프로그램 Program 프로그램 09:50 ~ 10:20 등록 10:20 ~ 10:30 개회사 : 김성곤한국문학번역원장 Program 09:50 ~ 10:20 Registration 10:20 ~ 10:30 Opening Address: Kim Seong-Kon (Pr

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1 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 해외문학관련유관기관과의협력및교류방안 Cooperation and Expertise Sharing among Cultural Institutions 일시 : ( 목 ) 10:00 장소 : 코엑스컨퍼런스룸 327 호 (Coex Conference Room South 327) 주최 : 한국문학번역원후원 : 문화체육관광부

2 프로그램 Program 프로그램 09:50 ~ 10:20 등록 10:20 ~ 10:30 개회사 : 김성곤한국문학번역원장 Program 09:50 ~ 10:20 Registration 10:20 ~ 10:30 Opening Address: Kim Seong-Kon (President, LTI Korea) 1 부사회 : 김동식 ( 인하대교수 ) Session 1 Moderator: Kim Dong-shik (Inha University) 10:30 ~ 11:10 기조강연 1: 김종회 ( 경희대학교국문과교수 ) 문학번역, 문학의세계화로가는길 10:30 ~ 11:10 Keynote Speech 1: Kim Jong Hoi (Kyung Hee University, Korea) Literary Translation: Towards the Globalization of Literature 11:10 ~ 11:50 발제 1: 바바라덴오덴 ( 네델란드문학재단, 네델란드 ) 한국계네델란드인의시각에서바라보는교차출간사업 11:10 ~ 11:50 Panel 1: Barbara den Ouden (Dutch Foundation for Literature, Netherlands) The Two-Way Translation Project from a Dutch-Korean Point of View 11:50 ~ 12:30 종합토론및질의응답 - 강유정 ( 강남대학교교수 ) 11:50 ~ 12:30 Discussion/Q&A - Kang Yu-jung (Kangnam University) 12:30 ~ 14:00 점심식사 12:30 ~ 14:00 Lunch 2 부사회 : 김수이 ( 경희대교수 ) Session 2 Moderator: Kim Suyee (Kyung Hee University) 14:10 ~ 14:50 발제 2: 알리레자가즈베 ( 이란이슬람예술센터, 이란 ) 번역 : 나란히앉아대화나누는상 ( 床 ) 14:10 ~ 14:50 Panel 2: Alireza Ghazveh (Hozeh Honari, Iran) Translation: A Table to Sit by and Chat 14:50 ~ 15:30 발제 3: 존맥글린 ( 국가도서위원회, 인도네시아 ) 문학정전의정립과세계화 14:50 ~ 15:30 Panel 3: John McGlynn (National Book Committee, Indonesia) Creating Canon of Literature in Translation 15:30 ~ 16:10 종합토론및질의응답 - 류보선 ( 군산대학교교수 ) 15:30 ~ 16:10 Discussion/Q&A - Ryoo Bo Sun (Kunsan National University) 16:10 리셉션 16:10 Reception 2 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 3

3 목차 Contents 6 원장인사말 7 A Word from the President of LTI Korea 8 참가자소개 11 Profile 1 부 Session 1 16 기조강연 김종회 ( 경희대학교국문과교수 ) 문학번역, 문학의세계화로가는길 23 Keynote Speech 1 Kim Jong Hoi (Kyung Hee University) Literary Translation: Towards the Globalization of Literature 32 발제 1 바바라덴오덴 ( 네델란드문학재단, 네델란드 ) 한국계네델란드인의시각에서바라보는교차출간사업 36 Panel 1 Barbara den Ouden (Dutch Foundation for Literature, Netherlands) The Two-Way Translation Project from a Dutch-Korean Point of View 41 토론 1 강유정 ( 강남대학교교수 ) 43 Discussion 1 Kang Yu-jung (Kangnam University) 2 부 Session 2 46 발제 2 알리레자가즈베 ( 이란이슬람예술센터, 이란 ) 번역 : 나란히앉아대화를나누는상 ( 床 ) 48 Panel 2 Alireza Ghazveh (Hozeh Honari, Iran) Translation: A Table to Sit by and Chat 50 발제 3 존맥글린 ( 국가도서위원회, 인도네시아 ) 문학정전의정립과세계화 58 Panel 3 John McGlynn (National Book Committee, Indonesia) Creating Canon of Literature in Translation 65 토론 2 류보선 ( 군산대학교교수 ) 67 Discussion 2 Ryoo Bo Sun (Kunsan National University) 4 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 5

4 원장인사말 A Word from the President of LTI Korea 한국문학을해외에널리알리려면탁월한원작과좋은번역도중요하지만, 외국의현지출판사나문학 관련기관과의협업도매우중요합니다. 그래서번역원은많은해외기관과광범위한네트워크를형성하 고, 노하우를공유하며, 서로긴밀히협업해오고있습니다. Promoting Korean literature in the world naturally calls for excellent original works and skillfully crafted translations; however, collaboration with foreign publishing houses and literary organizations is equally important. That is why the (LTI Korea) has formed a vast network with organizations from around the world to share best practices and engage in cooperation 년제16 회 [ 한국문학번역출판국제워크샵 ] 에는해외에서문학관련단체를이끌고있는유명인사들이와서자기나라에서는어떤방식으로자국의문학을해외에알리고있는가를발표합니다. 그분들의발표는좋은케이스스터디가되어, 우리문학의해외진출을위해서도새로운변화와전기를마련해주게되리라고생각합니다. At the 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature, distinguished leaders of literary organizations from around the world will discuss how their countries are promoting their literary works on the international stage. Their presentations will become case studies that bring change and transformation to the overseas promotion of Korean literature. Toward this goal, LTI Korea has signed or is in discussions to sign MOUs with literary organizations 한국문학번역원은작년부터이란, 네델란드, 그리고인도네시아의문학관련기관들과 MOU를맺고교차출간을시작했습니다. 교차출간이라함은, 문학성은뛰어나지만상업성은별로없어서상업출판사에서출간을꺼리는외국의문학작품을우리말로번역해서번역원출판부에서출간하고, 비슷한성격의한국문학작품은외국의문학기관에서번역출간하는것을지칭합니다. 그렇게되면, 단지상업성이부족하다는이유로출간되지못하는많은훌륭한작품들이빛을보게될것입니다. from countries such as Iran, the Netherlands, and Indonesia. LTI Press will translate and publish foreign works with great literary value but not enough market viability for commercial publishing houses in Korea, and foreign literary organizations will do the same for Korean works of literature in a similar position. This will allow many distinguished works, whose low commercial viability prevented their publication, to reach readers around the world. The International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature will be a wonderful 이번번역출판국제워크샵을통해번역원은앞으로더욱활발하게해외문학관련단체들과교류하고, 더욱효과적으로한국문학을해외에알릴수있게될것입니다. opportunity for LTI Korea to deepen its exchanges with foreign literary organizations and more effectively promote Korean literature around the world 년 6월 15일한국문학번역원원장김성곤 Kim Seong-Kon President, LTI Korea June 15, 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 7

