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1 4.2 확장모형 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 복수제품 CVP 분석 : 복수제품 CVP 분석에서는제품배합 ( 판매량배합또는매출액배합 ) 이일정하다는전제하에서출발함. 예를들어, 판매가격이 100 원과 400 원인 A 제품과 B 제품이각각 400 개와 100 개가판매되어총판매량이 500 개라면, 판매량배합은 4:1, 판매량배합비율은 80%:20% 가되며, 매출액배합은 1:1(=4 개 x100 원 :1 개 x400 원 ), 매출액배합비율은 50%:50% 가됨. 64

2 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 다음의기본자료로부터손익분기점의판매량과매출액을구하시오. 65

3 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 패키지 Set 로접근하는방법 여러제품으로하나의 Set 를구성해판다고가정하여 CVP 분석을하는방법. [1 단계 ] 판매량배합으로패키지 Set 를구성한후 Set 당공헌이익을구한다. [2 단계 ] 문제의요구사항에맞는 Set 판매량을구한다. [3 단계 ] 이 Set 판매량에 Set 내각제품수량을곱하여제품별판매량을구한다. 66

4 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 67

5 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 68

6 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 69

7 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 가중평균단위당공헌이익을이용하는방법 CVP 모형에단위당공헌이익대신가중평균단위당공헌이익을이용. [1 단계 ] 가중평균단위당공헌이익을계산한다. [2 단계 ] 문제의요구사항에맞는총판매량을구한다. [3 단계 ] 이총판매량에각제품의판매량배합비율을곱하여각제품별판매량을구한다. 70

8 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 71

9 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 72

10 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 73

11 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 가중평균공헌이익률을이용하는방법 CVP 모형에공헌이익률대신가중평균공헌이익률을이용. [1 단계 ] 가중평균공헌이익률 ( 기업전체공헌이익률 ) 을계산한다. [2 단계 ] 문제의요구사항에맞는기업전체총매출액을구한다. [3 단계 ] 이총매출액에각제품의매출액배합비율을곱하여각제품별매출액을구한다. 74

12 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 75

13 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 76

14 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 77

15 기본자료 _ 복수제품 CVP 분석 78

16 4.3 확장모형 _ 비선형함수하의 CVP 분석 비선형함수하의 CVP 분석 : 선형성의가정이완화되면수익함수나원가함수가비선형이되며, 이경우의 CVP 분석을비선형함수하의 CVP 분석이라함. 비선형함수하의 CVP 분석의풀이방법 : 79

17 예제 8_ 고정원가가비선형인경우 80

18 예제 8_ 고정원가가비선형인경우 81

19 예제 8_ 고정원가가비선형인경우 82

20 예제 8_ 고정원가가비선형인경우 83

21 예제 8_ 고정원가가비선형인경우 84

22 4.4 확장모형 _ 전부원가계산에서의 CVP 분석 변동원가계산에의한 CVP 분석 : 기본모형 CVP 분석에서는생산량과판매량이일치하여재고의변동이없다고가정하였으나, 현실적으로는생산량과판매량이일치하지않아재고가변동하는경우가일반적임. 변동원가계산에서는고정제조간접원가가, 발생된기간에전액비용처리되므로, 비용처리되는고정제조간접원가가생산량에영향을받지않음. 따라서영업이익이판매량에만영향을받기때문에생산량과판매량이일치하지않더라도변동원가계산에의한 CVP 분석의결과는기본모형의 CVP 분석의결과와일치함. 85

23 확장모형 _ 전부원가계산에서의 CVP 분석 전부원가계산에의한 CVP 분석 : 전부원가계산에서는고정제조간접원가가제품이판매될때매출원가에포함되어비용처리되는데, 이비용처리되는고정제조간접원가는생산량의변화에따라달라짐. 전부원가계산의이익은생산량과판매량에영향을받으므로동일한이익을달성하기위한판매량과생산량의조합은무수히많음. ( 예 : 생산량이제시되고판매량을물어보는경우다음과같이구함 ). 86

24 확장모형 _ 전부원가계산에서의 CVP 분석 전부원가계산에서비용처리되는고정제조간접원가 Supplement 참조 87

25 예제 9_ 실제전부원가계산에서의 CVP 분석 88

26 예제 9_ 실제전부원가계산에서의 CVP 분석 89

27 예제 9_ 실제전부원가계산에서의 CVP 분석 90

28 4.5 확장모형 _ 활동기준원가계산에서의 CVP 분석 활동기준원가계산에의한 CVP 분석 : 활동기준원가계산에서는원가를단위수준원가, 묶음수준원가, 제품유지원가, 설비유지원가와같이 4 가지원가계층으로구분하는데, 각원가계층마다원가동인에비례하여발생되는변동원가가존재하므로총원가및이익은다음과같이계산함. 활동기준원가계산에서 CVP 분석을할때에는그림 의식을이용하면됨. 단, 조업도 ( 판매량 ) 가증가함에따라원가동인수가증가하여기본적인 CVP 분석에서고정원가로간주되는비단위수준활동의변동원가가증가될수있으므로비단위수준활동의변동원가가변화하는구간을고려하여관련범위를정한후 CVP 분석을하여야함. 91

