, 이해관계가있는자는서면으로공청회를개최를요구할수있고, 요구받은기술표준원장은반드시공청회를개최하여야함 단계3. 산업표준심의회의심의 - 부회심의 산업표준심회의전문부문별로구성되어있는해당제품의소관부회에규격안을상정하여심의를거쳐야하며, 전문기술분야등전문위원회의검토가필요하다고인정되면당해전문위원회로이송시켜검토하게할수있음 - 전문위원회심의 전문분야별로구성된전문위원회는부회로부터이송된규격안에대하여심의하고심의결과를부회에통보함 단계 4. 한국산업규격제ㆍ개정및폐지예고 - 한국산업규격을제ㆍ개정또는폐지하고자하는경우예정일 60 일전까지당해규격의명칭, 규격번호, 주요골자및사유등을관보에고시하여야한다. 단계5. 한국산업규격 (KS) 의확정 - 정해진절차를완료하고규격안이확정되면기술표준원장은한국산업규격으로제ㆍ개정또는폐지고시하고관보에게재함으로써 KS규격으로확정됨 한국산업규격은제정일로부터 5년마다적정성을검토하여개정ㆍ확인ㆍ폐지등의조치를하게되며, 필요한경우 5년이내라도개정또는폐지할수있다. 53

54 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems Procedure to Enact Industry or Business Standard for Korea Geospatial Data The standards development procedure of Korea Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA) is divided into 12 stages. The figure below shows an overview of each procedure. TTA, in connection with this procedure, has the regulations of operation, which include standardization suspension, standard management and the abolishment of standards. The standardization suspension is related to abolishing relevant standard tasks or reviewing tasks for further implementation after two years from their adoption, when related technologies decline or the need for enactment reduces. With regard to the standard management, in the case of Industry or Business Standard for geospatial data, TTA reviews whether certain standards should be amended or abolished within a cycle of less than five years after the adoption of the standards; in the case of interim standards, the Institution reviews the standards within a cycle of a year. The process of the abolishment of standards is similar to the promotion process from the standardization proposal to the standard adoption. When IPR owners after the adoption deny submitting the affirmation letter about confirmed IPR, the Chairman of TC confirms the fact and the standards are abolished in General Assembly without a separate procedure. 54

55 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 한국공간정보단체표준 (TTA) 제정절차한국정보통신기술협회 (TTA) 표준제정절차는 12단계로나눌수있는데, 아래그림은각절차를간략히보여준다. 이절차와관련하여 TTA는운영규정을제공하며, 주요운영규정에는 표준화중단, 표준관리, 표준폐지 가있다. 표준화중단은관련기술의쇠퇴, 표준제정의필요성감소등기술적사유발생시표준과제를폐지하거나또는표준과제채택후, 2년이경과한표준과제는추진여부를재검토하는것이다. 표준관리는정보통신단체표준의경우채택후 5년이하의주기로개정 폐지여부를검토하는데, 잠정표준의경우 1년이하의주기로개정 폐지여부를검토하는것이다. 표준폐지는표준화과제제안부터표준채택단계까지의추진과정과동일하며, 표준채택후, 확인된 IPR에대해 IPR소유자가확약서제출거부시별도의절차없이 TC의장의확인후표준총회에폐지상정한다. 55

56 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems Figure 13. TTA Standards Enactment Procedure 56

57 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 그림 13. TTA 표준제정절차 57

58 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems Operating Status of Korea s Geospatial Standards Status of Legal System for Geospatial Data Korea s legal system for geospatial data comprehensively guarantees activities related to the establishment of a geospatial standards organization system, a plan and standard activities. The following table shows provisons specified in Korea s legal system, related to the organizational scheme, establishment of a plan, and standard activities. Though there are so many provisions, each of the provisions is not so well followed. Therefore, it is necessary to have a legal system which specifically sets forth the implementation. Table 6. Status of the Legal System for Geospatial Standards System Contents Organization Title of Act National Geospatial Data Infrastructure Act, Article 5 (National Spatial Data Committee) Spatial Data Industry Promotion Act, Article 23 (Designation of Supporting Institutions for Advancement of Spatial Data Industry) Establishment of a Plan and Annual Report National Geospatial Data Infrastructure Act, Article 6 (Formulation of Basic Plans for National Spatial Data Policy) National Geospatial Data Infrastructure Act, Article 11 (Annual Report on National Spatial Data Policy) Standards Activities National Geospatial Data Infrastructure Act, Article 14 (Standardization of Spatial Data) National Geospatial Data Infrastructure Act, Article 15 (Research on and Dissemination of Standards) National Geospatial Data Infrastructure Act, Article 16 (Obligation to Observe Standards) National Geospatial Data Infrastructure Act, Article 17 (Establishment and Operation of the National Geospatial Program) National Geospatial Data Infrastructure Act, Article 21 (Construction and Management of Spatial Databases) National Geospatial Data Infrastructure Act, Article 23 (Preparation of Spatial Data Catalogue) Spatial Data Industry Promotion Act, Article 14 (Support for Standardization of Spatial Data Industry) Spatial Data Industry Promotion Act and Implementing Ordinance, Article 9 (Support for Standardization of Spatial Data Industry) 58

59 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 한국공간정보표준운영현황 공간정보표준법제도현황한국공간정보관련법제도는공간정보표준조직체계, 계획수립, 표준활동에대하여포괄적으로보장하고있다. 다음 < 표 > 는한국공간정보관련법제도는조직체계, 계획수립, 표준활동을명시한조항들을보여준다. 이렇게많은조항을보유하고있음에도불구하고, 각조항들이잘이행되지않고있으므로법제도이행을구체적으로명시한제도 ( 지침 ) 가필요하다. 표 6. 공간정보표준법제도현황 명시내용 법률명 조직 국가공간정보에관한법률제 5 조 ( 국가공간정보위원회 ) 공간정보산업진흥법제 23 조 ( 공간정보산업진흥지원기관의지정 ) 계획수립및연차보고 국가공간정보에관한법률제 6 조 ( 국가공간정보정책기본계획의수립 ) 국가공간정보에관한법률제 11 조 ( 국가공간정보정책에관한연차보고 ) 국가공간정보에관한법률제 14 조 ( 공간정보표준화 ) 국가공간정보에관한법률제 15 조 ( 표준의연구및보급 ) 국가공간정보에관한법률제 16 조 ( 표준등의준수의무 ) 표준활동 국가공간정보에관한법률제 17 조 ( 공간정보표준화등 ) 국가공간정보에관한법률제 21 조 ( 공간정보데이터베이스구축및관리 ) 국가공간정보에관한법률제 23 조 ( 공간정보목록정보의작성 ) 공간정보산업진흥법제 14 조 ( 공간정보산업의표준화지원 ) 공간정보산업진흥법시행령제 9 조 ( 공간정보산업의표준화지원 ) 59

60 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems Status of Geospatial Standards Organizations Korea s geospatial standards organization system is largely composed of four organizations: Korean Agency for Technology and Standards in charge of national geospatial standards; the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Deputy Director General for Territorial Information) responsible for general operations for geospatial standards systems; Korea Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA) taking charge of Industry or Business Geospatial Standard; Standardization Technical Specifications Subcommittee, a consultative body under Geospatial Data Commission (See Figure below). Figure 14. Status of Geospatial Information Standards Organizations An organization is supposed to be a physical focal point which centers around its members activities. However, the current geospatial standards system has critical limitations to be a cornerstone. In other words, the geospatial standards organization system lacks tools needed for the organizations operations (e.g., provisions of a website for standard information), normalized tasks, task procedures and decent deliverables. Also, since the standard system lacks staffing dedicated to its operations (i.e., staff for implementing standard-related procedures) and since organizations rely on outsourcing to process their tasks, the continuous operations of their work are limited. Additionally, the absence of the regular cooperation between the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport and Korean Agency for Technology and Standards makes it difficult to keep national geospatial standards current. To be brief, the current geospatial standards organization system exposes its inherent limitations to be a physical focal point for geospatial standards activities for a variety of reasons. 60

61 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 공간정보표준조직현황한국공간정보표준조직체계는크게 4개의조직으로구성된다. 먼저, 국가공간정보표준을담당하는기술표준원과, 둘째, 기술기준제정을비롯한공간정보표준체계제반운영을담당하는국토해양부 ( 국토정보정책관 ) 가있다. 그리고, 단체공간정보표준을담당하는한국정보통신기술협회 (TTA) 가있으며마지막으로, 공간정보위원회 산하에 표준화 기술기준분과위원회 라는협의체가있다 ( 참고 < 그림 >). 그림 14. 공간정보표준조직현황 조직은조직구성원들이활동하는물리적기반으로구심점이되어야하지만, 현공간정보표준조직체계는구심점이되기에는한계가있다. 즉, 공간정보표준조직체계는조직운영에필요한도구 ( 표준정보제공웹사이트등 ), 정규화된업무, 업무수행절차및산출물이불명확하다. 또, 표준체계운영을전담할수있는인력 ( 표준운영자 ) 이없으며용역사업에의해조직을운영하고있어업무의지속적운영에한계가있다. 뿐만아니라, 국토해양부와기술표준원간에정기적인정기적업무협력부재로국가공간정보표준현황의최신성미흡하다. 이외에도여러가지이유로현공간정보표준조직체계는공간정보표준활동의물리적조직활동의구심체로역할하는데한계가있다. 61

62 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems Status of Production(Development and Enactment) of Geospatial Standards There are 161 domestic geospatial standards under operation (2012.3): a total of 38 cases of Korean Industrial Standards (KS) operated by Korean Agency for Technology and Standards within the Ministry of Knowledge Economy; two cases of Korea Information Communication Standards (KICS); 55 cases of Industry or Business Standards operated by Korea Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA). Also a total of 66 cases of technical specifications, including 40 cases of directives and notices, and guidelines established itself within specific domains, are operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (see Appendix 2: Domestic Geospatial Data Standard List). The number of national geospatial standards is a little more than other countries. For example, Chile has a total of 11 cases of geospatial standards; Canada has 17 cases 11) ; the United States has 33 cases 12) in four fields (of metadata, data interchange format, location accuracy, and framework data.) In this respect, it appears that Korea is relatively active in terms of the production of geospatial standards. Improvement Directions of Korea s Geospatial Standards System Provision of the latest status information on Geospatial Standards To apply geospatial standards to their business or products, users should know the current status of geospatial standards. In other words, geospatial standards operators should supply users with information on the latest geospatial standards. However, National geospatial standards and industry or business geospatial standards are being offered separately by Korea Standards Information Center ( and Korea Telecommunications Technology Association ( To relieve this inconvenience, the Ministry of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport built a single window to provide geospatial standards information through National Geospatial Data System website ( But still the management for information of the current standard status is not maintained in an effective way; for example, the recently revised national geospatial standards (KS) and business or industry standards (operated by TTA) are not updated in a timely manner. After all, users have difficulties in searching for the newest standards because the single channel that offers information of all geospatial standards is unable to play a part in keeping the information up to date. Therefore, to deal with these issues, a list of available geospatial data with the recent renewal date should be offered to geospatial data users. 11) Web Map Context, Web Map Service, Web Map Tile Service, Web Processing Service, Web Feature Service, Web Coverage Service, Table Joining Service, Symbology Encoding, Styled Layer Descriptor, Keyhole Markup Language, GeoRSS, Geography Markup Language, Gazetteer Service, Filter Encoding Standard, Digital geospatial metadata(north American Profile of ISO19115:2003), Catalogue Services for the Web 12) These 33 cases are strongly recommended, FGDC-endorsed standards for the sharing of geospatial data in the United States. In addition, ISO, ANSI/INCITS, and OGC standards as external standards are recommended for the application ( 62

63 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 공간정보표준생산 ( 개발및제정 ) 현황국내공간정보표준은 161건이운영중 ( ) 이다. 지식경제부기술표준원에의해운영되는한국국가표준인한국산업표준 (KS) 은총 38건, 정보통신국가표준 KICS는 2건이있다. 한국정보통신기술협회 (TTA) 에운영하는 TTA 단체표준 55건이있다. 또훈령 고시된 40건및특정도메인에서자체적으로마련한지침을포함하여국토해양부기술기준 66건이있다 ( 참고 < 부록2. 국내공간정보표준목록 >). 이수는국가공간정보표준정책을추진하는타국가와비교해볼때적지않은수인데, 예를들어칠레의경우국가공간정보표준이 11건, 캐나다는 17건 11), 미국은 4대분야 ( 메타데이타, 교환포멧, 위치정확도, 프레임워크데이타 ) 에서 33건의표준 12) 을제공하고있다. 따라서공간정보표준의생산측면에서한국은상대적으로활발하다고할수있다. 한국공간정보표준체계보완점 최신성높은공간정보표준현황정보제공공간정보표준을사용자들이자신의사업이나제품에공간정보표준을적용하기위해서는공간정보표준현황을알아야한다. 즉, 공간정보표준운영자는최신공간정보표준현황을사용자들에게공급해야한다. 국가공간정보표준은국가표준인증종합정보센터 ( 에서, 단체공간정보표준은한국정보통신기술협회 ( 에서각각제공하고있다. 이러한불편을해소하고자국토해양부는국가공간정보체계웹사이트 ( 를통해공간정보표준정보를제공하는단일창구마련하였다. 그러나, 최근제 개정된국가공간정보표준 (KS) 및단체공간정보표준 (TTA) 에대한정보가신속하게갱신되지않는등 표준현황정보 에대한관리가모호한상황이다. 결국, 이공간정보표준정보를제공하는단일창구의최신성이떨어져사용자들은표준현황검색이어려운실정이다. 따라서갱신일과함께최근공간정보표준목록을공간정보사업자등에게제공하도록개선되어야한다. 11) Web Map Context, Web Map Service, Web Map Tile Service, Web Processing Service, Web Feature Service, Web Coverage Service, Table Joining Service, Symbology Encoding, Styled Layer Descriptor, Keyhole Markup Language, GeoRSS, Geography Markup Language, Gazetteer Service, Filter Encoding Standard, Digital geospatial metadata(north American Profile of ISO19115:2003), Catalogue Services for the Web 12) 이 33건은미국 FGDC 에서공간정보공유를위해강력추천 (FGDC-endorsed standards) 하는표준으로, 이외에 ISO, ANSI/INCITS, OGC 표준을 External Standards 라하여적용을권고함 ( 63