5 참가자소개 다. 전쟁을소재로한이란의시인중가장유명하며, 그래서인지전쟁을소재로한그의시에서죽음은다채로운모습으로그려진다. 가즈베는테헤란에거주하며, 이란이슬람예술센터 (Hozeh Honari) 의센터장으로일하고있다. 기조발제 김종회김종회는경남고성에서태어나경희대학교국어국문학과를졸업하고동대학원에서문학박사학위를받았으며현재경희대학교국어국문학과교수로재직중이다. 1988년 문학사상 을통해문학평론가로문단에나온이래활발한비평활동을해왔으며 문학사상, 문학수첩, 21세기문학, 한국문학평론 등여러문예지의편집위원을맡아왔다. 현재한국문학평론가협회및한국비평문학회회장이다. 김환태평론문학상, 김달진문학상, 편운문학상, 유심작품상, 한국문학평론가협회상, 시와시학상, 경희문학상등을수상했으며평론집으로 문학과예술혼, 디아스포라를넘어서, 문학에서세상을만나다, 문학의거울과저울 등이있고 한국소설의낙원의식연구, 한민족디아스포라문학 등의저서와 글에서삶을배우다 등의산문집이있다. 발제 3 존맥글린미국위스콘신주출신인존맥글린은 1976 년부터인도네시아자카르타에서살았다. 앤아버미시간대학교에서인도네시아문학전공으로석사학위를받았으며, 본명과 Willem Samuels라는필명으로여러책자를번역했다. 인도네시아에서가장유명한작가인 Pramoedya Ananta Toer 의작품등국제적으로저명한인도네시아작가들의작품을필명으로번역했다. 맥글린은 1987 년에공동설립된론따르재단 (Lontar Foundation) 을통해인도네시아문학및문화에관한책을 200권가까이번역, 편집, 감수및출판했다. 또한, 론따르재단을통해 On the Record 다큐멘터리프로그램을시작해서, 지금까지인도네시아작가들에관한다큐멘터리 24편과, 인도네시아전통공연에관한다큐멘터리 30여편을제작했다. 영화번역가로서 100편이상의인도네시아영화를번역하기도했다. 발제 1 바바라덴오덴바바라덴오덴은위트레흐트대학에서영어영문학을공부했으며, 세부전공은서양현대문학과번역이다. 미술과디자인관련출판사에서잠시근무하다, 네덜란드문학재단 (The Dutch Foundation for Literature ) 의전신인네덜란드문학번역재단 (The Foundation for the Production and Translation of Dutch Literature) 으로자리를옮겼다. 그녀는이곳에서 10년간문학번역가를발굴, 평가, 지원하는업무를담당했으며, 네덜란드어나플랑드르어책을자국언어로번역하는번역가들을초청하는암스테르담번역가의집 (The Translator s House Amsterdam) 에서일했다. 지난 6년간그녀는소설과그래픽노블분야그랜트매니저로일했다. 소설번역에관해동유럽및중부유럽, 지중해, 라틴아메리카, 아랍, 한국과의연락을담당하며, 그래픽노블번역에관해서는전세계모든국가와의연락을담당한다. 발제 2 알리레라가즈베알리레라가즈베는이란중북부셈난주의감사르에서태어났다. 그는 18세때첫시를낭송했으며, 이란에서잘알려진시인이다. 가즈베는 2012 년러시아과학아카데미에서철학박사학위를받았다. 그의시중가장유명한것은 Leader had no Villa 라는작품으로, 이시는전후사치스러운생활방식에대한사회적관심을비판한다. 그의시는일상에대한시적반응으로가득차있으며, 정의를고무하고, 타인및자연과조화를이루는생활방식을옹호한 맥글린은하와이대학교에서출판하는문학지 Manoa의인도네시아담당편집자이자, 미국문학지 Words Without Borders 와 Warscapes, 그리고호주문학지 Cordite Review의편집자이다. 그는아시아 -태평양작가번역가협회 (Asia Pacific Writers and Translators Association) 의설립자이며, 인도네시아출판협회 (Indonesian Publishers Association:IKAPI), 국제펜클럽 (PEN International-New York), 아시아학회 (Association of Asian Studies) 회원이다. 또한, 미국정부에서지원하는풀브라이트및험프리장학프로그램을감독하는미국-인도네시아교류재단 (American Indonesian Exchange Foundation: AMINEF) 의이사이다. 맥글린은인도네시아국가도서위원회 (Indonesia s National Book Committee) 위원으로서, 위원회의번역및문학프로그램을조정, 감독하는일을하고있다. 토론자 강유정 - 강남대학교국어국문학과교수, 문학평론가, 영화평론가 - 고려대학교국어국문학과대학원을졸업하고 2005년조선일보, 동아일보, 경향신문에각각당선되며비평활동을시작하였다. 저서로 오이디푸스의숲, 스무살영화관, 사랑에빠진영화, 영화에빠진사랑 등이있다. 류보선 - 국립군산대학교국어국문학과교수 - 서울대학교국어국문학과를졸업하고동대학원에서문학박사학위를취득하였다 년 문학사상 신춘문예에 8 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 9

6 분단문학의새로운지평을위하여-김원일론 이당선되어비평활동을시작하였다. - 현대문학상 (2002) 과팔봉비평문학상 (2013) 을수상하였으며, 저서로는 경이로운차이들, 또다른목소리들, 한국근대문학의정치적 ( 무 ) 의식, 한국문학의유령들 이있으며 임화문학예술전집 과 구보가아즉박태원일때 등을편집하였다. 사회자 김동식 - 인하대학교한국어문학과교수및문학평론가 년부산생. 서울대학교한국어문학과및동대학원졸업 년 글쓰기의우울 : 신경숙론 으로비평활동시작함. 2005년프랑크푸르트도서전한국문학프로그래머, 계간 문학과사회 편집동인역임. 저서로 냉소와매혹, 기억과흔적, 소설에관한작은이야기, 잡다 등이있다. 김수이 - 문학평론가 - 경희대후마니스트칼리지교수. 평론집 풍경속의빈곳, 서정은진화한다, 쓸수있거나쓸수없는 등이있다. Profiles Keynote Speech Kim Jong Hoi is a professor at Kyung Hee University s Department of Korean Language and Literature. Kim entered the field of literary criticism in 1988 through Literature and Thought and remains active to this day, also serving as an editor for multiple literary publications, including Literature and Thought, Moonhak soochup (Literature Note), 21 segi munhak (21st Century Literature), and Hanguk munhak pyeongron (Korean Literature Criticism). Kim is currently the Chair of the Korean Association of Literary Critics and the Society of Korean Literary Criticism. Kim has been awarded the Kim Hwan-tae Criticism Literature Award, the Kim Daljin Literature Prize, the Pyeonwun Literature Prize, the Yusim Literature Prize, the Korean Association of Literary Critics Prize, the Poetry and Poetry Studies Prize, and the Kyung Hee Literature Prize, among others. His published works of literary criticism include Literature and the Spirit of Art, Past the Diaspora, Encountering the World through Literature, and The Mirrors and Scales of Literature. He also published Studies on Utopian Consciousness in Korean Literature and Diaspora Literature of the Korean People, and a collection of essays entitled Learning about Life from Writings. Presenters Barbara den Ouden studied English language and literature at the University of Utrecht, where she specialized in Modern Western Literature and Translation Studies. She worked for a short time as an assistant to a publisher of art and design books, and then started working at the Foundation for the Production and Translation of Dutch Literature, the precursor of the Dutch Foundation for Literature. For 10 years she was responsible for finding, assessing and guiding literary translators, and she worked at the Translator s House Amsterdam, a place where translators are invited who translate a Dutch or Flemish book into their own languages. For the past six years she has been grants manager fiction and graphic novels. For fiction she is the contact person for Eastern- and Middle Europe, the Mediterranean, Latin-America, Arabic countries and Korea, for graphic novels she is the contact person for the whole world. Alireza Ghazveh, born in Garmsar in province of Semnan central north of Iran, recited his first poem when he was 18. He is a very well published poet in Iran. Ghazveh received his PhD in Philology from Russian Academy of Sciences in He is famous for his poem named Leader had no Villa, a poem 10 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 11

