99(6)-20(129).fm

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "99(6)-20(129).fm"

Transcription

1 Jour. Korean For. Soc. Vol. 99, No. 6, pp. 922~928 (2010) JOURNAL OF KOREAN FOREST SOCIETY ye ƒ ù xÿ Ÿw» e w wá Á½ Á½ w Effect of Calcium Chloride(CaCl 2 ) on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Image and Photosynthetic Apparatus in the Leaves of Prunus sargentii Joo Han Sung, Sun Mi Je, Sun-Hee Kim and Young-Kul Kim Department of Forest Conservation, Korea Forest Research Institute, Seoul , Korea : š ye (CaCl 2 ) ù (P. sargentii) ƒ e w w» w, ye ƒ 2z z xÿ Ÿ -Ÿw Ÿw», w. 3 ù ye 0.5%(9 mm), 1.0%(18 mm), 3.0%(54 mm) 2(1 L)z w. ye, ye ƒ w ye w a/b, Ÿw,, y w. Ÿ ye ƒ ƒ. Ÿw, y, Ÿ Ÿ ùkû (p<0.05). wr, xÿ(f M ) xÿ(f 0 ) Fv xÿ mw w ƒ y w ùkù, Ÿ y (Fv ) Ÿyw (NPQ) 80 w w. ye w ù Ÿw, y» š. Abstract: There is a little information on the effect of calcium cloride (CaCl 2 ) which is used as deicing salt in Korea on the physiological responses of the street trees. Prunus sargentii is one of the most widespread tree species of street vegetation in Korea. In this study, the effect of CaCl 2 on photosynthetic apparatus such as chlorophyll fluorescence image and light response curve of P. sargentii in relation to their leaf and root collar growth responses were investigated. To study the effect of CaCl 2 treatment in the early spring, we irrigated twice in rhizosphere of P. sargentii (3-year-old) planted plastic pots with solution of 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% CaCl 2 concentration before leaf expansion. Results after treatments, total chlorophyll contents and the chlorophyll a/b, photosynthetic rate, quantum yield, dark respiration decreased with increasing CaCl 2 concentration. On the contrary, light compensation point increased with increasing CaCl 2 concentration. Through the linear regressions of correlation of photosynthetic rate with photosynthetic parameters (quantum yield, dark respiration and light compensation point), we found a significant relationship (p<0.05) between photosynthetic rate and quantum yield and light compensation point except dark respiration. Calcium cloride (CaCl 2 ) induced inhibition of photochemical efficiency (F V ) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were found in treatments of CaCl 2, and these reduction rates between control and CaCl 2 treatments were drastically showed at 80 days. We suggest that physiological activities are limited from treatment of CaCl 2. These reductions of photosynthetic apparatus ability caused eventually the reduction of leaf and diameter at root collar growth. Key words : Prunus sargentii, Calcium chloride, photosynthetic rate, dark respiration, chlorophyll contents, Fluorescence image *Corresponding author 922

2 ye ƒ ù xÿ Ÿw» e w 923 ƒ, w m» w y w» p w ƒ v w. p, s w w w. y yw NaCl, KCl, K 2 SO 2, Na 2 SO 4, MgCl (Jonsson and Magnusdottir, 2007; Goodrich et al., 2009). ù CaCl 2 ( ye ) wš ( m, 2003). š p e w ƒ w, m sl ww ù(greenway and Munns, 1980; Hagemann and Murata, 2003), w w vw s ù vw y w (Wang et al., 2008). w» w w CO 2 š w Ÿw v. 1 yw œ sü w ƒ kƒ k k» w Ÿ w. Ÿ xÿ xk, xÿ w Ÿ» Ÿw» p w w t w. xÿ w vw w w NaCl w. (F V ) ù Ÿyw (NPQ, non-photochemical quenching) xÿ w NaCl w ü w w ü j yƒ w (F V ) w ù Ÿyw (NPQ)ƒ ƒw š šw (Lu et al., 2002; Maricle et al., 2007). ù ù y w sw. üw w ù wš p ƒ, v y wš ƒ v œ ù ƒ w w ( ƒ l, 2009) ƒ xy 4,527 ù, wù, v k, pù ƒ 75% w, ù ƒ 30% w (, 2009). ƒ ù ye w szwš CO 2, š w Ÿw» y xÿ mw š wš y mw «ye ù y wš w. 1. œ ye (CaCl 2 )» y w w» w w ( p z» 57) ƒ e(4 m 4 m) w 3 ù šƒ w, ye 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% ƒ 3 w ew. ye CaCl 2 H 2 Oƒ 74% t z ƒ f. ye» œ y 3 29 w. x» l 6 17 ¾ 80 ƒ vw y l w. x» 3, 4, 5, 6 s³ ƒƒ 6.1, 11.4, 18.1, 23.2 o C, 59.7, 52.9, 62.1, 60.9% ùkû (», 2009). ye w œ ye w ƒ ww w z, ù» ml 1 wš z 2 w. ye z, k» w y e j w 300 ml w w, x» w w. 2. Ÿw» d 1) w ƒƒ ye w š l w e ƒ ƒ 4~5 y w w z, r 0.1 g 10 ml DMSO(Dimethyl Sulfoxide) 65 o C» 6 30 w z, ŸŸ (UV/Visible Diode Array, Walden Precision Apparatus Ltd., UK) w q 663 nm 645 nm d w Arnon(1949) (Chlorophyll a=12.7 A A 645, Chloyophyll b=22.9 A A 663, Total Chlorophyll = Chlorophyll a + Chlorophyll b) w. 3. ƒ y d Ÿw (Net photosynthesis rate) { Ÿ w d»(licor-6400, Li-cor Inc., USA) w