64 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems Figure 15. geospatial standards website Free-of-Charge Supply of Geospatial Standards National geospatial standards among the current geospatial standards are not supplied free, and it is necessary to come up with an effective plan to provide the standards free of charge. It is advisable to provide the standards at zero cost to revitalize the applications of standards because standard sales fees (about 50 thousand won per transaction) contribute little to national revenues. FGDC of the United States provides 33 cases of geospatial standards free of charge, which should be implemented within government agencies. In case of Canada, most of the geospatial standards are able to be supplied for free because they are established based on OGC standards. In addition, the standards developed, based on ISO/TC211, is built into a national profile to be distributed at zero cost. As such many countries make it a rule to implement standard policies free of charge to expand the use of geospatial standards. 64

65 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 그림 15. 공간정보표준웹페이지 공간정보표준무상공급현재공간정보표중중국가공간정보표준은유상으로공급되고있는데, 이를무상공급하는방안마련필요하다. 표준판매비용 ( 건당약 5만원내외 ) 이크지않으므로국가수입에대한기여가미미할것이므로예상되므로, 차라리무료공급을통해표준적용활성화에기여하는것이바람직하다. 미국 FGDC는정부가적용해야하는 33건공간정보표준을무상으로공급한다. 캐나다공간정보표준은대부분 OGC표준을기반으로하므로무상공급이가능하다. 또캐나다는 ISO/TC211을기반으로만들어진표준의경우국가프로파일을만들어무상으로공급하고있다. 이렇게여러국가들은공간정보표준의확산을위하여무상공급을원칙으로표준화정책을추진하고있다. 65

66 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems Stakeholder-oriented Geospatial Data Standardization The current status in which users are given limited access to international standards under development should be improved. geospatial standards developed by International Standard Organization (ISO/TC211) are currently distributed only to professionals associated with Geographic Information Commission, who have a chance to review proposed standards without any feedbacks from users. As a result, it is difficult for domestic users to monitor whether standards are enacted against their interest. In the United States, proposals of geospatial standards developed by ISO/TC211 are made public for a certain period of time to receive the users feedbacks. The experts opinions are also important, but it is necessary to improve the existing system of Korea for stakeholders to have an opportunity to review such proposals. Establishment of Contents Investigation System on Geospatial Standards It is necessary to improve the contents of geospatial standards, which are unclear or inconsistent with the existing standards. For example, domestic standards for 3DF-GML and the City-CML, the three-dimensional geospatial data types specified in Article 8 of 3D Terrestrial Geospatial Data Building Work Regulation, are not currently enacted, and this makes unclear which standard organization provides such data forms. As such, in case of the absence of relevant standards, it is critical to enact relevant standards as well as to legislate for 3D Terrestrial Geospatial Data Building Work Regulation. When developing standards, it is essential to create criteria for reviewing the result of applying standards because reviewing criteria is required to apply the standards and evaluate the result (see Table 5). Moreover, compliance provisions (which describe methods of investigating standards) and abstract test suites should be available. Currently, the number of standards and technical specifications with both compliance provisions and abstract test suites are 28 cases, most of which belong Korean Industrial Standards (KS). And in particular, few of either hands-on intensive technical specifications or TTA standards have descriptions of compliance provisions and abstract test suites. Therefore, it is necessary to develop compliance provisions and abstract test suites before developing a testing machine that helps in judging whether application results of standards are correct, because such kind of machine is made based on compliance provisions and abstract test suites. 66

67 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 이해당사자중심의공간정보표준화개발중인국제표준에대한사용자접근이제한적인점도개선되어야한다. 국제기구 (ISO/TC211) 에서개발중인공간정보표준에대하여국내사용자에게의견을수렴하지않고, 기술표준원이운영하는지리정보위원회소속제한된전문에게만배포하여검토받는다. 그결과국내사용자들이자신의이해에반하는표준이제정되는지를모니터링하기어렵다. 미국의경우국제표준기구에서개발중인표준 ( 안 ) 에대하여사용자들에게일정기간공지를통해의견을수렴한다. 한국도전문가의견수렴도중요하지만이해당사자기관들이국제표준 ( 안 ) 을검토할수있도록개선이필요하다. 공간정보표준내용검사체계마련공간정보표준내용적측면에서, 기존표준과의일관성낮거나내용이불명확한표준들에대한개선이필요하다. 예를들어 3차원국토공간정보구축작업규정 에명시된 3차원공간정보데이터형식 ( 제8조 ) 인 3DF-GML, City-CML은현재국내공간정보표준으로제정되지않은것으로, 어떤표준기구에서제공하는표준데이터형식인지가불명확하다. 이렇게관련표준들이부재하는경우 3차원국토공간정보구축작업규정 을제정함과동시에관련표준을함께제정하는것이필요하다. 표준개발시검사조항및검사표준을동시에개발하여표준적용결과를검사하는기준마련해야한다. 표준을적용하고, 그결과가정확한지판단하기위해서는검사표준이필요 ( 참고 < 표 5>) 하다. 또, 표준을검사하는방식을기술한적합성조항과추상시험세트 (Abstract Test Suite) 가있어야한다. 현재적합성조항과추상시험세트가모두있는표준 기술기준수는 28건으로대부분국가표준 (KS) 이다. 그리고실무에많이사용되는기술기준이나 TTA표준은적합성조항과추상시험세트에대한기술이상대적으로취약한편이다. 따라서표준적용결과가정확한지판단할수있도록검사기개발과이에앞서검사기개발의기준이되는적합성조항과추상시험세트를마련하는것이필요하다. 67

68 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems Table 7. Standards and Technical Specifications with both Compliance Provisions and Abstract Test Suites Name of Standards Title Specified compliance ATS status KSXISO19109 Geographic information - application schema rules KSXISO19110 Geographic information - features list building methodology KSXISO19111 Geographic information - spatial reference, based on coordinates KSXISO19112 Geographic information spatial reference, based on geographic identification factors KSXISO19113 Geographic information - quality principles KSXISO19114 Geographic information - quality evaluation procedures KSXISO19115 Geographic information - metadata KSXISO19116 Geographic information - positioning services KSXISO19117 Geographic information - drawing KSXISO19118 Geographic information - encoding KSXISO19119 Geographic information - services KSXISO19123 Geographic information - schema for coverage geometry and functions KSXISO Geographic information link of simple features - Part 2: SQL option KSXISO19128 Geographic information-web map server interface KSXISO19132:2006 Geographic information - location-based services - reference model KSXISO19133:2006 Geographic information - location-based services - tracking and navigation KSXISO19134 Geographic information - location-based services - complex transportation route search and navigation KSXISO19135 Geographic information geographic information entry registration procedures KSXISO19136:2006 Geographic information Geography Markup Language KSXISOTS19138 Data quality measure KSXISO19103 Geographic information - conceptual schema language KSXISO19105 Geographic information - conformance and testing KSXISO19106 Geographic information - profile KSXISO19107 Geographic information spatial object schema standard KSXISO19108 Geographic information overview of time (schema) TTAS.KO /R1 Geographic information distribution list (metadata) Ver.2 TTAS.IS Standards for the content of the composition of features and the definition TTAS.IS Standards for the metadata of geographic information management 68

69 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 표 7. 적합성조항과추상시험세트가모두있는표준 기술기준 규격명제목적합성명시 ATS 유무 KSXISO19109 지리정보 - 응용스키마규칙 KSXISO19110 지리정보 - 지형지물목록작성방법론 KSXISO19111 지리정보-좌표에의한공간참조 KSXISO19112 지리정보 - 지리식별인자에의한공간참조 KSXISO19113 지리정보 - 품질원칙 KSXISO19114 지리정보 - 품질평가절차 KSXISO19115 지리정보 - 메타데이터 KSXISO19116 지리정보 - 위치결정서비스 KSXISO19117 지리정보 - 묘화 KSXISO19118 지리정보 - 인코딩 KSXISO19119 지리정보 - 서비스 KSXISO19123 지리정보-커버리지기하및함수에대한스키마 KSXISO 지리정보 - 단순지형지물연결 - 제 2부 : SQL 옵션 KSXISO19128 지리정보-웹맵서버인터페이스 KSXISO19132:2006 지리정보 - 위치기반서비스 - 참조모델 KSXISO19133:2006 지리정보 - 위치기반서비스 - 트래킹및네비게이션 KSXISO19134 지리정보 - 위치기반서비스 - 복합교통수단경로탐색및네비게이션 KSXISO19135 지리정보-지리정보항목등록절차 KSXISO19136:2006 지리정보 - 지리마크업언어 KSXISOTS19138 데이터품질측정 KSXISO19103 지리정보 - 개념적스키마언어 KSXISO19105 지리정보 - 적합성및시험 KSXISO19106 지리정보 - 프로파일 KSXISO19107 지리정보 - 공간객체스키마표준 KSXISO19108 지리정보-시간개요 ( 스키마 ) TTAS.KO /R1 지리정보유통목록 ( 메타데이터 ) Ver.2 TTAS.IS 지형지물 (Feature) 의구성내용및정의방식표준 TTAS.IS 지리정보관리용메타데이터표준 69

70 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems Support for Users to Activate the Application of Geospatial Standards Since 2009 the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport has searched for ways to vitalize the application of geospatial standards and, as part of this, investigated the status of the standard applications through research projects. According to the 2011 study 13), only 30% of businesses applied relevant standards to their own business. Awareness level of public geospatial data operators is very low, according to the result that only 33% of a sample of 187 responded to the survey (see Figure). Considering the 63 operators who participated in the survey, 92% (58 respondents) of them replied that they have applied geospatial standards to their business. The survey used 154 cases among 161 cases of geospatial standards, and it was reported that the number of standards applied to their business was 116 cases (75%). Figure 16. The number of operators who replied that standards were applied to their geospatial data tasks The reasons that users were not able to apply geospatial standards to their business were: 1 they did not know how to apply and implement standards; 2 there was no standard related to business; 3 they did not know that the standards specified above were available when starting business. Users replied that it was difficult for them to select standards needed for their business among the 154 standards. The respondents stated that it is necessary for the institution in charge of the standard-related work to give extra points in a bid to businesses which had experience to apply standards, to supply the newest information on standards, and to recommend standards that should be applied to their business. 13) The data are taken and adapted from the survey conducted by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport to identify the status of the application of standards aimed at 154 geospatial data projects and 187 operators of those projects, analysing the responses of 59 projects (36% of the projects) and 63 operators (34% of the operators) that participated in the survey (Kang, Hye-Kyeong et al Study on National Geospatial Data Standardization: standard statistics, the identification of the enactment and revision of the international standards, the revitalization of seminars and the monitoring of international standardization). Ministry of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. pp

71 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 공간정보표준적용활성화를위한사용자지원국토해양부는 2009년부터공간정보표준적용활성화방안을모색하면서, 이일환으로공간정보사업의표준적용현황을연구사업발주를통해조사해왔다. 2011년연구 13) 에의하면사업의표준적용현황은 30% 로저조하였다. 187건의설문조사에서 67% 가미회신하여아직공간정보표준에대한공공공간정보사업자의인지도가낮은것으로판단 ( 참고 < 그림 >) 된다. 설문조사에회신한 63명사업자만고려한다면 92%(58명 ) 가공간정보표준을적용했다고응답하였다. 공간정보표준 (161건) 중설문조사에는 154건을사용했는데, 이중 1회이상사업에적용된공간정보표준는 154건의표준중 116건 (75%) 이었다. 그림 16. 공간정보사업에표준을적용했다고응답한사업자수 ( 명 ) 사용자들이응답한공간정보표준미적용사유는 1 표준적용 / 구현방법을몰라서, 2 사업과관련있는표준이없었기때문에, 3 사업시작할때위의표준이있는지몰랐기때문이라고하였다. 사용자들이 154건의표준중에서자신의사업에필요한표준을선별하는것이어렵다고응답하였다. 표준적용활성화를위하여표준적용경험이있는기업에게입찰가산점을주고, 최신표준정보를제공하며, 사업에적용해야할표준을추천해주기를요구하였다. 13) 국토해양부는 154건의공간정보사업과이사업을수행하는사업자 187명을대상으로표준적용현황설문조사를실시하여 55건사업 ( 전체사업수의 36%) 의 63명사업자 ( 제체사업자의 34%) 가응답한결과를분석하여정리함 ( 강혜경외 국가공간정보표준화연구 ( 표준통계, 제개정발굴, 세미나활성화및국제표준화모니터링 ). 국토해양부. pp.31 45를재정리함 ) 71

