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1 Fire Science and Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp , 2020 DOI: ISSN : (Online) ISSN : (Print) [Research Paper] 고강도인터벌트레이닝 (HIIT) 이소방공무원의체력및업무능력에미치는영향 김철호 지창진 * 김상호 ** 고려대학교스포츠의학과대학원생, * 고려대학교사회체육학과대학원생, ** 고려대학교국제스포츠학부교수 Effects of a High-Intensity Interval Training Program on the Fitness and Performance of Firefighters Cherho Kim Changjin Ji * Sangho Kim ** Graduate Student, Dept. of Sports Medicine, Korea University, * Graduate Student, Dept. of Sports and Leisure Studies, Korea University, ** Professor, School of Global Sport Studies, Korea University (Received February 14, 2020; Revised March 2, 2020; Accepted March 5, 2020) 요 약 본연구는소방공무원 16 명을대상으로 8 주간고강도인터벌트레이닝 (HIIT) 중타바타 (Tabta) 프로그램을진행하였으며자료처리는윌콕슨순위검증 (Wilcoxon signed rank test) 와대응표본 t 검정 (Paired t-test) 분석을실시하였다. 체력요인중하버드스텝 (Harvard step, 회 ) 은운동전 ± 에서운동후 ± (p <.009), 윗몸일으키기 ( 회 ) 는운동전 ± 에서운동후 ± 8.80 (p <.001), 악력 (kg) 은운동전 ± 6.11 에서운동후 ± 6.74 (p <.035) 으로각각유의한차이가나타났다. 신체조성중체지방률 (%) 은운동전 ± 4.32 에서운동후 ± 3.33 (p <.003), 근육량 (%) 은운동전 ± 4.38 에서운동후 ± 4.24 (p <.043), 체중 (kg) 은운동전 ± 6.40 에서운동후 ± 6.40 (p <.000) 으로각각유의한차이가나타났다. 37 층도착시간은운동전 8 min 13 s ± 1 min 8 s 에서운동후 7 min 19 s ± 1 min 6 s (p <.002) 유의하게감소시켰다. 따라서 HIIT 는화재및재난상황대비업무능력향상에긍정적영향을미칠것으로판단된다. ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a Tabata exercise program as an alternative for firefighters whose working environment makes it difficult to manage physical fitness. The Tabata exercise program, in which 16 people participated, led to increased muscle mass and reduced weight and body fat, which not only improved the health of the firefighters but also improved their cardiopulmonary endurance, muscle endurance, and muscle strength, which are essential elements during firefighting emergency relief activities. On the basis of these results, it is believed that developing and providing guidelines for scientific and systematic exercise programs to firefighters will lead to better work capability during fire and disaster situations. Keywords : Fire fighter performance, Hight intensity interval training (HIIT), Tabta training 1)1. 서론 최근고층건축물이기하급수적으로증가한결과, 대형재난발생시인명구조및화재대응에심각한어려움이발생하고있다 (1). 초고층건물일수록연소방향은수직으로향하기때문에과거에비해소방의활동범위는증가함에 따라소방공무원의체력적부담도커지고있다 (2). 초고층건물은화재초기에대응속도및대응방법에따라초기진압성공여부를결정한다. 초고층건물은병목현상이발생하는구조이기에초기진압의어려움을가중시킨다 (3). 과거와다른고층건물구조에서는소방시설의오작동혹은화재에대한민감도가감소할경우큰사고로이어지기쉽다. Corresponding Author, TEL: , FAX: c 2020 Korean Institute of Fire Science & Engineering. All right reserved. 97