3 924 ªƒžª 99«6y (2010) d w w w e d w. Ÿ š red-blue LED w PPFD(photosynthetic photon flux density) 0, 30, 50, 100, 300, 700, 1000, 1500, 2000 µmol photons m 2 s Ÿ ƒ œ û œ w. chamber œ» 500 mol s, chamber 25 o C, CO µmol mol 60-70% w. Ÿw (φ) PPFD 100 µmol m 2 s w Ÿ Ÿw z w w, z y = a + bx x r Ÿ, Ÿ ƒ 0, z y r a y w (½q», 2001; Timm et al., 2002; Muraoka et al., 2003). z Ÿw / (Ashraf et al., 2002) PPFD 1000 µmol m 2 s Ÿ w. 4. xÿ d xÿ œ z, 690 nm ƒ¾ xÿ CCD(Charge-Coupled Device) e xÿ d w Portable HandyCam(FluorCam, Photon System Instruments Ltd., Brno, Czech Republic) w y w. t 7 cm d w w. 15 z FluorCam vp quenching analysis d w v mg lv w (10 s pulses intensity µmol m 2 s ) û Ÿ d F 0, z, actinic saturating light( 2000 µmol photons m 2 s ) d š xÿ F M d w. xÿ F 0 Ÿ II a ƒ z ƒ w» ù xÿ w, xÿ F M F 0 F V (=F M -F 0 ) š w. F V Ÿ II y ùkü t, sz ùkü. xÿ Ÿyw (nonphotochemical quenching, NPQ) (F M ')-1 w (Lawson et al., 2008). 5. sp ü m l 1 cm t w x» x» 80 d w w. (( x )-( x» )/( x )) 100 w. 6. m ü Ÿw» ( w, a bw, a/b, Ÿw,, y, Ÿ, F V, NPQ) w ye GLM(General Linear Model) w w š, Duncan multiple range test mw p<0.05 s³ w. w ye Ÿ w, y, Ÿ Pearson mw wš, ƒ z ww. m SAS 9.1 v w. š 1. w ye z 80 w ye ƒ w (Chl. T), a (Chl. a) b (Chl. b)w w. w ye 0.5% 1.0% ƒƒ w 62%, 85% w (Table 1). 3.0% ù. w ye a s b s w j ùkû» a/b w 0.5% 32%, 1.0% 55% w. w w y yƒ w ù kú, p w t (, 2007; Abreu and Munné-Bosch, 2008; Zhang et al., 2008). 2. Ÿw» ye Ÿ y Ÿ w y r Ÿ ƒ ƒw Ÿw ƒw w ƒ, 40, 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% Ÿ w ƒ û % š w š, w Ÿw ƒ x w û ùkû (Figure 1). Ÿ š mw Ÿw» w Table 1. Change of Chlorophyll contents and Chlorophyll a/ b ratio at 80 days after CaCl 2 concentration treatments in the leaves of P. sargentii. unit: mg g F.W Treatment Chl.a Chl.b Chl.T Chl.a : Chl.b Control 1.31±0.16a 0.58±0.08a 1.89±0.24a 2.26±0.04a 0.5% 0.43±0.15b 0.29±0.08b 0.72±0.21b 1.53±0.39b 1.0% 0.14±0.06c 0.14±0.01c 0.29±0.05c 1.02±0.49b 3.0%

4 ye ƒ ù xÿ Ÿw» e w 925 Figure 1. The light response curve of net photosynthetic rate in the leaves of P. sargentii at 40 days(a) and 80 days(b) after treatment of different CaCl 2 concentration. Table 2. Photosynthetic apparatuses in the leaves of P. sargentii at 40 and 80 days after treatment with different CaCl 2 concentration. Treatment Φ µmol ) D resp m 2 s ) P n m 2 s ) L comp (µmolm 2 s ) 40days 80days 40days 80days 40days 80days 40days 80days Control 1.68±0.17a 1.26±0.44a 0.89±0.16a 0.92±0.41a 6.28±0.96a 4.54±1.93a 1.46±0.10bc 1.38±0.28b 0.5% 0.74±0.17b 0.83±0.38ab 0.84±0.19a 1.21±0.26a 2.32±0.67b 1.88±0.72b 1.36±0.33c 2.13±0.14a 1.0% 0.54±0.15bc 0.35±0.07b 0.86±0.06a 0.20±0.06b 1.53±0.56b 1.40±0.47b 1.86±0.37b 2.31±0.13a 3.0% 0.28±0.13c ±0.47a ±0.18c ±0.10a - *Φ: Quantum yield, D resp : Dark respiration, Pn : photosynthetic rate at PPFD 1000 µmolm 2 s, L comp : Light compensation point (Table 2), Ÿ w yk ùkü (Φ, quantum yeild) 40 w 0.5% 56% ùkþ, 1.0% w 68%, 75% ƒw. Ÿw w» w w ye w ùkü ye w syÿ w 1000 µmol m 2 s Ÿw. y (Dresp, dark respiration) j ùkù %. y s v» w v w k, y š ATP œ w w», y k 30~80% y w CO 2 ƒ (Amthor, 2000). p y y w (Poorter et al., 1990). p w y y ù kú (Galmés et al., 2007; Gratani et al., 2008), y Ÿw w (Cannell and Thornley, 2000), % y w û Ÿw Ÿw y k ƒ. Ÿ CO 2 w Ÿ, Ÿ û j û Ÿ l CO 2 w w. Ÿ % ƒ, p 80 w 0.5% 54% ƒ ùkþ. w ù ƒ û ye j q. 3. xÿ xÿ xÿ d w, vwƒ w w q. 15 z xÿ (F ) M xÿ (F 0 ) w Figure 2 xÿ mw ù ye û xÿ t.

5 926 ªƒžª 99«6y (2010) Ÿ II y (F V ) yƒ %. Figure 2. The represent fluorescence image in the leaves of P. sargentii at 40 and 80 days after CaCl 2 treatment. Above fluorescence image's fluorescence values are F M -F % 30% Ÿ II y (F V ) w (Figure 3). F V Ÿ II y ùkü, z p w t. NaCl w ü w š F V w (Glynn et al., 2003), F V w š w (Maricle et al., 2007). wr Ÿyw w NPQ(non-photochemical quenching) ƒ ü, p w, (NaCl) w NPQ ƒ NaCl w ùkù, ü NPQ ƒ ƒw (Masojidek et al., 2000; James et al., 2002). ù 40 j yƒ ù 80 ƒ ƒw NPQ ƒ 0.5% 39%, 1.0% 68% w w (Figure 3). w ù ƒ û ye l vw. 4. ye x 80 d z w, w Ÿw xÿ š, Ÿw» n w š Figure 3. The maximum F V (F M -F 0 ) and amount of NPQ (none-photochemical quenching) in the leaves of P. sargentii 80 days after CaCl 2 treatment was measured following 15 min of dark adaptation. Three replicates are given for each species/treatment combination. Bars indicate standard deviation (SD). Figure 4. Growth rate of diameter at root collar in the P. sargentii at the last day of experiment compare of initial value. Bars indicate standard deviation (SD). Table 3. Correlations of photosynthetic rate with photosynthetic parameters in the leaves of P. sargentii at 40 and 80 days after treatment with different CaCl 2 concentration. Division Φ µmol ) D resp m 2 s ) L comp (µmolm 2 s ) equation r 2 P-value equation r 2 P-value equation r 2 P-value 40days y=0.2351x < y=0.0018x y=-0.222x days y=0.2356x y=0.0554x y= x Φ: Quantum yield, D resp : Dark respiration, L comp : Light compensation point