72 Ⅱ. International and Domestic Geospatial Standards Systems Figure 17. User Needs for Activating the Use of geospatial standards (in order of priority) Even if business operators applied standards, there is no means available to judge whether they selected and implemented all the standards needed for their business. To know whether standards needed for their tasks were properly selected and applied, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport investigated a sample of 16 projects among 58 geospatial data projects implemented in the public sector in The results showed that 95% applied the standards not related to their business, 68% did not apply any standard related to their business. In addition, there is no means of inspecting whether standards are property applied and authenticating the results. Figure 18. Status of Applied Industries, classified by the Classification of geospatial standards * Source: Kang Hye-Gyeong, et al Study on National Geospatial Data Standardization (Standard statistics, the identification of standards enactment and amendment, the vitalization of seminars, and monitoring of international standardization). Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, p.38 72

73 Ⅱ. 국내외공간정보표준체계 그림 17. 공간정보표준적용활성화를위한사용자요구 ( 우선순위 ) 표준을적용했다하더라도, 사업자들이사업에필요한표준을모두선별하여적용했는지를판단할수있는수단이없다. 2011년표준을적용한공공부문공간정보사업 58건중, 일부사업 (16건) 을대상으로사업에필요한표준을제대로선별하여적용했는지를상세조사한결과, 사업과관련없는표준을적용한경우 95%, 사업과관련있는표준을적용하지않은경우가 68% 였다. 또한, 표준을적용한결과에대하여올바르게적용했는지검사및인증할수단이없는실정이다. 그림 18. 공간정보표준분류별사업적용현황 출처 : 강혜경외 국가공간정보표준화연구 ( 표준통계, 제개정발굴, 세미나활성화및국제표준화모니터링 ). 국토해양부. p

74 Ⅲ. Policies for Geospatial Standards 1. Geospatial Standards as a Geospatial Data Infrastructure Geospatial standards are necessary for the objectives of geospatial data infrastructure policies: to promote sharing, to secure compatibility and to avoid redundancy. For geospatial standards to contribute to achieving the objectives of geospatial data infrastructure policies, above all, geospatial standards should be applied when implementing geospatial data-related business. Secondly, new standards should be developed and enacted in case there is no standard needed for sharing. Finally, a system or an organization should be operated to produce, provide and manage geospatial standards. As an element of the geospatial data infrastructure, geospatial standards refer to a promise system to share geospatial data 14). A geospatial standards system is essential for the production activities of the standards, for the results of such activities and for the logical and physical platform, which enables producing a standardized form of geospatial data, maintaining the standardized form, and providing users with a standardized method. What we can draw from the definition is that the most important function of a geospatial standards system is to provide geospatial standards with each of the components in the geospatial data infrastructure and to receive the results of the application of standards from these components. The following figure shows the relationship between geospatial standards and other components in the geospatial data infrastructure. In other words, the geospatial standards system s function is to produce and supply standards for users and, in turn, for users to offer the results of standard applications to the standard system. When this process is cycled smoothly, we can assume that geospatial standards provide a way of sharing geospatial data. Therefore, the geospatial standards system should be operated so well as to effectively make two functions work well providing standards and, in turn, acquiring many cases of the application of standards to their business. As such, the legal system should provide the foundation of the operation of the standard system and manpower training should provide labor support to the system. 14) Park Jong-Taek et al Research on Korean style geospatial data infrastructure model formulation and globalization strategies. Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements. p

75 Ⅲ. 공간정보표준정책 1. 공간정보인프라로서공간정보표준 공간정보표준은공간정보인프라정책목표인공유촉진, 호환성확보및중복성방지를위하여필요한다. 공간정보인프라정책목표를달성하는데공간정보표준이기여하기위해서는첫째공간정보사업추진시공간정보표준을적용해야하며, 둘째공유에필요한공간정보표준이없을경우신규개발 제정해야하며, 셋째공간정보표준을생산 공급 관리할수있는체계 ( 조직 제도 ) 를운영해야한다. 공간정보인프라의한요소로서공간정보표준은공간정보를공유하기위한약속체계 14) 이다. 공간정보를표준화된형태로생산하고, 표준화된형태가지속성있게유지되고, 이용자에게표준화된방법으로제공될수있도록, 표준을생산하는활동, 활동의결과, 활동을위한논리적 물리적기반 (platform) 의구성체인공간정보표준체계가필요하다고하였다. 이러한정의로부터알수있는공간정보표준체계의가장중요한기능은공간정보표준을공간정보인프라요소들에게제공하는것과이들로부터표준적용결과를공급받는것이다. < 그림 > 은공간정보표준과타공간정보인프라요소들과의관계를보여준다. 즉, 공간정보표준체계는표준을생산하여사용자들에게공급하고, 사용자들은표준적용결과를표준체계로전달해야한다. 이과정이원활하게순환될때공간정보표준은공간정보공유를위한방법을제공했다고할수있다. 즉, 공간정보인프라정책의한요소로서공간정보표준이기여를했다고할수있다. 그러므로이표준의제공과표준적용사례의수렴이라는두가지기능이원활하게수행되도록공간정보표준체계가운영되어야하고, 법제도는표준체계운영근거를, 인력양성은표준인력을공급해야한다. 14) 박종택외 한국형공간정보인프라모델정립및글로벌화전략연구. 국토연구원. p

76 Ⅲ. Policies for Geospatial Standards Figure 19. Geospatial Data Policy and Geospatial Standards All ability to make geospatial standards contribute to realizing the goals of policies for geospatial data infrastructure is called geospatial data standard capability which includes, capability as to plan and develop new geospatial standards, to secure standard resources, to implement standard activities, and to manage standard systems. South Korea has since 1995 steadily accumulated standardization competencies by implementing geospatial data standardization projects as part of a national geographic information system task. However, practitioners and developers in fact did not have enough capability to develop geospatial standards and to apply them to their goods, even though they were all aware of the importance of the geospatial data. In terms of budget, Korea has invested 15) only 2% out of a total of national geospatial data project budget (from the 1st to the 3rd National Geographic Information projects) in the field of standards. The figure is lower than the budget for basic geographic information building (89%), for geospatial data distribution (6%) or even for geospatial data policies (3%). This implies that the interest in standards and its importance was relatively low. In terms of practical use of geospatial standards, geospatial data operators led by the central government had good knowledge on how to use such standards, but geospatial data operators led by local governments did not, according to a survey on the actual utilization of standards in their geospatial data business (2011) by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. The gap in the geospatial data standardization may be a factor that impedes geospatial data sharing and that consequently makes geospatial standards unable to play a part as a component of the geospatial data infrastructure. Therefore, in promoting a geospatial data infrastructure, geospatial standards are not in progress apart from other components (for example, basic geographic information building and distribution) but are applied with those components, in building and distributing geospatial data, and providing services for geospatial data. And this should be reflected in the promotion of geospatial standards policies so that geospatial standards can contribute to the purposes of the geospatial data infrastructure. 15) Only the budget for NSDI sectors(framework Data, Distribution, Standards, Human resource development) is included. 76

77 Ⅲ. 공간정보표준정책 그림 19. 공간정보정책과공간정보표준 공간정보표준이공간정보인프라정책목표실현에기여할수있게하는모든능력을 공간정보표준역량 이라고한다. 예를들어신규공간정보표준을기획하고개발하는능력, 표준자원을확보하는능력, 표준활동을수행하는능력, 표준체계를운영하는능력등이있다. 한국은 1995년부터국가지리정보체계사업의일환으로공간정보표준화사업을추진하여표준화역량을꾸준히축적해왔다. 그러나공간정보표준의중요성은모두인식하고있으나, 실제로실무자 / 개발자들이공간정보표준을개발하고이를제품에적용하는수준은높지않았다. 공간정보표준예산측면에서, 한국의경우 1차국가공간정보사업 (NGIS) 부터지금까지표준분야에투자되어온예산은 1차 ~3차동안국가공간정보사업예산 15) 중 2% 에불과하다. 이는기본지리정보구축 89%, 유통 6%, 정책 3% 와비교할때가장낮은수치로서, 국가공간정보사업에서표준에대한관심이나중요도가낮았음을보여준다. 활용측면에서도, 국토교통부의 공간정보사업의표준활용실태조사 (2011) 에따르면중앙정부주도공간정보사업자은공간정보표준에대한인지도가높은반면, 지방정부가주도하는공간정보사업자는인지도가낮았다. 이러한공간정보표준화격차는공간정보공유를저해하는요인이될수있으며, 결국공간정보표준이공간정보인프라의한구성요소로서제역할을하지못하는원인이될수도있다. 따라서, 공간정보인프라를추진할때공간정보표준이다른구성요소들과별개로진행되는것이아니라, 공간정보를구축 유통 서비스할때함께적용됨으로서공간정보인프라정책목적에기여할수있도록공간정보표준정책이추진되어야한다. 15) NSDI 부문 ( 기본지리정보, 유통, 표준, 인력양성 ) 예산만포함시킴 77

78 Ⅲ. Policies for Geospatial Standards From the perspective of policy studies, the definition 16) of public policy varies according to scholars. However, when defining public policy, they commonly mention the solving of public problems, the attainment of public good, troubleshooting of problems, and strategies of achieving public good. From this perspective, geospatial standards public policy can be defined as a decision made by government to share geospatial data and to cooperate each other for solving problems related to geospatial data. 2. Establishment of the Role of Geospatial Standards as Geospatial Data Infrastructure Prerequisites for Formulating the Role of Geospatial Standards To formulate the role of geospatial standards, two assumptions can be made. The first assumption is that, if users perform adequately within the geospatial standards system, a circulatory system from the provision of geospatial standards to the returning of the results of the application of the standards will be formed. The second assumption is that the supply and consumption of standards will go on smoothly if users are provided with enough geospatial standards resources to perform geospatial standards activities. Based on these two assumptions, we can establish an orientation toward formulating the role of geospatial standards. 16) Lasswell (1951): Government s activities to solve problems, premised on social change. Lasswell & Kaplan(1970): Public policy refers to a large scale plan, including aims, values, and strategies Dye (1978): Public policy is what government decides to do or not to do. Yoo, Hun (1990): Public policy is a future-oriented guideline or activity target of governments and public institutions aiming at enhancing the quality of life and public interest by authoritatively addressing urgent issues related to most of the community members. Chae, Kyeong-Seok et al. (1997): Policy is a behavior guideline and a course of action for the best alternatives developed by prestigious government agencies with legal authority through an official governmental administrative process in which policy goals are formulated and policy alternatives are explored in order to intentionally solve social problems and achieve the public good. Chang, Jeong-Gil et al. (2010): Policy is a key note publicly decided by prestigious government agencies authorized to conduct necessary policy means to achieve a main policy goal to reach a desirable state of society. 78

79 Ⅲ. 공간정보표준정책 정책학에서바라보는정책에대한정의는학자들마다다양 16) 한데, 공통적으로 공공문제의해결혹은공익의달성, 문제해결혹은공익달성을위한전략 ( 수단 ), 정부기관의의도된의사결정 을언급하고있다. 이런관점에서공간정보표준정책이란공간정보공유및상호운영 ( 해결해야할문제 ) 을위하여정부가내린의사결정이라고할수있다. 2. 공간정보인프라로서공간정보표준역할정립 공간정보표준역할정립을위한전제 공간정보표준역할정립을위하여두가지가정을설정해보자. 먼저공간정보표준체계내에서공간정보표준사용자들이역할을적절히잘수행하면공간정보표준을공급하고, 그적용결과가표준체계로회수하는순환체계가형성될것이라는점이다. 두번째는공간정보표준체계내에서사용자들이공간정보표준활동을수행하는데필요한 공간정보표준자원 이충분히공급되면표준공급과소비가원활할것이라는점이다. 이두가지가정을바탕으로공간정보표준역할정립방향을제시할수있다. 16) Lasswell(1951): 문제해결을위해사회변화를전제한정부의활동. Lasswell & Kaplan(1970): 정책이란목적, 가치, 전략등을포함한큰규모의계획. Dye(1978) : 정책이란정부가하기로혹은하지않기로결정한모든것. 유훈 (1990) : 정책이란대부분의사회구성원과관련있는시급한문제들을권위적으로해결함으로써생활의질과공익을향상시키고자하는정부및공공기관의미래지향적인활동지침또는활동목표. 채경석외 (1997) : 정책이란권위있는정부기관이당위성에입각해의도적으로사회문제의해결이나공익을달성하기위해정책목표를세우고, 정책대안을탐색해공식적인정치행정적과정을거쳐최선의대안을선택한행동지침이나행동방침 정정길외 (2010) : 정책이란바람직한사회상태를이룩하려는정책목표와이를달성하기위하여필요한정책수단에대하여권위있는정부기관이공식적으로결정한기본방침 79

80 Ⅲ. Policies for Geospatial Standards Classification of Geospatial Standards Users : Public Policy Makers, Operators and Developers Since formulating the role of geospatial standards really depends on users mentioned in the assumption above, it is necessary to define users of geospatial standards. The types of geospatial standards user groups 17), in terms of standard production and consumption, are categorized into geospatial standards policy-makers and operators, and geospatial data product developers and business performers. geospatial standards policy makers and operators support users activities necessary for the production and consumption of geospatial standards, supply the required procedures and rules, and manage the result of standard activities. Geospatial data product developers and business performers develop geospatial data-related products, apply standards when conducting business, develop new standards and renew existing standards. General users refer to a group of people who participate in the geospatial data standardization process for an academic purpose or without a direct stake. Geospatial Standards Resources Let s discuss what is consumed and produced by geospatial standards users. First, geospatial standards policy-makers establish institutions or organizations and implement polices. Geospatial data standard system operators belonging to this group, based on such institutions and organizations, develop by-products (such as a standard status list) resulting from geospatial standards activities. Geospatial data products (technologies) developers and business performers, based on such institutions and organizations, produce or consume geospatial standards and application cases. 17) There are a variety of ways to categorize users working in the field of geospatial data. First, in terms of the geospatial market, users can be divided into public users (government, G), private users (business, B), and customers (client, C). From the perspective of geospatial data policies, users can be divided into policy makers (executors) and objects to policies. In terms of geospatial standards activities (business) users can be categorized into people involving geospatial standards planning; people involving geospatial standards development and compliance; people involving geospatial standards test certification; people involving geospatial standards system operations (Kang Hye-Kyung The 2010 national geospatial data standardization project: analysis and design of specifications of standards information systems Taken and adapted from Ministry of LMinistry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, pp

