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1 Comparison of physical fitness, indices of lifestyle disease, and biochemical property of muscle according to sarcopenia and obesity in elderly women Won-Sang Jung, Hyun-Seok Cho, & Man-Gyoon Lee* Kyung Hee University [Purpose] [Methods] m2 [Results] [Conclusion] Key words: ㆍ

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3 m2 ㆍ cm kg kg m2 kg kg Table 1. Physical characteristics of subjects Variables +obesity F value P value Age(yrs) 77.55± ± ± ± Height( cm ) ± ± ± ± Body weight( kg ) 55.73±0.96a 47.66±0.93b 61.00±1.06c 53.80±1.12a *** BMI( kg / m2 ) 24.12±0.33a 20.73±0.32b 26.45±0.35c 23.59±0.39a *** Fat-free mass( kg ) 32.80±0.55a 31.62±0.44a 36.40±0.65b 35.65±0.66b *** Fat mass( kg ) 21.98±0.71a 14.77±0.58b 23.31±0.59a 16.70±0.55b *** Percent body fat(%) 39.43±0.80a 30.93±0.83b 38.06±0.49a 30.88±0.59b *** ASM( kg / m2 ) 5.06±0.11a 5.24±0.04a 6.12±0.07b 6.15±0.10b ***

4 ml µ ml l α

5 Table 2. Comparison of physique and body composition among four groups Variables +obesity F values P value Height( cm ) ± ± ± ± Body weight( kg ) 55.73±0.96 a 47.66±0.93 b 61.00±1.06 c 53.80±1.12 a *** BMI( kg m -2 ) 24.12±0.33 a 20.73±0.32 b 26.45±0.35 c 23.59±0.39 a *** Waist circumference( cm ) 90.75±1.37 a 80.66±1.21 b 92.67±1.30 a 86.16±0.97 c *** Hip circumference( cm ) 93.80±1.09 a 88.12±1.07 b 95.12±0.87 a 90.86±0.52 c *** Waist-hip ratio 0.97±0.01a c 0.92±0.01 b 0.97±0.01 a 0.95±0.01 c *** Fat-free mass( kg ) 32.80±0.55 a 31.62±0.44 a 36.40±0.65 b 35.65±0.66 b *** Fat mass( kg ) 21.98±0.71 a 14.77±0.58 b 23.31±0.59 a 16.70±0.55 b *** Percent body fat(%) 39.43±0.80 a 30.93±0.83 b 38.06±0.49 a 30.88±0.59 b *** Table 3. Comparison of daily living fitness among four groups Variables +obesity F values P value Left grip strength( kg ) 20.08±1.06 a 19.73±0.72 a 23.36±0.62 b 24.27±0.56 b *** Right grip strength( kg ) 21.04±0.86 a 21.25±0.82 a 23.96±0.69 b 25.22±0.67 b *** Upper arm flexion(times) 20.52±1.10 a 21.04±0.90 a 23.39±0.63 b 23.41±0.59 b * Chair sit to stand(times) 17.60±1.31 a 18.99±0.92 ab 20.43±1.16 ab 21.54±0.64 b * Sit-and-reach( cm ) 10.54±1.93 a 11.12±1.48 a 11.81±1.38 a 15.47±1.09 b * Back scratch( cm ) 16.70± ± ± ± One leg standing: left (sec) 10.91± ± ± ± One leg standing: right(sec) 9.00± ± ± ± Functional reach( cm ) 26.91± ± ± ± Tandem test(sec) 11.94±0.74 a 10.91±0.67 b 10.31±0.58 ab 9.46±0.54 b * Up and go(sec) 7.12±0.41 a 6.88±0.25 a 6.50±0.20 ab 6.14±0.17b * Foot stepping(times) 26.95± ± ± ± Carrying beans using chopsticks 12.43± ± ± ± Pegboard 33.69± ± ± ± VO2max(ml kg -1 min -1 ) 23.65±1.01 a 24.41±1.11 a 25.84±0.54 ab 27.14±0.88 b * Table 4. Comparison of isokinetic function(60 /sec) among four groups Variables +obesity F values P value Peak torque(nm) 62.11±4.54 a 62.51±3.03 a 73.11±2.40 b 77.70±4.17 b ** Peak torque per BW(%BW) ±8.68 a ±6.69 ab ±4.54 a ±7.36 b * Extension Total work(nm) ± ± ± ± Total work per BW(%BW) ± ± ± ± Average power(w) 37.75±2.76 a 38.49±1.63 a 42.29±1.57 ab 46.44±2.75 b * Average power per BW(%BW) 67.38±5.38 a 78.45±3.63 ab 70.23±2.53 a 83.89±4.69 b * Peak torque(nm) 35.14± ± ± ± Peak torque per BW(%BW) 62.85±5.38 a 72.20±4.56 ab 64.31±3.57 a 78.45±4.54 b * Flexion Total work(nm) 80.81± ± ± ± Total work per BW(%BW) ± ± ± ± Average power(w) 23.24±2.05 a 24.53±1.38 a 27.01±1.83 ab 30.47±1.90 b * Average power per BW(%BW) 41.43±3.84 a 49.77±3.15 ab 45.70±2.98 a 55.45±3.35 b *

6 Table 5. Comparison of variables related to hypertension among four groups Variables +obesity F values P value Heart rate(beats min -1 ) 79.72±2.46 a 74.80±2.31 ab 77.04±2.23 a 70.45±1.83 b * SBP(mmHg) ± ± ± ± DBP(mmHg) 85.92± ± ± ± MAP(mmHg) ± ± ± ± PP(mmHg) 49.01± ± ± ± RPP ± a ± ab ± a ± b * Table 6. Comparison of variables related to diabetes mellitus among four groups Variables +obesity F values P value FPG( mg dl -1 ) ± ± ± ± FPI(μU ml -1 ) 7.86±0.85 a 5.52±0.56 b 7.33±0.69 a 5.60±0.41 b * HOMA-IR 2.26±0.27 a 1.51±0.19 bc 2.09±0.27 ac 1.41±0.10 b * Table 7. Comparison of variables related to hyperlipidemia among four groups Variables +obesity F values P value TC( mg dl -1 ) ± ± ± ± TG( mg dl -1 ) ± ± ± ± LDL-C( mg dl -1 ) ± ± ± ± HDL-C( mg dl -1 ) 43.20±2.18 a 51.72±2.64 bc 48.07±1.68 ac 53.99±2.41 b ** Table 8. Comparison of variables related to atherosclerosis among four groups Variables +obesity F values P value TC/HDL-C ratio 4.62±0.28 a 3.68±0.23 b 3.97±0.22 ab 3.47±0.21 b ** TG/HDL-C ratio 3.46± ± ± ± LDL-C/HDL-C ratio 2.93±0.22 a 2.18±0.21 b 2.39±0.18 ab 1.98±0.17 b ** Table 9. Comparison of biochemical property of muscle among four groups Variables +obesity F values P value hs-crp( mg l -1 ) 1.44± ± ± ± IL-6(pg ml -1 ) 1.95±0.26 a 1.60±0.29 ab 1.67±0.21 a 1.13±0.10 b * IGF-1(ng ml -1 ) ± ± ± ±

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