All important resources were allocated by the government. nationalized 2 distributed protected planned 5taxed 6. 모든주요한자원은할당되어졌다정부에의해서. resource

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1 . Some obvious use of power to obtain sex is a kind of sexual harassment. obituary 2 floral dull apparent 5 wistful endorse the statement ratify 2deny enforce approve 5 nullify. After much discussion, the committee decided to endorse the new budget. ame 2 approve reject pigeonhole 5repeal. Try to remain impartial until you have heard both sides of the story. calm 2 limited objective conspicuous 5. His directions misled us; we did not know which road to take. complicated 2 arbitrary ambiguous foolish 6. The city mayor is contemplatinga team that would edify the citizen. considering 2 dancing transplanting communication 5 beating 7. The visual receptors of insects provide poor image formation, but are excellent for detecting movement and often have a very wide field of view. interpreting 2 provoking controlling inducing 5 perceiving 8. The old man scornedwhatever was offered to him. liked 2ate rejected accepted 5took 9. The Romantics did not simply repudiate the faith in reason. blame 2 reject imitate discern 5 enlighten 0. The recession-weary British public has resentment over the royal wealth and life-style. indignation 2rejection demonstration harmony 5 reservation.a political system that allows a high degree of local autocracy 2democracy autonomy.bureaucracy 2. belligerent nations hostile 2friendly indifferent cooperative 5 benevolent. The Wright brothers were the subjects of both widespread interest and skepticism after reports of their aviation experiments in 90 and 905. scrutiny 2publicity envy optimism 5 doubt. Because of a long drought, the farmer was doubtful about the prospects of a good yield. dubious 2loquacious jealous strident 5 intrepid 5. a reciprocaltrade agreement between two nations pleasurable 2ruling selfish mutual

2 All important resources were allocated by the government. nationalized 2 distributed protected planned 5taxed 6. 모든주요한자원은할당되어졌다정부에의해서. resource 자원, allocate = distribute 할당 / 배분하다, nationalize 국유화하다, 귀화시키다 protect 보호하다, tax 과세하다, 세금 2 7. A white flag is an internationally recognized sign of. victory 2 surrender sympathy hostility 5distress 7. 백기는국제적으로인정된항복의표시이다. recognize 인정하다, 알아보다, surrender 항복, 인도, 항복 / 인도하다, sympathy = empathy = compassion 동정 (empathy 감정이입, 공감 ), hostility = belligerence = antagonism = animosity = anger = enmity = antipathy = opposition = hatred = hate 적대감, distress 고뇌, 빈곤 2 8.Life in a perfectly sensible utilitarian community would be intolerably dreary. Occasional explosions of magnificent folly are as to human well-beings as a sewage system. logical 2essential criminal rejectable 5 difficult 8. 인생이란완벽하게분별있고실용적인사회에서의견딜수없게따분할것이다. 거대한모형건물을가끔폭발시키는것이필수적이다인간의복지에하수도시설만큼이나. perfectly 완벽하게, sensible 분별있는, utilitarian 실리 / 실용적인, community 지역사회intolerably 견딜수없게, dreary 따분한, 음산한, occasional 이따금씩의, explosion 폭발magnificent 장한, 훌륭한, folly 어처구니없이큰건축물, 어리석은행동, human = human being 인간, well-being 복지 (=welfare = good), 행복 (= happiness), sewage system 하수도시설 (sewage 하수오물 ), logical 논리적인, essential 필수적인, 본질적인criminal 형사상의, 범인, rejectable 거절할수있는 2 9. As man encroach on their nesting and wintering grounds, the number of birds continue to dwindle and so officials of the country fear that the species may become. extinct 2 distinguished single existing5 grueling 9. 인간이침범하게되자 그들의집터와겨울터전을, 새들의숫자는계속해서감소한다 그래서공무원들은걱정한다 그종이멸종할지도모른다고. encroach on 침범하다, dwindle 줄어들다, species 종, extinct 멸종된, 불이꺼진, distinguished 저명한, 뛰어난, grueling 엄한 20. Many of these pioneers in wisdom were audacious radicals. bold 2 wise rapacious derisive 5 acrid 20. 이개척자들의대다수가 지혜의 용감한급진주의자였다. pioneer 개척자, audacious = bold 용감한, radical 급진주의자, 급진적인, rapacious 탐욕한 강탈하는, derisive 조롱하는, acrid 매운, 독살스러운 2. It was a deed to risk almost certain death to save his friend. fundamental 2 absolute gallant undeniable 2. 그것은용감한행위였다거의확실한죽음의위험을무릅쓴다는것이친구를구하기위해서. deed 행위, 업적, risk 위험을무릅쓰다, 위험, fundamental 기본적인, 중요한, absolute 절대적인, 완전한, gallant= brave = courageous = intrepid = valiant = valorous = plucky 용감한, undeniable 부정할수 없는 22. It's up to the government to upholdthe rights of individual citizens. sentence 2 defend think about argue 22. 그것은정부에달려있다보호하는것시민의권리를. be up to ~ 에달려있다, uphold 지지하다, 떠받치다, right 권리, sentence 선고하다, 선고, 문장, defend 방어하다 (defender 방어자, 옹호자, defendant 피고 ), think about 숙고하다 argue 논의 / 주장

3 다 I can't reconcilethe two points of view. prevail 2 dispute reign succeed 5mediate 2. 나는중재할수없다두견해를. reconcile = mediate 조정하다, point of view 견해, prevail 이기다, 유행하다, 압도하다dispute 논쟁하다, 논쟁, reign 군림 / 통치하다, 군림, 통치, succeed 성공하다 5 2. I have a previous engagement. enjoyment 2 knowledge arrangement value 5bliss 2. 나는사전약속이있다. previous 사전의, 이전의, engagement 약속 (= appointment = date = arrangement), 약혼, 교전 (engage 약속 / 교전하다, 약혼시키다 ), enjoyment 즐거움, 향락, knowledge 지식, arrangement 약속, 준비, 정돈, 협정, value 가치, bliss = happiness = ecstasy = rapture = joy = delight 더없는행복 (ecstasy = rapture 황홀 )(joy = delight 기쁨 )(Ignorance is bliss. 모르는게약이다.)(ignorance 무지 ) 25. Her performance was sublime. terrible 2 ordinary very good practical 25. 그녀의공연은최고였다. performance 공연, 연기, 연주, sublime = splendid = superb 최고의, terrible 소름끼치는ordinary 보통의, practical = utilitarian = pragmatic = functional 실용적인 26. Something that is is unnecessary or is no longer needed. superfluous 2unquestionable pessimistic constant 26. 어떤것이남아돈다는것은불필요하거나더이상필요없다는것이다. superfluous = unnecessary = excessive = redundant = excess = surplus 남아도는 (excess 남아도는, 과잉 )(surplus 잉여의, 잉여, 과잉 ), unquestionable 의심할나위없는, 확실한, pessimistic 비관적인, 염세적인, constant 일정한, 충실한 27. the government's inept handling of the crisis satisfactory 2 unnecessary poor indubitable 5 continual 27. 정부의능숙치못한위기상황을다루는솜씨 inept 서툰 (= unskilled = without dexterity = awkward = clumsy = maladroit), 부적절한 (= out of place = inappropriate = unsuitable), handling 솜씨, crisis 위기 ( 복수형은 crises), satisfactory 만족스러운, unnecessary 불필요한, poor 형편없는, 가난한, indubitable = certain = unquestionable = doubtless 의심의여지가없는, 확실한, continual 계속적인, 빈번한 (continually 계속해서 ) 28. The young man was so that he stammered and blushed whenever he tried to talk to a girl. boisterous 2 red persistent bashful 5 haughty 28. 젊은이는너무나쑥스러워했다 그는말을더듬고얼굴이빨개졌다 그가시도할때마다 소녀에게말거는것을. stammer 말을더듬다, blush 얼굴이빨개지다 (blushing 수줍어하는 ), boisterous = clamorous = uproarious = noisy 떠들썩한, persistent 고집센 (= stubborn = obstinate = tenacious), 영속하는, bashful = shy = blushing 수줍어하는, haughty = arrogant = high and mighty = stuck-up 건방진 (mighty 강력한 ) 29. The young man was so bashful that he did not speak to the pretty girl. shy 2 discreet haughty upset 29. 그젊은이는너무나부끄러움을탔다 그는말을걸지못했다 그예쁜소녀에게.