81 Ⅲ. 공간정보표준정책 공간정보표준사용자 의유형 : 정책자, 운영자, 개발사업자 앞의가정에서 공간정보표준사용자들이역할을적절히잘수행하면 이라고했으므로, 먼저이가정에서말하는 공간정보표준사용자 를정의하겠다. 공간정보표준사용자그룹 17) 유형은표준기반공급, 표준생산및소비측면에서공간정보표준정책자및운영자와공간정보제품 ( 기술 ) 개발자및사업수행자로나눌수있다. 공간정보표준정책자및운영자는공간정보표준의생산및소비에필요한사용자활동을지원하고이에필요한절차 ( 규칙 ) 등을공급하며, 표준활동결과를관리하는사용자그룹을말한다. 공간정보제품 ( 기술 ) 개발자및사업수행자는공간정보관련제품을개발하거나사업을수행할때표준을적용하거나신규표준을개발혹은기존표준을갱신하는사용자그룹을말한다. 이외에학문적목적이나직접적이해가없이공간정보표준화에참여하는사용자그룹을일반사용자라고하겠다. 공간정보표준자원 이러한공간정보표준사용자가소비하는것과생산하는것을살펴보면, 먼저공간정보표준정책자는제도와조직, 정책을생산 집행한다. 이정책사용자그룹중에서공간정보표준체계운영자는제도와조직을기반으로공간정보표준활동의부산물 ( 표준현황목록등 ) 을생산한다. 그리고, 공간정보제품 ( 기술 ) 개발자및사업수행자는제도와조직을기반으로공간정보표준및적용사례를생산하거나이를소비한다. 17) 공간정보에종사하는사용자들을분류하는방법은다양한데, 먼저공간정보시장의관점에서사용자들은공공 (government, G), 민간 (business, B), 고객 (client, C) 으로나눌수있고, 공간정보정책관점에서정책생산자 ( 집행자 ) 와정책대상자로나눌수있으며, 공간정보표준활동 ( 업무 ) 관점에서는공간정보표준기획관련사용자, 공간정보표준개발 준수관련사용자, 공간정보표준시험인증관련사용자, 공간정보표준체계운영관련사용자로나눌수있음 ( 강혜경 년도국가공간정보표준화사업 ( 표준정보시스템사양분석및설계 ). 국토해양부. pp 36-43의내용을재정리함 ). 81

82 Ⅲ. Policies for Geospatial Standards Thus, within the system of geospatial standards, all things needed for users to produce and consume can be regarded as geospatial standards resources (see Figure 20.) The resources are divided into four kinds: First, institutions provide a logical basis for ongoing standard activities. Second, organizations provide a physical basis for ongoing standard activities. Third, human resource for standards is a subject to perform standard activities. Fourth and finally, standards and enforcement cases are the result of standard activities. To sum up, as seen in the Figure, when geospatial standards users perform their role in a proper way and the production and consumption Figure 20. Relationship between spatial information standards resources < picture > (i.e., the application of standards) of geospatial standards continue to happen in a harmonious way, we assume that the geospatial standards system functions very well and the application of standards remains active. Therefore, we should set the direction toward formulating the role of geospatial standards by considering the relationship between geospatial standards resources so that the capabilities of the resources can be enhanced. Geospatial Standards Capacity A capability is the ability to enable people to perform certain actions and the capability of human capital is a sum of ability and capacity 18). The term, competence, can be used to refer to the ability for individuals to perform tasks required for implementing their organization s vision and strategies. This research takes the former approach because the concept of capability includes individuals. Based on the definition of capability, geospatial standards capacity can be defined as a capacity of the geospatial standards system to create a virtuous circle in which the activities 19)20) for production, provision, and management can be effectively and efficiently conducted. 18) ) Standardized competency is generally measured as Government s investment and human resources status related to standardization, the status of domestic standards enactment, roles and contributions to the international standards organization (National Information Society Agency 2009). 20) In terms of geospatial standards system, competency indicators can be defined in a wide range of ways. The indicators include: the competency of standardization policies (the construction and operation capability of geospatial data standardization policy systems); the competency of standard planning and development (human capabilities to respond to environmental change and to develop geospatial standards and required in business practices as well as government capabilities of supporting standards development); the competency of staffing for standardization (policy personnel, international standards experts, technology experts, academic personnel, etc.); the competency of standards compliance (utilizations) capabilities (capabilities to harness geospatial standards in developing technology for business practices and promoting geospatial data business); and the competency of international standardization. 82

83 Ⅲ. 공간정보표준정책 이렇게공간정보표준체계내에서사용자들이그림 20. 공간정보표준자원간관계공간정보표준을생산하고소비하는데필요한것들을모두공간정보표준자원이라할수있다 ( 참고 < 그림 >). 이러한자원은네가지가있는데, 제도는지속적표준활동의논리적근거를제공하며, 조직은지속적표준활동의물리적기반을제공하고, 표준인력은표준활동을수행하는주체이며, 표준및적용사례는표준활동의결과물이다. 정리하면 < 그림 > 에서처럼, 공간정보표준사용자들이자신에역할을적절하게수행하여공간정보표준의생산과소비 ( 표준적용 ) 가균형있게지속적으로수행될때공간정보표준체계가원활히작동되고표준적용도활성화된다고가정한다. 따라서공간정보표준자원들간의상호관계를고려하여표준자원의역량을강화시킬수있도록정립방향을설정한다. 공간정보표준역량 역량 (capability) 이란작업을수행할수있는능력으로, 인적자본 (human capital) 의역량이란할수있는능력 (ability) 과할수있는규모 (capacity) 의합을말한다 18). 개인이조직의비전과전략구현에필요한과업을수행할수있는능력이있는지를가리키는의미에서도역량 (competence) 이라는용어를사용할수있는데, 본연구에서역량은개인을포함한의미이므로후자보다는전자에가깝다. 역량의정의로부터, 공간정보표준역량 19)20) 이란표준생산 공급및관리활동을선순환시킬수있는공간정보표준체계의능력이라고정의할수있다. 18) ) 표준화역량은일반적으로표준화관련정부의투자, 표준화관련인적자원의보유정도, 국내표준제정정도, 국제표준화기구에대한역할및기여등으로측정한다 ( 한국정보사회진흥원 2009). 20) 공간정보표준체계측면에서역량지표들은다양하게정의될수있는데, 표준화정책역량 ( 공간정보표준화정책체계에구축및운영역량 ), 표준기획 개발역량 ( 환경변화에대응하고실무에서요구하는공간정보표준을개발하는인적능력및개발을지원하는정부능력 ), 표준화인력지원역량 ( 정책인력, 국제표준전문가, 기술전문가, 학술인력등 ), 표준준수 ( 활용 ) 역량 ( 실무에서기술개발및공간정보사업추진시공간정보표준을활용하는능력 ), 국제표준화역량등이사용됨. 83

84 Ⅲ. Policies for Geospatial Standards Capability of Legal System for Geospatial Standards The most important component among geospatial standards resources is the standard-related legal system which enables the ongoing standard activities. Based on the Figure 20, the geospatial standards system needs to include the following: First, in relation to the geospatial data infrastructure, it is important to clearly specify the purpose and role of geospatial standards. Second, the geospatial standards organization system must be clearly stated. Third, users or agencies that participate in the organization system must be specified. Fourth, the role (or function, work) of users or agencies that participate in the system and their products should be stated. Capability of Organization Structure for Geospatial Standards Next, as a standard resource, the geospatial standards organization system which provides a physical basis for performing standard activities should be established by taking into account the following. First, the geospatial data infrastructure organization system and the geospatial standards organization system should be configured so that the one system can be linked to the other. Secondly, the national standard organization system and the geospatial standards organization system should be configured so that the one can be linked to the other. Third, geospatial data providers (e.g., National Geographic Institute and Korea Cadastral Survey Corporation) and geospatial data developers should be configured so that they can be linked to the organization systems. Users Capability of Geospatial Standards The third geospatial standards resource is geospatial standards users who produce and consume standards. What these users should do in the course of producing and applying geospatial standards must be specified to establish the essential aspects of their role. Table 4 shows a framework to define different roles by combining standard activities and subjects. Based on this framework, the foundation needed for geospatial standards can be established. Now I will describe the direction toward establishing the participants role so that they effectively and efficiently operate their organizations, and formulate, develop, enact and apply standards. Additionally, based on this foundation, geospatial standards can be produced and consumed. To this end, we will also discuss how technology developers and business operators interact with each other so that they effectively and efficiently operate their organizations, and formulate, develop, enact and apply standards. 84

85 Ⅲ. 공간정보표준정책 공간정보표준법제도역량공간정보표준자원중에서가장중요한요소가표준활동을지속적으로가능하게하는표준관련법제도이다. < 그림 > 를기반으로, 공간정보표준제도는다음사항을포함할필요가있다. 먼저공간정보인프라와관련하여공간정보표준의목적 / 역할을구체적이고분명하게명시해야한다. 둘째, 공간정보표준조직체계가명시되어야한다. 셋째, 공간정보표준조직체계에참여해야하는사용자 ( 기관 ) 명시되어야한다. 네째, 공간정보표준조직에참여하는사용자 ( 기관 ) 의역할 ( 기능, 업무 ) 및산출물명시되어야한다. 공간정보표준조직체계역량다음으로표준활동을수행하는물리적기반을제공하는표준자원인공간정보표준조직체계는다음을고려하여정립되어야한다. 먼저, 공간정보인프라조직체계와공간정보표준조직체계가연계될수있도록구성되어야한다. 둘째, 국가표준조직체계와공간정보표준조직체계가연계될수있도록구성되어야한다. 셋째, 공간정보공급자 ( 예 : 국토지리정보원, 지적공사 ) 및공간정보개발자조직체계와연계될수있도록구성되어야한다. 공간정보표준사용자역량공간정보표준자원중세번째는표준을생산, 소비하는주체인공간정보표준사용자들이다. 이사용자역할을정립을위해서는공간정보표준사용자들이공간정보표준및적용사례의생산과정에서수행해야할역할을빠짐없이정의해야한다. < 표 > 은표준활동과주체를조합함으로서역할을정의하는틀을보여준다. 이틀에의하여공간정보표준에필요한기반을제공해야하는측면에서정책자및운영자가조직운영, 표준기획, 표준개발, 표준제정그리고표준적용을위하여해야할역할정립방향을기술하겠다. 또이기반위에서공간정보표준을생산 소비하는측면에서기술개발자및사업자가표준정책자및운영자와어떻게상호교류해야하는지, 특히조직운영, 표준기획, 표준개발, 표준제정그리고표준적용을위하여해야할역할을기술하겠다. 85

86 Ⅲ. Policies for Geospatial Standards Table 8. Framework Illustration for Formulating the Role of Geospatial Standards Users User Standard activities Organization management Standards planning Standards development Enactment Application Standards policy makers and operators Things that the policy makers and operators should do for organization management Things that the policy makers and operators should do for organization management for standards planning Technology developers and business operators - (Not applicable) General public Capability of Policy Makers and Operators for Geospatial Standards Above all, what is important is to establish institutions as a logical foundation so that standard policy makers and operators continue to perform standardization and to prepare organizations as a physical foundation based on these institutions. Based on these foundations, standard policies should be implemented to achieve the purpose of sharing geospatial data. In other words, organizations should evaluate various activities related to policy enforcement processes as well as the products or results of such activities on a regular basis to know whether organizations tasks can be implemented as intended in the policy direction and the goals of policies are achieved. For example, standard activities (such as the status of standard enactment and revision, and the status of the application of standards and application cases) should be published in an annual report or the following should be evaluated: the linkage between the geospatial data infrastructure and the standardization of geospatial data, the contribution of the infrastructure and standardization, and the development level of the capability of geospatial standards. 86

87 Ⅲ. 공간정보표준정책 표 8. 공간정보표준사용자역할정립을위한틀예시 사용자 표준활동 조직운영표준기획표준개발표준제정표준적용 조직운영을 표준기획을 표준정책자및운영자 위하여표준정책자및운영자가해야 위하여표준정책자및운영자가해야 할역할정리 할역할정리 기술개발자및사업자 - ( 해당사항없음 ) 일반 공간정보표준정책자및운영자의역량 먼저조직운영측면에서표준정책자및운영자는표준화를지속적으로수행할수있는논리적기반인제도를마련하고, 이를바탕으로물리적기반인조직을마련해야한다. 이기반위에서표준이공간정보공유라는목적에기여할수있도록표준정책을집행해야한다. 즉, 조직내에서일어나는활동이정책방향대로추진되었는지, 이를위하여수행된활동과결과물등정책집행과정과결과물, 이결과물이정책에기여한정도를정기적으로관리해야한다. 예를들어표준제 개정현황, 표준적용현황, 적용사례등의표준활동을연례보고서로발간하거나 공간정보인프라와공간정보표준화연계및기여도평가, 공간정보표준화역량의발전정도를평가해야한다. 87

