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1 w y wz, 23«4y, 2009 J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng. [ ] Vol. 23, No. 4, 2009 Ÿ»» x»» w A Study on the Problem of Tester for the Field Inspection of the Photoelectric Smoke Detector ½ Á x Á x*á **Á w Shi-Kuk Kim Hyun-Dai Yuk Seung-Hyun Yang* Seung-Wook Jee** Chun-Ha Lee y w w, *( ) lj, ** û w»œw ( / k) Ÿ»» x»» w x Ÿ»» y w A Type(w), B Type( p g ), C Type(ky yw )»» x wš, x»» wš y x y x,»» y x w. x x»» w x» t,» y w, x Ÿ»» x»» ƒ y w. ABSTRACT This paper was studied on the problem of field inspection tester of the photoelectric type smoke detector. The experiment objects were chosen 3 type's testers such as A type (incense), B type (dimethylpolysiloxane), C type (mixtures of hydrocarbon) which were used for performance checking of the photoelectric type smoke detector for the fire protection. The experimental methods were used reliability verification experiment, performance verification experiment and performance change of fire detector by smoke component. It was confirmed through the experiment that the testers had problems of smoke concentration condition and wind velocity condition and smoke component. Consequently, this paper verified that the field inspection testers of the photoelectric type smoke detector had problems in the inspection of fire protection. Key words : Field inspection, Photoelectric smoke detector, Reliability verification, Performance verification, Smoke component 1. y j Á Á 3ƒ d, y Safety Korea xw» w ƒ w w. y y vw ƒ w e ƒ» w š. y k y 1)» y y w y Á»Á w w ww. Ÿ»» y» w x ù spx» wì ƒ e y Á w ww. Ÿ»» y vw y w,»»»vù w w. y y»» {w w yw w, y», w w y w vwƒ š. 137

2 김시국 육현대 양승현 지승욱 이춘하 138 리기술 등의 복합적인 문제점에 의해 나타난 결과이지 만, 지금까지 소방검사에 대한 기존 연구들은 주로 행 정위주의 소방점검 제도상의 문제점을 연구하였으며, 점검기기에 대한 연구는 많이 이루어지지 않았다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 소방점검 시 광전식연기감지 기의 성능확인을 위해 사용되는 A Type(향), B Type (디메틸실리콘오일), C Type(탄화수소혼합물)의 점검 기기들을 실험대상으로 선정하고 신뢰성확인실험 및 성능확인실험, 연기시료에 따른 감지기성능변화 실험 을 실시하여 현장점검기기들의 문제점을 분석하고 향 후 현장점검기기의 개선을 위한 기초자료로 활용하고 자 한다. 2) 실험대상 실 험 Figure 1과 같이 소방점검 시 광전식연기감지기의 성 능확인을 위해 사용되는 현장점검기기인 A Type(향), B Type(디메틸실리콘오일), C Type(탄화수소혼합물)의 3가지 방식의 점검기기를 실험대상으로 선정하였다. Figure 1의 (a)는 향을 연기시료로 사용하는 A Type 현장점검기기의 구성도를 나타낸 것으로 감지기의 감 도실험을 수행하는 점검부와 점검부를 조절하는 컨트 롤러로 구성되어 있다. 전압조정단자를 조절하여 전압 을 높이면 인두기(Soldering iron)가 가열되고 향(香)이 훈소되어 연기가 발생한다. Figure 1의 (b)는 디메틸실리콘오일을 연기시료로 사 용하는 B Type 현장점검기기의 구성도를 나타낸 것으 로 감지기의 감도실험을 수행하는 점검부와 컨트롤러 로 구성되어 있다. 모세관현상에 의해 디메틸실리콘오 일이 면심지에 공급된 상태에서 가열심지(Heating wick) 에 전원이 인가되면 코일이 가열되면서 오일이 연소되 어 연기를 발생시킨다. 이 점검기기는 충전방식으로 사 용이 편리하고 모든 동작은 타임릴레이에 의해 30초 후 자동 정지된다. Figure 1의 (c)는 탄화수소혼합물을 연기시료로 사용 하는 C Type 현장점검기기의 구성도를 나타낸 것으로 연기시료의 성분은 프로판 48%, 부탄 29%, 이소부탄 23% 등의 성분으로 구성되어있으며, 별도의 전원이 필 Experiment object. 요 없고 에어로졸 방식으로 시료를 약 2~3초 정도 분 사하여 감도실험을 실시한다. 건물에 설치되어 10년 이상 사용된 광전식연기감지기 2.2 실험방법 200개를 실험시료로 사용하여 감지기 형식승인 시 현장점검기기 신뢰성확인실험 시험장비를 이용한 감도실험의 작동율과 현장점검기기 현장점검용 기기의 신뢰성확인실험을 위하여 현재 를 이용한 감도실험의 작동율을 비교 분석하였다. Figure 1. 한국화재소방학회 논문지 제 권 제 호, 23 4 년, 2009

