ISSN: (Print) ISSN: X (Online) j.inst.korean.electr.electron.eng.vol.23,no.3,873~877,september 2019 논문번호

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1 ISSN: (Print) ISSN: X (Online) j.inst.korean.electr.electron.eng.vol.23,no.3,873~877,september 2019 논문번호 휴대용스마트단말기안테나타입에따른디지털 노이즈와안테나의결합분석 김준철 * Joonchul Kim * Abstract In this paper, we analyze the degree of digital noise coupling for Inverted F Antenna (IFA) and Loop Antenna, which are representative types of portable terminal antenna, using characteristic mode. Firstly, the degree of coupling according to the direction of digital signal lines and characteristic mode current of the printed circuit board (PCB) including the antenna is compared and analyzed, and based on this result, the coupling between WiFi antenna and the front camera noise is analyzed. For analysis, the digital signal line and ground line of the FPCB of the camera module are modeled as a loop feeder that excites the characteristic mode of the PCB ground and the change of noise coupling according to the antenna types are analyzed. 요 약 본논문에서는휴대단말기안테나의대표적형태인역 F 안테나 (Inverted F Antenna, IFA) 와루프 (Loop) 안테나에따른디지털노이즈의결합 (coupling) 정도를특성모드 (characteristic mode) 를사용하여분석한다. 우선, 안테나를포함한인쇄회로기판 (Printed Circuit Board, PCB) 의특성모드전류와디지털신호라인의방향에따른결합정도를비교분석하고, 이를토대로휴대단말기의 WiFi 안테나와전방카메라 (front camera) 의결합에대해서분석한다. 분석을위해서카메라모듈의 FPCB의디지털신호선과그라운드선을 PCB 그라운드의특성모드를여기 (excitation) 시키는루프형피더 (feeder) 로모델링했고, 안테나타입 (type) 에따른노이즈결합변화에대해서분석을했다. Key words:digital noise coupling, RFI, RF sensitivity, ground mode, characteristic mode Ⅰ. 서론 최근의휴대용스마트단말기들은소비자들로부 터점점더많은기능과소형화에대한요구를받 고있다. 새로운기능을추가하기위해서는스마트단말기의내부디지털신호의증가가필요하고이는결과적으로단말기내에더많은내부디지털노이즈를생성하게된다 [1]. 또한소형화에대한요 * Dept. of Information Systems Engineering, Sungshin University Corresponding author Tel: Manuscript received Sep. 5, 2019; revised Sep. 16, 2019; accepted Sep. 17, This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (873)