6 ye ƒ ù xÿ Ÿw» e w 927 ye w. w 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% ƒƒ 45%, 49%, 89%ƒ w ùkû (Figure 4). ye ƒ szwš CO 2 š w Ÿw» vw w w e q. ye w w sl w ³x y w p w y ƒ vwƒ ùkú. ù ye w Ÿw xÿ p ye 40 (Φ) Ÿw ƒ ù kû ù, F V NPQ yƒ % š w, 0.5% l w a/b ƒ ùkû. w, ye (Φ) syÿ Ÿw š Ÿ ƒ mw ù ƒ s zwš CO 2 š w w. xÿ mw F V NPQ 80 ƒ 0.5% l ƒƒ 30% ùkþ. w szwš w CO 2 š wš w Ÿw ƒ ye w vw. ye ƒ ù y w ye ƒ v w. x 1. ƒ l nature.go.kr 2.» ». pp m w. pp ƒ Á. pp ½q»,,,, w, Ÿy ü Ÿw e w. w wz 90(4): ,, ƒ»œ y, w w y z y. w wz 96(4): Abreu, M.E. and Munné-Bosch, S Salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of drought-induced leaf senescence in perennials: A case study in field-grown Salvia officinalis L. plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 64(2): Amthor, J.S The McCree-de Wit-Penning de Vries- Thornley Respiration Paradigms: 30 Years Later. Annals of Botany 82: Arnon, D.I Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts, polyphenol-oxidase in Betula vulgaris. Plant Physiology 24: Ashraf, M., Arfan, M., Shahbaz, M., Ahmad, M. and Jamil, A Gas exchange characteristics and water relation in some elite skra cultivars under water deficit. Photosynthetica 40(4): Cannell, M.G.R., Thornley, J.H.M Modelling the components of plant respiration: Some guiding principles. Annals of Botany 85: Galmés, J., Ribas-Carbó, M., Medrano, H. and Flexas, J Response of leaf respiration to water stress in Mediterranean species with different growth forms. Journal of Arid Environments 68: Glynn, C.P., Gillia, A.F. and Oxenham, G Foliar salt tolerance of Acer genotypes using chlorophyll fluorescence. Journal of Arboriculture 29(2): Gratani, L., Varone, L. and Catoni, R Relationship between net photosynthesis and leaf respiration in Mediterranean evergreen species. Photosynthetica 46(4): Goodrich, B.A., Koski, R.D. and Jacobi, W.R Condition of soils and vegetation along roads treated with magnesium chloride for dust suppression. Water, Air, Soil Pollution 198: Greenway, H. and Munns, R Mechanisms of salt tolerance in non-halophytes. Annual Review Plant Physiology 31: Hagemann, M. and Murata., N Glucosylglycerol, a compatible solute, sustains cell division under salt stress. Plant Physiology 131: James, A.R Factors affecting CO 2 assimilation, leaf injury and growth in salt-stressed durum wheat. Functional plant biology 29(12): Jonsson, T.H. and Magnusdottir, M.L Salt-related suppression of bud break in Populus trichocarpa: Cost of inclusion, ion-specific or osmotic effects? Icelandic Agricultural Sciences 20: Lawson, T., Lefebvre, S., Baker, N.R., Morison, J.I.L. and Baines, C.A Reductions in mesophyll and guard cell photosynthesis impact on the control of stomatal responses to light and CO 2. Journal of Experimental Botany 59(13): Lu, C.M., Qiu, N.W., Lu, Q.T., Wang, B.S. and Kuang, T.Y Dose salt stress lead to increased susceptibility of photosystem to photoinhibition and changes in photosynthetic pigment composition in halophyte Suaeda salsa grown outdoors? Plant Science 163:

7 928 ªƒžª 99«6y (2010) 21. Maricle, B.R., Lee, R.W., Hellquist, C.E. Kirasts, O. and Edwards, G.E Effects of salinity on chlorophyll fluorescence and CO 2 fixation in C4 estuarine grasses. Photosynthetica 45(3): Masojidek, J., Torzillo, G., Kopecký, J., Koblžek, M., Nidiaci, L., Komenda, J., Lukavska, A. and Sacchi, A Change in chlorophyll fluorescence quenching and pigment composition in the green Chlorococcum sp. Grown under nitrogen deficiency and salinity stress. Journal of Applied Phycology 12: Muraoka, H., Koizumi, H. and Pearcy, R.W Leaf display and photosynthesis of tree seedlings in a cool temperate deciduous broad leaf forest understory. Oecologia 135: Poorter, H., Remkes, C. and Lambers, H Carbon and nitrogen economy of 24 wild species differing in relative growth rate. Plant physiology 94: Timm, H.C., Stegemann, J. and Küppers, M Photosynthetic induction strongly affects the light conpensation point of net photosynthesis and coincidentally the apparent quantum yield. Trees 16: Wang, R., Chen, S., Zhou, X., Shen, X., Deng, L., Zhu, H., Shao, J., Shi, Y., Dai, S., Fritz, E., Hüttermann, A., and Polle, A Ionic homeostasis and reactive oxygen species control in leaves and xylem sap of two poplars subjected to NaCl stress. Tree physiology 28: Zhang, X., Wollenweber, B., Jiang, D., Liu, F. and Zhao, J Water deficits and heat shock effects on photosynthesis of a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana constitutively expressing ABP9, a bzip transcription factor. Journal of Experimental Botany 59(4): ( ; k)

82-01.fm

82-01.fm w y wz 8«( 2y) 57~61, 2005 J. of the Korean Society for Environmental Analysis p w w Á Á w w» y l Analysis of Influence Factors and Corrosion Characteristics of Water-pipe in Potable Water System Jae Seong

More information

10(3)-10.fm

10(3)-10.fm w y wz 10«3y 259~264 (2010.12.) Journal of Korean Society of Urban Environment w gj p p y Á Á½k * w m œw Á* w y œw (2010 9 28, 2010 10 12 k) Characteristics of Antiwashout Underwater Concrete for Reduction

More information

14.531~539(08-037).fm

14.531~539(08-037).fm G Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 531~539, August, 2008 š x y w m š gj p { sƒ z 1) * 1) w w Evaluation of Flexural Strength for Normal and High Strength Concrete with Hooked

More information

16(1)-3(국문)(p.40-45).fm

16(1)-3(국문)(p.40-45).fm w wz 16«1y Kor. J. Clin. Pharm., Vol. 16, No. 1. 2006 x w$btf3fqpsu'psn û w m w Department of Statistics, Chonnam National University Eunsik Park College of Natural Sciences, Chonnam National University