3 Ÿ»» x»» w 139 Figure 2. Schematic diagram of sensitivity testing equipment. (1) x x w x 3) Figure 2 w»» x Ÿ»» x ùkü» x»» 19 (Ÿ» x) w Ÿ 15%/m» sww t 20~40cm/ s» n w 30 ü Ÿ»»ƒ w y w. (2) x»» w x Figure 3 x»» w Ÿ»» x ùkü x»» w x w Ÿ»»ƒ 30 ü w y w x»» y x x»» y w x Figure 3. Schematic diagram of sensitivity experiment using tester for the field inspection. Figure 4. Schematic diagram of smoke concentration measurement experiment using the analog type projected beam smoke detector. w. (1) ú Ÿ x» w» d x Figure 4 ú Ÿ x» w» d x ùkü w 8m q Ÿ ewš fp v d 100%/m(» 0%/m) y w z x w. w s œ» x w»» ƒ» yw d ƒ w Ÿkv w ƒ s» m q 5cm š ew z Ÿkv n w q y w fp v 73%/m d š,» 0%/m š w x w. A, B, C Type x»» w» Ÿkv w g» w» 10z d w. (2) Ÿw w» d x Figure 5 Ÿ»» x ü e Ÿw w» d x ùkü Ÿ Ÿ A, B, C Type x»» w» g Ÿw» 10z d w. (3) t d x x»» w t q B Type»» t d w» w Figure 6 J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng., Vol. 23, No. 4, 2009

4 김시국 육현대 양승현 지승욱 이춘하 140 The Number of the Photoelectric Smoke Detector Samples for the Dust Experiment Smoke Samples Normal A type B type C type No. of Samples 5 EA 5 EA 5 EA 5 EA Table 1. Schematic diagram of smoke concentration measurement experiment using the light transmission smoke meter. Figure 5. Figure 7. Figure 6. experiment. Photograph of wind velocity measurement 과 같이 점검기기의 점검부 상부에 감지기를 설치하고 기류가 도달되는 감지기 직하부에 풍속계를 위치시켜 풍속을 측정하였다. B Type 점검기기의 1회당 동작시 간은 연기발생시간 7초, 송풍용 팬 동작시간 23초로서 총 30초로 구성되며, 시작버튼을 누른 후 30초가 경과 된 후 리셋(Reset)되는 특징이 있다. 따라서 시작버튼 을 누른 후 7초 경과시점부터 30초 경과시간까지 2초 간격으로 측정하였으며, 총 10회 측정하여 평균값을 구 하였다 연기시료에 따른 성능변화실험 현재 국내 연기감지기 형식승인시험 시 연기시료로 여과지인 동양호지 No.2를 사용하고 있으나, 현장점검 기기의 경우 현재 향, 디메틸실리콘오일, 탄화수소혼합 한국화재소방학회 논문지 제 권 제 호, 23 4 년, 2009 Photograph of dust tester. 물의 3가지를 연기시료로 사용하고 있다. 따라서 현재 현장점검 시 광전식 연기감지기의 성능확인을 위해 사 용되는 연기시료가 광전식연기감지기에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지 확인하고자 한다. (1) 형식승인 시 시험장비를 이용한 분진실험 Table 1에서 보는 바와 같이 신뢰성 있는 실험을 위 하여 출고되어 사용하지 않은 광전식연기감지기 20개 를 시료로 사용하고, 분진실험을 실시하기 전 광전식 연기감지기 형식승인 시 시험장비를 이용하여 감도실 험을 실시하여 응답특성을 확인한 후, A, B, C Type의 현장점검기기의 연기시료를 광전식연기감지기에 각각 주입하여 상온에서 24시간 경과 후 분진실험을 실시하 였다. 감지기의 형식승인 및 검정기술기준 제 31조 분진시 험에 의거하여 감지기를 전류가 통한 상태에서 내부용 적이 0.09m 이 되는 밀폐된 상자 내에 정상위치로 부 착하고 KS A 0090(시험용 분체 및 시험용 입자)의 5 종 플라이애쉬 60g을 상자 속에 넣고 풍속이 25cm/s 로 압축된 공기 또는 통풍기로 15분간 교반한 후 형식 승인 시 시험장비를 이용하여 감도실험을 하는 경우 감지기의 작동기능에 이상이 생기는지 확인하였다. Figure 7은 형식승인 시 분진시험에 사용하는 분진시 험기의 사진이다. (2) 가혹한 조건의 분진실험 Table 2에서 보는 바와 같이 신뢰성 있는 실험을 위 3