7 opposing post war social interest in luxurious life style. He has written poetry in different styles. His poetry is full of his poetical reactions to everyday life promoting justice and harmonious living style with others and nature. He is considered one of the most prominent Iranian poets who wrote about war, which is probably why death has a colorful figure in his poems. Ghazveh is living in Tehran, working as the head of literary creations office of Hozeh Honari. John H. McGlynn, originally from Wisconsin, U.S.A., is a long-term resident of Indonesia, having lived in Jakarta almost continually since A graduate of the University of Michigan Ann Arbor (1981), with a Masters degree in Indonesian language and literature, he is the translator of several dozen book-length publications, both under his own name and his penname, Willem Samuels. His translations of works by Indonesia s most famous author, Pramoedya Ananta Toer which John translated under his penname as well as works by other authors have garnered much international praise. Through the Lontar Foundation, which he co-founded in 1987, McGlynn has edited, overseen the translation of, and published close to two hundred books on Indonesian literature and culture. Also through Lontar, he initiated the On the Record film documentation program which has thus far produced twentyfour films on Indonesian writers and more than thirty films on Indonesian performance traditions. As a film subtitler, he has subtitled more than 100 Indonesian films. Ryoo Bo Sun is a professor of Korean Literature at Kunsan National University. He received his undergraduate degree in Korean Literature from Seoul National University, where he went on to complete his doctorate. His career as a literary critic began after he won the Literature and Thought New Writer s Prize in 1989 for his essay Towards a new horizon for Bundan Munhak: The philosophy of Kim Wonil. He won the Hyundae Literary Award (2002) and the Palbong Award for Literary Criticism (2013). He is the author of Marvelous Differences, Yet Other Voices, and The Political (Un)Conscious of Korean Modern Literature, and the editor of many essay collections. Moderator Kim Dong-shik is a professor at Inha University s Department of Korean Language and Literature. Born 1967 in Busan, he earned his bachelor s and master s degrees from Seoul National University s Department of Korean Language and Literature. He entered the field of literary criticism in 1995 with The Melancholy of Writing: Shin Kyung-sook Theory and worked as the program director for the Korean literature program at the 2005 Frankfurt Book Fair. He is a member of the editing team for Literature & Society Quarterly. His published works include Cynical Smiles and Captivation, Memories and Remnants, and A Little Story about Novels, and Miscellany. McGlynn is the Indonesian country editor for Manoa, a literary journal published by the University of Hawaii; and a contributing editor to Words Without Borders, Warscapes (two U.S. based literary journals) and Cordite Review, an Australian literary journal. He is a founding member of the Asia Pacific Writers and Translators Association as well as a member of the Indonesian Publishers Association (IKAPI), PEN International-New York, and the Association of Asian Studies. He is also a trustee of AMINEF, the American Indonesian Exchange Foundation, which oversees the (U.S. government-sponsored) Fulbright and Humphrey scholarship programs in Indonesia. Finally, as a member of Indonesia s National Book Committee, he is coordinator-supervisor of the Committee;s Translation- and Literary-Funding programs. Kim Suyee is a professor at Kyung Hee University s Humanitas College. Her published works of literary criticism include Emptiness in the Landscape, The Evolution of Lyricism, and What Can or Cannot be Written. Discussants Kang Yu-jung is a professor at Gangnam University s Department of Korean Language and Literature. She attended graduate school at Korea University, specializing in Korean Language and Literature. After receiving her degree in 2005, she started her career as a literary critic and has received awards for criticism from the Chosun Ilbo, Donga Ilbo, and Kyunghyang Shinmun. She is the author of several books, including Oedipus Forest, Movies for Young People in Their Twenties, and In Love with Movies, Love in Movies. 한국문학번역원 12 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 13

8 14 한국문학번역원 세션 1 Session 1

9 기조발제 문학번역, 문학의세계화로가는길 1. 한국문학세계화의꿈과길 김종회 ( 문학평론가, 경희대교수 ) 문학적소통과교류에있어번역은하나의 꿈 이다. 그것은이양자사이를가로지르는외나무다리가될수도있고때로는그것이발전하여탄탄대로를형성할수도있다. 21세기동시대의첨단적환경조건에있어서도, 이길을통과하지않고서출발어의문학이도착어의문학으로갈수는없다. 동시에이때의번역은양날을가진검이다. 좋은번역은대상작품을잘전달하지만, 조야 ( 粗野 ) 한번역은오히려작품을망칠수도있는까닭에서다. 한국문학은눈부신국가발전과경제성장을이룬국력에비해, 이러한번역의문제에비교적늦게눈을떴다. 본격적으로이문제를공공의과업으로한것은, 그나마한국문학번역원이발족한 10여년이래의일이다. 물론수발 ( 秀拔 ) 한문학작품을창작하는문학인의 1차생산이가장앞서는명제다. 하지만그것만으로는자국내에서독자를확보하는소극적대응에그칠뿐, 그값있는문학을세계문학의무대에서더불어향유하는전진적행보를이끌수없다. 그래서 번역 인것이다. 오늘의이워크숍에외국의역량있는작가및이론가, 번역가들을초청하여이에대한논의를전개하는것도바로그러한연유에서다. 그러기에이화합이참석자들의창의적이고적극적인발표및논의를통해보람있는수확을거둘수있기를바라마지않는다. 한나라의문학이그나라강역 ( 疆域 ) 의범주를넘어세계화의길로나아가는데는, 대체로다음과같은세가지모형이있다. 첫째, 그문학내부에서생산된작품이문학적가치를크게인정받아, 자국은물론해외에이르기까지우수한문학적산물로수용되는경우다. 인류문화사에고전으로일컬어지며세계문학의지평에널리통용된작품들이여기에해당한다. 이경우영향력과전파력이강한힘있는문화권의문학이면훨씬더많은성과를낼수밖에없다. 가장먼저세계공용어의외관을갖춘영어문화권의문학이그렇다. 그런가하면사상이범람하고기법이후진하던시기의독일이나러시아문학이, 문필가라기보다는사상가라고해도좋을작가들의작품에힘입어세계문학의중심부로진입한사례도있다. 곧괴테나도스토엡스키의문학이이끈자국문학세계화의범례를말한다. 둘째, 그나라의지정학적환경으로인하여국외로이산 ( 離散 ) 된해외거주민들이, 새롭게정착한언어문화권에서모국어를사용한문학적소출을축적한경우다. 일반적으로 디아스포라문학 이라호명되는이문학적확산은, 그것의질적수준보다분량의확대가가져오는창작기반의조성에더방점을둘수있다. 당초디아스포라라는용어는, 역사적상황에밀려팔레스타인외곽으로확산된유태인의집단적생활거주지또는그렇게이산된상황을의미했다. 그러나오늘날에있어해외이주의원인과방식이다양해지고, 또그와같은디아스포라의상황이역사적비극을넘어현실적인삶의선택이되고있기때문에오히려문화및문학의확산이나세계화전략에있어주요한고려요인이되기도한다. 셋째, 우리가오늘여기서함께논의하며그방향과길을찾아보자고하는 문학번역 의경우다. 한나라의언어를출발어로하여, 그나라의문학이번역되어읽히기를원하는나라의언어를도착어로하는 2. 한국문학번역, 또는한국문학번역원의성과한국문학번역의집중된성과는두말할것도없이한국문학번역원의활동과그성과를말하는것이된다. 개별적작가나번역가에의한번역실적이없는것은아니지만, 이른바 집중된 성과를말할때는그렇다는뜻이다. 한국문학번역 출판에대한지원확대를바탕으로하여, 근자에해외주요문학상을수상한실적은다음과같다. 한강, 채식주의자, 영국맨부커국제상수상 (2016 년 ) 박민규, 카스테라, 제1회일본번역대상대상 (2015 년 ) 김애란, 달려라, 아비, 프랑스 주목받지못한작품상 수상 (2014 년 ) 배수아, 철수, 국제펜클럽 PEN 번역상후보 (2016 년 ) 그런가하면해외언론이집중조명한한국문학의현황을보면, 과거와달리여러나라의언론이나문학전문사이트등에작가와작품에대한소개가이어지고있어이또한매우고무적인현상으로판단된다. 해외에서발양되는이와같은문화적여론에그동안한국으로부터의손길에닿기어려웠던사정을감안한면, 이러한성과는희망적인조짐이며동시에한국의문예정책이더욱귀기울이고애써살펴야할대목이다. 그현황은대략다음과같다. 한국문학번역원 16 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 17

