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1 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Apr.; 28(4), ISSN (Print) ISSN X (Online) Development of Wideband Spatial Combined High Power Amplifier 이호선 박관영 공동욱 전종훈 Ho-Seon Lee Kwan-Young Park Tong-Ook Kong Jong-Hoon Chun 요약 GHz 50 W. - -, 6 18 GHz. PCB -, Klopfensein Taper., 10 CMOS MFC(Multi-Function Core) MMIC 10 W GaN PA MMIC GHz 50 W. Abstract This paper is a study of 6 18 GHz wideband high power amplifier which is composed of 10 single amplifier and coaxial type spatial power combiner. The property of this spatial power combiner is on a similar principle to antipodal antenna radiation mechanism. Therefore, the key structure of proposed spatial power combiner is the antipodal finline PCB board and the finline curve shape is numerically synthesized by using Klopfensein s optimum impedance taper. The measured CW output power of spatial combined high power amplifier is nearly 50 W. In conclusion we prove the good combining performance between the spatial power combiner and 10 single amplifier over 6 18 GHz frequency ranges. Also, we developed the key component PA and MFC MMIC which controls the phase and gain of the each amplifier, The main characteristic of MFC MMIC is to maximize combining efficiency of power amplifier. Key words: Coaxial Type Spatial Power Combiner, High Power Amplifier, MFC, Wideband. 서론,,. W kw,, 5 %,, kv. HFSS. (RFcore Co., Ltd) Manuscript received February 3, 2017 ; Revised March 20, 2017 ; Accepted March 24, (ID No ) Corresponding Author: Jong-Hoon Chun ( 286 c Copyright The Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science. All Rights Reserved.

2 . /. / 2-way / Corporate, 2-way / /,. Corporate / 1/4, 6 18 GHz 3, Corporate. (a) Corporate (a) Corporate power combining structure (b) (b) Spatial power combining structure 그림 1. Fig. 1. Comparison of power combining method. Corporate. 1 Corporate GHz W,., / MFC(Multi-Function Chip) MMIC.. 동축형공간결합기설계및제작 2 - ( ) 10 PCB,. 10 PCB 10, 50 Ω. TEM, TE TEM,. TE TEM, - (Anti-Podal) PCB Ground,. (coupling) PCB 287

3 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 28, no. 4, Apr (a) (a) Structure of spatial power combiner (b) - (b) Structure of fin to micro-strip transformation 그림 2. Fig. 2. Configuration of coaxial type spatial power combiner. PCB.,, Balanced -., 10 PCB ( / : 9.6 mm/25.6 mm), - 3 Klopfenstein Taper. 3 Z L 50 Ω, Z Ω 10, Ω ln ln 그림 3. Fin line taper Fig. 3. Impedance model of fin line taper. cosh ln 제 종변형베셀함수 Ω. θ(f, z) - Taper., Γ m., (a) Linear Taper. Linear Taper Triangular Function Taper, 50 Ω Triangular Function Taper Linear Taper Taper, Linear Taper. 4. Taper EM Tool HFSS,

4 (a) taper (a) Shape of fin line taper curve (b) PCB (b) Fin to micro-strip transform PCB 그림 4. Fig. 4. Fin to micro-strip transformation design results. 8 mm, 6 18 GHz.,. EM, 19.0 GHz. 20 GHz,. 4 Taper Length.,, (over-shoot)., Taper Length - Balun 4 Gap. 5., 5(b) 10. 1,. 5(a), 6 18 GHz 20 db, Linear Taper 15 db., 5(a) 19 GHz. 5(b), 6 18 GHz. 6(a). PCB 10 10,. PCB Roger RO- 4003(ε r =3.38, =0.3 mm). 10, Screw. 6(b) GHz Over-shoot 10 db. 289

5 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 28, no. 4, Apr 반사 손실 및 전달 특성 (a) (a) Return loss & transmission property 제작 사진 (a) (a) Photograph of fabrication 전계 분포 (b) (b) Field distribution 동축형 공간 결합기 시뮬레이션 결과 측정 결과 (b) (b) Measurement result 동축형 공간 결합기의 제작 및 측정 그림 5. Fig. 5. Simulation results of coaxial type spatial power combiner. 그림 6. Fig. 6. Fabrication & measurement of spatial power combiner. 적으로 2.0 db 내외의 삽입손실이지만, 최대 2.6 db 의 삽입손실이 확인된다. 이는 10개로 조각난 동축 선로 기구들을 조립함에 있어서 기구 오차가 절대적으로 영향 을 미친다. 즉, 공간결합 전력증폭기를 제작함에 있어서, 이와 같이 정밀한 기구 가공은 설계 과정 못지 않게 매우 중요하다. 덧붙여서, 그림 3에서 설계된 핀라인 변환기 1개는 Ω의 특성 임피던스를 핀라인 변환기의 50 Ω 마이 크로스트립 라인으로 임피던스 천이하는 역할을 한다. 따 라서 위의 임피던스 변환 관계를 적절히 이용하면 공 290

6 10, /., Ω 16, Ω, Ω. 16 /,,. (a) (a) Photograph of fabrication 그림 8. Fig. 8. Example of foreign development /. [1], 15 db 9 db,., (Ripple).. 단일증폭기의제작 (b) (b) Measurement result 그림 / Fig way coaxial type spatial power combiner. 9 (Budget) 38.5 dbm(7.1 W) db, 9 (Margin) 3.0 db. 291