4 - - bashful = shy = blushing 수줍어하는, discreet 신중한 (= prudent = cautious = careful), 분별있는, haughty = arrogant 건방진, upset 화난, 뒤엎다 0.The disappointed man falsely his failure to the lack of loyalty among his friends. effaced 2 attributed contributed abridged 0. 실망한사람은거짓으로원인을돌렸다그의실패를충성심의부족으로그의친구들간의. disappointed 실망한, falsely 거짓으로, failure 실패, lack 부족, loyalty 충성심 efface 문질러지우다, attribute A to B A 를 B 의원인으로돌리다, contribute A to B A 를 B 에기부하다, abridge 요약하다 2. It is difficult to list all of my father's attributes because he has so many different talents and abilities. attractions 2properties atrocities. competence. 그것은어렵다열거하는것이우리아버지의모든특징을 왜냐하면그는가지고있기때문에너무나도많은다양한재능과능력을. attribute = characteristic = quality = aspect = feature = trait = property 특징 (quality 특성, 품질, 소 질 )(property 특징, 재산 ), attraction 매력, 끌어당김, atrocity 흉악함 ( 보통복수형을씀 ), competence 능력 2 2.George insists he is, but in private he prays when faced with a serious problem. an atheist 2a pedant a realist a logician 5a pilgrim 2. 죠지는주장한다그가무신론자라고, 그러나몰래그는기도한다직면했을때심각한문제에. insist 주장하다, in private 몰래, 사적으로, face 직면하다, 얼굴, atheist 무신론자 pedant 탁상공론가, realist 현실주의자, logician 논리학자, pilgrim 순례자. The court presumed Smith innocent. so that he was proven guilty 2 in order that he was proven guilty after he was proven guilty when he was proven guilty 5 until he was proven guilty. 법정은가정했다스미스가무죄라고그가유죄로증명되기까지. court 법정, 궁중, 안마당, 경기장, presume 추정 / 가정하다, innocent 결백한, 순진한 prove 증명하다, guilty 유죄의, 가책을느끼는 presumed innocent until proven guilty 무죄추정의원칙 5. an affluent society influential 2 dissipated corrupted wealthy. 풍요로운사회 affluent = wealthy = prosperous = well-off= rich 풍요로운, influential 영향력있는 dissipated 방탕한, corrupt 타락한, 타락시키다, 매수하다 5. The high value on privacy is related to economic affluence, which permits some people to value "a room of their own." opulence 2opportunity freedom development 5 snobbery 5. 사생활에대한높은가치는경제적풍요와관련되어있다, 그것은허락한다일부사람들에게 가치를두도록 " 그들자신만을위한공간 " 에 affluence = opulence = wealth = prosperity 풍요, opportunity 기회, development 발전, 개발 snobbery 잘 난체하는것 (snob 잘난체하는자, snobbish = pretentious = snobby= condescending 잘난체하는 ) 6. It's difficult to appraise the damage this might do to his political reputation. find out 2 administer evaluate compile 6. 평가한다는것이어렵다손실을이것이미치게될그의정치적인명성에. appraise = evaluate = assess 평가 / 감정하다, damage 손실, reputation 명성, 평판 find out 알아내다, administer 관리 / 통치하다, 약을투여하다, compile 자료를모으다, 편집하다

5 The mine exploded, sending lethal fragments in all directions. light 2 small deadly dangerous 7. 광산이폭발했다, 치명적인파편들을보냈다사방으로. mine 광산, 지뢰, explode 폭발하다, lethal = fatal = deadly = mortal 치명적인, fragment 파편, 조각, direction 방향, light 가벼운, 밝은, 빛, 불을붙이다, dangerous = risky= hazardous = perilous = precarious = treacherous = menacing 위험한 8. He gave a contemptuous laugh. friendly 2 disdainful outrageous vicious 8. 그는경멸적인웃음을지었다. contemptuous = disdainful = scornful 경멸적인, friendly 친절한, outrageous 잔인한, 엉뚱한vicious 악의있는 2 9. Spreading ugly gossip is contemptible. meditative 2 good widespread guilty 5mean 9. 좋지않은소문을확산시키는것은비열하다. spread 퍼뜨리다, 펴다, gossip = rumor = hearsay 소문, contemptible = mean = base = shameful = vile 비열한, meditative 명상적인, widespread 널리퍼진, guilty 유죄의 5 0. He persuaded her to sign the document by guile. money 2 condition deceit honesty 5straightforwardness 0. 그는그녀를설득했다 그문서에사인하도록 속임수에의해서. persuade 설득하다, document 문서, guile = deceit = slyness = cunning 교활 honesty = integrity = veracity = sincerity = uprightness 정직, straightforwardness 솔직함. To be candid, I don't think you have the talent to be a great violinist. frank 2 nake meticulous reserved. 솔직히말해서, 나는생각하지않는다당신이재능을가지고있다고위대한바이올리니스트가될수있는. candid = frank = straightforward 솔직한, naked 벌거벗은, meticulous = fastidious = careful = painstaking 매우신중한 (fastidious 까다로운, painstaking 정성을들이는 ), reserved 수줍은, 예약한 2. People who refuse to comply with the regulations will be punished. defy 2 appeal to violate conform to 2. 사람들은 따르기를거부하는 규칙들을 벌받을것이다. refuse 거부하다, comply with = conform to = obey 따르다, regulation 규칙, 법규, punish 벌주다, defy = disregard = disdain 무시하다, appeal to 호소 / 간청 / 항의 / 상소하다violate = transgress = infringe = contravene 위반하다. Nothing is more striking than the absence of intellectual independence in most humanbeings: they in opinion, as they do in manners, and are perfectly content with repeating formulas. arouse 2 dissent disagree trade 5conform. 더눈에띄는것은없다 지적독립의부재보다대부분의인간에게있어서 : 그들은순종한다 의견에있어서, 행동에서그러하듯이, 그리고완전히만족한다반복되는방식에. striking 눈에띄는, absence 결석, 부재, intellectual 지적인, 지식인, independence 독립human being 인 간, opinion 의견, manner 행동, 예의범절, 방식, be content with ~ 에만족하다, perfectly 완벽하게, repeat 반복하다, formula 공식, 방식, 상투적인문구 ( 복수형은 formulas 또는 formulae), arouse 잠에서 깨우다, 자극하다, dissent = disagree 의견이다르 (dissent from 의견이다르다, disagree with 의견이 다르다 )(Milk always disagrees with me. 우유는항상나에게맞지않다.), trade 무역, 교환, 업계, 무 역 / 교환하다, conform to 따르다, 순종하다 (conform tothe rules 규칙에따르다 ) 5. This industry depends for its survival on government.

6 - 6 - subsidies 2 proposal confrontation arbitration 5 fairness. 이산업은의존하고있다그의생존을정부보조에. industry 산업, depend on ~ 에의존하다, survival 생존, subsidy 보조금, proposal 제안confrontation 대치, arbitration 중재, fairness 공평 5. A fortunate but small number of people work at jobs which are in themselves and are not performed chiefly for the return they make. painful 2 useful wearisome pleasurable 5constructive 5. 운좋은그러나적은수의사람만이직장에서일한다그일자체가기쁜 ( 직장 ) 그리고행해지는것이아니다단지그들이벌어들이는수입때문에. fortunate 운좋은, a small number of 적은수의, job 직업, 일, perform 실행 / 연기 / 연주하다 chiefly 주로, return 수입, painful 고통스러운, useful 유용한, wearisome 피곤하게하는 pleasurable 즐거운, constructive 건설적인 6. We take for granted, as did Sappho, the sweetness of erotic desire; its smiles at us. But the bitterness is less obvious. pleasurability 2 pleasureness pleasant pleasantrie 5 pleading 6. 우리는당연하게생각한다사포가그랬듯이성적욕망의달콤함을. 그것의기쁨은우리에게미소를짖는다. 그러나쓴맛을불분명하다. ( 성적욕망뒤에감추어진씁쓸함을인식하지못하는경향이있다.) take for granted 당연하게생각하다, sweetness 달콤함, erotic 성적인, desire 욕망, 갈망 bitterness 쓴맛, obvious 명백한, pleasurability = pleasurableness 즐거움, pleasure 즐거움 pleasant 즐거운, pleasantry 기분좋음, 의례적인인사말 (exchange the usual pleasantries 의례적인인사말을나누다 ), pleading 변론 7. His promotion was approved by his senior. sovereign 2 job autonomy superior 7. 그의진급은승인되었다그의상관에의해서. promotion 승진, approve 승인하다, senior 상관, 연장자, 고, 대학 년생, 선배의, 손위의 (junior 아랫사람, 연소자, 고2, 대학 년생, 후배의, 손아래의 ), sovereign 주권자, 군주, 주권있는 (sovereignty 주권 ), job 직업, 일, autonomy 자치, 자치단체, superior 상관, 남보다뛰어난 (inferior 아랫사람, 남보다못한 ) 8.Only six countries had the and know-how to produce advanced weapon systems of this kind. inconsistency 2 crookedness facilities chances 8. 오직 6개국가만이갖고있었다시설과기술을생산할수있는이와같은종류의발달된무기체제를. know-how 기술, 방법, produce 생산하다, 농산물, advanced 발달된, weapon 무기inconsistency 관성없음, crookedness 부정직, 굽음, facility 솜씨, 시설 ( 보통복수형을씀 )chance 가능성, 기회, 우연 9. This child has a great facility in learning languages. contrivance 2 difficulty apparatus talent 9. 이아이는큰재능을갖고있다언어를배우는데있어서. facility 솜씨, 재능, contrivance 고안, 계략, 고안해낸기구, difficulty 어려움, apparatus = machine = device = equipment = contrivance 기구, 장치, talent = gift = faculty = genius 재능 50. Your behavior is your principles. contradiction on 2in contradiction to to contradiction on with contradiction on 50. 당신의행동은반대된다당신의원칙에. behavior 행동, principle 원리, 원칙, in contradiction to ~ 과정반대의 (contradiction 모순, 부정 ) 2 5. Prof. Wilson declined to comment on the presidential election.

