1 Culinary Science & Hospitality Research. 2017;23(3): DOI: /cshr 변혁적리더십이외식기업조리사의내재적동기와 창의성에미치는영향에관한연구 CJ 푸드빌을중심으로 The Study on Effect of Transformational Leadership on Cook's Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity in Foodservice Firm - Focused on CJ Foodville - Hyeon-Mo Jeon 1 Na-Kyung Kwon 2 1 Dept. of Hotel & Tourism Management, Dongguk University-Gyeongju 2 Dept. of Grobal Leisure & Tourism, Sun Moon University ABSTRAC The study intended to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership and creativity of cooks with transformational leadership as antecedent variable. Transformational leadership has been assessed positively in variable studies as a leadership to improve employee's creativity. The authors also tried to explore structural relationships among transformational leadership, intrinsic motivation, and creativity by identifying the meditating role of intrinsic motivation in the relationship between transformational leadership and creativity of cooks. The study subject was CJ FOODVILLE, which is a representative company with its size, sales, and recognition as a domestic restaurant business. A survey was conducted with employees who were working as a cook in restaurants operated by CJ FOODVILLE in metropolitan areas. The results of the study showed that charisma and intellectual stimulation of transformational leadership positively influenced intrinsic motivation, but inspirational motivation and individualized consideration did not significantly influence intrinsic motivation. In addition, the four elements of transformational leadership did not significantly affect creativity. The findings of the study show that intrinsic motivation played a role as a mediation among charisma, intellectual stimulation, and creativity of transformational leadership. Therefore, the findings of the study suggested intrinsic motivation as an important factor affecting creativity of cooks. Keywords: transformational leadership, intrinsic motivation, creativity, cook, foodservice firm,,, (Rego, Sousa, Marques, & Cunha, 2014)., (Claver- Cortes, Molina-Azorin, & Pereira-Moliner, 2006)., (Wang, Tsai, & Tsai, 2014)., (Jang, Lee, & Park, 2013). Corresponding author: ,
2 64 Culinary Science & Hospitality Research (Park & Kim, 2015)., (Seol, 2009). (Dinh et al., 2014)., (Khan, Rehman, & Fatima, 2009; Lee, Lee, & Yoo, 2012)., (Jang et al., 2013).,,, (Bass, 1990; Shin & Zhou, 2003; Park & Kim, 2015)., (Wang et al., 2014), (Gong, Huang, & Farh, 2009). (Wang et al., 2014). (Choi & Chang, 2015).,,, (Amabile, 1996; Jang et al., 2013). (Jung, Chow, & Wu, 2003; Kahai, Sosik, & Avolio, 2003; Shin & Zhou, 2003; Park & Yoon, 2015), (Amabile, 1998; Tiemey, Farmer, & Graen, 1999; Grumusluoglu & Ilsev, 2009)., (Horng & Hu, 2008).,, (Hu, 2010)., (Kang & Yoon, 2015).,,..,.,.,. (transformational leadership) (Burns, 1978). (Bass, 1985). Bunrs(1978), (Yukl, 2002),., (Lee et al., 2012),
3 23(3), (2017) 65,, (Herold, Fedor, & Caldwell, 2008). Bass(1990), (Kang, 2010).,,. (Jung & Sosik, 2002). Bass(1990) MLQ(multiple leadership questionnare) (response allocaton analysis),, 3. MLQ, MLQ Form-5,,, (Kang, 2010). (charisma) (Bass & Avolio, 1990).,, (Bass & Yokochi, 1991; Seol, 2009).,,. (intellectual stimulation),,, (Seol, 2009). (Waldman, Siegel, & Javidan, 2006). (Chae, Lee, & Kim, 2011). (inspirational motivation),, (Kang, 2010)., (Kwon & Park, 2010). (individualized consideration),,,, (Ryu & Joo, 2014). Bass(1990) MLQ Form-5,,,.,., (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Park, Jeong, & Jung, 2015). (self-determination theory), (extrinsic motivation) (intrinsic motivation) (Kim & Drumwright, 2016)., (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Deci(1975), Deci Ryan(1985),,.,,, (Amabile, 1997)., (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998)., (Kim, 2015).
4 66 Culinary Science & Hospitality Research (Deci & Ryan, 1985),,,, (Kang, 2010)..,, (Lee, Jung, & Hwang, 2013). (Woodman, Sawyer, & Griffin, 1993; Shalley, Zhou, & Oldman, 2004). Shin Zhou(2003), Jang et al.(2013),. (creativity) (Park & Yoon, 2015). (Amabile, 1997),, (Woodman et al., 1993). (Zhou & Shalley, 2003; Lee et al., 2012). Amabile(1988), 3 (expertise), (creative-thinking skills), (motivation).,,.,. 3.,,,,,,, (Lee, Lee, & Park, 2013; Anderson, Potočnik, & Zhou, 2014).. (Kim, Jeong, Jung, & Park, 2015)., (Lee et al., 2013). Seol(2009),. Lee et al. (2012),,. Park Kim(2015),,. Amabile(1988) 3,. 4, Fig. 1.
5 23(3), (2017) 67 Fig. 1. Research model. (Bass, 1990).,, (Jung & Kim, 2011). Lee et al.(2013) 1. (+). Yang Kim(2011) 6 (+), Shamir, House Arthur(1993). Tierney (1999).. 1: (+). 1-1: (+). 1-2: (+). 1-3: (+). 1-4: (+).,,,,, (Oldham & Cummings, 1996). (Amabile, 1988). Amabile(1997),,,, (Lee & Kim, 2015). Lee et al.(2013),,. Kim(2015) (+)..