2 98 김철호 지창진 김상호 초고층건물은증가하지만화재진압이나구급등현장업무를담당하는소방공무원의절반가량이 40세이상이며소방공무원들의고령화경향에의해소방력이감소하는위기에놓여있다 (4). 업무수행에서는소방장비착용시최대산소섭취량과최대심박수를증가시켜화재위치도달시간을지연시킬수있으므로체력관리는초기진압에서중요하다 (5). 국내에서소방공무원원의체력관리는개개인의몫으로전가되는상황이며현장업무수행에필요한체력유지및관리가제도적으로필요한실정이다. 이에반해, 미국의소방체력은미국방화협회 (National fire protection association; NFPA) 에서소방공무원전원을대상으로정기적인체력평가, 소방공무원을위한체력단련프로그램, 체력향상교육및상담, 체력단련프로그램에대한정보수집및관리등으로구성한다. 소방공무원의근무환경및관리는불충분한상황이다. 가중한업무부하, 직무불안정성, 보상의적절성, 고도의긴장상태업무및수면부족등은반복적인스트레스환경에노출되고있다 (6-7). 수면부족의불규칙적인일상으로인한특정호르몬을자극하여신체적 정신적스트레스증가를직접적인요인으로볼수있다 (8). 주간근무자에비해야간근무자는삶의질및체력이감소하는경향이나타났다 (9). 교대근무부적응일경우, 심혈관계및소화기질환등여러질환위험도는상승한다 (10). 소방공무원의업무형태및시간의변화에따라스트레스호르몬의변화가나타났다 (11). 반복적인직무스트레스증가및누적은호르몬의변화, 수면의질에부정적영향을미친다 (10-11). 그동안직무수행과관련된스트레스치유에소극적으로대처해왔으며소방관의삶의질에대한개선방안이필요한실정이다. 국내소방관련선행연구에서, 일반인및선수들에게도폭넓게사용되는고강도인터벌트레이닝 (High intensity interval training, HIIT) 이교대근무부적응증상인체력, 수면및우울증에긍정적영향을미친것으로밝혔다 (12). 교대근무자는부상의위험도가더높기때문에근력증가는업무수행과관련된근골격계질환을최소화시킬수있다 (13). 소방공무원의근무환경특성으로인해체력관리를위한시간과공간의제약이많이따른다. 따라서이를고려한과학적이고체계적인개인별체력맞춤프로그램이부재등이문제점으로제기된다. 본연구는근무형태의특성으로인해업무수행력과관련된체력관리의시간적, 공간적제약을받는소방공무원에게고강도인터벌트레이닝중타바타운동을통해체력및업무수행에미치는영향을확인하고자한다. 이를통해소방공무원의환경적제약을극복한체력유지및관리프로그램으로현장에서활용가능성을살펴보고자한다. 2. 연구방법 2.1 연구대상본연구의대상자는창원시에소재한 00 소방서소방공 Table 1. Characteristics of the Subjects 무원 16명이참여하였으며, 1년이상심혈관계질환이나정형외과적병력이없는이들로실험에참가하기전실험과관련된모든정보와절차에대한설명을듣고실험참가동의서에서명하였다. 8주동안고강도인터벌트레이닝 (HIIT) 프로그램을구성하고적용하였다. 연구대상자의신체적특성은 Table 1과같다. 2.2 실험방법본연구는 8주간고강도인터벌트레이닝중타바타운동프로그램 (14) 을적용하여체력, 신체조성, 업무수행능력에미치는영향을검증하기위해 2019년 3월부터 5월까지 8주동안주 3회점진적운동프로그램을실시하였다. 독립변인으로간헐적고강도트레이닝그룹 (16명) 으로설정하였고, 종속변인은체력 ( 근력, 근지구력, 심폐지구력 ) 과신체조성 ( 체중, 근육량, 체지방률 ) 으로나누어진행하였다. 2.3 측정도구및측정방법 체성분 (Body composition) 본연구의체성분측정은인바디 (Inbody430, 2016) 를사용하여측정하였다. 측정은편안한복장을입고장신구를제거후양말을벗은상태로실시하였다. 정확한측정을위하여대상자에게움직이지않고자세를유지하게하였다 심폐지구력 (Cardiovascular endurance) 본연구의심폐지구력측정은하버드스텝테스트로하버드대학의피로연구소에서고안되었으며하버드스텝을실시후심박수의회복시간을측정하는방법으로 5 min간 40cm 높이의벤치를오르내리며메트로놈박자 ( 속도 120) 에맞추어실시하며측정후 1 min에서 1 min 30 s, 2 min 에서 2 min 30 s, 3 min에서 3 min 30 s 동안각 30 s 동안의맥박수를측정하여공식에대입하였다 (15). 수행시간 번의맥박수의합 PEI (Physical efficiency index, 신체효율지수 ) 근지구력 (Muscle endurance) Subjects (n) Age (yrs) Height (cm) Weight (kg) ± ± ± 6.52 본연구의근지구력측정은복근의동적지구력을횟수로나타내는측정방법이다. 자신의상반신을부하로하고있으므로지방이많은비만한사람은낮은값을나타낸다. 윗몸일으키기측정법에는여러가지가있는데제한시간을 한국화재소방학회논문지, 제 34 권제 2 호, 2020 년