More information

10(3)-02.fm

10(3)-02.fm w y wz 10«3y 203~211 (2010.12.) Journal of Korean Society of Urban Environment w ù p yá k«áyw *Á xá½k w y œw Á* y w (2010 9 15, 2010 12 2 k) Characterization of Nonpoint Source Pollutant Loads from the

More information

< DC1A4C3A5B5BFC7E22E666D>

< DC1A4C3A5B5BFC7E22E666D> ¼ (Jeong, Jung Chae)*, ý (Kim, Yoon Soo), (Shin, Woo Young), Þ Ñ (Park, Jong Man) ò ý ƒ Ð (Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology) (Shin, Jae-Heyg) Š æ (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) 1. :

More information

untitled

untitled ª Œª Œ 27ƒ 2B Á 2007 3œ pp. 193 ~ 199 ª ƒ w d w ƒ sƒ Methodology of Drought Assessment Using National Groundwater Monitoring Network Data «x Á½ Kwon, Hyung JoongÁKim, Seong Joon Abstract The objective

More information

605.fm

605.fm Journal of the Korean Housing Association Vol. 19, No. 6, 2008 y k y p w sƒ Care-giver s Needs and Evaluation on the Actual Condition of the Playgrounds in Child Care Facilities y* Choi, Mock-Wha x **

More information

9(3)-4(p ).fm

9(3)-4(p ).fm w wz J. Kor. Soc. Cloth. Ind. 9«3y, 2007 Vol. 9, No. 3, pp.319-326(2007) w xk x p w q w Analysis of Foot Characteristics According to the Classification of Foot Types of Junior High School Girls Ji-Young

More information

10(3)-12.fm

10(3)-12.fm w y wz 10«3y 273~280 (2010.12.) Journal of Korean Society of Urban Environment p yá xá½k w y œw (2010 9 15, 2010 12 2 k) Analysis of Characteristics of Delivered Nonpoint Source Pollution at Forested Watershed

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA Printed in the Republic of Korea "/"-:5*$"- 4$*&/$& 5&$)/0-0(: Vol. 18, No. 5, 425-430, 2005» 677*4 Ÿ w sƒ ½»x Á Á½ k w y w, w y œw Some considerations for the analytical approaches to measure atmospheric

More information

12.077~081(A12_이종국).fm

12.077~081(A12_이종국).fm J. of Advanced Engineering and Technology Vol. 1, No. 1 (2008) pp. 77-81 y w» e wx Á w œw Fabrication of Ceramic Batch Composition for Porcelain by Using Recycled Waste Ceramic Powder Hyun Guen Han, and

More information

50(5)-07.fm

50(5)-07.fm Printed in the Republic of Korea w 3w yû x w w w Á x* w w w yw (2006. 3. 14 ) A research of the Difference in Teaching Styles and Understanding of 9 th Grade Students About Lead-iodide Precipitation Reaction

More information

(2)-02(최경자).fm

(2)-02(최경자).fm Res. Plant Dis. 16(2) : 148-152 (2010) Research in Plant Disease The Korean Society of Plant Pathology z w t w sƒ Á½ Á Á yá * w yw yw l Development of Effective Screening Method and Evaluation of Radish

More information

10(3)-09.fm

10(3)-09.fm w y wz 10«3y 253~258 (2010.12.) Journal of Korean Society of Urban Environment ³ w Á» Á Á y w y œw (2010 11 22, 2010 12 9 k) Study on Determine of Detention Pond in Small Developed Area In-Soo Chang ½

More information

304.fm

304.fm Journal of the Korean Housing Association Vol. 20, No. 3, 2009 yw s w - û - A Study on the Planning of Improved-Hanok - Focused on Jeon-Nam Province - y* ** z*** **** Kang, Man-Ho Lee, Woo-Won Jeong, Hun

More information

82.fm

82.fm Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society Vol. 44, No. 9, pp. 524~528, 2007. Determination of Critical Chloride Content of Ordinary Portland Cement Concrete by Linear Polarization Technique Hong-Sam Kim, Hai-Moon

More information

49(6)-06.fm

49(6)-06.fm Journal of the Korean Chemical Society 2005, Vol. 49, No. 6 Printed in the Republic of Korea 중학교과학교과서불꽃반응실험에서선스펙트럼관찰의문제점분석및개선연구 ½ Á Á * w w yw (2005. 10. 4 ) An Analysis and Improvement of the Line Spectrum

More information

12(2)-04.fm

12(2)-04.fm J. Korean. Soc. Living. Environ. Sys. Vol. 12, No. 2, pp 106~111(2005) w y y w z œ k üœ» p ½ Á Á Á ³ Á Á½Ÿ w w w, *g», ** w w Effects of Strategies to Improve Indoor Air Quality at Pre-occupancy Stage

More information

19(1) 02.fm

19(1) 02.fm Korean J. Crystallography Vol. 19, No. 1, pp.7~13, 2008 Ÿ (ICISS) w š t w (2): t w y w œw Surface Structure Analysis of Solids by Impact Collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (2): Atomic Structure of Semiconductor

More information

16(2)-7(p ).fm

16(2)-7(p ).fm w wz 16«2y Kor. J. Clin. Pharm., Vol. 16, No. 2. 2006 ü t xy y w tœ ½ BÁ x BC B y w w w C y w w w Current Status and Expectations of Orphan Drugs in Korea -In point of supplying medicines for the rare

More information

69-1(p.1-27).fm

69-1(p.1-27).fm 99 A 380 B 787 : wœ z w * w w wœ» A380 B787 wœ» w. wœ» ww r. w wœ» p j y w r» w. I. II. z III. A380 B787 IV. A380 V. wœ» : x VI. z VII. I. A380 B787»ƒ z wœ w, w w p j w w ƒ r. t wœ w ƒ w w wœ» š œm wš,

More information

14.fm

14.fm Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 93~97, 2007. Preparation of High Purity Si Powder by SHS Chang Yun Shin, Hyun Hong Min, Ki Seok Yun, and Chang Whan Won Engineering Research Center

More information

12(3) 10.fm

12(3) 10.fm KIGAS Vol. 12, No. 3, September, 2008 (Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas) ü LP ƒ š Database w š Á Á½z w ywœw (2008 6 10, 2008 8 12 (1 ), 2008 9 5 (2 ), 2008 9 5 k) Constructing a Database Structure

More information

416.fm

416.fm Journal of the Korean Housing Association Vol. 20, No. 4, 2009 œ qp œ y An Analysis of Change on the Apartment Unit Plans and the Interior Spaces Related to Women * Choi, ByungSook ** Park, JungA "CTUSBDU