7 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 28, no. 4, Apr 그림 9. Fig. 9. Budget of spatial combined amplifier., 3.0 db 1.5 db db 1.5 db, +8.5 db. 10 db 11.5 db. 10. PA MMIC MFC MMIC. PA MMIC 그림 10. Fig. 10. Configuration & composition of single amplifier. Winsemi, 38.5 dbm(7.1 W) (Margin) 40 dbm(10 W). CMOS MFC MMIC 7, 6 (Thru Time Delay). MFC MMIC PA MMIC 2 AMMP5618/6408(Avago ), (Equalizer). (bending). 11 PA MMIC. PA MMIC, Distributed., 6 18 GHz 20 db 10 db, 40 dbm.,,. 14, SMA -,.,.,, PCB. CMOS MFC MMIC, MFC 292

8 (a) (a) Block diagram (a) (a) Schematic diagram (b) (b) Measured thru time delay control properties (b) (b) Measured small signal property (c) (c) Measured gain control properties (c) (c) Measured output power property 그림 11. PA MMIC Fig. 11. PA MMIC characteristics. 그림 12. MFC MMIC Fig. 12. MFC MMIC characteristics.. 12 MFC MMIC 293

9 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 28, no. 4, Apr ps(pico second) 0 32 db (a) db 30 db,. 13(b) 10, dbm (a) (a) Small signal property (b) (b) Output power 그림 13. Fig. 13. Measurement of single amplifier., 11 GHz 15 GHz 38.5 dbm. 50 W PA MMIC PA MMIC (bending).. 공간결합고출력전력증폭기제작 14(a). 10, /., /.,., 7,. 14(b). 15 [1]. 14 /,,, /, (AC-DC ), MFC, 294

10 광대역 공간 결합 고출력 전력증폭기 개발 해외 제작 사례 社 미국 그림 15. (Qorvo, ) Fig. 15. Example of foreign development(qorvo,inc. USA). 공간결합 개념도 (a) (a) Concept of spatial power combining 제작 사진 (a) (a) Photograph of fabrication 공간결합 사진 (b) (b) Photograph of spatial power combining 단일 증폭기의 공간 결합 그림 14. Fig. 14. Spatial power combining of single amplifier. 와 발열 온도 또한 GUI를 통해 확인이 가능하다. 앞서 언급하였듯이, 제작된 단일 증폭기는 동축형 공 간 결합기의 핀라인 변환기와 결합하여 조립되어지는 순 간 전달특성이 민감하게 변할 것으로 예상된다. 그러므로 각각 제작된 단일 증폭기의 이득 및 실시간 지연값을 공 간 결합하지 않은 상태에서 미리 설정하는 것은 큰 의미 가 없다. 따라서 최종 제작된 공간 결합형 전력 증폭기에 서는 단일 증폭기를 하나씩 순차적으로 Enable 해가면서 MFC의 이득 및 실시간 지연 값을 제어한다. 즉, 새로 제어 화면 (b) GUI (b) Screen of control GUI 공간 결합 전력 증폭기 제작 그림 16. Fig. 16. Fabrication of spatial combined high power amplifier. 운 단일 증폭기를 Enable 하였을 때 이전 상태 대비 가장 높은 출력이 되도록 새로운 단일 증폭기의 MFC 이득 및 실시간 지연 값을 설정하며, 이와 같은 방법으로 공간 결 295

11 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 28, no. 4, Apr (a) (Ripple) 10 db, 30 db., 10., ,, overshoot,. 17(b) GHz 46.6 dbm(45.7 W) 47 dbm(50 W).. 14(b). 17 KCTL( ).. 결론 (a) (a) Small signal property, GHz 50 W,., PA MFC MMIC /., / W, TWTA. (b) (b) Output power 그림 17. Fig. 17. Measurement of spatial combined high power amplifier. References [1] H. Javadi-Bakhsh, et al., "A wideband twenty-element microwave spatial power combiner", Scientia Iranica D, pp , Mar

12 [2] Jia, P. "Broadband power combining device using antipodal nline structure", Capwireless Inc., U.S. Patent. [3] D. I. L. de Villiers, P. W. van der Walt, and P. Meyer, "Design of conical transmission line power combiners using tapered line matching sections", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 56, no. 6, pp , [4] K. Song, Y. Fan, and Z. He, "Broadband radial waveguide spatial combiner", IEEE Microwave and Wireless Component Letters, vol. 18, no. 2, pp , [5] S. E. Hosseini, A. Banai, "Ultrabroadband power amplier using 16-way spatial combining line array", Wiley Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 55, no. 2, pp , [6] N. S. Cheng, A. Alexanian, M. G. Case, D. B. Rensch, and R. A. York. "40-W CW broad-band spatial power combiner using dense finline arrays", IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 47, no. 7, pp , Jul [7] A. Alexanian, R. A. York, "Broadband spatially combined amplifier array using tapered slot transitions in waveguide", IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 7, no. 2, pp , Feb [8] P. Jia, L. Y. Chen, A. Alexanian, and R. A. York, "Broadband high power amplifier using spatial power combining", IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, vol. 51, no. 12, pp , Dec [9] Behzad Razavi, "Design of analog CMOS integrated circuits", [10] Behzad Razavi, "RF microelectronics", : ( ) : ( ) : : LG MC : ( ) : ( ) [ 주관심분야 ] : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) [ 주관심분야 ],, EMC : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) [ 주관심분야 ], : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) [ 주관심분야 ] 297

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