3 고강도인터벌트레이닝 (HIIT) 이소방공무원의체력및업무능력에미치는영향 99 Table 2. HIIT Program ii) ii) iii) Section Duration (Week) Variable Program Time (min) Rest (min) Frequency / Rest Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ 1~2 i 3~6 ii 7~8 iii Warm up 10 Main Exercise Standard Push Up Jump Squat Cross Back Extension Plank Wide stance Push Up Jumping Lunge Leg Raise Burpee Test Speed Squat Mountain Climbing Side Lunge Burpee Test Reverse Plank Hindu Push Up Side Step Burpee Test 5 1 Cool Down 5 The 1~2 weeks program combines section I and II, with a total workout time of 25 min. The 3~6 weeks program combines section I, II and Ⅲ, with a total workout time of 30 min. The 7~8weeks program combines section I, II, Ⅲ and Ⅳ, with a total workout time of 35 min. 20 s /10 s x 2 rep 설정하지않고몸이지칠때까지반복하는것과 1 min, 2 min, 30 s간으로시간을제한하는방법이있다. 본연구에서는피험자를싯업보드 (Sit up board) 위에눕히고양발을 30cm 벌려무릎을직각으로구부리며, 양손을머리뒤로하여깍지를끼게한후 시작 신호와함께상체를일으키며양팔꿈치가양무릎에닿도록일어선다음다시눕기를연속반복을실시하여 1 min간반복하였다 (16) 근력 (Muscle power) 본연구에서근력측정은악력을측정으로물건을잡을때사용하는손의힘을우리는악력 (Grip Strength) 이라고하며측정방법은앉은자세로측정으로어깨의각도 0, 팔꿈치각도는 90, 손목각도는중립자세를취한후측정기의손잡이를손가락둘째마리로잡고레버를힘껏당겨실시하였다 소방공무원업무수행능력평가 소방공무원화재진압적합도평가 (17) 를토대로장비를착용하고건축물의비상계단을통하여옥상까지이동한후소방엄무를진행하는것으로업무수행평가를실시하였으며 10층, 20층, 30층, 37층도착시간을각각측정하였다. 2.4 중재프로그램본연구에서는운동기구사용법및운동프로그램교육 을설명하고동의를받았으며타바타운동프로그램은총 8주간주 3회 ( 월, 수, 금 ) 시행하였다. 공통적으로시작전 10 min간준비운동 (Warm-up), 종료후 5 min간정리운동 (Cool-down) 을실시하였고 1세트의운동시간은 4 min이며 20 s 운동, 10 s 휴식을총 4번 2회반복하는트레이닝을실시하였다. 처음 1-2주는적응기간으로 2개 section 진행하였으며, 3-6주는 3 section, 7-8주는 4 section으로강도를늘려가면서시행하였다. 운동동작은근육부위별 6가지이며기구없이하는맨몸운동으로대근육인가슴, 등, 하체, 소근육인어깨, 복근을모두사용할수있도록구성하였다 (Table 2). 2.5 자료분석본연구에서얻은자료를분석하기위해서 IBM SPSS 20 통계분석프로그램을사용하였으며모든자료는 Wilcoxon signed rank test 검정을통해정규성검정을실시하였다. 기술통계분석을이용하여측정치의평균과표준편차를산출하였고, 독립변인인트레이닝사전 (Pre), 사후 (Post) 에따라나타나는종속변인인체력과신체조성, 업무수행능력변인을검정하기위해대응표본t 검정을이용하여분석하였다. 자료분석에대한통계적유의수준은 p-value =.05로설정하였다. Fire Sci. Eng., Vol. 34, No. 2, 2020