10 한강, 소년이온다, 미국뉴욕타임즈서평게재 (2017 년 ) 편혜영, 재와빨강, 폴란드온라인문학전문사이트 2016 년 올해의책 선정 (2017 년 ) 오세영, 밤하늘의바둑판, 미국시카고리뷰오브북스 올해의시집 선정 (2016 년 ) 허균, 홍길동전, 미국워싱턴포스트지및공영방송 NPR 집중보도 (2016 년 ) 한국문학총서 25종, 미국달키아카이브출판사출간, 미국뉴요커지이승우 이문열등에대한찬사 (2015년 ) 정유정, 7년의밤, 독일차이트지추리문학추천 8위선정 (2015 년 ) 이러한괄목할만한실적과성과는하루아침에이루어진것이아니고한두사람에의해가능했던것도아니다. 우선혼자서외롭게자기자신과마주하며작업실의밤을밝힌시인 작가와번역가가있었고, 이작품을세계문학의시장으로추동한문예당국의숨은수고가함께있었다. 특히한국문학번역원이해외출판사가출간의사를결정할때샘플원고를활용하는데착안하여샘플번역지원방식으로전환하고, 번역 출판지원일원화제도를도입하여수요자중심의지원시스템을구축한것이주효했던듯하다. 또한한국문학의해외교류지원을작가간교류를심화하는방향으로개선하고, 해외유수문학축제에한국작가가참여하여현지의작가및독자와직접소통할수있도록했다. 그렇게하여더블린작가축제, 베를린문학축제, 영국레드버리시축제, 터키탄피나르문학축제등다수의해외문학축제에한국작가가참가할수있었다. 해외주요언론에서한국문학을어떻게소개하고언급하는가도중요한요인이다. 작품소개가확대되면인지도가상승하고판매가증가하며, 이것이해외출판사의한국문학출간확대로이어지는선순환구조가형성되기에그렇다. 해외주요문예지의한국문학특집호발간도마찬가지다. 그런데이처럼부피가큰일들은개인의노력으로접근하기어렵고결국한국문학번역원과같은기관이감당해야하는데, 이러한측면이곧한국문학번역원의기능과역할을설명하는것이되고더나아가이기관이보다강력하게확대되어야한다는논리를가능하게한다. 지금까지예거한사업들이주로해외에서어떻게활동할것인가를주목한것이라면, 그에못지않게국내에서이를원활하게뒷받침할업무가중요하다는사실도확인할필요가있다. 한국문학원어민전문번역가양성을위한체계적기반확충과같은것이대표적으로거론될수있다. 한국문학번역원의 번역아카데미 는원어민번역가들을대상으로 2년제과정을운영하고있는데, 이를통해연평균 120여명의한국문학예비번역가가배출되고있으며, 이들수료생의전문번역가데뷔를통한한국문학번역과출간의건수가매년증가하는추세다. 이러한다각적인활동을통해작가와번역가의창작역량이강화될수있도록지원하고, 한국문학의활발한해외진출이역으로국내의문학진흥을견인하는, 양방향의시너지효과가생성될수있도록중지를모아야할때다. 2012년신경숙의 엄마를부탁해 가미국언론의호평에힘입어국내에서 200만부판매를돌파하고, 2016 년한강의 채식주의자 가영국맨부커국제상수상후국내에서베스트셀러에재진 입하면서기타작품판매량이 8배증가한실제적보기를들수있겠다. 3. 해외기관과의협력, 그중요성과방안해외에서한국문학출간의안정성을확보하고경쟁력을강화하기위해서는, 해외각국관련기관과의원활한협력이무엇보다중요하다. 특히해외유수출판사와업무협약체결을통해, 단권이아니라시리즈형태로출간을확대할수있다면더좋은일이아닐수없다. 그동안미국펭귄출판사, 일본헤이본샤동양문고, 러시아기뻬리온출판사등과의협약을통해한국의고전문학과현대문학출간을지속해온것이이에해당하는전례다. 해외출판사의구미에맞도록수요조사를거친맞춤형번역 출간, 한국문학저작권을구매한해외출판사에동시지원확대등도이를돕는방안이될것이다. 뿐만아니라문학이라는전통적장르에만머물지않고, 문학관련문화콘텐츠번역지원을강화함으로서영상 공연등인접예술장르의해외진출을도모할필요가있다. 이미시대의중심세력이문자 활자문화를넘어영상 전자문화의영역으로옮겨가고있다. 그런가하면해외기관과의문학작품교차출간을적극적으로검토할필요가있다. 그동안이란과의수교정상화이후관계개선의분위기를타고, 2017 년 6월시선집을교차출간하고 2017 년 12월단편소설집을교차출간하기로한것은매우바람직한방향성을보여준다. 여기에한국현대문학뿐만아니라시대를넘어독자수용의생명력을유지하고있는고전문학또한그대상으로하는것이, 수준과분량을제고하는데유익할터이다. 실질적으로이와같은업무를추진하는데있어서해외문학기관과의업무협력은, 기실한국문학또는한국문학번역원의역량이며일정한부분의미래상을반영하는것이기도하다. 그동안한국문학번역원에서는 2015년 11월영국문학번역센터 (BCLT) 와업무협약을체결하여, 향후 3년간 ( 년 ) 국제문학번역및창작하계학기중한국어-영어문학번역워크숍을개최하기로했다. 이에앞서 2015년영국문학번역센터워크숍내에최초한국어그룹을개설하고 2016 년맨부커국제상수상작가한강과번역가데보라스미스가워커숍리더로참석하여예비번역가들과번역실습을진행한바있다 년에도한국작가황정은과데보라스미스가함께참여한다. 한국문학번역원과이란이슬람예술센터의업무협약은 2016 년 10월에체결되었다. 양국문학작품의상호번역및출판지원과문학교류행사를추진하는것이그골자다. 앞서언급한바와같이올해안에양국시인 작가의시선집과단편소설선집이교차출간되어모두 4권의단행본이나오기로한것은이러한업무협약이순방향으로작동한결과라할수있겠다. 이두경우를비롯하여, 한국문학번역원은다른국가의문학및번역관련기관과도다각적으로업무협약추진을위해노력하는것으로알고있다. 그것이가장안정적이고지속적인해외출간을담보하는방안이기때문이다. 지금까지한국문학번역원이해외출판사와업무협약을체결한성과는 27건에이르고, 해외주요문학축제및도서전과의업무협약성과는 8건에이른다. 그리고해외와국내를모두포함하여관련기관과의 18 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 19