2 124 j.inst.korean.electr.electron.eng.vol.23,no.3, ,September 2019 구로인해서내부디지털노이즈를생성하는 IC (Integrated Circuit) 와 RF(Radio Frequency) 소자, 특히안테나가전기적으로더가까운거리에위치하여안테나의수신감도열화 (sensitivity degradation) 문제를야기한다 [2]. 최근의휴대용스마트단말기의구조에서카메라 (Camera) 와 WiFi(Wireless Fidelity), GPS(Global Positioning System) 등의안테나는일반적으로모두스마트단말기의상단에실장 (mount) 되고, 전기적으로서로가까이위치한다. 이로인해카메라노이즈와안테나간의결합 (coupling) 은크게일어나게되고심각한수신감도열화문제를일으킨다 [3]. 특히 WiFi를이용한화상통화기능은 WiFi전파를수신하는과정에서전면카메라 (front camera) 가동작하여수신감도를크게열화시키는데이것은전면카메라의클록 (clock), 데이터 (data), 전원 (power) 등의노이즈가전기적으로가까이있는 WiFi 안테나로강하게결합되어나타나는현상이다. 이를개선하기위해서회로적으로노이즈원 (noise source) 에디커플링캐패시터 (decoupling capacitor) 를사용하거나인쇄회로기판 (Printed Circuit Board, PCB) 의레이아웃 (Layout) 의개선을시도하지만, 이는많은개선시간과비용의낭비를초래한다 [4]. 이같은문제에대한원인분석및해결책을고안하기위해서본논문에서는휴대용스마트단말기의안테나와노이즈의결합원리를보이고, 안테나형태의변화로노이즈결합을줄이는방법을보인다. 예제로스마트단말기의 WiFi안테나와카메라모듈 (Camera Module) 을모델링하여안테나와디지털노이즈간의커플을줄이는것을보이고, 스마트단말기의안테나설계시디지털신호의고주파하모닉노이즈 (high frequency harmonic noise) 가여기 (exciting) 하는 PCB의그라운드특성모드 (ground characteristic mode) 를고려하면안테나의수신감도열화문제를줄일수있는것을보일것이다. Ⅱ. 본론 1. 디지털노이즈와안테나의결합분석디지털신호와안테나의결합을분석하기위해서디지털신호선종단부에디지털신호포트 (port) 로 port-a, 안테나입력부에안테나포트로 port-b를 만들어서분석한다. 두개의포트의결합을살펴보기위해서리액션 (reaction concept) 을이용할수있다. port-a 의등 가자계소스로부터생성된자계장이 port-b 의등 가자계전류로영향을미치는것은다음식으로 정의된다 [5], [6]. (1) H ba 는 port-a 의소스로인해생성된 port-b 의자 계장이고 I ba 는 port-a 의소스로인해생성된 port-b 의전류이다. M b 와 V b 는 port-b 의등가자 계전류소스와전압소스이다. 결합을나타내는 산란파라미터 (scattering parameter) 의 S ba 는아래 와같이표현된다 [7]. (2) (3) 그림 1 은바 (bar) 형태의휴대용단말기의모델 을나타낸다. 디지털노이즈와안테나와의결합을 분석하기위해서디지털신호선에 port-a, 안테나 입력부에 port-b 의이름으로포트를만들었다. 그 림 1 의시뮬레이션결과는 port-b 가여기될때, 첫 번째공진주파수에서의자계장분포의절대값을 보여준다. 디지털신호선의방향에따른안테나와의결합을 확인하기위해서디지털신호선을 position-1 과 position-2 에각각위치시켰다. 그림 2 는그림 1 의 디지털신호선 (port-a) 을여기시켰을때안테나 (port-b) 로의결합을보이는시뮬레이션결과이다. 안테나의공진을 900MHz 로했을때, position-1 에 디지털신호선이배치된경우의안테나와디지털 신호선과의결합은 -53dB 이고 position-2 의경우는 -58dB 로 5dB 차이를보인다. 시뮬레이션결과를 보면안테나입력부와신호선의거리는전기적으 로는같지만, 커플은 position-1 에위치했을때더 크게일어난다는것을알수있다. 이결과는디지 털신호와안테나사이의결합이둘사이의거리에 영향을받을뿐아니라디지털신호선의방향에도 영향을받는다는것을보여준다. 또, 디지털신호선 (874)

3 125 L 1 =90 mm, L 2 =40 mm, L d =5 mm, L a1 =5 mm, L a2 =38 mm, L a3 =8 mm, L a4=27 mm, t=1.6 mm, t f=0.8 mm, t a=4, digital line width=0.5 mm, source and load impedance=50 Ω, permittivity of PCB=4.5 Fig. 1. magnetic field at first resonance frequency of PCB with antenna in bar type Smart Terminal model. 그림 1. 안테나를포함한바타입스마트단말기 PCB의첫번째공진주파수의전류분포 Fig. 2. Coupling bewteen digital line(port-a) and antenna (port-b). 그림 2. 디지털신호선 (port-a) 을여기시켰을때안테나 (port-a) 로의결합 에의해유도된등가자계전류원이안테나에의 한그라운드모드전류와평행할때, 그라운드모 드전류는강하게여기되고결합이매우크다는 것을알수있다. 2. WiFi안테나모델의노이즈결합비교분석최근출시된많은휴대용스마트단말기들은안테나실장공간의부족으로카메라등디지털노이즈가매우큰부품주변에안테나를실장하고있다. 그림 3 (a) 는최근의경향을반영한전방카메라모듈을포함한바형태의휴대용스마트단말기모델을보여준다. 일반적으로카메라모듈은단말기 PCB에 FPCB(Flexible PCB) 를사용해서연결되고, FPCB의디지털신호선은보통 PCB의긴축방향으로실장되기때문에모델에서도같은형태로구현했다. FPCB를모델링한신호선은그림1의디지털신호선과동일한방법으로모델링했고신호선의길이는 6mm, 너비는 0.5mm이다. (b) 는 PCB의안테나공간에실장한역 F 안테나 (inverted F 안테나, IFA) 이고, (c) 는안테나공간에실장한루프 (loop) 안테나이다. 그림 4는안테나포트 (port-b) 를여기했을때, PCB에형성되는전류분포의시뮬레이션결과를두가지안테나타입별로나타낸그림이다. 그림에서 L1는 1nH, C1은 0.2pF, C2와 C3는 0.5pF이다. 시뮬레이션결과, IFA를사용한모델은 PCB의긴축방향으로안테나전류가형성되고루프안테나를사용한모델은 PCB의짧은축방향으로안테나전류가형성된다. 디지털신호선의방향과비교해보면 IFA를사용한 PCB의모드전류는디지털신호선과동일방향으로형성되고, 루프안테나를사용한 PCB의모드전류는디지털신호선과수직방향으로형성된다. 식 (1) 과식 (3) 을고려하면, IFA 를사용한안테나는디지털신호와커플이클것이고, 루프안테나를사용한경우는커플이작을것임을예상할수있다. 그림 5는모델링한두가지안테나와카메라모듈의디지털신호선과의결합 (S 21 ) 에대한시뮬레이션및측정결과이다. 결과를보면 IFA를사용한안테나가루프안테나를사용한경우보다 10dB 이상커플이크게일어났다. 이결과는 PCB의동일위치에실장된안테나와카메라모듈간의결합은안테나타입에따라달라짐을보여준다. 그리고카메라모듈의 FPCB에흐르는디지털신호의방향과설계하려는안테나의모드전류방향이수직이되도록안테나타입을결정하고안테나를설계해야디지털노이즈로부터안테나의수신감도열화를줄일수있다는것을보여준다. (875)