29 예제 11_ 활동기준원가계산에서의 CVP 분석 92

30 예제 11_ 활동기준원가계산에서의 CVP 분석 93

31 예제 11_ 활동기준원가계산에서의 CVP 분석 94

32 예제 11_ 활동기준원가계산에서의 CVP 분석 95

33 4.6 확장모형 _ 서비스업의 CVP 분석 서비스업에서 CVP 분석을할때에는수익과원가에영향을미치는요인의선택이특히중요한데업종별로많이사용되는것을정리하면다음과같음. 96

34 예제 12_ 운송업의 CVP 분석 97

35 예제 12_ 운송업의 CVP 분석 98

36 4.7.1 민감도분석 민감도분석 (sensitivity analysis): 민감도분석이란, 하나또는둘이상의독립변수가변화할경우에종속변수가어떻게영향을받는가를분석하는기법으로서 What-If 분석이라고도함. 민감도분석을이용하면경영자가여러독립변수들중에서종속변수에상대적으로많은영향을미치는독립변수를보다정확하게찾아내어해당독립변수에대해집중적인통제를할수있게함. 그러나민감도분석은다른독립변수를고정시킨상태에서특정독립변수가종속변수에미치는영향을분석하기때문에독립변수들간의상호작용을무시하며확률을명시적으로고려하지않는다는단점을지니고있음. 99

37 예제 13_ 민감도분석 (1) 100

38 예제 13_ 민감도분석 (1) 101

39 예제 13_ 민감도분석 (2) 102

40 Supplement 103

41 (supplement) MOS Ratio 와 DOL 의유도 MOS Ratio( 안전한계율 ) DOL( 영업레버리지도 ) 104

42 Essentials of CVP Analysis A Five-Step Decision-Making Process in Planning and Control Revisited 1. Identify the problem and uncertainties 2. Obtain information 3. Make predictions about the future 4. Make decisions by choosing between alternatives, using cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis 5. Implement the decision, evaluate performance, and learn Example: Emma Frost is considering selling GMAT Success, a test prep book and software package for the business school admission test, at a college fair in Chicago. Emma knows she can purchase this package from a wholesaler at $120 per package, with the privilege of returning all unsold packages and receiving a full $120 refund per package. She also knows that she must pay $2,000 to the organizers for the booth rental at the fair. She will incur no other costs. She can charge a price of $200 for GMAT Success. She must decide whether she should rent a booth Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

43 Expressing CVP Relationships (1) Equation Method (2) Contribution Margin Method 2012 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

44 Breakeven Point The breakeven point (BEP) is that quantity of output sold at which total revenues equal total costs that is, the quantity of output sold that results in $0 of operating income. Equation Method CM Method 2012 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

45 Expressing CVP Relationships (3) Graph Method 2012 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

46 Using CVP Analysis for Decision Making Decision to Advertise Suppose Emma anticipates selling 40 units at the fair. She is considering placing an advertisement. It will be a fixed cost of $500. She thinks that advertising will increase sales by 10% to 44 packages. Should she advertise? Operating income will decrease from $1,200 to $1,020, so Emma should not advertise. Note that Emma could focus only on the difference column and come to the same conclusion: If Emma advertises, contribution margin will increase by $320 (revenues, $800 variable costs, $480), and fixed costs will increase by $500, resulting in a $180 decrease in operating income Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

47 Decision to Reduce Selling Price Emma is contemplating whether to reduce the selling price to $175. At this price, she thinks she will sell 50 units. At this quantity, the testprep package wholesaler who supplies GMAT Success will sell the packages to Emma for $115 per unit instead of $120. Should Emma reduce the selling price? Decreasing the price will reduce contribution margin by $200 and, because the fixed costs of $2,000 will not change, it will also reduce operating income by $200. Emma should not reduce the selling price Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

48 Sensitivity Analysis and Margin of Safety Sensitivity analysis is a what-if technique that managers use to examine how an outcome will change if the original predicted data are not achieved or if an underlying assumption changes. [cf. Exhibit 3-4] 2012 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

49 Contribution Margin Versus Gross Margin Contribution margin indicates how much of a company s revenues are available to cover fixed costs. Gross margin measures how much a company can charge for its products over and above the cost of acquiring or producing them. Products that operate in competitive markets have low gross margins Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

50 2012 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

51 2012 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

52 2012 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

53 2012 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

54 Contribution Margin Versus Gross Margin Contribution margin indicates how much of a company s revenues are available to cover fixed costs. Gross margin measures how much a company can charge for its products over and above the cost of acquiring or producing them. Products that operate in competitive markets have low gross margins Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

55 ! 본강의안은 원가관리회계 ( 임세진, 2014, 제 4 판, 도서출판파란 ) 교재에기초한교육목적용강의를위하여마련된것입니다. 위교재의구매와사용을전제로한강의학습용이외의목적으로는사용을금합니다.