7 - 7 - offered 2 decided refused agreed 5. Wilson 교수는언급하기를거부했다 대통령선거에관하여. decline 거절 / 쇠퇴 / 감소하다, 쇠퇴, 감소, comment 논평하다, 논평, presidential 대통령의election 선거, offer 제공 / 제의하다 52. My thesis is that all men are not created equal. defense 2 proposition rebuttal discovery 52. 내주제는 모든인간이평등하게창조되지않았다는것이다. thesis 논제 ( 복수형은theses), defense 방위, proposition 제안, 주장, rebuttal 원고의반박discovery 발견 2 5. It occurred in Dallas, Texas, just prior to President Kennedy's assassination. as a result of 2 after due to before 5. 그것은달라스, 텍사스에서발생했다, 바로이전에 대통령케네디의암살. occur 발생하다, prior to = before 이전에, assassination 암살, as a result of = due to ~ 때문에 5. The fabric of modern society is not immune from decay. safe 2 alive mute vexed 5. 현대사회의구조가 면제된 ( 안전한 ) 것이아니다 부패로부터. fabric = structure 구조, modern 현대의, 근대의, immune 면제된, 면역성의decay = decomposition = spoiling = rot 부패, safe 안전한, vex 성가시게굴다 55. Observation provides the foundation for the study of psychology. basis 2 reason discovery invention 5 device 55. 관찰은제공한다 기초를 심리학연구를위한. observation = examination = scrutiny = surveillance 관찰, provide 제공한다, foundation = basis 기초 (foundation = organization 재단, foundation = establishment 설립 ) psychology 심리학, reason 이유, 이성, discovery 발견, invention 발명, device 장치 The university has been famous for medical studies ever since its foundation 56.In our age, education is a necessity because has replaced unskilled labor in many fields of work. automation 2 illiteracy skill theory 5 confidence 56. 현시대에는교육이필수적이다왜냐하면자동화가대체하고있으므로 비숙련노동자들을 많은분야에서. age = epoch = era = phase = period 시대, necessity 필수품, 필연, replace 대체하다 unskilled 비숙련된, labor = labour 노동, 노동자, field 분야, 들판, automation 자동화 illiteracy 문맹 (literacy 읽고쓸수있음, illiterate 문맹의, literate 읽고쓸수있는 ) skill = skillfulness = craft = deftness = adroitness = dexterity = handiness = adeptness = mastery = artistry 솜씨, 숙련, theory 이론, confidence 확신 57. At the battle of waterloo, Napoleon's forces had to, since they had lost the battle. pursue 2 attact retreat whirl 5 intercept 57. 워털루전투에서, 나폴레옹군대는후퇴해야했다, 전투에서졌으니까. force 군대, 힘, pursue 추구하다, attack 공격하다, retreat = withdraw 후퇴하다, 철수하다 (retreat = withdrawal = pulling back = backing out 후퇴, 철수 ), whirl = spin = rotate = revolve 회전하다, intercept 가로채다 58. Slightly over half of the population of that region both English and Spanish. speaks 2 says tells says to 5 speaks to 58. 그지역의반을약간넘는인구가 영어와서반아어를모두사용하고있다. speak *The old woman spoke so slowly I sometimes thought she had fallen asleep.

8 say "It's getting late," she said. *Did you say something tome? talk *Let me talk to her *Let's talk about it *I intend to speak to/with the manager about the way I have been treated. *You'll have to speak up a little. ( 크게말하다 ) *How do you say "Good morning" in French? *If you need more money, you should talk with Richard. *Carol and Bob were having problems with their marriage but they were able to talk things over with a counselor. ( 대화로해결하다 ) tell *Can you speak Chinese? *She told me that you had been offered a new job. *Tell me all the details about it. 59. After their recent quarrel, Mr. Bates and Mr. Strong felt when running into each other at the concert. thrilled 2 duped awkward bored 5 natural 59. 그들이최근다툰후, 베이트씨와스트롱씨는어색함을느꼈다 우연히만났을때음악회에서. recent 최근의, quarrel 다툼, run into = run across = come on 우연히만나다 thrilled 오싹한, dupe = deceive 속이다, awkward = uncomfortable 불편한, bored 따분한 60. I wish you wouldn't keep me. Let me finish what I'm saying. intruding 2 releasing invading interrupting 5 bragging 60. 희망한다당신이계속날방해하고있는데그러지말기를내이야기가끝날때까지. intrude = trespass = encroach 침입하다, release 풀어놓다, 석방 / 개봉 / 방출하다 invade 침 략하다, interrupt = disturb = interfere with = break in on 방해하다 brag = boast 자랑하 6. People who have been accused of acts such as murder or theft are heard in the justice system. civil 2 criminal martial communal 5traditional 6. 사람들은, 행위로인해기소된자들살인이나절도등의, 재판받는다형사법체제에서. be accused of 기소되다, murder 살인, theft 절도, be heard 재판받다 (hear 경청하다, hearing 청문회 ), justice 재판, 정의, civil 민사의, 시민의, criminal 형사상의, 범죄의, 범죄자 martial = military 군 의 (martial art 태권도등의격투기, martial law 계엄령 )communal = public 대중의 62. In times of crisis there is a tendency to regard wistfully the "good old days," so that the virtue of the past seem greater and its faults are. new 2 reduced criticized apparent 5. eager 62. 위기상황에는경향이있다좋았던옛시절을갈망하듯이생각하는, 그래서지난날의미덕은더 위대해보이고그때의잘못들은작게보이는것이다. crisis 위기, tendency 경향, regard = consider 생각하다, wistful 동경하는, virtue 미덕 fault 잘못, criticize 비난하다, apparent 명확한, eager 갈망하는 6. Environment is the factor that ultimately determines which species will survive. Adaptation to environment is the basic requirement of life. The creature that fails in this, though it remains true to the ways of its own kind, is bound to. live 2 adapt reproduce perish 5 require 6. 환경은요인이다궁극적으로결정하는어떤종이살아남는가를. 환경의적응은삶의기본적필수 요건이다. 해도, 멸망하게되는것이다. 이에실패하는생물은, 비록그것이그와같은종류의 ( 종의 ) 삶의방식에충실한다 factor 요인, ultimately 궁극적으로, determine 결정하다, species 종, adaptation 적응 requirement 필요조건, creature 생물, 창조물, bound = likely ~ 할것같은, adapt 적응하다, 각색하다, reproduce 재생하다, 번식하다, perish 멸망하다, require 필요로하다 2 2