88 Ⅲ. Policies for Geospatial Standards In terms of planning, geospatial standards policy makers and operators should examine users needs for new standards, investigate whether there are any standards to be introduced into the country by monitoring the trend of international standards. Also, the government should support stakeholders and professionals to respond to international standards against domestic interests. In terms of standard development, geospatial data policy makers and operators should provide an environment in which geospatial standards can be developed through the consensus between interested parties. This consensus building can be induced through geospatial standards development procedures and forms. In particular, geospatial data policy makers and operators should encourage the stakeholders participation and cooperation as moderators, if they don t involve the process of developing new standards. geospatial standards policy makers and operators should make sure that newly developed standards are consistent with existing standards or international standards. In terms of enactment, geospatial standards policy makers and operators should play a role in formulating a proposed standard draft in accordance with a series of decision-making process within organizations and the enactment procedure. And organizational principles (norms) may influence the revitalization of geospatial standards. To this end, geospatial standards, if possible, should be available to the public free of charge and the information on the most recent standard enactment status should be disseminated. In terms of application, geospatial standards policy makers and operators should play a role in supplying users with information needed for standard application, acquiring, maintaining and managing the results of the application, and providing the information of these results to users in need. For example, they should perform their roles in providing statistics of geospatial standards application, monitoring whether users apply geospatial standards to their work, and recommending or encouraging them to apply if they don t. Particularly geospatial data policy makers and operators who work for the National geospatial standards should represent their nation to the International Standard Organization (ISO/TC211). Their role is to introduce various standard activities of ISO/TC211 to geospatial data communities in the nation and deliver the opinions of users in the communities to ISO/TC211. For example, the policy makers representing Korea to ISO should present the results of standard activities conducted in ISO/TC211 to the geospatial standards system and the feedback of domestic users to ISO/TC211. They also need to share the authority of the ISO/TC211 membership and thus have a rapid access to international standard drafts under development. Moreover, it is not to mention that they should forward standard-related documents developed in the geospatial standards system and cases of the application of standards to ISO and, if necessary, register the documents and cases with ISO. Capability of Technology Developers and Enterprises Technology developers and Enterprises should perform their roles in terms of production and consumption of geospatial standards. First, in terms of planning, technology developers and operators should first identify which standards in the geospatial standards system are available for them to effectively perform their business and then request to develop and enact new standards if required standards are missing. 88

89 Ⅲ. 공간정보표준정책 표준기획측면에서공간정보표준정책자및운영자는새로운표준에대한사용자수요가있는지를조사하고, 국제표준동향을모니터링하여국내로도입해야할표준이있는지조사해야한다. 또국내이해에반하는국제표준의경우국내이해당사자들과전문가들이대응할수있도록지원해야한다. 표준개발측면에서공간정보표준정책자및운영자는이해당사자간의합의에의하여공간정보표준이개발될수있는환경을제공해야한다. 이합의를모으눈과정은공간정보표준개발절차및양식을통해서유도할수있다. 특히, 표준이해당사자가신규표준개발과정에참여하지않을경우공간정보표준정책자및운영자는조정자로서이들의참여와협력을유도해야한다. 또한, 공간정보표준정책자및운영자는새로개발되는표준이기존표준혹은국제표준과의일관성이유지될수있도록일관성을검사해야한다. 표준제정측면에서공간정보표준정책자및운영자의역할은조직내의일련의의사결정과정및제정절차를따라제안된표준 ( 안 ) 을공식화해야한다. 그리고조직의원칙 ( 규범 ) 에따라다를수있으나공간정보표준의경우활성화를위하여가능한 공간정보표준을무료로공급하고, 최신제정현황정보를제공한다. 표준적용측면에서공간정보표준정책자및운영자의역할은표준적용에필요한정보를사용자들에게제공하고, 사용자들로부터그적용결과를받아서유지관리하고, 이를필요로하는사용자들에게다시공급해야한다. 예를들어, 공간정보표준적용현황 ( 통계 ) 을제공하거나, 사용자들이 공간정보표준을적용하는지모니터링하고, 적용하지않는경우권고를통해시정할수있도록지원하는등의역할을해야한다. 특히공간정보표준정책자및운영자중, 국가공간정보표준 (KS) 에관한권한을부여받은정책자는국제공간기구인 ISO/TC211에한국을공식대표하는기관으로서, ISO/TC211의활동이국내공간정보커뮤니티로잘전달되고또이들의의견을 ISO/TC211 에전달할수있도록중간매개체역할을해야한다. 예를들어, 국제표준기구 (ISO) 내에서국가를공식적으로대변하는기관으로서 ISO/TC211활동결과를공간정보표준체계로전달하고국내의견을수렴하여 ISO/TC211로전달해야한다. 또, ISO/TC211의회원권한을공간정보표준체계와공유하여개발중인국제표준 ( 안 ) 에대한신속한접근이가능하도록하는것도필요하다. 뿐만아니라, 공간정보표준체계에서생산한표준관련문서및적용사례들을국제표준기구에전달및등록하는것도중요하다. 공간정보기술개발자및사업자역량 공간정보기술개발자및사업자는공간정보표준의생산및소비관점에서역할을수행해야한다. 먼저 표준기획측면에서기술개발자및사업자는자신의사업에필요한표준이현재공간정보표준체계에서 공급되는지를파악하여, 미공급될경우신규표준개발및제정을요청해야한다. 89

90 Ⅲ. Policies for Geospatial Standards In terms of development, technology developers and operators, as interested parties, should compromise their interests with other users and encourage consensus building by being involved in the development of standard content and by presenting their opinions of the standard draft. In terms of enactment, technology developers and business operators have no responsibility to play any role since only authorized organizations can enact geospatial standards. But instead, in terms of applying standards, the role of technology developers and business operators is very important. They should apply relevant standards to geospatial data projects they perform or geospatial data products they develop and forward the results to standard operators. For example, they should deliver a list of geospatial standards applied to their business operations or the results of the application of standards to standard operators, and present their opinions to enhance the application of standards. Capacity of Geospatial Standards and Application Practices Geospatial Standards geospatial standards should include not only standard specification but also intermediate deliverables produced in the development process, the review results of consistency with other standards, and testing methods. For example, the standard specifications should include the purpose of standards, a list of standards, the contents of standards and the illustrations of the application of standards. In addition, to verify whether the standards are developed based on consensus and to clearly reveal the process of building consensus, interim deliverables (e.g., standards specification development history, developed participants, and review results of the standard specification draft) obtained from the standard development process with standard specifications should be made public. And once standard specifications have completed, test methods (test items, test tools, test standards, etc.) should be developed and included in the standard specification. Finally, the review results of consistency with other standards (reviewers, review methods, review contents, etc.) should be included in the standard specification. Capability of Geospatial Data Application Practices geospatial standards applications should include general status of standard application projects and products (such as business year, project period, implement department, contact, etc.), application methods and standard application deliverables. 90

91 Ⅲ. 공간정보표준정책 표준개발측면에서기술개발자및사업자는이해당사자로서표준내용개발에참여하고, 작성한표준 ( 안 ) 에검토의견을제시함으로서자신의이해를다른사용자와절충하여합의를모으는과정을이행해야한다. 공간정보표준의제정은권한을부여받은기관의역할이므로기술개발자및사업자가별도의역할을수행할필요가없다. 대신, 적용측면에서기술개발자및사업자의역할은매우중요한데, 이들은자신이수행하는공간정보사업혹은개발하는공간정보제품에표준을적용하고, 그결과를표준운영자에게전달해야한다. 예를들어, 사업에적용할 공간정보표준적용목록을표준운영자에게전달하거나, 표준적용결과를표준운영자에게전달하며 표준적용향상을위하여의견을제시하는등의역할을수행해야한다. 공간정보표준및적용사례역량 공간정보표준 공간정보표준은표준명세서뿐만아니라표준명세서개발과정에서생산된중간산출물, 타표준과의일관성검토결과, 검사방법을포함해야한다. 예를들어, 표준명세서는표준목적, 참조표준목록, 표준내용, 표준적용예시등을포함해야한다. 또한, 합의에의하여생성된표준인지를증명하고, 그합의를도출하는과정을투명하게공개할수있도록표준개발과정에서얻어진중간산출물 ( 표준명세서개발이력, 개발참여자, 표준명세서 ( 안 ) 에대한참여자들의찬반검토의견등 ) 도표준명세서와함께공개해야한다. 그리고표준명세서개발과동시에검사방법 ( 검사항목, 검사도구, 검사표준등 ) 도함께개발하여표준명세서에포함시켜제공해야한다. 마지막으로타표준과의일관성검토결과 ( 검토자, 검토방법, 검토내용등 ) 도표준명세서에포함해야한다. 공간정보표준적용사례역량 공간정보표준적용사례는표준을적용한사업 / 제품의일반현황 ( 사업년도, 사업기간, 추진부서, 담당자, 연락처등 ), 적용방법, 적용결과물을포함해야한다. 91

92 Ⅲ. Policies for Geospatial Standards 3. Institutions to Promote Polices for Geospatial Standards (as Examples) Examples of Legal System for Geospatial Standards Since the geospatial standards legal system should provide a basis where geospatial standards activities can be performed on an ongoing basis, it needs to specify geospatial standards organizations, the purpose of geospatial standards policies and the subjects of geospatial data standardization and their role. [Articles for Geospatial Standards in NSDI Law/Supreme Decree] Article OO. Provision of geospatial standards NSDI provides a set of geospatial standards and technical recommendations to increase the availability, access, integration and sharing of NSDI as an efficient and unified approach for sharing. For this, NSDI will: 1) Establish a structured framework for geospatial standards called National Standards Committee for Geographic Information (NSCG) and provide a specification for operating NSCG 2) Provide a specification for operating NSCG Article OO. All of the stakeholders in the geospatial community of a country have to adopt the geospatial standards and technical recommendations which NSDI provides, and cooperate with NSCG. Article OO. Compliance of Geospatial Data Standard 1) Users of geospatial data standars, particularly business operators, shall comply with the standards and collaborate with Subcommittee of Standardization in accordance with NSCG s operational guideline. Examples of Operating Guideline for geospatial standards System to Vitalize Standards Application To vitalize the application of geospatial standards, matters that should be described in the geospatial standards operating instruction include standards, projects or tasks to which standards should be applied, organizations managing the application of standards and institutions supporting this geospatial standards system. The geospatial standards system operating guideline (or draft) should contain contents of how to apply standards, how to produce the results of the application and how to promote these types of activities. The guideline should also include the contents of regulating activities that may undermine the application of standards. The contents of the operating guideline should reflect this perspective to vitalize the application of geospatial standards (see Figure 21). In other words, the guideline should specify who will perform a certain role and when it will be performed to apply standards. Also, the guideline should state which type of standard, depending on each type of business, should be applied (see Table 5). 92

93 Ⅲ. 공간정보표준정책 3. 공간정보표준정책추진을위한제도 ( 예시 ) 공간정보표준법제도예시 공간정보표준법제도는공간정보표준활동이지속적으로수행될수있는근거를제시할수있어야하므로, 공간정보표준에대한조직, 공간정보표준의정책적목적, 공간정보표준화주체와이들의역할을명시할 필요가있다. 국가공간정보법에서공간정보표준관련조항예시제 항공간정보표준의공급 1. 국가공간정보체계 (NSDI) 는공간정보의공유를촉진하기위하여공간정보표준및기술기준을제공해야한다. 2. 이를위하여국가공간정보체계 (NSDI) 는공간정보표준을공급할수있는조직 ( 가칭 표준화분과위원회, National Standards Committee for Geographic Information, NSCG) ) 을설립하고, 운영지침 (Specification for operating NSCG) 을마련한다. 제 항공간정보표준의준수 1. 공간정보관련종사자, 특히공공부문공간정보사업수행자는공간정보표준을준수해야하며, NSCG 운영지침에따라 표준화분과위원회 와협력해야한다. 공간정보표준적용활성화를위한공간정보표준체계운영지침예시 공간정보표준운영지침을공간정보표준적용을활성화하는관점에서제시하면, 이지침에서언급되어야할사항으로는표준, 표준적용대상인사업, 표준적용을관리하는조직, 이를뒷받침하는제도로나눌수있다. 공간정보표준체계운영지침 ( 안 ) 은표준을적용하고적용결과를생산하며이러한활동을촉진하는내용들로구성되어야한다. 또표준적용을저해하는활동들을규제하는내용도포함해야한다. 이러한공간정보표준적용활성화관점에서공간정보표준체계운영지침 ( 안 ) 의내용을구성할필요가있다 ( 참고 < 그림 >). 즉, 이지침에는표준적용을위하여누가언제어떤역할을수행하고, 그결과를어떻게해야할지가명시되어야한다. 또, 사업유형별로어떤표준을적용해야하는지가명시되어야한다 ( 참고 < 표 >). 93

94 Ⅲ. Policies for Geospatial Standards Figure 21. Basic Direction of Formulating Operational Guidelines(draft) for geospatial standards Table 9. Example of Operational Guidelines for geospatial standards System Basic direction Organizational Basis (Promotion system) Production of standards and the results of the application of standards Application of standards Instructions geospatial standards organization Agencies to participate in geospatial standards development and their roles Main products forming the foundation of geospatial standards organizations - Basic plan, implementation plan, geospatial standards annual report, website for geospatial standards Standards professional personnel Research on international standards for standards planning and user demands Identification of the best practices of applied standards Production of standards and application status made public geospatial standards provided free of charge Training on methods of standards application Standards recommendations Evaluation of standards application, focused on spatial information business compatability 94