11 협무협약을체결한것은총 95건이다. 이것은숫자의통계나그를통한자랑이아니라한국문학의번역과해외진출, 세계문학현장으로의진입이라는어려운과제에얼마나많은수고를쏟았는가를말하는수치 ( 數値 ) 다. 그렇다고해서해외진출만이세계화의길이아니다. 해외원어민번역가초청연수 와같은, 국내에서진행하는사업또한그와연동되어있는동일한노력이다. 필자도이연수사업에두차례참여해본적이있어그의의와효용성에대해잘알고있는편이다. 한국문학의세계화라는대명제가명실상부한효력을나타내기위해서는이렇게창작자와번역가, 그리고해외와국내에서의노력이상호조응하며한호흡으로보조를맞추어야한다고여겨진다. 4. 세계화를지향하는환경조성과인식 선례다. 먼저하루키자신이번역하기쉬운문체를구사한다. 이는무라카미류의작품과비교해보면확연하기이를데없다. 하루키의번역에문학인생을건복수의번역가들이있다. 그런가하면일본문단에서의번역가대접이작가의밑길로가지않는다. 한국의문학작품이세계의독자들에게읽히기를바라면서, 번역에다창작에버금가는강세를두지않는다면이는이해할수없는일이다. 앞서언급한한국문학번역원의다각적이고진취적인사업들은이부문에큰기대를갖게한다. 또있다. 한글문학의세계화를가능하게하는여러시류들의계기와조건을십분활용해야한다. 노벨문학상후보에거론되는한국작가들의경우는보기에따라, 그리고활용하기에따라그거론만으로도상품성이있다. 아무런전조 ( 前兆 ) 도없는것보다는거론이라도되는것이백번낫다. 한국의젊은작가들을의욕적으로해외에소개하고번역된작품을출간하는출판계의노력도상찬할만하다. 우리도놀랄정도로세계적확대양상을보인한류의전파, 세계각대학의한국어과개설, 강남스타일 같은노래나케이팝수용등의호재를그냥흐르는물에띄워보내서는안된다. 한국옛말에 꿩잡는게매 라는속언이있다. 아무리바탕이굳건하고치장이훌륭해도명패를달아내놓는상품자체가뛰어나지않으면소용이없다. 이를테면한국어로제작된문학작품의우수성으로세계시장에서통용되는경쟁력을확보하지못한다면, 빛좋은개살구 에지나지않는형국이다. 문학과문화의현장에서작가를소중히여기고우대해야하는것도그러한까닭에서이다. 한국문학에는고은, 이문열, 황석영, 신경숙, 한강등세계여러나라에서그작품이번역되어읽히고있는많은시인 작가가있다. 이들의성과를더욱강화하고새로운문학작품의진출을고무하는것은가장기본적인단계다. 신경숙의 엄마를부탁해 는그줄거리에별반볼품이없다. 그런데이소설의이야기는한가족구성원에게있어 엄마 라는보편적감성대를예민하게건드렸다. 물론앵글로색션계의모녀관계는이와다르다는반론도있다. 하지만이소설은 꿩 을잡았다. 거기에다번역도좋았다. 우선은작가가세계의독자들과만나기위해어떤주제를선택해야할것인가를생각하게하는대목이다. 과거 민족문학 의시대만해도 가장한국적인것이가장세계적 이라는논리가통용되었다. 지금은다르다. 예를들어무라카미하루키는일본국적을가진작가임에틀림없지만, 그의작품세계는전혀일본적이지않다. 가와바다야스나리가쓴 설국 의시대는이미오래전에지나간열차의시대다. 말하자면작품내용에대한공감의문제다. 이지점은작가의역량에따라천양지차가나기도한다. 그러기에좋은작가, 지역과국가의한계를넘어서서새로운소재를발굴하고감응력있는주제를설정할수있는작가를기다리는것이다. 이것은그동안국내에서쌓아온명성에만의지해서는어려운국면이다. 작가는오히려겸허해야하고보다소박한자리에서멀리내다보는 매 의눈을길러야옳다. 예컨대 대학생과창부의사랑 이라고하자. 시시한삼류통속소설의주제이지만, 도스토예프스키가쓰면 죄와벌 의첫머리가되고, 알렉산드르뒤마가쓰면 춘희 가된다. 이러한문학적기저위에서한국문학의세계화를논의할때, 더없이중요한숙제가원활하게잘소통되는번역이다. 하루키의경우는그작품의번역, 특히영어권번역에있어세계화를손쉽게하는모범적인 5. 새로운첫걸음을위한제언 2015년 11월 6일한국문학번역원이주최하여 문학번역가의양성 을주제로개최되었던제7회세계번역가대회에서의일이다. 영어권번역가로발표에참가한소라김-러셀이기상천외 (?) 한제안을했다. 한국문학번역원이번역가들에게무료아침뷔페를제공하는것이좋겠다는것이다. 모두웃었고종합토론자였던필자도그랬다. 그러나지내놓고보니, 그럴일이아니었다. 그것은번역의창조적예술성이일정한공적의지의작용아래양성되어야한다는논지를담고있었다. 그렇게생각을바꾸고나면시급한일이너무많다. 우선한국문학번역원의번역아카데미를임의의교육과정이아니라학위수여과정으로바꿔야한다. 한국예술종합학교의사례를보면어려운일도아니다. 보다중요한것은조속히해외번역가레지던스를마련해야한다 년 6월 15일부터열리는서울국제도서전에데버러스미스가와서, 호텔은비싸고있을곳이마땅치않아외국인학생의숙소에함께머물렀다고한다. 독일의경우 1963년에 베를린문학콜로키움 을세워 번역가의집 으로운영한다. 매해여름전세계에서 15명이상의번역가들이모여작가 비평가교류와번역프로젝트를수행한다. 번역상상금도 1만달러다. 세계문학의중심으로진입한독일문학의명성이그냥이아닌터이다. 스페인의 번역가의집 이나프랑스의 생나자르외국작가와번역가의집 을비롯하여미국, 캐나다, 영국, 네델란드, 헝가리, 크로아티아등이그러한번역가의집을운영하고있다. 남의좋은것을배워야할때는바로이런경우다. 독서선진국에서한국문학의실상을아는이들은, 문학상상금만많고국민들은책을읽지않는나라라고한국을비웃어왔다. 베스트셀러의주인공이었던최영미시인이생활보호대상자가되었던것이이참담한현실에대한증거다. 한국문학의우수한작가들과한국문학번역원의 10년여에걸친노력으로, 세계독서시장으로가는통로가확연히확장된지금, 작가 비평가와문예당국이함께그길을위해열정적 20 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 21

12 이고지혜롭게노력해야한다. 지금이아니면또다시호기가오기어렵다. 특히이일들을추진할전문가의보완및양성과예산의수립에더욱배려를넓혀야한다. 누구나아는말이지만, 기회는머리만있고꼬리가없다. 문학번역은한언어권의문학작품을다른언어권의그것으로전환하는일이다. 미상불출발어문학과도착어문학사이의거리는멀기도하고가깝기도하다. 원문의원본성을살리면서번역문의효용성을창출해야하는작업은, 번역가개인에게나그문화 문학적환경에있어서나곤고한과정을포괄할수밖에없다. 상황에따라서는이렇게공동의인식으로유도할수없는독특한성격의문학도있다. 그러기에오늘여기에서와같은공유와향상을위한모두의, 합일된노력이없이는문학번역의발전을기대할수없다. 그것은한편으로는우리가문학을통해인류문화의증진에기여하는길이기도하다. Keynote Speech Literary Translation: Towards the Globalization of Literature Kim Jong Hoi (Kyung Hee University) 1. Aspirations and Means: Globalization of Korean Literature There are three following models in which the literature of a particular nation transcends borders and embarks on globalization. The first model is when the substantial literary value of a work is recognized and the literature is received as an exemplary creation not only at home but also abroad. The works known as classics in world literature fall into this category. It also goes without saying that literature from cultures with the hegemonic power to influence other cultures and spread their own works will enjoy wider acceptance overseas. A prime example would be literature from English-speaking countries, as English is recognized as the world s official language. In a slightly different example, German and Russian literature once took the center stage of world literature in the form of works from writers who were more philosophers than literary writers, at a time when there was a wealth of new philosophical perspectives but a dearth of literary technique. The works of Goethe and Dostoyevsky had thus prompted the globalization of German and Russian literature. The second model emerges when people who have immigrated due to geopolitical circumstances in their native country produce literature using their native language in the host culture. Literature of this particular origin, termed diaspora literature, is often discussed in terms of development of a creative community, driven by the quantity, rather than the quality of the works. The term diaspora originally referred to communities of Jews exiled to locations on the periphery of Palestine, or their dispersion after exile. However, people immigrate today for a multitude of reasons and in a multitude of ways, and the term diaspora is no longer synonymous with an involuntary movement of populations but also refers to people 22 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 23