More information

50(1)-09.fm

50(1)-09.fm 2006, Vol. 50, No. 1 Printed in the Republic of Korea 언빨래가마르는현상에대한중등학교화학전공교사들의인식조사 ½x Á» Á½ # Á x* w w yw y š w w # w w (2005. 5. 11 ) A Research of Secondary School Chemistry Major Teachers Perceptions

More information

fm

fm [ ] w wz DOI: 10.3740/MRSK.2009.19.12.692 Kor. J. Mater. Res. Vol. 19, No. 12 (2009) y INCONEL 718w Gas Tungsten Arc Welding» p sƒ ½»y Á *Á *Á y** ( ) d lj p wœq, *w wœ» q **( ) d lj p t Mechanical Properties

More information

<30332DB9E8B0E6BCAE2E666D>

<30332DB9E8B0E6BCAE2E666D> kœw» y w k p y w k» z wš ye z w mdkqvqrg üœ» y» Ÿ w kœwgeqgpikpggtkpiy glj GEQVGEJPQNQI[ œw w k w yz š y j œ w m w y ˆ mw y» kœ w k û ³ y ƒ ƒ» ƒ w œw w w y ƒƒ» k z w» %NGCP 9CVGT #EV wšw y ù» œ w w w t

More information

8(3)-01.fm

8(3)-01.fm w» wz, 8«3y(2006) Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 8, No. 3, (2006), pp. 125~131 2003 û šþ vw k y³á Á ûxáû «Á½» Á½ Á½ š w yû (2006 3 7 ; 2006 6 17 ) A Survey on Low Temperature

More information

Microsoft Word - KSR2012A038.doc

Microsoft Word - KSR2012A038.doc YWXY º º t rzyywxyhwz_ º zƒ A Study on the Relation of Railroad System and Energy Saving ö ä ø ã ä ãã In Moon, Han-Min Lee *, Jong-Eun Ha * * Abstract Now the world, such as the impact of fossil energy

More information

17.393~400(11-033).fm

17.393~400(11-033).fm Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 393~400, June, 2011 GGGGG DOI 10.4334/JKCI.2011.23.3.393 x RC { sƒ y y 1) *Á½ 1) Á 2) 1) y w œw 2) w œw Bond Strength Evaluation of RC Beams

More information

10(1)-08.fm

10(1)-08.fm w y wz 10«( 1y) 47~52, 2007 J. of the Korean Society for Environmental Analysis œ w t y ½ xá Á x Á½ Á x* Ÿ œ, * w œw Optimization of Coagulation In The Conventional Water Treatment Plant Jun-Hyun Kim,

More information

15.101~109(174-하천방재).fm

15.101~109(174-하천방재).fm w wz 8«4y 2008 8 pp. 101 ~ 109 w» m -,, - A Study on Warnning Criteria Investigation of Automated Rainfall Warning System -Focused on Realationship of Water Level, Discharge and Precipitation - Á Á Á Ahn,

More information

03이경미(237~248)ok

03이경미(237~248)ok The recent (2001-2010) changes on temperature and precipitation related to normals (1971-2000) in Korea* Kyoungmi Lee** Hee-Jeong Baek*** ChunHo Cho**** Won-Tae Kwon*****. 61 (1971~2000) 10 (2001~2010).

More information

31(3B)-07(7055).fm

31(3B)-07(7055).fm ª Œª Œ 31ƒ 3B Á 2011 5œ pp. 265 ~ 276 ª w w s³ The Correlation Between the Moving Average of Precipitation and Groundwater Level in Korea Á½û» Yang, Jeong-SeokÁKim, Nam-Ki Abstract Precipitation data and

More information

11(5)-12(09-10)p fm

11(5)-12(09-10)p fm w wz J. Kor. Soc. Cloth. Ind. 11«5y, 2009 Vol. 11, No. 5, pp.799-807(2009) w w * k ƒm w pg p w, ƒm w q w A Qualitative Research on Pursuing Image and Appearance Management Behavior of Brides Eun-Joo Bae

More information

14(4) 09.fm

14(4) 09.fm J. Korean. Soc. Living. Environ. Sys. Vol. 14, No. 4, pp 343~350(2007) w y y w z 14 «4 y 2007 yw» l s p»xá ³ *w w w œw, **w w w The Property of Pressure Distribution of Hybrid Underfloor Air Distribution

More information

14(4)-14(심고문2).fm

14(4)-14(심고문2).fm w» wz, 14«4y(2012) (ISSN 1229-5671) Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 14, No. 4, (2012), pp. 260~264 DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2012.14.4.260 Author(s) 2012. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

More information

10.063~070(B04_윤성식).fm

10.063~070(B04_윤성식).fm J. of Advanced Engineering and Technology Vol. 1, No. 1 (2008) pp. 63-70 Mg-3%Al-1%Zn w ƒœ» y Á x*á **Á Á w œw *w s l I ûer ** t Effect of Thermomechanical Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

More information

16(5)-06(58).fm

16(5)-06(58).fm Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute DOI: 10.4150/KPMI.2009.16.5.336 y-y w Sm-Fe w ƒ w zá *Á w»» The Effect of Excess Samarium Oxide on the PreparationG of Sm-Fe Alloy Powder by Reduction-diffusion

More information

13(3)-02(한심희).fm

13(3)-02(한심희).fm w» wz, 13«3y(2011) Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 13, No. 3, (2011), pp. 115~122 DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2011.13.3.115 Author(s) 2011. CC Attribution 3.0 Licee. ƒ ù ù, Ÿw Ÿ w y

More information

untitled

untitled [ ] œwz, 21«6y(2008) J. of the Korean Society for Heat Treatment, Vol. 21, No. 6, (2008) pp. 300~306 š y w p x*, **Á **Áy y* * ** w œ w œw, w» gœ Solid State Diffusion Brazing of the Aluminum Alloy Castings

More information

7(4)-07.fm

7(4)-07.fm w» wz, 7«4y(2005) Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 7, No. 4, (2005), pp. 282~288 ƒ ù k š w k 1 Á 2 Á 1 Áy y 1 Á 1 Á x 1 Á û 1 1 w û, 2 w (2005 11 15 ; 2005 12 2 ) Aboveground

More information

07.051~058(345).fm

07.051~058(345).fm w wz 8«3y 2008 6 pp. 51 ~ 58 m qp yp š w k sƒ Evaluation of Dynamic Modulus based on Aged Asphalt Binder y*á **Á***Á**** Lee, Kwan-HoÁCho, Kyung-RaeÁLee, Byung-SikÁSong, Yong-Seon Abstract Development

More information

27(5A)-07(5806).fm

27(5A)-07(5806).fm ª Œª Œ 27ƒ 5A Á 2007 9œ pp. 753 ~ 758 gj pœw gj p { x A New Test Method for Pure Isotropic Flexural Tensile Strength of Concretes Ÿ Á y Á x Zi, GoangseupÁOh, HongseobÁChoi, Jinhyek Abstract Proposed is