9 6. The instructions he had left regarding his burial were very explicit. clear 2 ambiguous unexpected surprising 5 intelligent 그지시사항들은그가남긴 그의장례에관하여 대단히명확했다. instruction 지시, 사용법설명서, regarding = about 관하여, burial 매장explicit = clear = unequivocal 명확한, ambiguous = equivocal = vague = enigmatic 애매모호한 65. Experiments with wild rats show that lower animals can also become really ill and even die under chronic stress. persistent 2 mild occasional overwhelming 5 mental 65. 들쥐실험은보여준다 하등생물도또한심각하게아플수있고 죽을수도있다 고질적인스트레스때문에. experiment 실험, rat 쥐, chronic = persistent = continual 고질적인, mild 온순한, 온화한occasional 때때로의, overwhelming 압도적인, mental 정신적인 66. We are polluting our air, our water supply, killing off wildlife, and raising the noise level of our cities. sustaining 2 cramming contaminating annihilating 5 decimating 66. 우리는공기를오염시키고있고, 물공급을오염시키고있으며, 야생동물을몰살하고, 소 음수위를높여가고있다 우리도시의. pollute = contaminate = spoil= poison = taint 오염시키다, supply 공급, kill off 몰살하다 wildlife 야생동물, noise 소음, 소리, sustain 유지하다, cram 쑤셔넣다, 벼락공부를하다 annihilate = kill off = wipe out = destroy 몰살하다, decimate 열중하나를죽이다 67. The poem was composed by an anonymous author. unknown 2 famou dead foreign 5 excellent 67. 그시는 쓰여졌다 무명의저자에의해. compose 짓다, 작문 / 작곡하다, 조립하다, anonymous = unknown 무명의, author 저자 68. All behavior has an inherited basis, but strictly speaking it is only a potentiality that is inherited. sign 2 possibility learnability likeness 5 quantity 68. 모든행동은 유전적기반을갖고있다, 그러나엄격히말하자면 단지가능성일 뿐이다 유전으로물려받은것은. behavior 행동, inherit 유전하다, 물려받다, basis 근거, 기초, potentiality = possibility = likelihood = chance 가능성, likeness = sameness = resemblance 동일함, quantity 양 A drought was spreading relentlessly across much of South Asia. As the 979 planting season progressed, rice fields remained dry and cracked. In most of the afflicted countries, farmers could do little more than pray for rain. honorable 2 horrible rational upright 5 desperate 69. 가뭄은번지고있었다혹독하게 남아시아의대부분에. 979년씨뿌리는계절이 다가오는데, 논은남아있었다 마르고갈라진상태로. 고통받는나라의대부분에서, 절망적인농부들은 거의아무것도할수없었다 비를위해기도하는것외에는. drought 가뭄, spread 퍼지다, relentlessly 냉혹하게, plant 씨를뿌리다, 식물, 공장progress 전진 / 진보하 다, crack = split 갈라지다, afflict 고통을주다, honorable 존경할만한 명예로운, horrible 소름끼치 는, rational 합리적인, upright 똑바로선, 정직한, desperate절망적인 You will be punished if you paying your taxes. obey 2 invade evade demand 70. 당신은벌받을것이다만약당신이피하면세금내는것을. tax 세금, obey 복종하다, invade 침략하다, evade = avoid = dodge 피하다, demand 요구하다

10 Prohibition was abolished in 9. eradicated 2 desired regained identified 7. 금주령은폐지되었다 9 년에. Prohibition 금주령, abolish 폐지하다, eradicate 박멸하다, desire 갈망하다, regain 다시얻다 identify 신원을확인하다, 동일시하다 72. It took the medical scientists 0 years to eradicate the parasite. identify 2 exterminate seclude investigate 72. 의료과학자들이십년걸렸다 기생충을몰아내는데. eradicate = exterminate = eliminate = annihilate 박멸하다, parasite 기생충, identify신원을확인하다, 동 일시하다, seclude 격리하다, investigate 조사하다 2 7. Many countries have now succeeded in the malarial mosquito. eradicating 2erasing abolishing demolishing 7. 많은나라들이이제성공했다 몰아내는데 말라리아모기를. malarial mosquito 말라리아모기, eradicate = exterminate = eliminate = annihilate박멸하다, erase 지우 다, 죽이다, abolish = do away with 폐지하다, demolish 파괴하다 7. Beethoven was a versatile composer. powerful 2 dauntless handy enormous 7. 베에토벤은다재다능한작곡가였다. versatile = handy = all-around = many-sided다재다능한, composer 작곡가, dauntless 용맹스러운, enormous 거대한 75. Success comes with industry. remodeling 2 hub enthusiasm equation 75. 성공은온다 근면함으로부터. industry 근면, remodeling 개조, hub 중심지, enthusiasm 열정, equation 등식, 방정식, 균등화 76. The police made several raids to clean up vice in the city. virtue 2 barter wickedness consensus 76. 경찰은여러번습격했다 청소하기위해서 악덕을 도시의. raid 급습, clean up 청소하다, vice = wickedness 악덕 (vice president 부통령 ), virtue 미덕 barter 물물교환, consensus 여론, 의견의일치 77. He seemed to contradict merely to aggravate me. accuse 2 blame make angry give help to 77. 그는반대하는것처럼보였다 단지나를화나게하기위해서. contradict 부정하다, 모순되다, merely 단지, aggravate 악화시키다, 화나게하다accuse 비난하다, 기소하 다, blame 비난하다 78. A deficiency in zinc can cause birth defects in rodents. A lack of 2 A defect in An overdose of An impurity in 78. 징의부족은 원인이될수있다 출생의결점의 설치류 ( 쥐, 토끼등 ) 에게. deficiency 부족, defect 결점, rodent 설치류, overdose 과다복용, impurity 불순, 음란 79. The medicine inhibited the spread of the disease. extended 2 diminished prevented aggravate 5improved 79. 그약은방지했다질병의확산을. medicine 약, 의학, inhibit 방지하다, spread 확산, 번지다, extend 확장하다, diminish 감소하다, prevent 예방하다, aggravate 악화시키다, improve 개선하다 80. There is a considerable disparity in the rates of pay for men and women.

11 - - growth 2transition deficit conformation 5inequality 80. 상당히많은차이가있다임금률에있어서남성과여성의. considerable 상당한, disparity 차이, 불균형, rate 비율, pay 임금, 지불하다, transition 변천deficit 적자, conformation 구조, inequality 불평등 5 8. These planes are among the most sophisticatedaircraft now being manufactured. polite 2ample advanced dangerous 5magnanimous 8. 이비행기들은가장정밀한비행기중에하나이다지금제조되고있는. sophisticated = complicated = complex= advanced 정밀복잡한, aircraft 비행기manufacture 제조하다, polite 공손한, ample 충분한, magnanimous = generous 관대한 82. Estuaries represent some of the most ecologically important habitats on Earth. fiscally 2geographicallyhistorically environmentally 82. 강의입구는대표한다가장생태계적으로중요한환경의일부를지구에서. estuary 강어귀, represent 대표하다, ecologically 생태계적으로, habitat 환경, fiscally 재정상, 국고수입상, geographically 지리적으로 (geography 지리 ), environmentally 환경적으로 8. Isn't there any way we can entice you to come to the party? tell 2 lure daunt dream of 8. 혹시방법이없겠습니까우리가당신을유혹할파티에오도록? entice = lure 유혹하다, daunt 위압하다 2 8. He was able to hold back his anger and avoid a fight. restrain 2 visualize indicate evolve 8. 그는억제할수있었다그의분노를그리고싸움을피할수있었다. hold back = restrain = suppress = withhold 억제하다, anger 분노, avoid 피하다visualize 눈에보이게하다, indicate 나타내다, evolve 진화하다 85. When you read a novel, get a quick over-all view. important 2 normalimpressive clear 5comprehensive 85. 소설을읽을때에는, 빨리전체적으로한번보라 ( 줄거리를잡아라 ). over-all = overall = all-inclusive = all-embracing = broad = comprehensive 전체적인impressive = imposing = thrilling = magnificent 감동적인 5 동의어모음 Level 2. War is a futile and immoral action. unpleasant 2 crooked miserable useless 5encouraging. 전쟁은무익하고비도덕적인행위이다. futile = useless = worthless = fruitless = vain 무익한, immoral 비도덕적인, action 행위unpleasant 불쾌한, crooked 구불구불한, 부정직한, miserable 절망적인, encouraging 힘을북돋아주는 2. Someone who is is very greedy for money and possessions. futile 2 avaricious vicious unthinkable 5striking 2. 어떤사람이탐욕스럽다는것은대단히탐욕스러운것을말한다돈과재산에. greedy = avaricious 탐욕스러운, possession 소유, possessions 재산, futile = useless = vain 무익한 (vain 헛된, 허영심이강한 ), vicious 악의있는, 나쁜, unthinkable 상상할수없는striking 뚜렷한 2. a tranquil life in the country valueless 2 unbearable confined peaceful. 시골에서의평화로운인생 tranquil = peaceful = calm = placid = still 평화로운, country 시골, 나라, valueless 가치없는, unbearable 견딜수없는, confined 제한된 (confine 제한 / 감금하다 ). The mayor was suspected of crooked dealings. dishonest 2bent equitable inconsistent