13 who have taken the initiative to seek new lives away from their native land. This second model now figures prominently in strategies for the dissemination or globalization of culture and literature. The third model, which we have gathered today to discuss and set a course for, is when literature is translated. Literary translation underscores an aspiration towards literary engagement and exchange, by converting a source text into a target language for readers of the target culture to enjoy. Translation might be a fragile bridge that attempts to connect both sides, but sometimes this effort broadens into a wide channel that successfully delivers exchange. Notwithstanding the technological advances of this century, translation is still indispensable for source language literature to reach the target language readership. At the same time, translation is a double-edged sword; quality translation can successfully render the value that literature holds, but a poor translation will only destroy the work. While Korea has seen remarkable progress as a nation and as an economic powerhouse in the past decades, the issue of translating Korean literature has only fairly recently been afforded the attention it deserves. Substantive efforts from the public sector have been made since a little over a decade ago, when the (LTI Korea) was established. Granted, writers should produce excellent literature for translation thereof to amount to anything of value. However, writing quality literature without making an effort to translate it will only serve a readership within this country. The relevance of the literary works will be missed by an international audience, resulting in lost opportunities to contribute to world literature. This very event is to address this pressing issue, inviting esteemed writers, theorists, and translators to share their views and insights. Hopefully, today s congregation will engage in presentations and discussions with originality and enthusiasm that bring us closer to answers in our quest. l'inaperçu (Prize for the Unnoticed), France (2014) Bae Suah, Nowhere to be Found, nominated for PEN Translation Prize (2016) It is all the more encouraging that many Korean writers and their work are being featured at an unprecedented scale in international press and websites dedicated to literature. Such unforeseen attention from different cultures not only strikes a hopeful note for the globalization of Korean literature, but also calls for close examination from literature promotion policymakers. Here we list recent instances where major international media outlets or literary organizations gave special mention to Korean literature. Han Kang, Human Acts, review in the New York Times, USA (2017) Pyun Hye-young, Ashes and Red, Best Book of 2016 by Polish literary news site Granice.pl., Poland (2017) Oh Sae-young, Night-Sky Checkerboard, Best Poetry Books of 2016, Chicago Review of Books, USA (2017) Heo Gyun, The Story of Hong Gil-dong, extensive coverage in the Washington Post and NPR, USA (2016) 25 volumes in the Library of Korean Literature, published by Dalkey Archive Press; commendation in the New Yorker for Yi Mun-yol and Lee Seung-woo, USA (2015) Jeong Yu-jeong, Sieben Jahre Nacht (Seven Years of Darkness), ranked #8 in Best Crime Fiction by the weekly Zeit, Germany (2015) 2. Achievements in the Translation of Korean Literature, or those of LTI Korea LTI Korea has indisputably been the most prolific entity in turning out quality translations of Korean literature. Though there are writers or translators translating independently of the Institute, the concentrated undertakings of LTI Korea are producing the largest number of distinguished works. The following is a list of recent triumphs at major international literature awards, owing to the Institute s increased support for translating and publishing Korean literature. Han Kang, The Vegetarian, Man Booker International Prize (2016) Park Min-gyu, Castella, 1st Best Translation Award, Japan (2015) Kim Ae-ran, Ma Vie dans la Supérette (I Go to the Convenience Store), Prix de These achievements were only made possible after many years of strenuous efforts by many people. First and foremost, there were poets, novelists, and translators who undoubtedly spent numerous sleepless nights poring over manuscripts, and also the less-recognized toils of the literature promotion agencies in the public sector, who had placed the books in the global market for literature. In particular, two fairly recent changes in LTI Korea s policy seem to have been highly effective. Recognizing the fact that many foreign publishers base their publishing decisions on sample manuscripts, the Institute now subsidizes sample translations. LTI Korea also now provides simultaneous translation and publication grants to streamline processes for foreign publishers. These new policies ensure the Institution s work better addresses the needs on the demand side. LTI Korea has also enhanced its international literary exchange programs to promote more intensive exchange between Korean and foreign writers, and facilitated Korean writers participation in major international literary festivals, allowing for more rapport with international writers and readers. The Dublin 24 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 25

14 Writers Festival, Berlin International Literature Festival, Ledbury Poetry Festival in England, and Istanbul Tanpinar Literature Festival are some examples where Korean writers took part thanks to the Institution. How Korean literature figures in influential foreign media is also important. More coverage of more works will bring more awareness, more sales, and eventually a virtuous cycle of more publishing from foreign publishers. Special editions of renowned literary journals focusing on Korean literature would also help. However, this is not a feat to be accomplished by any single individual; instead, it requires much work from establishments such as LTI Korea. The Institute will prove its worth and role in such endeavors, and this provides all the more reason why this agency should become a larger and more powerful organization. The projects described above are about what should be done overseas. These efforts will amount to little without work at home to deliver quality content. In this regard, a disciplined program to develop native speakers of foreign languages into professional translators is a good case in point. LTI Korea s Translation Academy is a two-year program for aspiring translators of Korean literature who are native speakers of the target language. An average of 120 people graduate from this program each year, resulting in a steady increase in translations and publications of Korean literary works when the graduates successfully publish their translations. The time is ripe for such commitments to encourage the creative work of writers and also translators, thereby enabling Korean literature to spread further overseas. Conversely, the nation s literary triumphs across borders will promote at home more appreciation of the works, ultimately enriching the Korean literature experience for both Korean and international audiences. It is worth noting that American journalists warm reception of Shin Kyung-sook s Please Look after Mom in 2012 prompted sales of two million copies in Korea, and Han Kang s The Vegetarian not only resurfaced in the bestselling lists after winning the Man Booker International Prize in the UK, but also triggered an eightfold increase in sales of Korean fiction in the domestic market. 3. Relevance and Ways of Increasing Cooperation with Organizations Abroad For Korean literature to become a competitive and permanent force in overseas publishing markets, strong cooperation with relevant foreign organizations is imperative. Issuing not just single volumes, but series of titles by establishing MOUs with prominent publishing houses overseas, is an excellent way to ensure sustained promotion of Korean literature, as demonstrated by continued publishing of classical and contemporary titles under agreements with Penguin USA, Heibonsha Tōyō Bunko of Japan, and Hyperion of Russia. Other practical suggestions that come to mind are conducting market surveys to translate and publish titles that respond to demand at foreign publishers, along with awarding grants for both translation and publication at the same time to publishers who have acquired copyright to Korean titles. Furthermore, translation efforts should not focus only on the medium of literature but also step up programs to translate related cultural content, facilitating related art forms such as film and performing arts to also gain traction overseas. This is because letters are no longer the mainstay of culture, but have given way to video and digital art forms. Another idea is to pursue more reciprocal arrangements with foreign institutions to publish Korean works in the partner country s language, and that country s literature in the Korean language. Such a constructive exchange already took place recently when diplomatic relations were once again normalized between the Republic of Korea and Iran, leading up to publication in June 2016 of an anthology of Korean poems in Iranian language and one of Iranian poetry in Korean language. Collections of short stories from both countries will follow suit in December Attempting to translate and publish not only contemporary works in similar arrangements, but also timeless works in classical Korean literature would further add to the quality and quantity of publications. Cooperation with foreign literary institutions will be determined by the quality of Korean literature, and also the competence of LTI Korea. As of now, the Institute s achievements in this regard allow us forecast to a certain degree future successes in publishing Korean literature abroad. In November 2015, LTI Korea signed an MOU with the British Centre for Literary Translation (BCLT), agreeing to hold Korean-English literary translation workshops for three years from 2016 through 2018, as part of BCLT s International Literary Translation and Creative Writing Summer School. In the same year, preceding this agreement, the first Korean-English language group was organized in BCLT s workshop in Participants in the group were able to discuss and practice literary translation with guidance and comments from Han Kang and Deborah Smith, respectively, the writer and the translator of The Vegetarian, which would win the Man Booker International Prize the following year. In 2016, Deborah Smith again led the workshop, this time with Korean writer Hwang Jungeun. Meanwhile, LTI Korea signed an MOU with Hozeh Honari, Islamic Art and Thoughts from Islamic Propagation Organization, in October The arrangement was to support translation and publication of each country s literature into the other country and to host events for literary exchange. As touched upon above, translated collections of poems and short stories from each country, totaling four volumes, will be released by the end of this year, assuring both parties the MOU is well working towards its intended goal. Because MOUs with institutes of literature or translation are the best means to guarantee regular and continued publishing of Korean writings across borders, LTI Korea is known to be working to sign more with many other nations. To date, the Institute has concluded 27 MOUs with foreign publishers, eight 26 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 27

