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1 적정기술 2016 년 5 월 한밭대학교 화학생명공학과 / 적정기술연구소 홍성욱

2 적정기술 (Appropriate Technology)

3 E. F. Schumacher

4 중간기술이란? 중간기술이란환경파괴와인간소외를초래하고있는현대산업문명을이끄는거대생산기술에대비되는대중에의한생산기술입니다. 고액의투자가필요하지않고, 에너지사용이적으며, 누구나쉽게배워서쓸수있고, 희소재료를낭비하지않고, 현지에서나는원재료를쓰고, 소규모의사람들이모여서제품생산이가능한기술입니다.

5 적정 ( 중간 ) 기술의특징 비용이적게든다. 가능하면현지에서나는재료를사용한다. 일자리를창출하고, 현지의기술과노동력을활용한다. 작은규모의농부들에의해서도사용가능할정도로소규모이다. 사람들의협동작업을이끌어내며, 지역사회의발전에공헌한다. 분산된재생가능한에너지자원을활용한다. 기술을사용하는사람들이해당기술을이해할수있다. 변화하는환경에맞추어적응할수있는유연성이있다.

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8 designforamerica.com/

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10 한국일보, 2015 년 11 월 30 일자 19 면

11 인간중심디자인 (Human Centered Design) ( 인간 ) 적정성 디자인사고 가치제안캔버스 구현가능성 ( 기술 ) 주가드 지속가능성 ( 경영 ) IDEO, HCD toolkit

12 Embrace 목표 : 개도국에서사용가능한저가형 infant warmer 개발 전기를사용하는전형적인형태의인큐베이터개발 네팔을방문해서도시병원에서테스트 조산아 80% 는집에서출생한다는사실발견 이동가능한침낭형태의인큐베이터개발 상전환이되는왁스형태의보온물질사용 ( 전기사용 ) 끓는물사용해서데울수있도록재설계, 온도를나타내는대신 OK 사인이표시됨 주가드이노베이션, 118page

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14 물과위생 (Water and Sanitation) 10 억명이넘는사람들이안전한식수에접근할수없고, 20 억명에가까운사람들이기본위생시설없이살고있다. (AJTMH) 아이들 5 명중 1 명 ( 약 4 억명 ) 이안전한식수에접근할수없다. ( Unicef) 매일 3,900 명의어린이가식수와기본위생이없어서죽어간다. (Unicef) 수인성질병으로인해매년 2 백만명의사람들이목숨을잃는것으로추정된다. (AJTMH)

15 Q Drum Designers: P. J. and J. P. S. Hendrikse Manufacturer: Kaymac Rotomoulders and Pioneer Plastics South Africa, 1993 In use in: Kenya, Namibia, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Cote d Ivoire, Nigeria, Ghana, etc. Millions around the world, especially in rural Africa, live kilometers from a reliable source of clean water, leaving them vulnerable to cholera, dysentery, and other water-borne diseases. Water in adequate quantities is too heavy to carry. The Q Drum is a durable container designed to roll easily, and can transport seventy-five liters of clean and potable water. Rolling the water in a cylindrical container, rather than lifting and carrying it, eases the burden of bringing water to those who need it.

16 SODIS (Solar Water Disinfection)

17 Structure Structure Wooden Lid Diffusion Plate Concrete Exterior Fine Gravel Tubing Sand Bed Large Gravel

18 Efficiency for Hardness Removal Hardness Source conc n : CaSO4(ppm) Source water Sand(24cm) Activated Carbon Activated Carbon + Sand Sand(86 cm) Removal(%) 26.2% 27.0% 57.4% 92.9% Removal(%) 44.6% 40.1% 65.2% 87.5% Removal(%) 39.0% 44.9% 63.2% 63.0%

19 탄자니아 AQUA 프로젝트

20 Ceramic Water Filter, Cambodia Designers: Dr. Fernando Mazariegos, Ron Rivera (Potters for Peace), and International Development Enterprises (IDE) Cambodia Manufacturer: Local private factory set up by IDE Cambodia, 2006 In use in: Cambodia, Guatemala, Ecuador, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Cuba, etc. Originally designed by Dr. Fernando Mazareigos, a Guatemalan chemist, the Ceramic Water Filter combines the filtration capability of ceramic material with the anti-bacteriological qualities of colloidal silver. This filter has basic, yet impressive, impact on the lives of the rural poor, dramatically decreasing diarrhea, days of school or work missed due to illness, and medical expenses. A sociologist and potter, Ron Rivera of Potters for Peace redesigned the filter to standardize mass production in sixteen small production facilities in fourteen different countries. It is estimated that over 500,000 people have used the filter.

21 Ceramic Water Filter 세라믹필터와활성탄소, 또는 Colloidal 은을이용해서살균

22 LifeStraw Designer: Torben Vestergaard Frandsen Manufacturer: Vestergaard Frandsen S.A. In use in: Ghana, Nigeria, Pakistan, Uganda About half of the world s poor suffer from waterborne diseases, and more than 6,000 people, mainly children, die each day by consuming unsafe drinking water. LifeStraw, a personal mobile water-purification tool is designed to turn any surface water into drinking water. It has proven to be effective against waterborne diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, and diarrhea, and removes particles as small as fifteen microns.

23 Filtration Process

24 SONO Water Filter Designer: Abul Hussam, Center for Clean Water and Sustainable Technologies, George Mason University, and Abul K. M. Munir, Manob Sakti Unnayan Kendro. Materials: Bricks, sand, cement, ballast, reinforcement bars, timber, roofing materials. Arsenic, a deadly poison abundant in Bangladesh s soil and rock, has leached up through the water table into wells across the country, exposing an estimated seventy-five to ninety-five million people, including thirty-five million children. Major portions of northern India, where five hundred million people live, may also be affected by arsenic and other groundwater contaminants. The World Health Organization has called it the largest mass poisoning of a population in history, bigger than the accidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl. Abul Hussam, a chemistry professor from George Mason University, designed SONO water filter, an inexpensive method to filter drinking water, developing the active material, a composite iron matrix (CIM) absorbant. The low-cost, two-bucket system strains contaminated groundwater through sand, the CIM, charcoal, and brick chips to remove toxins, producing potable water. More than 225,000 SONO water filters, at a cost of US$35, have been distributed in Bangladesh, Nepal, and India. Production started in 1999 in Bangladesh by the nonprofit Manob Sakti Unnayan Kendro (MSUK), which manufactures and distributes SONO in Bangladesh and India; the NGO Filter for Families produces them in Nepal. Quality control and technical details are handled by SONO Technology and Research in Bangladesh. SONO and MSUK buy back and recycle spent composite iron matrix.

25 Water Cone Solar Ball

26 Aqua star plus

27 Life Saver

28 Warka Water

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30 bal/view/vod/index.html KBS 글로벌정보쇼세계인, 2015 년 5 월 9 일 33:00