12 시장은의심받았다부정직한거래의. mayor 시장, be suspected of ~ 의혐의를받다 (suspect 의심하다, 용의자 )crooked = dishonest = corrupt 부정직한, dealing 거래, bent 굽은, 열중하고있는, 호모의, 경향, equitable = just = fair = evenhanded = impartial 공평한, inconsistent 일관성없는 5.A is money or property which you receive after someone has died, because they said in their will that you should have it. legacy 2 testament legitimacy celebrity 5. 유산이란돈또는재산이다당신이받는누군가가죽은후에, 왜냐하면그들이말했기때문에그들의유언장에서당신이그것을가져야한다고. property 재산, 특징, will 유언 ( 장 ), 의지, legacy 유산, testament 유언, 유서, 성서 legitimacy 합법성, celebrity 유명인, 명성 6. This raincoat is made of very durable material. cheap 2 expensive flimsy enduring 6. 이우비는만들어졌다대단히강한재료로. durable = enduring = lasting = sturdy 오래견디는, material 재료, 자료, expensive 비싼 flimsy = fragile = frail = weak약한 7. The customs officer asked a foreign visitor. "Have you anything to." reveal 2expose admit confess 5declare 7. 세관원이물었다외국방문객에게. " 신고하실것있습니까?" customs 세관, 관세 (custom 관습 ), officer 관리, 장교, 경찰관 (police officer), reveal 밝히다, 드러내다, expose 노출하다, 햇볕을쐬다, admit 인정하다, 입장을허가하다, confess 자백하다, 고해하다, declare 선언하다, 세관에신고하다 declare against s/o, s/t 반대를선언하다, declare for s/o, s/t 지지를선언하다declare war on ~ 에게전쟁을선언하다 5 8. Individualism, "the survival of the fittest," is the law of nature, but no man should live for himself alone. People ought to be loyal, stand together, and work for. higher wages 2their leaderthe common good cheap commodities 5 the common man 8. 개인주의란, 적자생존, 자연의법칙이다, 그러나그누구도살아서는안된다자기자신만을위해서. 사람들은충성스러워야하고, 함께서야하고, 그리고대중의복지를위해일해야한다. individualism 개인주의, 개성, survival 생존, fit 적격한, loyal 성실한, 충성스러운wage 임금 ( 보통복수형인 wages 를씀 ), common good 공익 (common 공공의, 공통의, 보통의, good 이익, 선 )(goods 상품 ), commodity 상품 9. Your remittance is overdue. canceled 2 usual late in the mail 5 too early 9. 송금이늦었습니다. remittance 송금, overdue 기한이지난, 늦은, cancel 취소하다, usual 보통의 0. The weather bureau promised a sunny weekend. optimism 2destiny intuition department 5outlook 0. 기상청은약속했다 화창한주말을. bureau = service = department = administration 국 (an information bureau 안내소 )sunny = bright = shining = clear 화창한, optimism 낙관, destiny 운명, intuition 직관department 부, 성, 과, outlook 전 망. The proposal was rejected because it was considered economically unsound. gloomy 2 ignoble doubtful irrational 5uncertain

13 - -. 그제안은거부되었다왜냐하면그것이고려되어졌기때문에경제적으로비합리적이라고. proposal = suggestion = proposition 제안, reject 거부하다, consider 고려하다, economically 경제적으로, unsound 불합리한, 건전하지못한, gloomy 우울한, ignoble 야비한 (ignorant 무지한 ), doubtful 의 심스러운, irrational = unsound = unreasonable = illogical 불합리한uncertain 불확실한 2.Someone or something that is is very cruel and violent in hurting other people. vicious 2 crooked naked zealous 5dubious 2. 어떤사람또는어떤것이잔인하다는것은 대단히잔혹하고폭력적인것이다 다른사람을해하는 데있어서. cruel 잔혹한, violent 광포한, 폭력의, hurt 상처를입히다, vicious 악의있는, 나쁜crooked 부정직한, 길이 꼬불꼬불한, naked 벌거벗은, 적나라한, zealous = eager = ardent = enthusiastic = passionate = fervent 열성적인, dubious 의심스러운. his bizarre behavior cheerful 2 odd bad immoral 5 honest. 그의이상한행동 bizarre = strange = weird= queer = freakish = grotesque = odd= unusual 이상한 (queer 이상한, 동성애 자, freakish 이상한, 기형의, odd 이상한, 홀수의 )(even 짝수의, 평평한, 동일한 ), behavior 행동, cheerful 쾌활한, immoral 비도덕적인 2. The main to development is the country's huge foreign debt. impediment 2. practice expectation outlook 5breeding. 발전의주된장애물은 그나라의거대한외채이다. main = principal = chief = primary = prime = capital 주된, development 발전, 개발, 성장 huge 거대한, debt 빚, 채무, impediment = barrier = obstruction = hindrance = obstacle = drawback 장애, practice 연습, 습관, 실행, expectation 기대, outlook 전망, breeding 번식 (the breeding season 번식 기 ), 가정교육 (a man of breeding 예의범절이바른사람 ) 5. A knowledge of French can be a great asset when traveling in Europe. aid 2boldness declaration basis 5. 불어의지식은큰자산이될수있다 유럽을여행할때. asset 자산, 재산, aid 도움, 원조, 돕다 (aide 보좌관 ), boldness 대담함, declaration 선언, 세관신고 ( 서 ), basis 기초, 근거 6. House buyers usually have a large initial outlay on carpets and furniture. disbursement 2equipment quality. reason 6. 주택구매자들은일반적으로 큰첫번째지출을하게된다 카페트와가구의. buyer = purchaser 구매자, initial 최초의, 머리글자, 머리글자로서명하다outlay = disbursement = expenditure = expense = payment 지출, equipment 장비quality 질, 품질, 특성, reason 이성, 이유 7. He promised that there would be substantive arms control talks. empirical 2conflicting meaningful splendid 7. 그는약속했다 실재적인무기제한회담이있을것이라고. substantive 실재적인, arms control 무기제한 (arms 무기 ), talk 회담, 이야기 empirical 경험상의, conflicting 상충되는, meaningful 의미심장한, splendid 최고의 8. Many factories suffered substantial damage. additional 2extensive ruling basic 8. 많은공장들이상당한피해를입었다. suffer 손해를당하다, 고통을겪다, substantial 상당한 (= considerable = large = big), 실질적인, damage 손해, 손상, additional 추가의, extensive 광범위한, 대규모의, ruling 지배적인, basic 기본적인, 필수품 ( 보통복수형 basics 를씀 ) 2 9. An honorary degree was him by the university.