` Companies need to play various roles as the network of supply chain gradually expands. Companies are required to form a supply chain with outsourcing or partnerships since a company can not

More information


11¹Ú´ö±Ô A Review on Promotion of Storytelling Local Cultures - 265 - 2-266 - 3-267 - 4-268 - 5-269 - 6 7-270 - 7-271 - 8-272 - 9-273 - 10-274 - 11-275 - 12-276 - 13-277 - 14-278 - 15-279 - 16 7-280 - 17-281 -

More information


07_À±¿ø±æ3ÀüºÎ¼öÁ¤ 232 233 1) 2) Agenda 3) 4) 234 Invention Capital Agenda 5) 6) 235 7) 8) 9) 236 10) 11) 237 12) 13) 14) 15) knowledge 16) 17) 238 239 18) 240 19) 241 20) 242 243 244 21) 245 22) 246 23) 247 24) 248 25)

More information


04-다시_고속철도61~80p Approach for Value Improvement to Increase High-speed Railway Speed An effective way to develop a highly competitive system is to create a new market place that can create new values. Creating tools and

More information


歯3이화진 http://www.kbc.go.kr/ Abstract Terrestrial Broadcasters Strategies in the Age of Digital Broadcasting Wha-Jin Lee The purpose of this research is firstly to investigate the

More information

¹ýÁ¶ 12¿ù ¼öÁ¤.PDF

¹ýÁ¶ 12¿ù ¼öÁ¤.PDF 논문요약 146 [ 주제어 ] 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 abstract Recent Development in the Law of DPRK on the

More information


歯1.PDF 200176 .,.,.,. 5... 1/2. /. / 2. . 293.33 (54.32%), 65.54(12.13%), / 53.80(9.96%), 25.60(4.74%), 5.22(0.97%). / 3 S (1997)14.59% (1971) 10%, (1977).5%~11.5%, (1986)

More information

1.장인석-ITIL 소개.ppt

1.장인석-ITIL 소개.ppt HP 2005 6 IT ITIL Framework IT IT Framework Synchronized Business and IT Business Information technology Delivers: Simplicity, Agility, Value IT Complexity Cost Scale IT Technology IT Infrastructure IT

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI: : Researc

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI:   : Researc Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp.251-273 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.2.201706.251 : 1997 2005 Research Trend Analysis on the Korean Alternative Education

More information


12È«±â¼±¿Ü339~370 http://www.kbc.go.kr/ k Si 2 i= 1 Abstract A Study on Establishment of Fair Trade Order in Terrestrial Broadcasting Ki - Sun Hong (Professor, Dept. of Journalism & Mass Communication,

More information


<BFA9BAD02DB0A1BBF3B1A4B0ED28C0CCBCF6B9FC2920B3BBC1F62E706466> 001 002 003 004 005 006 008 009 010 011 2010 013 I II III 014 IV V 2010 015 016 017 018 I. 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 III. 041 042 III. 043

More information

강의지침서 작성 양식

강의지침서 작성 양식 정보화사회와 법 강의지침서 1. 교과목 정보 교과목명 학점 이론 시간 실습 학점(등급제, P/NP) 비고 (예:팀티칭) 국문 정보화사회와 법 영문 Information Society and Law 3 3 등급제 구분 대학 및 기관 학부(과) 전공 성명 작성 책임교수 법학전문대학원 법학과 최우용 2. 교과목 개요 구분 교과목 개요 국문 - 정보의 디지털화와 PC,

More information


00내지1번2번 www.keit.re.kr 2011. 11 Technology Level Evaluation ABSTRACT The Technology Level Evaluation assesses the current level of industrial technological development in Korea and identifies areas that are underdeveloped

More information

저작자표시 - 비영리 - 동일조건변경허락 2.0 대한민국 이용자는아래의조건을따르는경우에한하여자유롭게 이저작물을복제, 배포, 전송, 전시, 공연및방송할수있습니다. 이차적저작물을작성할수있습니다. 다음과같은조건을따라야합니다 : 저작자표시. 귀하는원저작자를표시하여야합니다. 비영리. 귀하는이저작물을영리목적으로이용할수없습니다. 동일조건변경허락. 귀하가이저작물을개작, 변형또는가공했을경우에는,

More information


<BCF6BDC3323030392D31385FB0EDBCD3B5B5B7CEC8DEB0D4C5B8BFEEB5B5C0D4B1B8BBF3BFACB1B85FB1C7BFB5C0CE2E687770> ... 수시연구 2009-18.. 고속도로 휴게타운 도입구상 연구 A Study on the Concept of Service Town at the Expressway Service Area... 권영인 임재경 이창운... 서 문 우리나라는 경제성장과 함께 도시화가 지속적으로 진행되어 지방 지역의 인구감소와 경기의 침체가 계속되고 있습니다. 정부의 다각 적인

More information


<32382DC3BBB0A2C0E5BED6C0DA2E687770> 논문접수일 : 2014.12.20 심사일 : 2015.01.06 게재확정일 : 2015.01.27 청각 장애자들을 위한 보급형 휴대폰 액세서리 디자인 프로토타입 개발 Development Prototype of Low-end Mobile Phone Accessory Design for Hearing-impaired Person 주저자 : 윤수인 서경대학교 예술대학

More information

0125_ 워크샵 발표자료_완성.key

0125_ 워크샵 발표자료_완성.key WordPress is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL. WordPress is installed on a web server, which either is part of an Internet hosting service or is a network host

More information


<28BCF6BDC320323031352D31332920B0E6B1E2B5B520C1F6BFAABAB020BFA9BCBAC0CFC0DAB8AE20C1A4C3A520C3DFC1F8C0FCB7AB5FC3D6C1BE2830312E3036292E687770> 수시과제 2015-13 경기도 지역별 여성일자리 정책 추진 전략 연구책임자 : 최 윤 선 (본원선임연구위원) : 남 승 연 (본원연구위원) 연 구 지 원 : 이 상 아 (본원위촉연구원) 연 구 기 간 : 2015. 9 ~12 2015 발 간 사 여성 일자리는 사회 내 여성과 남성간의 차이를 좁히고 개개인의 삶을 윤택하게 만드는 중요 한 부분입니다. 이에 정부는

More information


06_ÀÌÀçÈÆ¿Ü0926 182 183 184 / 1) IT 2) 3) IT Video Cassette Recorder VCR Personal Video Recorder PVR VCR 4) 185 5) 6) 7) Cloud Computing 8) 186 VCR P P Torrent 9) avi wmv 10) VCR 187 VCR 11) 12) VCR 13) 14) 188 VTR %

More information

국립국어원 20010-00-00 발간등록번호 00-000000-000000-00 국어정책 통계 조사 및 통계 연보 작성 연구책임자 이순영 제 출 문 국립국어원장 귀하 국어정책 통계 조사 및 통계 연보 작성 에 관하여 귀 원과 체결한 연 구 용역 계약에 의하여 연구 보고서를 작성하여 제출합니다. 2010년 12월 2일 연구책임자: 이순영(고려대학교 국어교육과)

More information

........pdf 16..

........pdf 16.. Abstract Prospects of and Tasks Involving the Policy of Revitalization of Traditional Korean Performing Arts Yong-Shik, Lee National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts In the 21st century, the

More information

- 2 -

- 2 - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 - - 11 - - 12 - - 13 - - 14 - - 15 - - 16 - - 17 - - 18 - - 19 - - 20 - - 21 - - 22 - - 23 - - 24 - - 25 - - 26 - - 27 - - 28 - - 29 - - 30 -

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp DOI: (NCS) Method of Con

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp DOI:   (NCS) Method of Con Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp.181-212 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.3.201709.181 (NCS) Method of Constructing and Using the Differentiated National Competency

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp DOI: NCS : * A Study on

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp DOI:   NCS : * A Study on Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp.157-176 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.3.201809.157 NCS : * A Study on the NCS Learning Module Problem Analysis and Effective

More information

발간등록번호 11-1371029-000097-01 한국문학분야 주제 가이드 개발 및 구축 :근대문학분야를 중심으로 2014.12. 제 출 문 국립중앙도서관장 귀하 본 보고서를 한국문학분야 주제 가이드 개발 및 구축 : 근대문학분야를 중심으 로 의 최종보고서로 제출합니다. 2014년 12월 연 구 기 관 : 책임연구자 : 공동연구원 : 전남대학교 산학협력단

More information


<30362E20C6EDC1FD2DB0EDBFB5B4EBB4D420BCF6C1A42E687770> 327 Journal of The Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology ISSN 1598-3986(Print) VOL.24, NO.2, Apr. 2014 ISSN 2288-2715(Online) http://dx.doi.org/10.13089/jkiisc.2014.24.2.327 개인정보 DB 암호화

More information

BSC Discussion 1

BSC Discussion 1 Copyright 2006 by Human Consulting Group INC. All Rights Reserved. No Part of This Publication May Be Reproduced, Stored in a Retrieval System, or Transmitted in Any Form or by Any Means Electronic, Mechanical,

More information

182 동북아역사논총 42호 금융정책이 조선에 어떤 영향을 미쳤는지를 살펴보고자 한다. 일제 대외금융 정책의 기본원칙은 각 식민지와 점령지마다 별도의 발권은행을 수립하여 일본 은행권이 아닌 각 지역 통화를 발행케 한 점에 있다. 이들 통화는 일본은행권 과 等 價 로 연

182 동북아역사논총 42호 금융정책이 조선에 어떤 영향을 미쳤는지를 살펴보고자 한다. 일제 대외금융 정책의 기본원칙은 각 식민지와 점령지마다 별도의 발권은행을 수립하여 일본 은행권이 아닌 각 지역 통화를 발행케 한 점에 있다. 이들 통화는 일본은행권 과 等 價 로 연 越 境 하는 화폐, 분열되는 제국 - 滿 洲 國 幣 의 조선 유입 실태를 중심으로 181 越 境 하는 화폐, 분열되는 제국 - 滿 洲 國 幣 의 조선 유입 실태를 중심으로 - 조명근 고려대학교 BK21+ 한국사학 미래인재 양성사업단 연구교수 Ⅰ. 머리말 근대 국민국가는 대내적으로는 특정하게 구획된 영토에 대한 배타적 지배와 대외적 자주성을 본질로 하는데, 그

More information


#Ȳ¿ë¼® http://www.kbc.go.kr/ A B yk u δ = 2u k 1 = yk u = 0. 659 2nu k = 1 k k 1 n yk k Abstract Web Repertoire and Concentration Rate : Analysing Web Traffic Data Yong - Suk Hwang (Research

More information

Output file

Output file connect educational content with entertainment content and that production of various contents inducing educational motivation is important. Key words: edutainment, virtual world, fostering simulation

More information

2 동북아역사논총 50호 구권협정으로 해결됐다 는 일본 정부의 주장에 대해, 일본군 위안부 문제는 일 본 정부 군 등 국가권력이 관여한 반인도적 불법행위이므로 한일청구권협정 에 의해 해결된 것으로 볼 수 없다 는 공식 입장을 밝혔다. 또한 2011년 8월 헌 법재판소는

2 동북아역사논총 50호 구권협정으로 해결됐다 는 일본 정부의 주장에 대해, 일본군 위안부 문제는 일 본 정부 군 등 국가권력이 관여한 반인도적 불법행위이므로 한일청구권협정 에 의해 해결된 것으로 볼 수 없다 는 공식 입장을 밝혔다. 또한 2011년 8월 헌 법재판소는 일본군 위안부 피해자 구제에 관한 일고( 一 考 ) 1 일본군 위안부 피해자 구제에 관한 일고( 一 考 ) 김관원 / 동북아역사재단 연구위원 Ⅰ. 머리말 일본군 위안부 문제가 한일 간 현안으로 불거지기 시작한 것은 일본군 위안부 피해를 공개 증언한 김학순 할머니 등이 일본에서 희생자 보상청구 소송을 제 기한 1991년부터다. 이때 일본 정부는 일본군이 위안부

More information

PowerPoint 프레젠테이션

PowerPoint 프레젠테이션 EBC (Equipment Behaviour Catalogue) - ISO TC 184/SC 5/SG 4 신규표준이슈 - 한국전자통신연구원김성혜 목차 Prologue: ISO TC 184/SC 5 그룹 SG: Study Group ( 표준이슈발굴 ) WG: Working Group ( 표준개발 ) 3 EBC 배경 제안자 JISC (Japanese Industrial

More information


2 02 1 1 22 36 38 46 5 1 54 61 65 77 81 2 _ 3 4 _ 5 6 _7 8 _ 9 1 0 _ 11 1 2 _ 13 1 4 _ 15 1 6 _ 17 1 8 _ 19 2 0 _ 21 2 2 www.kats.go.kr www.kats.go.kr _ 23 Scope of TC/223 Societal security International

More information


09김정식.PDF 00-09 2000. 12 ,,,,.,.,.,,,,,,.,,..... . 1 1 7 2 9 1. 9 2. 13 3. 14 3 16 1. 16 2. 21 3. 39 4 43 1. 43 2. 52 3. 56 4. 66 5. 74 5 78 1. 78 2. 80 3. 86 6 88 90 Ex e cu t iv e Su m m a r y 92 < 3-1> 22 < 3-2>

More information


15_3oracle Principal Consultant Corporate Management Team ( Oracle HRMS ) Agenda 1. Oracle Overview 2. HR Transformation 3. Oracle HRMS Initiatives 4. Oracle HRMS Model 5. Oracle HRMS System 6. Business Benefit 7.