6 68 Culinary Science & Hospitality Research 2: (+)., (Ryu & Joo, 2014)., (Jung et al., 2003; Jang et al., 2013)., (Seol, 2009). Seol(2009), (+), Lee et al.(2013) (+) (Bass, 1985; Bass, Avolio, Jung, & Berson, 2003; Gumusluoglu & Ilsev, 2009).,, (Elkins & Keeller, 2003; Choi, Ahn, & Kim, 2007). Ryu Joo(2014) (+),,.. 3: (+). 3-1: (+). 3-2: (+). 3-3: (+). 3-4: (+)., (Jang et al., 2013). Amabile(1996),, (Kim et al., 2015). Lee et al.(2013),,.,,,., (Jang et al., 2013).,.. 4:. 4-1:. 4-2:. 4-3:. 4-4:. Bass(1985), Bass Avolio(1990)
7 23(3), (2017) 69 (MLQ; multifactor leadership questionnaire) Yang Kim(2011) Lee et al.(2012), Lee et al.(2013) 17 Likert 5. Lee et al. (2013) 4 Likert 5, Zhou George(2001) 4.,.,,, 4.,.,,, 4..,,, 4..,,,, 5..,,, 4..,,, , 1 CJ (, CJ,,, ,, , SPSS/WIN 18.0 AMOS 7.0.,., bootstrap. Table 1
8 70 Culinary Science & Hospitality Research Table 1. General characteristics of the subjects General information Gender Age Marital status Education level Yearly salary (unit: 10,000 won) Seniority Position Type of employment General information Frequency (N) Percentage (%) Male Female Single Married High school Collage degree University degree Graduate school degree <2, ,000 2, ,000 3, ,000 4, < Cook st cook Sous chef Regular employee Temporary employee Part timer Total Table 2,,,. χ 2 = , df=164, CMIN/df=2.377, RMR=0.054, GFI=0.870, AGFI=0.817, NFI=0.902, IFI=0.941, CFI=0.940, RMSEA=0.076 GFI, AGFI, CMIN/df, RMR, NFI, IFI, CFI, RMSEA,. t (C.R.>±1.96), 95%, Cronbach s α 0.6. (AVE) (CCR)., 0.5, 0.7,., (AVE)., Table 3 ( ) ,. Table 4 AMOS 7.0. χ 2 = , df=164, CMIN/df =2.405, RMR=0.054, GFI=0.866, AGFI=0.811, NFI=0.901, IFI =0.940, CFI=0.939, RMSEA=0.077,.,. (β=0.206, p=0.007)
9 23(3), (2017) 71 Table 2. Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis Factor Variable Standardized estimate S.E. C.R. CCR AVE Cronbach's α CA Charisma Intellectual stimulation Inspirational motivation Individualized consideration Intrinsic motivation Creativity CA CA3.887 Fixed - IS IS IS IS4.890 Fixed - MO MO MO4.716 Fixed - IC1.826 Fixed - IC IC IC IC IM2.967 Fixed - IM IM CR2.699 Fixed - CR CR χ 2 = , df=164, CMIN/df=2.377, RMR=0.054, GFI=0.870, AGFI=0.817, NFI=0.902, IFI=0.941, CFI=0.940, RMSEA=0.076 Table 3. Correlation coefficient between the factors Factor F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 Mean S.D. F1: Charisma.775 1).112 3) F2: Intellectual stimulation.334 **2) F3: Inspirational motivation.266 **.155 ** F4: Individualized consideration.327 **.253 **.258 ** F5: Intrinsic motivation.215 **.162 ** F6: Creativity.179 **.130 ** ** * p<0.05, ** p< ) (AVE). 2) (r). 3) (r 2 ).
10 72 Culinary Science & Hospitality Research Table 4. Result of structure equation model analysis Hypothesis Path Standarzed estimate S.E. C.R. p-value Result H1-1 Charisma Intrinsic motivation **.007 Accepted H1-2 Intellectual stimulation Intrinsic motivation *.041 Accepted H1-3 Inspirational motivation Intrinsic motivation Rejected H1-4 Individualized consideration Intrinsic motivation Rejected H2 Intrinsic motivation Creativity **.000 Accepted H3-1 Charisma Creativity Rejected H3-2 Intellectual stimulation Creativity Rejected H3-3 Inspirational motivation Creativity Rejected H3-4 Individualized consideration Creativity **.039 Rejected χ 2 = , df=164, CMIN/df=2.405, RMR=0.054, GFI=0.866, AGFI=0.811, NFI=0.901, IFI=0.940, CFI=0.939, RMSEA=0.077 * p<0.05, ** p<0.01. (+), (β=0.151, p=0.041) (+)., (β =0.590, p=0.000) (+), 2.,,, (β=-0.145, p=0.039) ( ), 3. Table 5 Amos 7.0 Bootstrap,, (p=0.013), (p=0.042).,. 4. Table 5. Results of mediating effect analysis Hypothesis Path Total effect Direct effect Indirect effect 2-tailed sig. Result 4-1 Charisma Creativity ** Accepted/ full mediation 4-2 Intellectual stimulation Creativity ** Accepted/ full mediation 4-3 Inspirational motivation Creativity Reject 4-4 Individualized consideration Creativity Reject * p<0.05, ** p<0.01.
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