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1 적정기술 (Appropriate Technology) 2014 년 5 월 한밭대학교화학생명공학과 적정기술연구소 홍성욱

2 적정기술포럼 / 아카데미개최

3 적정기술관련서적출간

4 적정기술논문집발간 (2009)

5 GGGI SMEs NPIC Provides local sources and research assistance (Cambodia Institute of Technology) ASEIC (SMBA/SBC) Tech. Experts Recipient Better for health, Better for local market Provides related technical support and installation - Prof. Hong from Appropriate Technology Research -Institute, Hanbat National University - Prof. Kim from Cambodian Institute of Technology 적정기술관련프로젝트수행

6 한밭글로벌챌린저 (2012,2013) cafe.naver.com/atinfocenter

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8 제 2 회청소년적정기술캠프

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11 cafe.naver.com/atinfocenter

12 적정기술 (Appropriate Technology)

13 불편한진실 전세계인구의 90% 인 58 억명이기본적인생필품을살돈이없다. 전세계인구의절반인 28 억명이하루 1 달러미만으로생활한다. 사하라사막이남지역에서는인구의절반인 3 억 5 천명이하루 1 달러미만으로생활한다. 아이들 5 명중 1 명 ( 약 4 억명 ) 이안전한식수에접근할수없다. 매일 3,900 명의어린이가식수와기본위생이없어서죽어간다. 매년 5 살미만의어린이 6 백만명이기아로사망한다. 아프리카인 10 명중 9 명이전기를공급받지못한다. 나무에너지소비는심각한산림황폐화와에너지부족을야기한다. 말라리아로인한사망중약 90% 가사하라이남지역에서발생한다. - 소외된 90% 를위한디자인, 에딧더월드 -

14 10:90 의법칙 세계디자이너의 95% 는오직상위 10% 의부자소비자들을위한상품과서비스를디자인하는데온힘을기울인다. 디자인혁명 이라불릴만한일이일어나지않는다면나머지 90% 를위한디자인이란것은있을수없다. Paul Polak, 소외된 90% 를위한디자인

15 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 1. 극단적인빈곤과기아를절반으로줄인다. 2. 보편적인초등교육을실시한다. 3. 여성의권한을강화하고남녀평등을촉진한다. 4. 5세이하사망률을 2/3으로줄인다. 5. 산모사망률을 ¾로줄인다. 6. HIV/AIDS, 말라리아등각종질병의확신을억제한다. 7. 지속가능한환경을확보한다. 8. 개발을위한전지구적파트너쉽을만든다.

16 Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said today that sustainable development will remain his top priority during his second term as the head of the United Nations, saying that key challenges include achieving the global poverty reduction goals and strengthening disaster risk reduction to avert crises caused by climate change. - UN News Centre, August 12,

17 유네스코에서 2010 년에발간한최초의공학보고서 기획부터발간까지 5 년이소요되었으며 120 명의기고로이루어짐

18 미래공학의 3 대과제 지속가능발전 (Sustainable Development) 빈곤감소 (Poverty Reduction) 기후변화완화및적응 (Climate Change Mitigation & Adaptation)

19 E. F. Schumacher

20 적정기술이란? 적정기술이란환경파괴와인간소외를초래하고있는현대산업문명을이끄는거대생산기술에대비되는대중에의한생산기술입니다. 고액의투자가필요하지않고, 에너지사용이적으며, 누구나쉽게배워서쓸수있고, 희소재료를낭비하지않고, 현지에서나는원재료를쓰고, 소규모의사람들이모여서제품생산이가능한기술입니다.

21 적정기술의특징 비용이적게든다. 가능하면현지에서나는재료를사용한다. 일자리를창출하고, 현지의기술과노동력을활용한다. 작은규모의농부들에의해서도사용가능할정도로소규모이다. 사람들의협동작업을이끌어내며, 지역사회의발전에공헌한다. 분산된재생가능한에너지자원을활용한다. 기술을사용하는사람들이해당기술을이해할수있다. 변화하는환경에맞추어적응할수있는유연성이있다.

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23 물과위생 (Water and Sanitation) 10 억명이넘는사람들이안전한식수에접근할수없고, 20 만명에가까운사람들이기본위생시설없이살고있다. (AJTMH) 아이들 5 명중 1 명 ( 약 4 억명 ) 이안전한식수에접근할수없다. ( Unicef) 매일 3,900 명의어린이가식수와기본위생이없어서죽어간다. (Unicef) 수인성질병으로인해매년 2 백만명의사람들이목숨을잃는것으로추정된다. (AJTMH)

24 Q Drum Designers: P. J. and J. P. S. Hendrikse Manufacturer: Kaymac Rotomoulders and Pioneer Plastics South Africa, 1993 In use in: Kenya, Namibia, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Cote d Ivoire, Nigeria, Ghana, etc. Millions around the world, especially in rural Africa, live kilometers from a reliable source of clean water, leaving them vulnerable to cholera, dysentery, and other water-borne diseases. Water in adequate quantities is too heavy to carry. The Q Drum is a durable container designed to roll easily, and can transport seventy-five liters of clean and potable water. Rolling the water in a cylindrical container, rather than lifting and carrying it, eases the burden of bringing water to those who need it.