15 with major literature festivals or book fairs abroad, and a total of 95 MOUs with entities from Korea and overseas. This number is testament to the time and effort LTI Korea is investing to undertake the daunting task of translating, delivering abroad, and promoting Korean literature on the stage of world literatures. Of course, accessing markets abroad is not the only means to Korean literature going global. Inviting foreign translators from overseas to participate in translation programs in Korea is one example of projects that are carried out in Korea to the same end. As someone who has twice been part of the program, I can attest to its relevance and quality. Similar concerted efforts from writers and translators from both home and abroad are required to achieve the globalization of Korean literature. 4. Building the Environment and Awareness for Globalization of Korean Literature There is an old Korean proverb that goes, Whatever catches the pheasant will be known as the hawk, meaning, the end justifies the means. At the same time, no matter how elaborately adorned a product is, if the substance of the product itself is not of a good quality, then it will turn out a failure. All that glitters is not gold, and the strength of the original work of literature will determine its success in markets abroad. This is precisely why writers, the creators of literature, should be cherished and cared for. Korea already has numerous poets and novelists, such as Ko Un, Yi Mun-yol, Hwang Sok-yong, Shin Kyung-sook, and Han Kang, whose works are translated and appreciated in many nations. Building on their successes should be the starting point for promoting more Korean literature abroad. Though there was nothing extraordinary in the plot of Shin Kyung-sook s Please Look After Mom, the story struck an emotional chord that all families could relate to; namely, their moms. Of course, some point out that the typical mother-daughter relationship in Anglo-Saxon culture is different from what is portrayed in this novel. However, the book did catch the pheasant ; it was an enormous international success. A good translation did not hurt, either. The success of the novel sheds light on which themes a writer could explore if they were to target international readers. When ideas of a national literature were the norm, many held to the statement that what is most Korean is most global. However, times have changed. As a case in point, though the internationally acclaimed Haruki Murakami is a Japanese national, there is nothing Japanese in his oeuvre. Similarly, long gone are the days when works such as Yasunari Kawabata s Snow Country served as reference points for globalizing a certain country s literature. To be more explicit, it all boils down to whether readers can relate to the work of literature. The extent of empathy a writer is able to draw from readers will depend on the strength of the writer. This is why we await the emergence of more good writers, writers who develop original subject matter that transcends cultures and national borders, and bring to light themes that resonate with a diversity of readers. Such strength will not turn up in writers who rest on their laurels of domestic fame. Writers should be modest and alert, assuming the sharp eye of a hawk in their search for something worthy of exploring in literature. Take, for instance, a love story about a university student and a prostitute. The idea seems fit for a cheap lowbrow novel, but in Dostoyevsky s hands, it was the opening to the masterpiece Crime and Punishment, and with Alexandre Dumas, it became The Lady of the Camellias. In addition to the quality of the original work, to further the globalization of Korean literature, the most urgent task at hand is translation that truly conveys the value of the work with ease. Haruki Murakami s writing is a prime example where literature facilitates its own globalization through translation, particularly in the English-speaking areas of the globe. For one, Murakami s prose is easy to translate into English. A comparison with the writing of the other Murakami, Ryu Murakami, shows a sharp contrast between the styles of the two writers. Perhaps this is one of the reasons why there are a number of translators who have dedicated their literary careers to translating Haruki Murakami s work. What is more, the Japanese literary community treats translators as it would treat writers. This serves as a lesson; it simply does not make sense to wish literature from this country to enjoy a wide readership abroad while refusing to recognize the creative efforts of translators. Fortunately, the various initiatives taken up by LTI Korea, described above, give us confidence that translators will be treated better in the future. Meanwhile, we should also fully leverage the many trends and circumstances that can accelerate the globalization of Korean literature. Played wisely, Korean writers regularly making the lists of possible candidates for the Nobel Prize for Literature can be used to our advantage, because names being mentioned is much better than no mention at all. The steadfast efforts of the publishing industry, enthusiastically showcasing young Korean writers and their translated work in markets abroad, should also be commended. Lastly, the spread of hallyu, or the Korean Wave, reaching the most unexpected corners of the world, installments of Korean language departments in universities across the globe, and the wild popularity of K-pop as exemplified in the song Gangnam Style, all provide opportunities for globalizing Korean literature that we cannot afford to miss. 5. Recommendations for New Steps Forward On November 6, 2015, at the 7th International Translators Conference hosted by LTI Korea and themed How to Foster Literary Translators, the Korean-English translator Sora Kim-Russell, made a rather 28 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 29

16 fascinating suggestion in her presentation. She asked for LTI Korea to serve its translators with regular free buffet breakfasts. I was also present as a discussant and joined the others in laughter. However, in hindsight, I realize this is not so outlandish a request as it seemed at that time. Kim-Russell was making a point that nurturing the creative artistry of translators requires a certain level of commitment from the public sector. Once this is made clear, we become aware of so many pressing issues. First, the Translation Academy at LTI Korea should cease to be only a training program and should be turned into a formal degree program. Korea National University of Arts has already undergone a similar transition; therefore, LTI Korea should not have much difficulty doing so, too. However, what is even more urgent is building residence facilities and programs for translators visiting from abroad. The translator Deborah Smith, visiting for the 2016 Seoul International Book Fair which began on June 15, reportedly had to stay at a student friend s place because of the prohibitively high hotel prices. In contrast, in Germany the Literarisches Colloquium Berlin (Literature Colloquium Berlin, LCB) has been serving as a residency guesthouse for translators since Every summer, it welcomes at least 15 translators from around the world to engage in discussions with writers and critics and partake in translation projects. Their translation award offers prize money of USD 10,000. It is no wonder that German literature claims a central position in world literature. Spain also has its own Translators House and residency, and France boasts the Maison des Écrivains Étrangers et des Traducteurs de Saint-Nazaire (The House of the Foreign Writers and Translators of Saint Nazaire, M.E.E.T ). The USA, Canada, UK, Netherlands, Hungary, and Croatia all have translator residencies. Korea would be well advised to learn from these examples. Korea has been the brunt of jokes from countries where people read more, on how many literary awards are given in this country where people rarely pick up a book. The truly sad news that Choi Young-mi, once a best-selling poet, was on welfare because she could no longer make ends meet, testifies to the lack of appreciation of literature in Korea. At the same time, the work of excellent writers and a decade of painstaking efforts from LTI Korea have paved a much broader road to for Korean literature to reach out to the world. It is a rare window of opportunity, and writers, critics, translators, and government agencies for literature should make good use of this chance. Experts in this field should be further nurtured, and larger budgets should be planned. As the saying goes, present opportunities are not to be neglected; they rarely visit us twice. Literary translation is transforming a work of literature in one language to that of another. Depending on the translation, the literary work in the source and target languages may be either drastically different or remarkably similar. Preserving the original nature of the source text while achieving the function of an enjoyable translation inevitably involves laborious work for the translator, and also impacts the cultural and literary environment. It also must be acknowledged that some singular works of literature simply defy translation into another culture. All of these challenges dictate commitment for sharing and advancement, from all parties represented here, to develop literary translation further. This is imperative for literature to enrich culture for humanity as a whole. 30 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 31