5 Ÿ»» x»» w 141 Table 2. The Number of the Photoelectric Smoke Detector Samples for Dust Experiment of the Harsh Conditions Smoke Samples Normal A type B type C type No. of Samples 5 EA 5 EA 5 EA 5 EA Table 3. Results of Sensitivity Experiment Sensitivity Experiment No. of Samples Operation Non-operation Type Approval 200EA 127EA 73EA A Type Tester 200EA 191EA 09EA B Type Tester 200EA 195EA 05EA C Type Tester 600EA 196EA 04EA Figure 8. Schematic diagram of dust experiment of the harsh conditions. w š w Ÿ»» 20 x wš,» Ÿ»» ü k w» w» x» w ü (0.09m 3 ) x» wš, x x t ƒƒ w ƒyw x w. Figure 8 ƒyw x ùk ü. A, B, C Type x»»» w ƒƒ Ÿ»» x» wš KS A 0090( x x ) 5 v 120g x» š t 50cm/ s œ» 15 w z Ÿ»» ü» k x w w. 3. x š 3.1 x»» y x Table 3 Ÿ»» x ù kü»x x w x ùkû, x»» w x A Type» 200 Figure 9. Results of sensitivity experiment , B Type» , C Type» ùkû. Figure 9 Ÿ»» x v ùkü» x x w x x»» w x 33.5% ƒ ùkù y w. x x»» w x» x x» 33.5% ƒ. 3.2 x»» y x ú Ÿ x» w» d x Figure 10 ú x» w» d x ùkü Ÿ»» x x» 15%/m x š ù, x»»» A Type»» 31%/m, B Type»» 31%/ m, C Type»» 44%/m x J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng., Vol. 23, No. 4, 2009

6 142 ½ Á x Á xá Á w Figure 10. Result of smoke concentration measurement experiment using the analog type projected beam smoke detector. A, B Type»» 2, C Type»» 3» x y w Ÿw w» d x Figure 11 Ÿw w» d x ùkü Ÿ»» x» 15 %/m x š ù, x»»» d w A Type»» 32 %/m, B Type»» 32 %/m, C Type»»» 50 %/m x A, B Type»» 2, C Type»» 3.3» x y w. Figure 11. Result of smoke concentration measurement experiment using the light transmission smoke meter. w y wz, 23«4y, 2009 Figure 12. Result of wind velocity measurement experiment t d x Figure 12»» x»» w t» B Type»» w t d x v ùkü ƒ w z 7 w l t ƒw 30 2 t d w z t 11.8cm/sƒ ùkù,» x x» t 20~40cm/s t ùkù y w. 3.3» y x x x w x Table 4» x x w x ùkü x»» w» n w» x»» A Type» n w» x z x» ùkù, x»» B Type, C Type» n w» x z x ƒƒ 3»» ù kù. B, C Type» z, x 24 z x w wš, Ÿ»», ü Á Ÿ (Adsorption) Á Ÿ Ÿ y g ù,» g» ww Ÿ»»» ƒ.