More information

슬라이드 1

슬라이드 1 CJ 2007 CONTENTS 2006 CJ IR Presentation Overview 4 Non-performing Asset Company Profile Vision & Mission 4 4 - & 4-4 - & 4 - - - - ROE / EPS - - DreamWorks Animation Net Asset Value (NAV) Disclaimer IR

More information

http://www.kbc.go.kr/ Abstract Competition and Concentration in the Market for the Multichannel Video Programming G h e e - Young Noh ( P r o f e s s o, rschool of Communication,

More information


10방송통신서비스_내지최종 Contents KOREA COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Chorus Wholesale & lnternational Retail Gen-i AAPT Technology & Shared Services Corporate Centre

More information

Vol.257 C O N T E N T S M O N T H L Y P U B L I C F I N A N C E F O R U M

Vol.257 C O N T E N T S M O N T H L Y P U B L I C F I N A N C E F O R U M 2017.11 Vol.257 C O N T E N T S 02 06 38 52 69 82 141 146 154 M O N T H L Y P U B L I C F I N A N C E F O R U M 2 2017.11 3 4 2017.11 6 2017.11 1) 7 2) 22.7 19.7 87 193.2 160.6 83 22.2 18.4 83 189.6 156.2

More information


<BCADBFEFC1F6B9E6BAAFC8A3BBE7C8B85FBAAFC8A3BBE7203437C1FD2831B1C7292E687770> 기업의 영업비밀 보호정책의 한계 The Limitation of Internal Corporate Polices 辯 護 士 Bae Su Young 논문요약 영업비밀 이란 공공연히 알려져 있지 아니하고 독립된 경제적 가치를 가지는 것으로서, 상당한 노력에 의하여 비밀로 유지된 생산방법, 판매방법, 그 밖에 영업활동에 유용한 기술상 또는 경영상의 정보를 말한다.

More information


大学4年生の正社員内定要因に関する実証分析 190 2016 JEL Classification Number J24, I21, J20 Key Words JILPT 2011 1 190 Empirical Evidence on the Determinants of Success in Full-Time Job-Search for Japanese University Students By Hiroko ARAKI and

More information


SchoolNet튜토리얼.PDF Interoperability :,, Reusability: : Manageability : Accessibility :, LMS Durability : (Specifications), AICC (Aviation Industry CBT Committee) : 1988, /, LMS IMS : 1997EduCom NLII,,,,, ARIADNE (Alliance

More information

3. 클라우드 컴퓨팅 상호 운용성 기반의 서비스 평가 방법론 개발.hwp

3. 클라우드 컴퓨팅 상호 운용성 기반의 서비스 평가 방법론 개발.hwp 보안공학연구논문지 Journal of Security Engineering Vol.11, No.4 (2014), pp.299-312 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/jse.2014.08.03 클라우드 컴퓨팅 상호 운용성 기반의 서비스 평가 방법론 개발 이강찬 1), 이승윤 2), 양희동 3), 박철우 4) Development of Service

More information

274 한국문화 73

274 한국문화 73 - 273 - 274 한국문화 73 17~18 세기통제영의방어체제와병력운영 275 276 한국문화 73 17~18 세기통제영의방어체제와병력운영 277 278 한국문화 73 17~18 세기통제영의방어체제와병력운영 279 280 한국문화 73 17~18 세기통제영의방어체제와병력운영 281 282 한국문화 73 17~18 세기통제영의방어체제와병력운영 283 284

More information


<313120B9DABFB5B1B82E687770> 한국민족문화 40, 2011. 7, 347~388쪽 1)중화학공업화선언과 1973년 공업교육제도 변화* 2)박 영 구** 1. 머리말 2. 1973년, 중화학공업화선언과 과학기술인력의 부족 3. 1973년 전반기의 교육제도 개편과 정비 1) 계획과 개편 2) 기술교육 개선안과 인력개발 시책 4. 1973년 후반기의 개편과 정비 5. 정비된 정규교육제도의 특징

More information


<BFACB1B85F323030352D30335FB0E6C1A6C0DAC0AFB1B8BFAA2E687770> 연구보고서 2005-03 경제자유구역에서의 보건의료시장 개방의 파급효과와 정책방향 2005 韓 國 保 健 社 會 硏 究 院 머 리 말 우리나라는 2003년 경제자유구역의지정및운영에관한법률 을 제정하여 인천, 부산-진해, 광양만 등 3개 지역에 경제자유구역 개발을 추진하고 있다. 이 법에 는 경제자유구역에 외국 의료기관이 진출할 수 있다는 내용이 규정되어 있으

More information

Output file

Output file 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 An Application for Calculation and Visualization of Narrative Relevance of Films Using Keyword Tags Choi Jin-Won (KAIST) Film making

More information


DBPIA-NURIMEDIA 27(2), 2007, 96-121 S ij k i POP j a i SEXR j i AGER j i BEDDAT j ij i j S ij S ij POP j SEXR j AGER j BEDDAT j k i a i i i L ij = S ij - S ij ---------- S ij S ij = k i POP j a i SEXR j i AGER j i BEDDAT

More information

Study on the Improvement of Management System through Analysis of golf semi- market: Focus on Physical Education Facility Act Ji-Myung Jung 1, Ju-Ho Park 2 *, & Youngdae Lee 3 1 Korea Institute of Sport

More information


10송동수.hwp 종량제봉투의 불법유통 방지를 위한 폐기물관리법과 조례의 개선방안* 1) 송 동 수** 차 례 Ⅰ. 머리말 Ⅱ. 종량제봉투의 개요 Ⅲ. 종량제봉투의 불법유통사례 및 방지대책 Ⅳ. 폐기물관리법의 개선방안 Ⅴ. 지방자치단체 조례의 개선방안 Ⅵ. 결론 국문초록 1995년부터 쓰레기 종량제가 시행되면서 각 지방자치단체별로 쓰레기 종량제 봉투가 제작, 판매되기 시작하였는데,

More information


DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 6, December, 30, 2016:275~289 Received: 2016/12/02, Accepted: 2016/12/22 Revised: 2016/12/20, Published: 2016/12/30 [ABSTRACT] SNS is used in various fields. Although

More information

?? 1990년대 중반부터 일부 지방에서 자체적인 정책 혁신 을 통해 시도된 대학생촌관 정책은 그 효과에 비자발적 확산 + 대한 긍정적 평가에 힘입어 조금씩 다른 지역으로 수평적 확산이 이루어졌다. 이? + 지방 A 지방 B 비자발적 확산 중앙 중앙정부 정부 비자발적

?? 1990년대 중반부터 일부 지방에서 자체적인 정책 혁신 을 통해 시도된 대학생촌관 정책은 그 효과에 비자발적 확산 + 대한 긍정적 평가에 힘입어 조금씩 다른 지역으로 수평적 확산이 이루어졌다. 이? + 지방 A 지방 B 비자발적 확산 중앙 중앙정부 정부 비자발적 제1장 정책의 혁신과 확산, 그리고 변형 중국 대학생촌관( 村 官 ) 정책 사례를 중심으로 Policy Innovation, Diffusion and Transformation The case of the College-graduate as Village Official Plan in China 유은하 한신대학교 유라시아연구소 학술연구교수 ?? 1990년대

More information


untitled 국문요약....,,... 2,,. 3.,. 4. 5. Abstract Demographic change is greatly accelerating owing to the increasingly low birth rate and aging population in Korea. In particular, the increase in the number of elderly

More information

세종대 요람

세종대 요람 Sejong University 2016 2016 Sejong University 4 SEJONG UNIVERSITY www.sejong.ac.kr 5 8 SEJONG UNIVERSITY 2016 Sejong University 10 SEJONG UNIVERSITY www.sejong.ac.kr 11 12 SEJONG UNIVERSITY www.sejong.ac.kr

More information


<303930395FBEC6C1D6B9FDC7D05F39C2F72E687770> AJOU UNIVERSITY 2015 별쇄본 2015. 8 제9권 제2호 독점규제법상 합의의 도그마 논의의 향방 - 합의의 입증과 관련된 최근 대법원 판결에 대한 분석을 중심으로 - 조혜신 독점규제법상 합의의 도그마 논의의 향방* - 합의의 입증과 관련된 최근 대법원 판결에 대한 분석을 중심으로 - 1) 조혜신 (한동대학교 법학부 교수) 국문초록 독점규제법상

More information

- i - - ii - - iii - - iv - - v - - vi - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - 1) 통계청고시제 2010-150 호 (2010.7.6 개정, 2011.1.1 시행 ) - 4 - 요양급여의적용기준및방법에관한세부사항에따른골밀도검사기준 (2007 년 11 월 1 일시행 ) - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 -

More information

2 KHU 글로벌 기업법무 리뷰 제2권 제1호 또 내용적으로 중대한 위기를 맞이하게 되었고, 개인은 흡사 어항 속의 금붕어 와 같은 신세로 전락할 운명에 처해있다. 현대정보화 사회에서 개인의 사적 영역이 얼마나 침해되고 있는지 는 양 비디오 사건 과 같은 연예인들의 사

2 KHU 글로벌 기업법무 리뷰 제2권 제1호 또 내용적으로 중대한 위기를 맞이하게 되었고, 개인은 흡사 어항 속의 금붕어 와 같은 신세로 전락할 운명에 처해있다. 현대정보화 사회에서 개인의 사적 영역이 얼마나 침해되고 있는지 는 양 비디오 사건 과 같은 연예인들의 사 연구 논문 헌법 제17조 사생활의 비밀과 자유에 대한 소고 연 제 혁* I. II. III. IV. 머리말 사생활의 비밀과 자유의 의의 및 법적 성격 사생활의 비밀과 자유의 내용 맺음말 I. 머리말 사람은 누구나 타인에게 알리고 싶지 않은 나만의 영역(Eigenraum) 을 혼자 소중히 간직하 기를 바랄 뿐만 아니라, 자기 스스로의 뜻에 따라 삶을 영위해 나가면서

More information

20, 41..,..,.,.,....,.,, (relevant).,.,..??.,

20, 41..,..,.,.,....,.,, (relevant).,.,..??., , 41 (2007 12 ) * 1) *** ***,. IMF..,,,.,,,,.. I.. 1999 (,.),,. 2010 *. ** *** 19 20, 41..,..,.,.,....,.,, (relevant).,.,..??., 21.....,. II. 1967 G. G. Muller International Accounting. 1960. 1970... 1966,,,.

More information

슬라이드 제목 없음

슬라이드 제목 없음 (JTC1/SC6) sjkoh@knu.ac.kr JTC1 JTC1/SC6/WG7 ECTP/RMCP/MMC (JTC1/SC6) 2/48 JTC1 ISO/IEC JTC1 Joint Technical Committee 1 ( ) ISO/TC 97 ( ) IEC/TC 83 ( ) Information Technology (IT) http://www.jtc1.org

More information


<332EC0E5B3B2B0E62E687770> 한국패션디자인학회지 제12권 4호 Journal of the Korean Society of Fashion Design Vol. 12 No. 4 (2012) pp.29-43 모바일 패션도구로서 어플리케이션의 활용 실태 장 남 경 한세대학교 디자인학부 섬유패션디자인전공 조교수 요 약 본 연구는 스마트폰의 패션관련 어플리케이션의 현황을 조사하고 유형과 특징을 분석하여,

More information


06_À̼º»ó_0929 150 151 alternative investment 1) 2) 152 NPE platform invention capital 3) 153 sale and license back 4) 154 5) 6) 7) 155 social welfare 8) 156 GDP 9) 10) 157 Patent Box Griffith EUROSTAT 11) OTC M&A 12)

More information


05_±è½Ã¿Ł¿Ü_1130 132 133 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 134 135 6) 7) 8) 136 9) 10) 11) 12) 137 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 138 19) 20) 21) 139 22) 23) 140 24) 141 25) 142 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 143 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 144

More information

2012 경제발전경험모듈화사업: 한국의 경제발전에 기여한 국가표준체계 구축 2013 2012 경제발전경험모듈화사업: 한국의 경제발전에 기여한 국가표준체계 구축 2012 경제발전경험모듈화사업: 한국의 경제발전에 기여한 국가표준체계 구축 National Standards Infrastructure Underpinning the Economic Growth of

More information


50-5대지05장후은.indd 대한지리학회지 제50권 제5호 2015(515~526)? 인문사회계열의 산학협력과 지역발전: 일본 사례를 중심으로 장후은* 이종호** 허선영*** University-Industry Collaboration of Humanities and Social Sciences Majors and Regional Development: The Case of Japan

More information


①국문지리학회지-주성재-OK Development of the Korean Film Industry and Its Spatial Characteristics: Gangnam Region of Seoul as A New Cluster in A New Renaissance?* Sungjae Choo** : Abstract This study aims to explain the emergence

More information

,,,,,,, ,, 2 3,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, (2001) 2

,,,,,,, ,, 2 3,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, (2001) 2 2004- - : 2004 5 11 :?,,,,,? Sen (human capability) 1?,, I 1 2 1 Sen A Why health equity? Health Econ 2002:11;659-666 2 1991 p 17 1 ,,,,,,, 20 1 2,, 2 3,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 3 3 1 (2001) 2 1),, 2), 2),, 3),,,