17 발제 1 한국계네델란드인의시각에서바라보는교차출간사업 바바라덴오덴 ( 네델란드문학재단, 네델란드 ) 저는바바라덴오덴입니다. 저는서울근교에서태어나, 세살때네델란드로갔습니다. 제가태어난나 라, 한국에서발표하게돼서영광이며, 저를서울국제도서전에초대해준한국문학번역원에감사드립니다. 우선, 몇가지숫자로네델란드를간략히소개하겠습니다. 네델란드인구는 17,000,000 명이며, 네델란드에는 1,100 개의출판사와 1,354개의서점이있습니다 년도서총매출액은 521,000,000유로였습니다. 일반도서의경우, 전자책시장점유율은 5.9 % 였습니다 년연구결과에따르면, 매년 권의새책이출판되며, 이는인구 100만명당 1.293권입니다. 다른나라들과비교할때, 무척높은비율입니다. 한국에서가장유명한네델란드인은작가가아니라거스히딩크입니다. 2002년, 히딩크감독과한국축구팀이보여준성공은양국협력프로젝트의아름다운예라고생각합니다. 훌륭한한국축구선수들이거스히딩크의새로운네델란드식발상에영감을받았고, 두나라의협력이월드컵 4위라는최고의결과를낳았습니다. 한국에잘알려진네델란드책에등장하는캐릭터도있습니다. 한국에서는 Miffy 라고불리는토끼 Nijntje 와 안네의일기 로유명한안네프랑크입니다. 저는암스테르담에있는네델란드문학재단 (Dutch Foundation for Literature) 에서일합니다. 네델란드문학재단은네델란드작가와번역가를지원하는기관입니다. 저소득작가들과, 외국어를네델란드어로번역하는번역가들에게보조금을지급합니다 년에서 2016 년사이, 재단예산의 19% 가번역가들에게돌아갔으며, 그중 42% 는기점언어가영어였습니다. (11% 는프랑스어, 10% 는독일어, 2% 는인도네시아어, 일본어, 중국어등아시아언어 ) 네델란드문학재단역시자국문학을국제적으로홍보합니다. 작가, 번역가, 출판사, 축제를지원하고 있습니다. 단지지원작을공모하는것만이아니라, 문학창작에도참여하는등, 활발하게활동하고있습니다. 지난 20년간, 네델란드문학이중점적으로소개된국제도서전은다음과같습니다 : 프랑크푸르트 (1993), 바르셀로나 (1995), 예테보리 (1997), 런던 (1999), 도쿄 (2000), 토리노 (2001), 파리 (2003), 베이징 (2011) 및프랑크푸르트 (2016). 네델란드문학재단은네델란드교육문화과학부및다른여러기관과단체에서지원을받아설립됐습니다. 저는네델란드소설과그래픽노블을국제적으로홍보하는일을합니다. 우리는출판사, 에이전트, 번역가, 작가및한국문학번역권같은기관등, 폭넓은네트워크를유지함으로써네델란드도서를홍보합니다. 이네트워크의커뮤니케이션방식은주로이메일이지만, 축제, 도서전이나행사에참여하는등, 방문이가장중요한소통방식입니다 년런던도서전에서만난한국문학번역원의박찬우씨에게서 상호번역프로젝트 (Two Way Translation Project) 에관한정보를들었습니다. 이런도서전과우편을통해, 우리는 10권의네델란드의책 (10 Books from Holland) 같은홍보용책자를교환했습니다. 네델란드문학재단에서는책몇권을샘플번역하고, 독자평을쓸독자와출판사를연결합니다. 독자평은책에대한간단한분석인데, 출판사가번역출판여부를결정하는데도움이됩니다. 또한출판사와번역가를연결하고번역가에게번역지원금을신청하라고알립니다. 우리재단은번역비 70% ( 고전은 100%) 를, 그래픽노블이나아동문학의경우에는직접출판비용의일부를지원합니다. 홍보목적으로작가를초청한경우, 출판사는보조금을신청할수있습니다. 네델란드문학재단은능동적으로번역가를찾고, 일을주고, 평가하고, 조언을제공합니다. 샘플번역에서긍정적인평가를받은공인번역가목록을만들었습니다. 동료번역가들이번역을평가하며, 오랫동안축적된평가경험을갖고있습니다. 이목록에오른번역가는번역워크숍에초대되거나, 더숙련된번역가의도움을받을수있는 멘토프로젝트 에참여할수있습니다. 당연히앞으로개선할여지가있지만, 현재까지는성공적인운영방식입니다 년에는네델란드도서 681권이 46개언어로번역되어, 네델란드문학재단설립이래최다번역서출판기록을세웠습니다. 지난 4년간네델란드도서 2,240권이번역출판됐습니다 년에는 340건의보조금지원서를받았습니다. 네델란드문학재단의글로벌네트워크도커지고있습니다. 2015년에는세계출판사 201곳에서최초로네델란드도서를번역출판했습니다. 다음으로, 프랑크푸르트도서전이야기를하고싶습니다 년, 네델란드와플랑드르는주빈 (Guest of Honour) 으로서, 자신들의문화와문학을독일과세계에소개했습니다. 작가 72명 ( 산문, 시, 넌픽션, 아동 / 청소년문학, 그래픽노블 ) 이저희와함께프랑크푸르트도서전에가서, 다양한프로그램에참여했습니다. 네델란드어와플랑드르어가기점언어인번역서 300권이 2016 년독일전역에서출판됐습니다. 32 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 33

18 독일은네델란드어문학의가장큰수출시장입니다. 이렇게네델란드와네델란드문학재단의소개를마치고, 한국문학번역원과의협력소감과감사의말을전하고싶습니다. 상호번역프로젝트는이번이처음이라과거의경험은말할수없습니다. 하지만 MOU를체결하면서, 저희는당연하지만, 네델란드문학재단과한국문학번역원의정책간에다른점을발견했습니다. 두기관은지원금액도다르고, 다른방식으로운영되고있었습니다. 네델란드문학재단원장님께서말씀하신대로, 두기관의조직체계가다르다든가, 지원방식이다르다는점은전혀문제가되지않습니다. 두기관은다른방식으로번역을지원하지만, 두나라의문학을번역하는데협력하자는목표는같습니다. 서로에게서추천받은다섯작품에관해피드백을교환하는것도중요합니다. 어떤나라가어떤작품을선택할지결정하는것이우리업무중가장중요한문제입니다. 어떤작품들은다른국가에서보다특정국가에서더성공적입니다. 예를들자면, 제가 2015년처음한국을방문했을때, 몇몇한국출판사에서는제게네델란드에서는아직도제2차세계대전에관한책이출판되고있다며, 한국에는한국전쟁이있다 고했습니다. 또한, 네델란드문학은금기나무거운주제를더잘수용합니다. 예를들자면, Peter Buwalda 의 Bonita Avenue 는네델란드에서엄청난베스트셀러였고, 거의모든문학상후보에올랐습니다. 이소설은 16개국에서출판됐습니다. 이소설은자신의나약함과자식때문에윤리적, 사회적으로몰락하는어느대학교수를그리고있습니다. 500페이지에걸쳐정신착란, 간통, 포르노뿐만아니라, 마침내아버지가아들을살해하는이야기로이어집니다. 네델란드의한대학교수는그책은한국독자들에게는너무어둡다고했습니다. 한국출판사와독자들에게어떤네델란드작품을소개할것인가, 그리고마찬가지로, 어떤한국작품을네델란드출판사와독자에게소개할것인가의견을교환하는일은저에게매우중요합니다. 번역가역할을한번더강조하고싶습니다. 번역가들은추천받은다섯작품을번역할뿐만아니라, 두개의문화를중재하고, 자신들이번역한문학작품에관해조언을제공하고홍보합니다. 우리재단은 Vertalersgeluk ( 번역가의행복 ) 이라는프로그램을운영합니다. 번역가들이서점에서강연하거나독서클럽에초대받아자신들이번역한책에관해말하는프로그램입니다. 상호번역프로젝트에도비슷한프로그램을도입할수도있을것입니다. 마지막으로, 슈보브프로젝트 (Schwob Project) 를소개하고싶습니다. 이프로젝트는프랑스독자이자번역가, 수필가인마르셀슈보브 (Marcel Schwob, ) 의이름을땄습니다. 그는폴발레리, 오스카와일드, 알프레드자리등, 많은작가와친분이있었고세계문학에조예가깊었는데, 특히, 관심을받지못하거나이상한작품을좋아했습니다. 로버트루이스스티븐슨의작품을번역해프랑스에소개했습니다. 슈보브프로젝트는널리번역되지않고잘알려지지않은모던클래식, 컬트, 전세계필독도서를찾고 있습니다. 많은번역가, 출판사, 축제, 문학재단에서작품을추천하고샘플번역을제공하며, 관련기사와책구매가능성을온라인에올립니다. 슈보브프로젝트는번역판권에관심이있을것같은출판사에작품을홍보하고펀딩정보를제공합니다. 또한, 출판된번역작품을출판사, 잡지, 서점및도서관과협력하여독자들에게홍보합니다. 슈보브프로젝트웹사이트 (schwob.nl) 에대상작품이올라있지만, 네델란드출판사에서다른작품을선택하거나슈보브프로젝트를위한보조금을신청하는것도가능합니다. 이프로젝트는네델란드출판사에서문학작품을새로번역할때감당해야하는재무리스크를덜어줍니다. 네델란드출판사는최대 7,000유로까지보조금을신청할수있습니다. 슈보브프로젝트는소설위주로매년 15 작품을지원합니다. 출판사, 작가, 서적상각각한명으로구성된운영위원회에서지원대상작품을선정합니다. 그동안 The Doll (Boleslaw Prus, 폴란드 ), The Discovery of the World (Claire Lispector, 브라질 ) 등의작품이슈보브프로젝트의지원을받았습니다. 선정된작품중약 30% 는유럽작품이고, 올해부터는아시아문학에집중하려합니다. 한국작품도슈보브프로젝트의지원으로출판되기를진심으로바랍니다. 이것으로프레젠테이션을마칩니다. 경청해주셔서감사드리며, 자유롭게질문해주십시오. 34 한국문학번역원 The 16th International Workshop for Translation and Publication of Korean Literature 35