14 - - conferred with 2. conferred on conferred conferred to 5contributed to 9. 명예학위가그에게수여되었다대학에의해서. honorary 명예상의, degree 학위, 정도, confer on 수여하다 Science affects our whole ethical outlook by influencing our view as to the nature of the world in fact, by supplanting mythology. supporting 2destroying replacing convincing 5 exchanging 20. 과학은영향을미친다우리들의전체적인윤리적시각에우리들의세상의본질에대한시각에영 향을미침으로서, 다시말하자면신화를대체함으로서 ( 과학이 ). affect = influence 영향을미치다, ethical 윤리적인, outlook 시각, 전망, view = perspective 시각, as to = about = concerning ~ 에관하여, nature 자연, 본질, in fact 사실상 supplant = replace = take the place of = supersede 대체하다, mythology 신화 support 지지하다, destroy 파괴하다, convince 납득시키다, exchange 교환하다 Machines are supplanting men in many industries.the cinema has been superseded by television as the most popular form of entertainment. 2. He was scanning the rows with binoculars. examining 2portraying announcing investing 5recording 2. 그는관찰했다줄을쌍안경을가지고. scan = examine 관찰하다 (scan = browse through = skim = glance at 훑어보다 ), row 줄 ( 열 ) binoculars = telescope 쌍안경, portray = describe = depict 묘사하다 (portray 인물 / 풍경을 그리다 ), announce 공고하다, invest 투자하다, record 기록하다 22. If somebody is, he is given a medal or other honour as an official reward for what he has done. decorated 2 appreciated nominated confirmed 5deserted 22. 만약누군가가수여받았다면, 그에게메달이나다른영광이주어진것이다 공식적인상으로, 그가한업적에대하여. honour = honor 훈장, 명예, 존경, official 공식적인, 공무원, reward 포상, 보수 decorate 장식하다, ( 메달을 ) 수여하다, appreciate 감상 / 감사하다, nominate 임명하다, 후보로지명하다, confirm 확인 / 비준하다, desert 처자를버리다, 사막 I wish to nominate him as president of the club. 2. Someone who is talks a great deal, especially about things that are not important. grotesque 2 vigorous garrulous gregarious 5 gallant 2. 어떤사람이수다스럽다는것은그가말을많이한다는것이다, 특히중요하지도 않은문제에대하여. a great deal 많은, grotesque = outlandish = strange = odd = peculiar = bizarre = weird 이상한, vigorous = energetic = passionate = ardent = aggressive 정렬적인 garrulous = talkative = loquacious = effusive = wordy = chatty = gossipy 수다스러운 gregarious = social = outgoing 사교 적인, gallant = brave = valorous = valiant = courageous = dauntless = intrepid= bold = plucky 용 감한 2. This book is often mistakenly considered too abstruse for the lay mind. hard to understand 2difficult to write abstract to summarize not practical 5 readily obtainable 2. 이책은가끔오해로인해생각되어진다너무이해하기어렵다고 전문지식이없는사람들에게는. mistakenly 오해하여, consider = think about = contemplate = regard 생각하다 abstruse= hard to understand = obscure= incomprehensible 이해하기어려운 (obscure 분명치않은 ), lay = nonprofessional = unprofessional = amateur 전문지식이없는 (layman = nonprofessional 전문지식이 없는자 ), mind 사람, 마음, abstract 추상적인, summarize

15 - 5 - 요약하다, practical 실용적인, readily 쉽사리, 선뜻, obtainable 손에넣을수있는 25. Mr. Kim remained confounded on account of the abstruse expression of words. difficult 2amazing satiricalhumorous 5verbose 25. 김선생은당황했다 단어의표현이어려워서. confounded 당황한 (confound = baffle = confuse = perplex = bewilder = mix up 혼란시키다 )on account of = because of ~ 때문에, abstruse = incomprehensible 이해하기어려운 expression 표현, amazing 굉장한, satirical = satiric 풍자적인 (satire 풍자극 / 문학 )(parody 흉내, 모방을통한풍자 ), verbose = wordy = effusive = talkative = garrulous = loquacious 말많은, 장 황한 26. His claim to his father's inheritance was legitimate. meaningful 2legal conferred approval 5denied 26. 그의주장은 그의아버지의유산에대한 합법적이다. claim 주장 ( 하다 ), inheritance = legacy = bequest 유산, legitimate = legal = lawful = licit 합법적인, confer 수여하다, 협의하다 (conference 협의, 회의 ), approval 승인, deny 부정하다 Back when the telephone was a relatively new contraption, people often regarded it as too ephemeralfor important communications. speedy 2clums transientslow 5.inconvenient 27. 돌아가보면전화가비교적새로운이상한기계였을당시로, 사람들은가끔그것을 생각했다 너무일시적이라고 중요한대화를위해서는. relatively 비교적, contraption 이상한기계, regard A as B A 를 B 로간주하다ephemeral= temporary = temporal = transient = transitory = fleeting = momentary = evanescent 일시적인, clumsy = butter-fingered 둔한, inconvenient 불편한 28. The country seems to be better set up to disseminate the latest sports research. carry out 2 spread review investigate 5finance 28. 그나라는보인다잘구성되어있는것으로확산시키는데최신스포츠연구를. set up = establish 설립하다, disseminate = spread = diffuse = disperse = scatter 확산시키다 research 연구, carry out 수행하다, review 재조사, 비평, investigate 조사하다finance 자금을제공하다, 제정 The monotonous routine of hospital life induced a feeling of ennui which made him moody and irritable. boredom 2enrapture brevity encouragement 5candor 29. 따분한방식은병원생활의원인이된다따분한기분의그것은그를만든다비관적이고쉽게화내도록. monotonous = boring = dull = dreary 따분한, 단조로운, routine = formula 방식induce = lead to = cause 원인이되다 (induce = persuade = coax 설득하다 ), ennui = boredom 따분함, moody = gloomy = pessimistic 비관적인 (mood = state of mind = feeling 기분 )irritable= easily irritated = easily annoyed = easily angered = oversensitive 쉽게화내는enrapture 사로잡다, brevity = shortness 간결, 짧음 (the brevity of life 짧은인생 )encouragement 격려, candor = frankness = openness = straightforwardness 솔직함 0. But what are we going to do about it? There are no panaceas at all; and we had better face that. paradise 2ideas technology wisdom 5remedy for all disease 0. 그러나그것을어떻게할것인가? 만병통치약은전혀없다. 그리고그점을직시해야한다. ( 사실로받아들여야한다.) panacea = cure-all = nostrum 만병통치약, at all 전혀, face 직시하다, paradise 낙원technology 기

16 - 6 - 술, wisdom 지혜, remedy = cure = treatment 치료 ( 법 ) 5. A fixed income will bring about a change of temper. temperature 2standard of living height disposition 5residence. 고정된수입은 원인이된다 기질변화의. fixed 고정된, income 수입, bring about 원인이되다, temper 기질, 나쁜성질, temperature 기온, height 키, 높이, disposition = temperament = temper 기질 (character = personality 성 격 )(temperamental 신경질적인, 변덕스러운 ), residence 거주, 주거 2. It is those who have achieved something and want to rest on their achievements who are forever clogging things up. To keep an industry pure, you've got to keep it in perpetual. order 2ferment peace.supervision 2. 바로그사람들이, 무엇인가를달성했고그들의달성에의존하는자들이, 일들을영원히 막고있는자들이다. 근면함을순수하게유지하려면 영원한감시하에두어야한다. achieve 달성하다, rest on = lean on 기대다, achievement 달성, 성취, clog = clog up 막다 industry = diligence = industriousness 근면, pure 순수한, perpetual = permanent 영원한order 순서, 명 령, 질서, 주문, ferment = upheaval = commotion 혼란 (ferment 효소, 발효, 발효시키다 ), supervision = control = surveillance 감시 The road to the airport is clogged withtraffic.. Twice in the Platonic dialogues he speaks about his search for wisdom and asserts that his knowledge, such as it is, is a knowledge of 'erotic things'. once upon a time 2not asserting nothing but soon to be 5such as. 플라톤과의대화에서두번이나 그는그의지혜의탐구에대하여언급했다 그리고주장했다 그의지식은, 별가치는없는, 성적인것에관한지식일뿐이라고. search 추구, 조사, assert 주장하다, such as it is/they are 별가치는없으나, erotic = sexual 성적인, once upon a time 옛날옛적에, such as 예를들면 as it is = actually 사실상, as it were 말하자면 *We had hoped to finish it today, but as it is we probably won't finish until tomorrow. *He is, as it were, a modern Sherlock Holmes.. In an effort to its operations, the corporation announced it was acquiring asubsidiary company. intensify 2adumbrate establish diversify 5protract. 운영 ( 회사경영 ) 을다양화시키려는노력의일환으로 기업은발표했다 계열사를사들이는중이라고. effort 노력, operation 사업, 수술, 기계의운전, 군사행동, corporation 법인, announce 공고하다, acquire 얻다, 취득하다, subsidiary 소속회사 ( 계열사 ), 부수적인intensify 강렬하게하다, adumbrate 윤곽을나타내다, establish 설립하다, diversify = vary다양하게하다 (diversity = variety 다양성 ), protract ( 시간을 ) 연장하다 5. He ran his finger over the letters to see if they had been. eluded 2written embossed irradiated 5indexed 5. 그는반복해서손가락으로편지위를더듬었다 보려고 편지에무늬나도안등이 새겨졌나를. run over = repeat 반복하다, elude 벗어나다, emboss 무늬나도안을새기다, irradiate 밝게빛나다, index 색인을작성하다, 색인, 찾아보기 He was run over by a bus. ( 버스에치이다.) run over = go over = review 복습하다 6. Straightforwardness buttressedby honesty leads to a state of bliss. combined 2harmonized the absence of 5ornamented with 6. 솔직함은, 정직에의해지지를받는, 인도한다 행복의상태로.