More information


<B1E2C8B9BEC828BFCFBCBAC1F7C0FC29322E687770> 맛있는 한국으로의 초대 - 중화권 음식에서 한국 음식의 관광 상품화 모색하기 - 소속학교 : 한국외국어대학교 지도교수 : 오승렬 교수님 ( 중국어과) 팀 이 름 : 飮 食 男 女 ( 음식남녀) 팀 원 : 이승덕 ( 중국어과 4) 정진우 ( 중국어과 4) 조정훈 ( 중국어과 4) 이민정 ( 중국어과 3) 탐방목적 1. 한국 음식이 가지고 있는 장점과 경제적 가치에도

More information


歯kjmh2004v13n1.PDF 13 1 ( 24 ) 2004 6 Korean J Med Hist 13 20 36 June 2004 ISSN 1225 505X * 1 1886 ( ) 1) 1905 * 1) 20 2) 1910 1926 1910 1926 1930 40 2 1899 1907 3) 4) 1908 1909 ( ) ( ) ( 2) 1995 1998 3) 1997 p 376 4) 1956

More information


Æ÷Àå½Ã¼³94š Cho, Mun Jin (E-mail: mjcho@ex.co.kr) ABSTRACT PURPOSES : The performance of tack coat, commonly used for layer interface bonding, is affected by application rate and curing time. In this study, bonding

More information


07_Àü¼ºÅÂ_0922 176 177 1) 178 2) 3) 179 4) 180 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 181 11) 12) 182 13) 14) 15) 183 16) 184 185 186 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 187 22) 23) 24) 25) 188 26) 27) 189 28) 29) 30)31) 32) 190 33) 34) 35) 36) 191 37)

More information

학습영역의 Taxonomy에 기초한 CD-ROM Title의 효과분석

학습영역의 Taxonomy에 기초한 CD-ROM Title의 효과분석 ,, Even the short history of the Web system, the techniques related to the Web system have b een developed rapidly. Yet, the quality of the Webbased application software has not improved. For this reason,

More information


untitled SAS Korea / Professional Service Division 2 3 Corporate Performance Management Definition ý... is a system that provides organizations with a method of measuring and aligning the organization strategy

More information

음주측정을 위한 긴급강제채혈의 절차와 법리, A Study on the Urgent Compulsory Blood

음주측정을 위한 긴급강제채혈의 절차와 법리, A Study on the Urgent Compulsory Blood 음주측정을 위한 긴급강제채혈의 절차와 법리 A Study on the Urgent Compulsory Blood Collecting for Investigation of Driving while Intoxicated 양 동 철 * (Yang, Dong-Chul) < 차 례 > Ⅰ. 서론 Ⅱ. 체내신체검사와 긴급압수ㆍ수색ㆍ검증의 허용범위 Ⅲ. 긴급강제채혈의 허용범위와

More information

204 205

204 205 -Road Traffic Crime and Emergency Evacuation - 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 Abstract Road Traffic Crime

More information

±èÇö¿í Ãâ·Â

±èÇö¿í Ãâ·Â Smartphone Technical Trends and Security Technologies The smartphone market is increasing very rapidly due to the customer needs and industry trends with wireless carriers, device manufacturers, OS venders,

More information


본문01 Ⅱ 논술 지도의 방법과 실제 2. 읽기에서 논술까지 의 개발 배경 읽기에서 논술까지 자료집 개발의 본래 목적은 초 중 고교 학교 평가에서 서술형 평가 비중이 2005 학년도 30%, 2006학년도 40%, 2007학년도 50%로 확대 되고, 2008학년도부터 대학 입시에서 논술 비중이 커지면서 논술 교육은 학교가 책임진다. 는 풍토 조성으로 공교육의 신뢰성과

More information


04서종철fig.6(121~131)ok Development of Mobile Applications Applying Digital Storytelling About Ecotourism Resources Seo, Jongcheol* Lee, Seungju**,,,. (mobile AIR)., 3D.,,.,.,,, Abstract : In line with fast settling trend of

More information


<B3EDB9AEC1FD5F3235C1FD2E687770> 오용록의 작품세계 윤 혜 진 1) * 이 논문은 생전( 生 前 )에 학자로 주로 활동하였던 오용록(1955~2012)이 작곡한 작품들을 살펴보고 그의 작품세계를 파악하고자 하는 것이다. 한국음악이론이 원 래 작곡과 이론을 포함하였던 초기 작곡이론전공의 형태를 염두에 둔다면 그의 연 구에서 기존연구의 방법론을 넘어서 창의적인 분석 개념과 체계를 적용하려는

More information


장양수 한국문학논총 제70집(2015. 8) 333~360쪽 공선옥 소설 속 장소 의 의미 - 명랑한 밤길, 영란, 꽃같은 시절 을 중심으로 * 1)이 희 원 ** 1. 들어가며 - 장소의 인간 차 2. 주거지와 소유지 사이의 집/사람 3. 취약함의 나눔으로서의 장소 증여 례 4. 장소 소속감과 미의식의 가능성 5.

More information

Page 2 of 5 아니다 means to not be, and is therefore the opposite of 이다. While English simply turns words like to be or to exist negative by adding not,

Page 2 of 5 아니다 means to not be, and is therefore the opposite of 이다. While English simply turns words like to be or to exist negative by adding not, Page 1 of 5 Learn Korean Ep. 4: To be and To exist Of course to be and to exist are different verbs, but they re often confused by beginning students when learning Korean. In English we sometimes use the

More information


DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 6, December, 30, 2016:237~251 Received: 2016/11/20, Accepted: 2016/12/24 Revised: 2016/12/21, Published: 2016/12/30 [ABSTRACT] Recently, there is an increasing

More information

SNS 명예훼손의 형사책임

SNS 명예훼손의 형사책임 SNS 명예훼손의 형사책임 Criminal Liability for Defamation on the SNS 지 영 환 * (Ji, Young-Hwan) < 차 례 > Ⅰ. 서론 Ⅱ. SNS상 명예훼손 Ⅲ. SNS 명예훼손의 형사책임 Ⅳ. SNS 명예훼손행위의 정책적 예방과 입법적 검토 Ⅴ. 결론 주제어: 인터넷, SNS, 명예훼손, 형법, 정보통신망 이용촉진

More information

step 1-1

step 1-1 Written by Dr. In Ku Kim-Marshall STEP BY STEP Korean 1 through 15 Action Verbs Table of Contents Unit 1 The Korean Alphabet, hangeul Unit 2 Korean Sentences with 15 Action Verbs Introduction Review Exercises

More information

레이아웃 1

레이아웃 1 Annual 2013 vol.15 th HOW ENGINEERING ANNIVERSARY Annual 하우인 2013 vol.15 하우엔지니어링과 자매사 우인엔지니어링은 경남, 부산지역 종합엔지니어링 업계의 선두주자로서 건설기술의 미래지평을 열어가고 있습니다. 행복한 삶의 공간 창출, 안전하고 튼튼한 도시기반시설의 건설을 위해 우수한 인력과 기술력을 바탕으로

More information


DBPIA-NURIMEDIA 방송통신연구 2011년 봄호 연구논문 64 98 PD수첩 관련 판례에서 보이는 사법부의 사실성에 대한 인식의 차이 연구* 1)2) 이승선 충남대학교 언론정보학과 부교수** Contents 1. 문제제기와 연구문제 2. 공적인물에 대한 명예훼손 보도의 면책 법리 3. 분석결과의 논의 4. 마무리 본 이른바 PD수첩 광우병 편 에 대해 다양한 법적 대응이 이뤄졌다.

More information


<C7C1B7A3C2F7C0CCC1EE20B4BABAF1C1EEB4CFBDBA20B7B1C4AA20BBE7B7CA5FBCADB9CEB1B35F28C3D6C1BE292E687770> Through proactively respond Franchise New business launching instance : Focus on the BEERBARKET s successful story of INTO FRANCHISE SYSTEMS, INC. 선행적 대응을 통한 프랜차이즈 뉴비즈니스 런칭 사례 : 인토외식산업의 맥주바켓 성공사례 MAXCESS

More information

인디쓔피-IOM핸돜벁닄큐1014pdf, page 59 @ Preflight ( IOM핸돜벁닄큐__1014 )

인디쓔피-IOM핸돜벁닄큐1014pdf, page 59 @ Preflight ( IOM핸돜벁닄큐__1014 ) Publisher: International Organization for Migration 17, route des Morillons 1211 Geneva 19 Switzerland Tel: +41.22.717 91 11 Fax: +41.22.798 61 50 E-mail: hq@iom.int Internet: http://www.iom.int ISBN 978

More information


<31B1E8C0B1C8F128C6ED2E687770> 한국패션디자인학회지 제9권1호 The Korean Society of Fashion Design Vol. 9 No. 1 (2009) pp.1~17 모듈과 웨어넷을 이용한 유비쿼터스 패셔너블 컴퓨터 디자인 연구 - 탈ㆍ부착을 이용한 모듈러 시스템을 중심으로 - A Study on Ubiquitous Fashionable Computer Design Using

More information


<3135C8A3B3EDB9AE303333312DBCF6C1A42E687770> 기업파티 공간연출 분석에 관한 연구 -국내 기업파티 사례 중심으로- A Study on the Analysis of Space Display for Company Party -Focusing on the parties of domestic companies- 백승범 / 100-스타일 대표 Paik Seung beom / 100-style President 김주연

More information


UPMLOPEKAUWE.hwp 시청공간을 넘어 새롭게 소통하기 - 인터넷 기반의 를 중심으로 - New Communication beyond Viewing Space - Focused on Social Television based on Internet - 주저자 오종서 Oh, Jongsir 동서대학교 방송영상전공 조교수 Assistant Professor of Dongseo University

More information


<B1A4B0EDC8ABBAB8C7D0BAB8392D345F33C2F75F313032362E687770> 광고에 나타난 가족가치관의 변화 : 97년부터 26년까지의 텔레비전 광고 내용분석* 2) 정기현 한신대학교 광고홍보학과 교수 가족주의적 가치관을 사회통합의 핵심 중의 핵심으로 올려놓았던 전통이 현대사회에서 아직 영향력을 미치는 점을 감안할 때, 한국에서의 가족변동은 사회전반의 변동으로 직결된다고 해도 크게 틀리지 않을 것이다. 97년부터 26년까지 텔레비전에서

More information



More information


12Á¶±ÔÈŁ Journal of Fashion Business Vol. 5, No. 4. pp.158~175(2001) A Study on the Apparel Industry and the Clothing Culture of North Korea + Kyu Hwa Cho Prof., Dept. of Clothing & Textiles, Ewha Womans University

More information


<B0A8BBE7B3EDC1FD2032303131B3E23137C8A320C6EDC1FD2E687770> 감사논집 17호 2011년 8월 목 차 당선논문(우수) 감사법의 행정법학적 접근을 위한 시론 - 법제 현황 문제상황 및 개선방향을 중심으로 - 방동희 / 7 당선논문(입선) 과학기술 연구개발비 회계검사에 대한 행정법적 고찰 홍동희 / 29 국방획득사업의 투명성 향상을 위한 사전예방감사 제도에 관한 고찰 성문철 / 55 내부기고 문화복지사업의 추진실태 분석 -

More information

1. KT 올레스퀘어 미디어파사드 콘텐츠 개발.hwp

1. KT 올레스퀘어 미디어파사드 콘텐츠 개발.hwp Journal of Next-generation Convergence Information Services Technology Vol.4, No.1, June (2015), pp. 1-8 차세대컨버전스정보서비스기술논문지 KT 올레스퀘어 미디어파사드 콘텐츠 개발 Media Fasade Contents Development of KT Olleh Square 김동조

More information


03-ÀÌÁ¦Çö 25 3 (2004 9 ) J Korean Oriental Med 2004;25(3):20-31 1), 2), 3) 1) 2) 3) Grope for a Summary Program about Intellectual Property Protection of Traditional Knowledge (TK)etc. Discussed in WIPO Hwan-Soo

More information


<31372DB9CCB7A1C1F6C7E22E687770> 미래지향 고령친화 주거디자인을 위한 예비노인층의 라이프스타일 특성 Characteristics of Lifestyle of the Pre-Elderly for Future Elderly-friendly Housing Design 류 혜 지 청운대학교 인테리어디자인학과 교수 Ryu hye-ji Dept. of Interior Design, Chungwoon University

More information

6 영상기술연구 실감하지 못했을지도 모른다. 하지만 그 이외의 지역에서 3D 영화를 관람하기란 그리 쉬운 일이 아니다. 영화 <아바타> 이후, 티켓 파워에 민감한 국내 대형 극장 체인들이 2D 상영관을 3D 상영관으로 점차적으로 교체하는 추세이긴 하지만, 아직까지는 관

6 영상기술연구 실감하지 못했을지도 모른다. 하지만 그 이외의 지역에서 3D 영화를 관람하기란 그리 쉬운 일이 아니다. 영화 <아바타> 이후, 티켓 파워에 민감한 국내 대형 극장 체인들이 2D 상영관을 3D 상영관으로 점차적으로 교체하는 추세이긴 하지만, 아직까지는 관 아바타를 중심으로 본 3D 영화산업의 기술동향과 발전방향에 관한 연구 5 연구논문 연구논문 아바타를 중심으로 본 3D 영화산업의 기술동향과 발전방향에 관한 연구 진 승 현 동명대학교 미디어영상전공 교수 I. 서론 얼마 전 제 15회 신지식인 인증 및 시상식에서 대한민국의 대표 신지식인 대상을 영화 의 주경중 감독이 수상했다. 대한민국 3D 영화 제작의

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI: * Review of Research

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI:   * Review of Research Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp.79-102 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.2.201706.79 * Review of Research Trends on Curriculum for Students with Severe and multiple

More information