7 광전식연기감지기 현장점검기기의 문제점에 관한 연구 Results of the Dust Experiment Dust Before After Experiment No.1 5.6s 5.2s No.2 7.8s 8.0s Normal No s 13.0s No s 10.5s No s 17.9s No.1 5.3s 10.5s No.2 9.8s 13.1s A Type Tester No s 14.2s (Incense) No s 17.5s No s 24.5s No.1 6.9s 12.6s No.2 9.2s 20.0s B Type NonNo s operation Tester (DimethylNonpolysiloxane) No s operation NonNo s operation NonNo s operation No s 18.0s C Type Non(Hydrocarbon No s operation Blend) No s 16.0s NonNo s operation 143 Table 4. Rate of Change -0.4s +0.2s +2.5s -0.9s +1.4s +5.2s +3.3s +2.8s -3.3s +3.5s +5.7s +10.8s +5.0s +1.6s 가혹한조건의 분진실험결과 Figure 13은 가혹한 조건의 분진실험결과로써 광전 식연기감지기의 챔버를 실체현미경으로 10배 확대하여 관찰한 것이다. Figure 13의 (a)는 정상시료의 사진을 나타낸 것으로 광전식연기감지기 챔버 내부에 부분적 으로 분진이 살포시 흡착되어 있는 것을 관찰할 수 있 었다. Figure 13의 (b)는 향을 연기시료로 하는 A Type 점검기의 결과로 정상시료와 별다른 차이점을 발견할 수 없었다. Figure 13의 (c)는 디메틸실리콘오일을 연 기시료로 하는 B Type 점검기의 결과로 광전식연기감 지기 챔버 내에 부분적으로 분진이 살포시 흡착되어 있는 정상시료와는 다르게 분진의 흡착정도가 두껍고 오일성분의 시료가 묻은 곳과 묻지 않은 곳의 분진 흡 착정도가 확연히 구별되는 것을 관찰할 수 있었다. Photograph of results of dust experiment of the harsh conditions. Figure 13. Figure 13의 (d)는 탄화수소혼합물을 연기시료로 하는 C Type 점검기의 결과로 연기시료 중 분진의 흡착정 도가 가장 심하고 연기시료가 묻은 곳에 두꺼운 분진 층이 형성되는 것을 관찰할 수 있었다. 건물에 설치된 화재감지기는 설치된 환경에 영향을 받는 설비이지만, 현재 소방점검 시 감지기의 작동여 부만을 점검할 뿐, 감지기의 챔버내의 세척 등의 유지 관리가 제대로 이루어지지 않고 있는 것이 현실이다. 따라서 감지기 연기흡입망 및 챔버내에 분진 및 먼지 가 도포된 상태에서 현장점검기기들을 이용한 반복적 인 점검은 분진 및 먼지를 고착시켜 감지기의 성능저 하를 초래할 것으로 생각된다. 4) J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng., Vol. 23, No. 4, 2009

8 144 ½ Á x Á xá Á w 4. Ÿ»» x»» w x Ÿ»» y w A Type(w), B Type( p g ), C Type(ky yw )»»»» w y w. 1. x»» y x»x x w x x»» w x 33.5% ƒ ùkù y w. 2. x»» y x Ÿ»» x x» Ÿ 15%/ m x š ù, x»»» Ÿ 30~50%/m x» 2~3 x y w. w, x x t 20~40cm/s x š ù, x»» t w» d wš, x»» w t ƒ B Type»» s³t 11.8cm/ sƒ ùkù,» x x t t ùkù y w. 3.» y x x 24 z x w, A Type(w)» w» y ƒ ùkù ù, B Type( p g ) C Type(ky yw )» w» Ÿ»»» ùkù y w. x»» w x» t,» w y» y w, y y» q w ƒ.»x» w Ÿ»» x»» v w. š x 1. ½, spx» x»» w, y w w w, pp.1-4(2008). 2. wù,, ½, w,, y x w, w y wz, Vol.22, No.4, pp.50-53(2008). 3. w»,»x»» (KOFEIS 0301) (2005). 4., ½,, w,, y»»» p, w y wz, Vol.22, No.4, pp.61-64(2008). 5. w y xxz, NFPA 72(National Fire Alarm Code) (1993). 6. Robert M. Gagnon and Ronald H. Kirby, A Designer`s Guide to Fire Alarm Systems, NFPA, pp (2003). 7. Richard W. Bukowski and Wayne D. Moore, Fire Alarm Signaling Systems, National Fire Protection Association and Society of Fire Protection Engineers Third Edition, pp (2003). w y wz, 23«4y, 2009

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