25 SODIS (Solar Water Disinfection)

26 Bio Sand Filtration made by concrete Concrete BSF The Mold Inside 독고석교수님몽골적정기술워크숍발표자료

27 Structure Structure Wooden Lid Diffusion Plate Concrete Exterior Fine Gravel Tubing Sand Bed Large Gravel

28 Mechanism of Schmutzedecke Source : Barrett et al.(1991) Schematic cross section of a slow sand filter The best way to make biolayer (Schmutzedecke) is just feed the BSF by river water twice a day. 2 weeks later biolayer will form by it self.

29 Schmutzedecke Biofilm (=Biolayer) Development Well developed biofilm layer could remove Faecal coliforms %; Schistosoma 100%; Enteric Viruses 99.99% Initial Colonizers Biofilm Development Well Developed Biofilm Community

30 Efficiency for Hardness Removal Hardness Source conc n : CaSO4(ppm) Source water Sand(24cm) Activated Carbon Activated Carbon + Sand Sand(86 cm) Removal(%) 26.2% 27.0% 57.4% 92.9% Removal(%) 44.6% 40.1% 65.2% 87.5% Removal(%) 39.0% 44.9% 63.2% 63.0%

31 탄자니아 AQUA 프로젝트

32 Ceramic Water Filter, Cambodia Designers: Dr. Fernando Mazariegos, Ron Rivera (Potters for Peace), and International Development Enterprises (IDE) Cambodia Manufacturer: Local private factory set up by IDE Cambodia, 2006 In use in: Cambodia, Guatemala, Ecuador, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Cuba, etc. Originally designed by Dr. Fernando Mazareigos, a Guatemalan chemist, the Ceramic Water Filter combines the filtration capability of ceramic material with the anti-bacteriological qualities of colloidal silver. This filter has basic, yet impressive, impact on the lives of the rural poor, dramatically decreasing diarrhea, days of school or work missed due to illness, and medical expenses. A sociologist and potter, Ron Rivera of Potters for Peace redesigned the filter to standardize mass production in sixteen small production facilities in fourteen different countries. It is estimated that over 500,000 people have used the filter.

33 Ceramic Water Filter 세라믹필터와활성탄소, 또는 Colloidal 은을이용해서살균

34 SONO Water Filter Designer: Abul Hussam, Center for Clean Water and Sustainable Technologies, George Mason University, and Abul K. M. Munir, Manob Sakti Unnayan Kendro. Materials: Bricks, sand, cement, ballast, reinforcement bars, timber, roofing materials. Arsenic, a deadly poison abundant in Bangladesh s soil and rock, has leached up through the water table into wells across the country, exposing an estimated seventy-five to ninety-five million people, including thirty-five million children. Major portions of northern India, where five hundred million people live, may also be affected by arsenic and other groundwater contaminants. The World Health Organization has called it the largest mass poisoning of a population in history, bigger than the accidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl. Abul Hussam, a chemistry professor from George Mason University, designed SONO water filter, an inexpensive method to filter drinking water, developing the active material, a composite iron matrix (CIM) absorbant. The low-cost, two-bucket system strains contaminated groundwater through sand, the CIM, charcoal, and brick chips to remove toxins, producing potable water. More than 225,000 SONO water filters, at a cost of US$35, have been distributed in Bangladesh, Nepal, and India. Production started in 1999 in Bangladesh by the nonprofit Manob Sakti Unnayan Kendro (MSUK), which manufactures and distributes SONO in Bangladesh and India; the NGO Filter for Families produces them in Nepal. Quality control and technical details are handled by SONO Technology and Research in Bangladesh. SONO and MSUK buy back and recycle spent composite iron matrix.

35 LifeStraw Designer: Torben Vestergaard Frandsen Manufacturer: Vestergaard Frandsen S.A. In use in: Ghana, Nigeria, Pakistan, Uganda About half of the world s poor suffer from waterborne diseases, and more than 6,000 people, mainly children, die each day by consuming unsafe drinking water. LifeStraw, a personal mobile water-purification tool is designed to turn any surface water into drinking water. It has proven to be effective against waterborne diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, and diarrhea, and removes particles as small as fifteen microns.

36 Filtration Process

37 Water Cone

38 Aqua star plus

39 Life Saver

40 감사합니다. Blog: Cafe: cafe.naver.com/atinfocenter Facebook: