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1 J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng. [ ] Vol. 23, No. 6, 2009 šd z»t sƒ The Performance Evaluation of Natural Smoke Ventilators Due to Stack Effect and Wind Velocities in High-rise Buildings x*á½ ³**Á y Chae-Hyun Lim* Bum-Gyu Kim** Yong-Hwan Park * Ÿ œ, **y w w, y w w ( / k) y z» w ü ³ wš šd z e w w» w x x w ww. x x e šd», s d mw z w. w» w p j CONTAMW w x mw» w xwš sƒw. ABSTRACT Natural smoke ventilator is one of domestic prescriptive methods to be used to exhaust smoke in case of fire in a high-rise buildings. The goal of this study is to evaluate the stack effect and the smoke exhaust performance in high-rise buildings with the opening of natural smoke ventilators using computer modeling technology, thus to estimate its effectiveness as a tool of smoke exhaust. For this purpose, the pressure differential in a domestic high-rise building with natural smoke ventilators was experimentally measured to analyze the stack effect with the closure or the opening of natural smoke ventilators and to calculate compensated air leakage of the building. Computer modeling based on experimentally measured data was carried out to estimate effectiveness of natural smoke ventilators in high-rise buildings using CONTAMW network program. Key words : Stack effect, High-rise building, Neutral plane, Smoke ventilator, Differential pressure 1. z w ù ƒ y w d, d d w. d 1967 Tamura Wilson 1) š d w s d TDC(Thermal Draft Coefficient) w» ƒ z e w w, d 1991 Tamblyn 2)» y» l mw z w š d 1995 Klote 3) ƒ y vù» vù l(eees, Emergency Elevator Evacuation System) š w z» t w»e w» w» l w. ù ü 1990 l w d y w š d l x, x x, w ƒ w š. 4-7) w, w üá w ü z» t e ƒ w 82

2 šd z»t sƒ 83 (3,460), T o» (K), T s vp ü (K), h l (m) ùkü. 2.2 t z t z»t w w» ƒ w t w s ùkü z w., x x w y ƒ e (2) ùkü. w ƒw w d ƒ, d ü t ³x, ù w t (3) e. P w = C w ρ o V H 2 (2)» P w t e t (Pa), C w, ρ o» (Kg/m 3 ), V H H t (m/s) ùkü. Figure 1. Flow chart for the process of this study. vù y ƒ q. ü» w ³e 14 ³ wš šd z e w w» w x, x d x, w sƒ w Figure z z üá w œ»ƒ w w x w, šd ƒ» z w j w. z w (1) ùkü. 1 P so = K s T o T s h (1)» P so z w (Pa), K s V H = V 0 A H H o B» V H H t (m/s), V o d d w t (m/s), H wš w (m), H o d d w (m), A, B x ùkü. 2.3 e w 2 ƒ vp z š (A a ) (A b )» w ƒƒ w ƒ vp e (4) w. H n = ( T s /T o )( A b /A a ) 2 Hs» H n l ¾ (m), H s vp (m), T s vpü (K), T o» (K), A a (m 2 ), A b w (m 2 ) ùkü. 3. z x (3) (4) d wš šd J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng., Vol. 23, No. 6, 2009

3 84 xá½ ³Á y Table 1. Indoor and Outdoor Temperature Conditions Description Room Corridor Indoor Lobby Stairway Case 1 Outdoor Case 2 Case 3 Temperature 22 o C 21 o C 20 o C 19 o C 5 o C 1 o C 5 o C Table 2. Scenario of Experiment Scenario Fire Floor Status of Natural Smoke Ventilators Scenario 1 None All closed Scenario 2 38F Upper Story (38F, 39F) Open Scenario 3 19F Middle Story (19F, 20F) Open Scenario 4 1F Lower Story (1F) Open Figure 2. Structure of the building. e w 6d, 40d, 168m ³ w 6d~ w 2d, w 1d~5d q, 6d~39d v l, 40d q š w. Figure 2 2 g (Core) ƒ š w œ e g fp (Curtain wall). g ü vù w p vù lƒ e w 6d 40d¾ m.»ƒ ƒ e š v ld 6d 39d¾ e Figure 3. Flow chart for experiment. Table 3. Specification of Natural Smoke Ventilators Open Story 38, 39F Size (m) Valid Area (m 2 ) Quantity (EA) Total Valid Area (m 2 ) , 20F F

4 y y d d w. z x Figure 4. Stack effect with natural smoke ventilators in open mode. (Differential pressure between ambient and stair) šd z»t sƒ 85 ü» Table 1 š»t 1m/s w d w. x d ù Table 2 4 ù ƒ š» ƒƒ,, 39d, 29d, 19d, 9d, 1d d w x m Figure 3.» v l p ü w wš y d d ó e 4 v ù ƒ w w d w w d 1d e 2 d w z w d w. w w Table 3. Figure 4» d ù» ùkü v» ƒ û z w ƒwš d w s p.» d(38d, 39d) w d (Negative pressure) x š w d(1d) d (Positive pressure) y w. 4. l x d ùkù d w (», ) mw w» w NIST(National Institute of Standards and Technology) z» w (Joetal., 2007; Khoukhial., 2006; Jacques, 1996; Lovatt and Wilson, 1994) š œ» w v CONTAMW w, v y w w w w. l x d l(», ü, z ³ ) k w.» p ü l 8) Table 4 y w,» ASHRAE g 9) l w. ùkù x d w»» w q J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng., Vol. 23, No. 6, 2009

5 86 xá½ ³Á y Table 4. Air Leakage Area of the Doors Type of Door Leakage Area (m 2 ) Residential Entrance Door 70cm 2 /item Stairwell Door 120cm 2 /item Elevator Door 323cm 2 /item Condition P = 10Pa, C D =0.6 P = 10Pa, C D =0.6 P = 10Pa, C D =0.6 Table 5. Compensated Leakage Areas of Exterior Walls Tightness Area Ratio (A/Aw) Condition Average P = 75Pa, Tight Loose C D =0.65 Compensated » w» w d. Table 5 ASHRAE g» w» ùküš » z e w» 10 (1996 ~2005 )» l k w t» l (12 ~2 ) TAC(Technical Advisory Committee) 2.5% 11.1 o C w»t w»z t w s³t 2.4m/s t 16.7m/ s w w.»»t Table 6. Terrain Coefficient and Exponent Terrain Type Coefficient (A 0 ) Exponent (a) Urban Suburban Airport Table 7. Wind Pressure Coefficient (C w ) Plan A B C D C Wind A ý B D Figure 5. Stack effect in the stairway with different outdoor temperatures. x Table 6 x ƒ Urban w. w t Table 7 s³ w s³t MacDonald w.» e w t A, r w t B,»k d w t C, D š w. Figure 5» ƒ z e w ùkü v. z w» 5 o C 109Pa, 1 o C 159Pa, 5 o C 193Pa, 11.1 o C 248Pa TAC 2.5% 11.1 o C 5 o C w 3.3 ù j w. w, x e» 5 o C vp 28.1%, 1 o C 28.7%, 5 o C 28.9%, 11.1 o C 29.3% 5 w 11.1 o C 1.2% w. û x w š w œm d y x q ù, Á d e q ù y d ƒ» z w Áw d w š d vù ƒ. Figure 6»»

6 šd z»t sƒ 87 Figure 6. Stack effect with various wind velocities in outdoor temperature. t z e w ùkü v,»t z w š ex w.» t ex e w r w s³t (2.4m/s) s ù t (16.7m/s) s j w., 5 C t ƒ o vp 28.1% x ù s ³t 28.4%, t 38.8% ƒw, 1 C t o 28.7%, s³t 28.8%, t 36.0%, 5 C t o 28.9%, s³t 29.1%, t 35.0%, 11.1 C t o 29.3%, s³t 29.3%, t 34.0% ƒw. t s j» ƒ» w û»t» ƒ š w»t»ƒ ƒ w q. w» w ü s w s» x w šdy»t š w» y ƒ v w š q. 5.2 z e w w y d d w 2 d y d w 1 d š. x ü ³ J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng., Vol. 23, No. 6, 2009

7 88 xá½ ³Á y w yw ³ ù x œ š. d 2 d y d w 1 d w w d vù ƒ w x Figure 7. Neutral plane with various opening mode of natural smoke ventilators. (T = 11.1 o C) š w. Figure 7 TAC 2.5%( 11.1 o C) x e d ùkü v» t 1 d 2 d ƒ û x. e w e d w ƒ x z w» w. z» w 2 d 1 d v w š q w z ƒ ù š w» w v w š q. 5.3 sƒ ü z w»t w ƒ j. z üá» ù x e ùkù ü s s x w. w s d e s y ƒ š w»t t s x w w. sƒ (Mass flow rate, kg/s) w (+)»ƒ ü š ( ) üœ»ƒ» w œ» y» (+)»ƒ ü» w š ( ) üœ»ƒ» š w. Figure 8 d» w w» TAC 2.5%( 11.1 o C)»t t, s³t (2.4m/s), t (16.7m/s) ùkü v. d w y d

8 šd z»t sƒ 89 Table 8. Performance Range of Smoke Control with the Natural Smoke Ventilators in Open Mode. (Classified by Wind Velocity) Open Mode No Wind V = 2.4m/s V = 16.7m/s 1 Floor Open 2 Floors Open Over 15F (46%) Over 3F (21%) Over 18F (51%) Over 6F (29%) None None Figure 8. Mass flow rates with natural smoke ventilators open. (T = 11.1 o C) d w 2 d y d w 1 d w w wì vù ƒ w x š w. l e 6d l 39d¾ d y w mw ùkü y d»t w ƒ j tw w ew / w., 2 d 1 d 20% w š 100% ƒw w 1 d w q. d x 2 d s³t š w vp 53% 16d d» w ù, 1 d w 29% d 6d d d(6 d~39d) y w q. l 14d, 15d y s j w 6d l 15 d¾ mw (10.8m 36m)» ƒ x q sƒ w.»t w Table 8 2 d t vp 46% d 15d d, s³ t 51% d 18d d {w ù t d» w. 1 d t vp 21% d 3d d, s³t 29% d 6d d {w d 6d d l e d {w t 2 d w». 6. x x mw m» w v NIST CONTAMW w x m w» w x wš sƒw. (1) w J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng., Vol. 23, No. 6, 2009

9 90 xá½ ³Á y y d d w 2 d y d w 1 d w. s³t 2 d vp 51% d ù 1 d 29% d, 2 d 1 d 20% w š 100% ƒw w ùkû,» ƒ û ƒ d ƒ¾ š. (2)»t e w j ùkû»t w. 1 d t vp 21% d 3d d, s³t 29% d 6d d {w 6d d l e d {w t d»ƒ. š x Caused by Chimney Effect in the Tall Buildings, ASHRAE, Vol.73, Part2(1967b). 2. R.T. Tamblyn, Coping with Air Pressure Problems in Tall Buildings, ASHRAE, Vol.97, Part1, pp (1991). 3. J.H. Klote, Design of Smoke Control System for Elevator Fire Evacuation Including Wind Effects, Proceedings, 2nd symposium, ASME, pp (1995). 4. ½, šd ùkù z, w y wz, Vol.1, No.1, pp.14-20(2007). 5. ½, z ƒ»ƒ l e w w x x, w y wz, Vol.22, No.3, pp (2007). 6. x, ½ ³,, y,»t šd z e w, w y wz, Vol.22, No.4, pp.20-26(2008). 7. x, ½ ³, y, šd w z e w w x, w wz, Vol.9, No.3, pp (2009). 8. z, šd z w s d sƒ, w w w (2005). 9. ASHRAE, ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals Ch.26 Ventilation and Infiltration, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.(2001). 1. G.T. Tamura and A.G. Wilson, Pressure Differences

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