17 - 7 - straightforwardness = frankness = candor 솔직함 (straightforward = frank = candid 솔직한 ) buttress = support = stand up for = advocate 지지하다, honesty = fidelity = integrity = truthfulness = sincerity 정직, state 상태, 주, 국가, 진술하다, bliss = happiness = pleasure 행복combine 결합시키다, harmonize 조화시키다, in the absence of ~ 이없을때는ornament = decorate = adorn 장식하다 (ornament = decoration = adornment 장식 ) 7. There has never been so stupendousan advance in so short a time. tenacious 2tremendous tentative trenchant 5terrestrial 7. 한번도이루어진적이없었다그렇게거대한진보가그렇게짧은기간동안에. stupendous = huge = enormous = vast = tremendous 거대한, tenacious 고집센, 완강한 tentative = not final 잠정적인 (a tentative schedule 잠정적인시간표 ), trenchant = distinct 뚜렷한, terrestrial 지구의 (extra-terrestrial = E.T. 우주인 ) 2 8. He had an extremely obese friend whose mind was constantly occupied with the thought of delicacies. corpulent 2charming grotesque. thin 5dirty 8. 그에게는너무도뚱뚱한친구가있었는데그친구의생각은항상가득차있었다맛있는음식에대한생각으로. extremely 극단적으로, obese = very fat = corpulent 뚱뚱한, constantly 끊임없이occupy 점유 / 점령하다, thought 생각, delicacy 귀한음식, charming = attractive = lovel 매력있는, grotesque = strange = outlandish 이상한, thin = skinny = slim = lean 마른 delicatessen = deli 샌드위치식당, 치즈와수입고기파는고급상점 delicate = fragile = frail = flimsy 깨지기쉬운 *Be careful with those wine glasses. They are very delicate. delicate 신중을기해야하는 *The negotiations are at a very delicate stage. delicate = beautiful = attractive = graceful 우아한 *She had long delicate fingers. 9. Mr. White was very annoyed that his secretary did not meet his deadlines, and he warned her that her laziness and could result in her dismissal. ambition 2fortitude procrastination zeal 5veracity 9. 와이트씨는매우화가났다비서가시간안에일을끝내지않아서. 그는경고했다그녀에게그녀의게으름과지연이원인이될수있다고그녀해고의. annoyed 화난, deadline 마감시간, laziness 게으름, result in ~ 의결과를초래하다dismissal 해고, 해산, ambition 야망, fortitude = courage 불굴, procrastination 지연zeal = vigor = eagerness 열정, veracity = truthfulness 진실 The veracity of the report is unquestionable. 0. Until the nature of the aging process is better understood, the possibility of discovering a medicine that can block the fundamental process of aging seems very. practical 2substantial desirable urgent 5remote 0. 노화진행의본질이더잘이해되어지기까지는의약품발명의가능성은, 막을수있는기본적노화의진행을, 대단히먼것처럼보인다. nature 본질, 자연, process = procedure = movement 진행, possibility 가능성, discover 발견하다, medicine 약, block 막다, fundamental 기본적인, practical 실용적인substantial 실질적인, 상당히많은, desirable 바람직한, urgent 긴급한, remote = far = far-off = faraway = distant 먼 (remote control 리모콘 ) 5. The reviewer criticized the poet's amorphous style. unusual2ingenious unimaginative. stiff, too ordered 5lacking in organization and form

18 비평가는비난했다시인의형식을못갖춘스타일을. reviewer 비평가, criticize = review 비판하다, amorphous = formless = characterless 형태가없는, unusual 비범한, 별난, ingenious 독창적인, 재치있는, unimaginative = unoriginal 상상력이없는, stiff 경직된, 아주비싼, ordered 질서바른 5 2. There has been an increasing awareness of the inadequacies of the judicial system. Costs are staggering both for the taxpayers and for the litigants. judges 2lawyers commentators jury members 5parties in a lawsuit 2. ( 사람들의 ) 인식이높아져가고있다사법제도의부적합성에대한. 비용이경이적이다납세자와소송당사자양쪽에모두. awareness = perception = discernment 인식, inadequacy 부적합성, judicial 사법부의 (judiciary 사법부 ), staggering 경이적인, taxpayer 납세자, litigant 소송당사자judge 판사, lawyer = attorney-at-law = attorney = counselor = counsel = jurist 변호사commentator = critic = reviewer 비평가, jury = juryman 배심원단 (juror 배심원 )party 당사자, 일행, 모임, 정당, lawsuit 소송 5. No attempts have been made to replace the older theory regarding the authority of immutablevalues by conceptions more congruous with the practices of daily life. transcendent 2. sublime unchangeable theoretical. 시도를해본적이없다오래된이론을대체하려는그이론은불변하는가치의권위에관한것인데좀더일치하는개념으로일상생활의습관적인것과. attempt = try = effort = endeavor 시도 ( 노력 ), replace = supplant = supersede =take the place of = displace 대체하다, replace A by B A 를 B 로바꾸다regarding = concerning = as regards ~ 에관하여, authority 권위, 권위자, 관계당국immutable= unchanging = unchangeable = permanent 불변하는, value 가치, conception 개념congruous = congruent = fitting = suitable 일치하는, 적합한, practice 습관, 실행, 연습transcendent = transcendental 탁월한, sublime = splendid = superb = wonderful 최고의theoretical 이론적인, unalienable = inalienable 빼앗을수없는. The last decade was a period of turbulence and. tranquillity 2aggression disturbance turmoil 5frustration. 지난십년간은격동과혼란의시절이었다. decade 십년, turbulence 격동, turmoil = agitation = upheaval = chaos 혼란, 혼돈 tranquillity= peace = calm = quiet = placidity 평화, aggression = hostility = belligerence 호전성, disturbance 방해, 소란, frustration 좌절 5. During the twentieth century, many synthetic products have replaced the natural products. doubled 2. fiscal artificial flexible 5 modern 5. 20세기동안, 많은가공제품들이대체했다자연제품들을. synthetic = artificial = man-made 가공한 (synthetic 종합적인 ), product 제품, replace 대체하다, fiscal = financial = monetary 재정의, flexible = elastic 탄력있는 6. Every Wednesday he brings home a lovely of flowers for his wife. bunch 2pile bundle package 5pack 6. 매주수요일그는집으로가져온다사랑스러운꽃한다발을그의아내를위해. a bunch of flowers/grapes/keys꽃한다발 / 포도한송이 / 열쇠한묶음 a bundle of books/newspapers책한뭉치 / 신문한묶음a pack of cigarettes/gum 담배한갑 / 껌한통 pile 쌓아올려진것, package 상자 7. When a muscle is made to contractby regularly repeated stimulation of its motor nerve, it continues to respond for a very long time. relax 2extend shrink lengthen 5leap 7. 근육이수축하게되면규칙적으로반복되는자극에의해근육을움직이는신경의그것은계속해서반응한다상당히오랫동안. muscle 근육, contract = shrink 줄어들다, regularly 정기적으로, stimulation 자극motor nerve 근육을

19 - 9 - 움직이게하는신경, respond 반응하다, relax 느슨해지다 extend 넓히다, lengthen 길어지다, leap 도 약하다, 점프 8. China has doubled its military spending since 988, and is casting covetous looks at strategic sites far from its shores. aggressive 2luring desirous diplomatic 8. 중국은두배로늘려왔다군비지출을 988 년이래로, 그리고던지고있다 심히원하는눈길을전략적요지에중국의해안에서멀리떨어진. cast = throw 던지다, covetous = desirous = lustful = yearning 갈망하는 (desirable 바람직한 ) (covet = desire = lust after = yearn for = long for = want 갈망하다 ), strategic 전략상의 site 장소, aggressive 호전적인, 적극적인, lure 유혹하다, diplomatic 외교상의 9. The labor leaders realize they will have to make some concessions in their demands in order to reach an agreement. suggestions 2changes mistakes compromises 5efforts 9. 노동조합지도자들은알고있다그들이양보해야한다는것을 그들의요구사항중 ( 일부를 ) 합의에다다르기위해. realize 실감 / 실현하다, concession = compromise 타협, 양보, demand 요구, 수요, agreement 합의, suggestion 제안, effort 노력 50. Her efforts to diminish the hatred towards him resulting from her boredom only augmented it. got rid of 2doubled irritated increased 5lessened 50. 그녀의노력은증오심을가라앉히고자하는 그를향한 그녀의따분함으로부터오는 단지그것을증가시켰을뿐이다. effort 노력, diminish = lessen = decrease = reduce = lower 감소시키다, hatred 증오 result from ~ 으로부터오다, boredom 따분함, augment = increase = add to = raise = build up 증가시키다, get rid of = eliminate = do away with = annihilate 제거하다irritate = annoy = anger = make angry = vex = peeve = provoke = nettle 화나게하다 5. She even accused her daughter of being callous. unfeeling 2greedy impaired spoiled 5inactive 5. 그녀는비난하기까지한다 그녀의딸이무감각하다고. accuse of 비난 / 고발하다, callous = unsympathetic = unfeeling = cold 무감각한greedy 탐욕스러운, impair = weaken 약하게하다, spoil 상하게하다, 버릇나빠지게하다inactive 비활동적인 The food will spoil. ( 음식이상할것이다.) His father spoils him. ( 너무잘해줘버릇나빠지게하다.) 52. The young chicks of gulls solicit feeding by pecking at their parents' bills. ask for 2turn down provide for take care of 5enjoy 52. 갈매기의어린새끼들은요청한다 먹여달라고쪼므로써 부모의부리를. chick 새끼, gull 갈매기, solicit = ask for 요청하다, peck 쪼다, bill 부리, 법안, 계산서, 지폐 turn down 거절하다, provide 준비 / 제공하다, take care of 돌보다 5. I can't agree with your tenuous argument. I need more specific information. overstated 2unsubstantial irresolute assertive 5 consistent 5. 나는동의할수없다 당신의중요치않은주장에. 나는더자세한정보가필요하다. tenuous = unsubstantial = insignificant = slight 중요치않은, argument 주장, specific 명확한 overstate 과장하다, irresolute 우유부단한, assertive 단정적인, consistent 일관성있는 2 5. The ties that bind us together in common activity are so that they can disappear at any moment.