More information

<30312DC0CCC7E2B9FC2E666D>

<30312DC0CCC7E2B9FC2E666D> 균류의다양성과역할 이향범 û w œw 머리말 k w š ³ q š yw < Ð >» w ww k w w v š q w Á Á w tyw š 2QKPVKPI CPF *[FG ú ƒ x %QPXGPVKQP QP $KQNQIKECN &KXGTUKV[ %$&» w w ««wš y w» š x ƒ w œ ƒ» ƒ œsw w ³ wš ù š y š ƒ t š ƒ wš»ƒ

More information

<312D303128C1B6BAB4BFC1292E666D>

<312D303128C1B6BAB4BFC1292E666D> k Ÿy y y + ûz m Ì ˆw k Ÿ ø ky w y y» wk Ÿ v w k w w ƒ Ÿ ew k Ÿy yø k Ÿ ý k z» w ƒ w Ÿ y k y w x mw w w ³Ÿ wšy v mw y w r œw yÿ ý w z»ÿ Ÿ»» Ÿ ¾ Ÿ 6TCXGN 9GGMN[ ýw k Ÿ Ÿ ƒ š wš y w k Ÿ ƒ m ³ w w y y y 'EQVQWTKUO

More information

14(2)-05(한상섭).fm

14(2)-05(한상섭).fm w» wz, 14«2y(2012) Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 14, No. 2, (2012), pp. 79~88 DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2012.14.2.079 Author(s) 2012. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Ÿ t p Á w Á Áw *

More information

32(4B)-04(7455).fm

32(4B)-04(7455).fm 32«4ByÁ 2012 7 pp. 233 ~ 242 œ w w w y œ r Estimation of Domestic Water Supply Benefit Using Demand Function Approach ³ Á Á½¼yÁ Yeo, Kyu DongÁYi, Choong SungÁKim, Gil HoÁLee, Sang Won Abstract In the past,

More information

41(6)-09(김창일).fm

41(6)-09(김창일).fm 269 Ar v Na 0.5 K 0.5 NbO 3 t ½ t,, ½ w,, ½ w»œw Surface Reaction of Na 0.5 K 0.5 NbO 3 Thin Films in Inductively Coupled Ar Plasma w t œwz J. Kor. Inst. Surf. Eng. Vol. 41, No. 6, 2008. < > Dong-Pyo Kim,

More information

26(3D)-17.fm

26(3D)-17.fm 26ƒ 3D Á 2006 5œ pp. ~ ª y w qp yw k d Predictive Equation of Dynamic Modulus for Hot Mix Asphalt with Granite Aggregates yá½x Á Lee, Kwan-HoÁKim, Hyun-OÁJang, Min-Seok Abstract The presented work provided

More information

01.01~08(유왕진).fm

01.01~08(유왕진).fm JOURNAL OF KOREA SOCIETY OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. Vol. 14, No. 1 1~8 (2008) s w Á w» w Comparative Study on the Changes and Prospects of Flexible Food Packaging Design Kyung Soo Noh and Wang

More information

09È«¼®¿µ 5~152s

09È«¼®¿µ5~152s Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol.23, No.2, 2007, pp.45~52 Measurement of Backscattering Coefficients of Rice Canopy Using a Ground Polarimetric Scatterometer System Suk-Young Hong*, Jin-Young Hong**,

More information

歯5-2-13(전미희외).PDF

歯5-2-13(전미희외).PDF The Korean Journal of Counseling 2004, Vol. 5, No. 2, 423-434,. 4 5 18 9, 9.,,,,,.,,, t-.. :,,, (,, 1996),.,,. (, 2001),... 88 98 2000, 88 12.5%(250 )98 35.6%(712 )2.8 (,,, 2001) (Corresponding Author)

More information

18(3)-10(33).fm

18(3)-10(33).fm Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute Vol 18 No 3 011 DOI: 10150/KPMI01118383 e x 5Mg(OH) MgSO 3H O x w MgO NH OH w a báv y aá½xk aá½ aá½ cá½ bá½ a * aw» l bš w œw ck Effect of MgO and NH OH on

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 4, August, 30, 2016:319~332 Received: 2016/07/28, Accepted: 2016/08/28 Revised: 2016/08/27, Published: 2016/08/30 [ABSTRACT] This paper examined what determina

More information

슬라이드 제목 없음

슬라이드 제목 없음 물리화학 1 문제풀이 130403 김대형교수님 Chapter 1 Exercise (#1) A sample of 255 mg of neon occupies 3.00 dm 3 at 122K. Use the perfect gas law to calculate the pressure of the gas. Solution 1) The perfect gas law p

More information

인문사회과학기술융합학회

인문사회과학기술융합학회 Vol.5, No.5, October (2015), pp.471-479 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ajmahs.2015.10.50 스마트온실을 위한 가상 외부기상측정시스템 개발 한새론 1), 이재수 2), 홍영기 3), 김국환 4), 김성기 5), 김상철 6) Development of Virtual Ambient Weather Measurement

More information

12(4) 10.fm

12(4) 10.fm KIGAS Vol. 12, No. 4, December, 2008 (Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas) l x CNG» v m s w ½ Á y w» œw (2008 9 30, 2008 12 10, 2008 12 10 k) Numerical Analysis for Temperature Distribution and Thermal

More information

202.fm

202.fm Journal of the Korean Housing Association Vol. 19, No. 2, 2008 w w w w Physical Identities of Bukchon Hanok Area Viewed from Literary Geography * Park, Cheol-Soo "CTUSBDU This study explores the beneficial

More information

Development of culture technic for practical cultivation under structure in Gastrodia elate Blume

Development of culture technic for practical cultivation under structure in Gastrodia elate Blume Development of culture technic for practical cultivation under structure in Gastrodia elate Blume 1996. : 1. 8 2. 1 1998. 12. : : ( ) : . 1998. 12 : : : : : : : : : : - 1 - .. 1.... 2.. 3.... 1..,,.,,

More information

878 Yu Kim, Dongjae Kim 지막 용량수준까지도 멈춤 규칙이 만족되지 않아 시행이 종료되지 않는 경우에는 MTD의 추정이 불가 능하다는 단점이 있다. 최근 이 SM방법의 단점을 보완하기 위해 O Quigley 등 (1990)이 제안한 CRM(Continu