4 100 김철호 지창진 김상호 Table 3. Changes in the Physical Fitness Factor before and after HIIT List Pre-test Post-test t-value p-value Cardio Endurance ± ± ** Muscle Endurance ± ± ** Muscle Power ± ± * * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < Table 4. Changes in Body Composition Before and After HIIT Application List Pre-test Post-test t-value p-value Body fat (%) ± ± ** Muscle (%) ± ± * Weight (kg) ± ± *** * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < Table 5. Changes in HIIT Ability to Perform Tasks Before and After Application List Pre-test Post-test t-value p-value 37 th Floor Arrive (time) 08:18 ± 01:08 07:19 ± 01: ** * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 연구결과 3.1 HIIT 적용전 후체력요인차이 8주간의 HIIT 운동프로그램적용에따른심폐지구력차이 ( 하버드스텝 ( 회 )), 근지구력 ( 윗몸일으키키 ( 회 )), 근력 ( 악력 (kg)) 은 Table 3과같다. 심폐지구력요인은실험전에 ± 12.33에서실험후 ± (p <.009), 근지구력요인은실험전 ± 10.73에서실험후 ± 8.80 (p <.001), 근력요인은실험전 ± 6.11에서실험후 ± 6.74 (p <.035) 각각통계적으로유의한차이가나타났다. 3.2 HIIT 적용전 후신체조성요인차이 8주간의 HIIT 운동프로그램적용에신체조성차이는 Table 4와같다. 체지방율 (%) 요인은실험전 ± 4.32 에서실험후 ± 3.33 (p <.003), 근육량 (%) 요인은실험전 ± 4.38에서실험후 ± 4.24 (p <.043), 체중 (kg) 요인은실험전 ± 6.40 에서실험후 ± 6.40 (p <.000) 각각통계적으로유의한차이가나타났다. 3.3 HIIT 적용전 후업무수행능력변화 8주간의 HIIT 운동프로그램적용에따른소방공무원업무수행능력변화는 Table 5와같다. 업무수행능력요인은실험전 08:18 ± 01:08에서실험후 07:19 ± 01:06 (p <.002) 통계적으로유의한차이가나타났다. 4. 고찰 본연구는총 8주간진행되었으며, 1년이상심혈관계질환이나정형외과적특이병력이없는 16명을대상으로 HIIT 운동프로그램실시사전 사후검증으로하였다. 8주간 HIIT 운동프로그램적용에의한체력요인의결과를살펴보면, 첫째, 심폐지구력요인에서약 6.6% 증가를통해통계적으로유의한변화가나타났다. 저항운동트레이닝 (18) 은심실중격과좌심실벽의두께를증가와함께좌심실의수축력또한증가되어결과적으로심박출량을증가높인다고하였고이는고강도인터벌트레이닝을통해심폐능력을향상시키는요인이라볼수있다. HIIT은알파인스키선수들 (19) 의훈련방법중하나이며지속적유산소운동보다많은시간을할애하지않고적은시간으로운동의극대화하였다. HIIT은소방공무원원들또한공간및시간의부담을최소화하면서심폐지구력향상에긍정적역할을한것으로사료된다. 둘째, HIIT 운동프로그램적용에의한근지구력요인결과를살펴보면, 약 3.3% 향상은통계적으로유의한차이가나타났다. 지속적유산소성운동에반해고강도인터벌트레이닝을통해최대근력증가와근지구력증가에영향에 한국화재소방학회논문지, 제 34 권제 2 호, 2020 년

5 고강도인터벌트레이닝 (HIIT) 이소방공무원의체력및업무능력에미치는영향 101 미치는것으로선행연구에서확인되었다 (20). 이처럼유 무산소성대사에대한에너지공급에활발히사용함으로써 ATP System과근육의사용능력향상이주된이유로볼수있다 (21). 셋째, HIIT 운동프로그램적용에의한근력요인결과를살펴보면, 약 2.3% 향상은통계적으로유의한차이가나타났다. 근력은고강도인터벌트레이닝에따른 TypeⅡ 섬유인속근의발달능력으로인해지속적유산소운동보다유의하게증가되었다고보고되었다 (22). HIIT 운동프로그램적용에의한신체조성을살펴보면, 체지방률은약 1.7% 감소, 근육량은약 0.8% 증가, 체중은약 1.5% 감소하여, 통계적으로유의한변화를나타난결과를보였다. 운동은체지방산화를증가시켜신체조성에많은변화를가져오는데간헐적고강도인터벌트레이닝역시근육내미토콘드리아효소를발현하게하고체지방산화를증가시키며체중감소에효과적결과를보고하였다 (23). HIIT 운동후약 22시간동안안정시에너지소비량을유의한증가시키고, 호흡률을감소시켰다 (24). 소방업무수행능력을살펴보면, HIIT 운동프로그램적용후업무수행능력이 61 s 감소하였다. 초고층건물의화재특성상국내피난기준시간은 6 min 이내로안전한장소로대피해야한다 (25). 산소부족과유해가스에노출된다면기초적인대사에필요한에너지가공급이중단되어생체내장기손상과장애등을일으키기도한다 (26). 본연구의 HIIT 운동프로그램은전신운동으로써코어및큰근육들로이루어진동작들로소방공무원의직무수행에필수적인오르기 (Climbing), 밀기 (Pushing), 끌기 (Pulling), 들기 (Lifting) 를수행하는데필수적인동작들이라할수있다. 