20 tentative 2tenuous restrictive consistent 5tenacious 5. 우리를하나로묶고있는끈들은공동활동에서 그렇게약하다그들은없어질수있다 언 제라도. tie 끈, 넥타이, 매다, bind 묶다, activity 행동, disappear 사라지다, moment 순간tentative 잠정적인, tenuous = weak = flimsy 약한, restrictive 제한하는, consistent일관성있는, tenacious = resolute 확고 한 His achievements him respect and admiration. earned 2overtook spared turned 5conjugated 55. 그의성취가 그에게가져다주었다 존중과존경심을. achievement 성취, 업적, respect 존경, admiration 존경심, overtake 앞지르다 spare ( 여분이있어 ) 줄수있다, 여분의, conjugate 동사형이변화하다 56. Many amenities unavailable in his country were enjoyed in America. friends 2comforts groceries drinks 5luxuries 56. 많은편이시설들이 그의나라에는없는 즐길수있게되어있다미국에서는. amenities = comforts 편이시설, unavailable 부재의, 이용할수없는, groceries 식료품 (grocery 식품점 ), luxury 사치 ( 품 ) Paradoxically, this successful entrepreneur is sometimes and at other times reclusive. autonomous 2dispassionate solitary unthinking 5gregarious 57. 역설적이게도, 이성공적인기업가는 때때로사교적이고다른때에는은둔적이다. paradoxically 역설적으로, entrepreneur 기업가, reclusive 은둔하는 (recluse = hermit 은둔자 ) autonomous 자치권이있는, dispassionate 감정에좌우되지않는, solitary 혼자의, 외로운 unthinking = careless 부주의한, gregarious = sociable 사교적인 Hidden, shadowy doubts that had been in men's minds concerning the school master were galvanized into belief. stirred 2recoiled mollified quieted 5numbed 58. 숨겨졌던, 어두운의심은 사람들마음속에있었던 교장선생님에대한 ( 의심은 ) 자극받았다 믿음으로 ( 바뀌도록 ). shadowy 어두운, 그림자의, doubt 의심, concerning ~ 에관한, galvanize = stimulate = excite= stir 자극 하다, belief 믿음, stir 자극하다, 휘젓다, recoil 뒤로주춤하다, mollify = make less angry 누그러뜨리 다, quiet 조용하게하다, numb 감각을잃게하다 59. Romantic egoism, beginning in the introspectiveintensity of the individual, readily becomes racial, national, or even cosmic as the times require. spontaneous 2. intricate reflective democratic 5 intimate 59. 낭만적인이기주의는, 시작된다 자기성찰적인 개인의격렬함에서, 쉽게된다 인 종적이고, 민족적이고, 우주적이기까지 시대의요구에따라. egoism 이기주의, introspective 자기성찰적인, intensity 격렬, individual 개인, readily 쉽게require 요구하 다, spontaneous 자연발생적인, intricate = complicated 복잡한, reflective = thoughtful 사려깊은 (reflective 반사하는 ), democratic 민주적인, intimate 친밀한, 깊은 60. There have been bouts of war, but bouts of peace have followed them sooner or later. emblems 2events hymns spells 60. 전쟁의기간이있었다, 그러나평화의기간이뒤따랐다 그것들을곧바로. bout = spell = interval = period 기간, emblem = symbol 상징, hymn 찬송가 6. There was a balm in the air which soothed no less than it exhilarated me.

21 - 2 - blessed 2exaggerated invigorated repealed 6. 기분을좋게해주는무엇인가가있었다 공기속에 진정시켜주는 그것이나를들뜨게한만큼. balm 진통제, 정신을편하게해주는것, soothe = calm 진정시키다, exhilarate = stimulate = invigorate 들뜨게하다, bless 축복하다, exaggerate = hyperbolize = overstate 과장하다repeal ( 법을 ) 폐기 하다 62. Dancing before Nadar's luminous eyes at century's end is the prospect of $ billion in annual revenue. shining 2diminutive immense coalescent 5ravishing 62. 나다의빛나는눈앞에서춤추는것은세기의말에 0억달러의전망이다연간수입. luminous = shining ( 어둠에서 ) 빛나는, prospect 전망, 예상, annual 년의, revenue 수입diminutive = miniature = tiny 소형의, immense 거대한, coalescent 통합하는 (coalesce =merge 통합하다 ), ravishing = beautiful 아름다운 6.The minimum amount of time you should spend exercising in a day is 20 minutes. True. There are more than 00 muscles that attach to your skeleton. A good exercise routine should and all these muscles, and this simply cannot be done with four or five exercises in five or ten minutes. contract-stretch 2harden-soften fit-unfit contact-relax 6. 최소시간은당신이운동하는데써야할하루에 20분이다. 맞다. 00개이상의근육이뼈에달라붙어있다. 좋은운동의반복은수축시키고이완시키는데있다 이모든근육 들을, 그리고이것이그냥되어지는것이아니다네, 다섯번의운동으로 5분에서 0분동안에. minimum 최소의, 최소한도, muscle 근육, attach 달라붙다, skeleton 뼈대, 해골routine 일과, 틀에박힌, contract 수축시키다, 줄어들다, stretch 늘리다, harden 단단하게하다, soften 부드럽게하다, fit 알맞 은, 꼭맞다, unfit 맞지않는, contact 접촉 / 연락하다relax 편하게하다 6.Can he reassure the island's 0 million residents in time for a 999 plebiscite on its future? referendum 2. reelection conference reformation 6. 그가다시자신을갖게할수있을까 섬의천만명의국민들을 제시간에 999년국민투표를위해 미래를향한. reassure 안심시키다, 다시자신을갖게하다, resident 거주자, plebiscite = referendum 국민투표, reelection 재선, conference 회의, reformation 재구성 65.Some children display an unquenchable curiosity about every new thing they encounter. insatiable 2inherent indiscriminate incredible 5indignant 65. 어떤어린이들은보여준다 만족치못하는신기함을 모든새로운것에대한 그들이접하게되는. display 표시 / 전시하다, unquenchable = insatiable 만족하지못하는 (quench 갈증을가시게 하다 ), curiosity 호기심, encounter 만나다, inherent 고유의, indiscriminate = random 무작위의 incredible 놀라운, indignant = angry = infuriated 화난 66.Everything that elevates an individual above the herd and intimidates the neighbor is henceforth called evil. inverts 2disapproves disbelieves threatens 5discharges 66. 모든것은 개인을높이고 무리보다위로 그리고협박하는이웃을 지금부터불리운다 악이라고. elevate 높이다, individual 개인, herd 짐승의떼, intimidate = threaten = scare 협박하다 neighbor 이웃, henceforth = from now on 지금부터, evil 악, 사악한, invert 거꾸로하다disapprove 승인하 지않다, disbelieve 믿지않다, discharge 짐을부리다 67. The chase relentlessly continues. closely 2formally mercilessly benevolently 5instinctively