878 Yu Kim, Dongjae Kim 지막 용량수준까지도 멈춤 규칙이 만족되지 않아 시행이 종료되지 않는 경우에는 MTD의 추정이 불가 능하다는 단점이 있다. 최근 이 SM방법의 단점을 보완하기 위해 O Quigley 등 (1990)이 제안한 CRM(Continu 한 국 통 계 학 회 논 문 집 2012, 19권, 6호, 877 884 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5351/ckss.2012.19.6.877 Maximum Tolerated Dose Estimation Applied Biased Coin Design in a Phase Ⅰ Clinical Trial Yu Kim a, Dongjae Kim

More information

50(6)-03.fm

50(6)-03.fm Journal of the Korean Chemical Society Printed in the Republic of Korea w yw w w ½ Á Áw Á k * w yw w w w w w (2006. 8. 9 ) Relationship between Conceptual Understanding and Mapping Errors Induced in Learning

More information

서강대학교 기초과학연구소대학중점연구소 심포지엄기초과학연구소

서강대학교 기초과학연구소대학중점연구소 심포지엄기초과학연구소 2012 년도기초과학연구소 대학중점연구소심포지엄 마이크로파센서를이용한 혈당측정연구 일시 : 2012 년 3 월 20 일 ( 화 ) 14:00~17:30 장소 : 서강대학교과학관 1010 호 주최 : 서강대학교기초과학연구소 Contents Program of Symposium 2 Non-invasive in vitro sensing of D-glucose in

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA Printed in the Republic of Korea "/"-:5*$"- 4$*&/$& 5&$)/0-0(: Vol. 18, No. 5, 436-443, 2005,1"$ w Q) t p z Á 1w w œw 2 w œ yw Effects of surface properties and solution ph on the pollutants removal of

More information

012임수진

012임수진 Received : 2012. 11. 27 Reviewed : 2012. 12. 10 Accepted : 2012. 12. 12 A Clinical Study on Effect of Electro-acupuncture Treatment for Low Back Pain and Radicular Pain in Patients Diagnosed with Lumbar

More information

목차 ⅰ ⅲ ⅳ Abstract v Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ i

목차 ⅰ ⅲ ⅳ Abstract v Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ i 11-1480523-000748-01 배경지역 ( 백령도 ) 에서의 대기오염물질특성연구 (Ⅲ) 기후대기연구부대기환경연구과,,,,,,, Ⅲ 2010 목차 ⅰ ⅲ ⅳ Abstract v Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ i 목차 Ⅳ ii 목차 iii 목차 iv 목차 μg m3 μg m3 v 목차 vi Ⅰ. 서론 Ⅰ μm μg m3 1 Ⅰ. 서론 μg m3 μg m3 μg m3 μm 2

More information

(163번 이희수).fm

(163번 이희수).fm Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 323~327, 2011. DOI:10.4191/KCERS.2011.48.4.323 Electrical Properties and Temperature Stability of Dysprosium and Erbium Co-doped Barium Titanate

More information

11(2)-03(김수옥).fm

11(2)-03(김수옥).fm w» wz, 11«2y(2009) Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 11, No. 2, (2009), pp. 61~71 š y» e w y ½ 1 Á½ 1 Á 1 *Á½ 2 Á y 3 Á 1 1 w k lœw, 2 p w, 3»» (2009 6 2 ; 2009 6 22 ; 2009 6

More information

fm

fm w y wz 9«( 1y) 34~40, 2006 J. f the Krean Sciety fr Envirnmental Analysis V/ w y Áy yá váy * w» ( )», *» w y œw Simultaneus Remval f Dixin and Nitrgen Oxide n V/ Catalyst Jun-Yub Lee, Sung-H Hng, Sung-Pill

More information

8(2)-4(p ).fm

8(2)-4(p ).fm w wz J. Kor. Soc. Cloth. Ind. 8«2y, 2006 Vol. 8, No. 2, pp.177-182(2006) x w e w 1) Á Ÿ 1) Á»û 2) 1) ƒm w q w 2) w w w The Effect of Media on Taking Plastic Surgery Chong-Hee Yun 1), Su-Kwang Sung 1) and

More information

1..

1.. Volume 12, Number 1, 6~16, Factors influencing consultation time and waiting time of ambulatory patients in a tertiary teaching hospital Jee-In Hwang College of Nursing Science, Kyung Hee University :

More information

07.045~051(D04_신상욱).fm

07.045~051(D04_신상욱).fm J. of Advanced Engineering and Technology Vol. 1, No. 1 (2008) pp. 45-51 f m s p» w Á xá zá Ÿ Á w m œw Image Retrieval Based on Gray Scale Histogram Refinement and Horizontal Edge Features Sang-Uk Shin,

More information

3.fm

3.fm Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 12~17, 2007. A Study on the Preparation of Bone Ash and Celadon Bone Body Using Pig Bone Jae-Jin Jeong, Sang-Hee Lee, Yong-Seok Lee,* and Byung-Ha

More information

untitled

untitled G Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 345~356, June, 2008 p -k w gj p k k 1) Á y 2) * 1) ƒm w w 2) w w Direct Inelastic Design of Reinforced Concrete Members Using Strut-and-Tie

More information

한국전지학회 춘계학술대회 Contents 기조강연 LI GU 06 초강연 김동욱 09 안재평 10 정창훈 11 이규태 12 문준영 13 한병찬 14 최원창 15 박철호 16 안동준 17 최남순 18 김일태 19 포스터 강준섭 23 윤영준 24 도수정 25 강준희 26

한국전지학회 춘계학술대회 Contents 기조강연 LI GU 06 초강연 김동욱 09 안재평 10 정창훈 11 이규태 12 문준영 13 한병찬 14 최원창 15 박철호 16 안동준 17 최남순 18 김일태 19 포스터 강준섭 23 윤영준 24 도수정 25 강준희 26 2015 한국전지학회 춘계학술대회 2일차 한국전지학회 춘계 학술대회(신소재 및 시장동향 관련 주제 발표) 시간 제목 비고 세션 1 차세대 이차전지용 in-situ 분석기술 좌장 : 윤성훈 09:00~09:30 Real-time & Quantitative Analysis of Li-air Battery Materials by In-situ DEMS 김동욱(한국화학연구원)

More information

14(2) 02.fm

14(2) 02.fm J. Korean. Soc. Living. Environ. Sys. Vol. 14, No. 2, pp 117~125(2007) w y y w z sm Ÿ š w œ l ³Á½ * w, **w w w Impact of Photosensor Sensitivity on the Control Performance of a Daylight Dimming System

More information

γ

γ 경락경혈학회지 Vol.27, No.1, pp.87 106, 2010 Journal of Meridian & Acupoint Dept. of 1 Meridian & Acupoint, 3 Acupuncture & Moxibustion, College of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon University 2 Division of Clinical

More information

Microsoft PowerPoint - ch03ysk2012.ppt [호환 모드]