4 126 j.inst.korean.electr.electron.eng.vol.23,no.3, ,September 2019 digital line width=0.5 mm, source and load impedance=50 Ω, permittivity of PCB=4.5 (a) PCB with antenna and camera module. (a) 안테나와카메라모듈을포함한 PCB (a) Digital signal loop model and current distribution. (a) 디지털신호루프모델및전류분포 (b) IFA. (c) loop antenna. (b) 역 F 안테나 (c) 루프안테나 Fig. 3. Bar type handheld model with front camera module. 그림 3. 전방 (front) 카메라모듈을포함한바형태의휴대용스마트단말기모델 (a) Digital signal loop model and current distribution. (a) 디지털신호루프모델및전류분포 Fig. 5. Simulation and measurement results of coupling between camera module signal port and antenna port. 그림 5. 카메라모듈신호포트와안테나포트간의결합에대한시뮬레이션과측정결과 지털회로와의결합도가낮은것이아니라는것을 보여준다. Ⅲ. 결론 (a) IFA. (b) loop antenna. (a) 역 F 안테나 (b) 루프안테나 Fig. 4. Bar type handheld model with front camera module. 그림 4. 두가지안테나타입에따른전류분포형태설계된두안테나의방사특성을확인해보면루프안테나를사용한모델의효율은 -1.5dB, IFA를사용한모델의효율은 -5dB로루프안테나를사용한모델이디지털신호와결합도가낮고방사특성또한좋게나타난다. 이는본논문에서사용한루프안테나의방사성능이 IFA 보다좋지않아서디 본논문에서는안테나타입에따른디지털노이즈의결합정도를특성모드를사용하여분석했다. 휴대용스마트단말기에서카메라모듈의 FPCB 에흐르는디지털신호는 FPCB의방향에따라흐르고, 안테나에의해서형성되는그라운드모드전류는안테나타입에따라다르게형성된다. 따라서카메라모듈의 FPCB에흐르는디지털신호의방향과설계하려는안테나의모드전류방향을수직이되도록안테나타입을결정하고설계를해야노이즈로인한안테나의수신감도열화를줄일수있다. 이결과는안테나와노이즈원이가깝게위치하 (876)

5 127 고있는최근의휴대용스마트단말기에서노이즈 와의결합도가낮은안테나를설계하는데큰도움 이될것이다. References [1] H. W. Johnson and M. Graham, High-speed digital design, Prentice-Hall, [2] D. Lim, Y. Kim, and A. Kim, Digital to RF coupling analysis methodology for mixed-signal, IEEE Int l, Symp. Electromagn. Comp., pp.1-5, DOI: /ISEMC [3] L. Qu, R. Zhang, and H. Kim, High-sensitivity ground radiation antenna system using an adjacent slot for bluetooth headsets, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol.63, no.12, pp , DOI: /TAP [4] B. Archambeault, J. Drewniak, PCB Design for Real-World EMI Control, Springer, [5] J. Kim, Analysis of Improvement Method of Isolation Between Digital Noise and the Mobile Handset Antenna, Journal of IKEEE., vol.23, no.2, pp , DOI: /ikeee [6] R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields, Macgraw-Hill, [7] D. M. Pozar, Microwave engineering, Wiley, BIOGRAPHY Joonchul Kim (Member) 2011:Ph.D degree in Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hanyang University ~2007.2:Mobile Handset R&D Center, LG Electronics ~ :Mobile Communication Division, Samsung Electronics ~Present:Dept. of Information Systems Engineering, Sungshin University (877)

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