소방공무원이현장화재및구조등의활동시가장중요한체력인심폐지구력, 근지구력, 근력의향상및관리에적합한운동이라는결론을내릴수있다. 이러한신체적긍정적인향상은연령대와상관없이향상되어꾸준한 HIIT 운동프로그램을적용실시할경우소방공무원은고령화에영향을받지않고효과적으로소방임무를수행할수있을것으로판단된다. 5. 결론 본연구의목적은 8주간의 HIIT 운동프로그램이소방공무원원의신체조성및체력업무수행에미치는영향을규명하고효과를알아보고자하였다. 직업특성상많은시간을할애하지못하고부족한소방공무원원에게짧은시간에효과적인운동프로그램을제안하기위한기초자료의틀을제공하는것이다. 본연구결과를통해다음과같은결론을얻었다. 첫째, HIIT 운동프로그램은소방공무원의체중감소, 체지방률감소, 근육량증가에유의한차이가있었다 (p < 0.05). 둘째, HIIT 운동프로그램은소방공무원의심폐지구 력, 근지구력, 근력증가에유의한차이가있었다 (p < 0.05). 셋째, HIIT 운동프로그램은소방공무원의업무수행능력평가에긍정적인효과를보였다 (p < 0.05). 위와같은결론을종합해보면 HIIT 운동프로그램을통해소방공무원의체중및체지방량감소근육량의증가로소방공무원신체유지관리건강증진뿐만아니라화재진압응급구호활동중필수요소인심폐지구력, 근지구력, 근력도효과적인향상을주는것으로나타났다. 또한소방공무원들에게과학적이고체계적인운동프로그램가이드라인을만들어제공한다면화재나재난상황대비업무능력향상을가져올것으로판단된다. 후기 이연구는주저자 ( 김철호 ) 의석사학위논문을일부수정, 보완한것임. References 1. J. Y. Lee, A Study on the Operation and Tactic Extinguishing the Fire in High-rise Building, Master s Thesis, Kyonggi University, pp (2013). 2. S. Y. Song, J. R. Kim, S. K. Lee, D. W. Song and T. H. Kim, A Study on the Applying of the Disaster Information Center of High-rise Complex Building, Proceedings of 2010 Fall Annual Conference, Korean Institute of Fire Science & Engineering, pp (2010). 3. E. M. Hyun, K. H. Ahn, J. E. Lee and Y. S. Kim, Improvement of Standard by Analyzing Evacuation Plans of Domestic High-rise Buildings - Focused on Domestic and Foreign Buildings Laws and Case Analysis, Korea Institute of Ecological Architecture and Environment, Vol. 19, No 3, pp (2019). 4. Ministry of Public safety and Security, Study for Cause of Suffocation Disasters by Analysis of Suffocating Accidents in Confined Spaces in the Past 10 years : , (2015). 5. M. D. Huh and H. B. Chang, Effect of Weight of Fire-protective Equipment for Physical Activity Ability, Journal of Korean Institute of Fire Science & Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp (2010). 6. K. H. Kim, Influences of Job Stressors on Psychosocial Well-being, Fatigue and Sleep Sufficiency among Firefighters, Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp (2006). 7. Y. S. Moon, The Level and Job-related Provoking Factors of Firefighters Stress, The Korean Journal of Local Government Studies, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp (2011). 8. M. Bracci, N. Manzella, A. Copertaro, S. Staffolani, E. Fire Sci. Eng., Vol. 34, No. 2, 2020

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