Microsoft PowerPoint - ch03ysk2012.ppt [호환 모드] 전자회로 Ch3 iode Models and Circuits 김영석 충북대학교전자정보대학 2012.3.1 Email: kimys@cbu.ac.kr k Ch3-1 Ch3 iode Models and Circuits 3.1 Ideal iode 3.2 PN Junction as a iode 3.4 Large Signal and Small-Signal Operation

More information

(Exposure) Exposure (Exposure Assesment) EMF Unknown to mechanism Health Effect (Effect) Unknown to mechanism Behavior pattern (Micro- Environment) Re

(Exposure) Exposure (Exposure Assesment) EMF Unknown to mechanism Health Effect (Effect) Unknown to mechanism Behavior pattern (Micro- Environment) Re EMF Health Effect 2003 10 20 21-29 2-10 - - ( ) area spot measurement - - 1 (Exposure) Exposure (Exposure Assesment) EMF Unknown to mechanism Health Effect (Effect) Unknown to mechanism Behavior pattern

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI: : Researc

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI:   : Researc Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp.251-273 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.2.201706.251 : 1997 2005 Research Trend Analysis on the Korean Alternative Education

More information

14(4)-09(임주훈).fm

14(4)-09(임주훈).fm w» wz 14«4y(2012) (ISSN 1229-5671) Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Vol 14 No 4 (2012) pp 222~228 DOI: 105532/KJAFM2012144222 Author(s) 2012 CC Attribution 30 License š vw ù e ql z*á½

More information

11(1)-15.fm

11(1)-15.fm w y wz 11«1y 73~80 (2011.8.) Journal of Korean Society of Urban Environment SWMM 을이용한도시지역비점오염부하저류시설용량산정 Áw«Á *Áy **Á½ yá½ Á x w w Á* û w y œw Á** w y lœw (2011 6 13, 2011 6 27 k) Determine Capacity of

More information

82-02.fm

82-02.fm w y wz 8«( 2y) 00~00, 2005 J. of the Korean Society for Environmental Analysis Calix[6]arene w k š w *Á x Á Á«ƒm w yw, *w w yw Cesium Ion Selective Solid Contact Electrodes Based on Calix[6]arene Won-sik

More information

달생산이 초산모 분만시간에 미치는 영향 Ⅰ. 서 론 Ⅱ. 연구대상 및 방법 達 은 23) 의 丹 溪 에 최초로 기 재된 처방으로, 에 복용하면 한 다하여 난산의 예방과 및, 등에 널리 활용되어 왔다. 達 은 이 毒 하고 는 甘 苦 하여 氣, 氣 寬,, 結 의 효능이 있

달생산이 초산모 분만시간에 미치는 영향 Ⅰ. 서 론 Ⅱ. 연구대상 및 방법 達 은 23) 의 丹 溪 에 최초로 기 재된 처방으로, 에 복용하면 한 다하여 난산의 예방과 및, 등에 널리 활용되어 왔다. 達 은 이 毒 하고 는 甘 苦 하여 氣, 氣 寬,, 結 의 효능이 있 대한한방부인과학회지 THE JOURNAL OF ORIENTAL OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY VOL.17, NO.2 : 115-122 (2004) 달생산이 초산모 분만시간에 미치는 영향 * 북경한의원, ** 윤산부인과의원, *** 최은림산부인과의원, 상지대학교 한의과대학 부인과학교실 ****, 경희대학교 동서의학대학원 김성준 *****, 윤왕준

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 6, December, 30, 2016:275~289 Received: 2016/12/02, Accepted: 2016/12/22 Revised: 2016/12/20, Published: 2016/12/30 [ABSTRACT] SNS is used in various fields. Although

More information

15(1)-05(김진희1).fm

15(1)-05(김진희1).fm w» wz, 15«1y(2013) (ISSN 1229-5671) Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 15, No. 1, (2013), pp. 40~49 DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2013.15.1.040 Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

More information

- iii - - i - - ii - - iii - 국문요약 종합병원남자간호사가지각하는조직공정성 사회정체성과 조직시민행동과의관계 - iv - - v - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 - - 11 - - 12 - - 13 - - 14 - α α α α - 15 - α α α α α α

More information

,,,.,,,, (, 2013).,.,, (,, 2011). (, 2007;, 2008), (, 2005;,, 2007).,, (,, 2010;, 2010), (2012),,,.. (, 2011:,, 2012). (2007) 26%., (,,, 2011;, 2006;

,,,.,,,, (, 2013).,.,, (,, 2011). (, 2007;, 2008), (, 2005;,, 2007).,, (,, 2010;, 2010), (2012),,,.. (, 2011:,, 2012). (2007) 26%., (,,, 2011;, 2006; ,,.. 400,,,,,,.,,, -, -, -., 3.. :, Tel : 010-9540-0640, E-mail : sunney05@hanmail.net ,,,.,,,, (, 2013).,.,, (,, 2011). (, 2007;, 2008), (, 2005;,, 2007).,, (,, 2010;, 2010), (2012),,,.. (, 2011:,, 2012).

More information

04김호걸(39~50)ok

04김호걸(39~50)ok Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment, Vol. 22, No. 1(2013) pp.39~50 Prediction of Landslides Occurrence Probability under Climate Change using MaxEnt Model Kim, Hogul* Lee, Dong-Kun** Mo, Yongwon*

More information

18211.fm

18211.fm J. of the Korean Sensors Society Vol. 18, No. 2 (2009) pp. 168 172 p k ù p p l xá xá ³ Á *Á w * Fabrication of the CNT-FET biosensors with a double-gate structure Byunghyun Cho, Byounghyun Lim, Jang-Kyoo

More information

- i - - ii - - iii - - iv - - v - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 - - 11 - - 12 - - 13 - - 14 - - 15 - - 16 - - 17 - - 18 - - 19 - α α - 20 - α α α α α α - 21 - - 22 - - 23 -

More information

14(4)-06(이희재).fm

14(4)-06(이희재).fm w» wz, 14«4y(2012) (ISSN 1229-5671) Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 14, No. 4, (2012), pp. 189~195 DOI: 10.5532/KJAFM.2012.14.4.189 Author(s) 2012. CC Attribution 3.0 License.

More information

51(2)-09.fm

51(2)-09.fm 2007, Vol. 51, No. 2 Printed in the Republic of Korea xw yw w w» e w z Á Á y Áw # Á k * w yw w w w w w # w w w (2006. 10. 30 ) Influences of Current Education Programs for Preservice Chemistry Teachers

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp DOI: 3 * Effects of 9th

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp DOI:   3 * Effects of 9th Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp.357-378 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.2.201906.357 3 * Effects of 9th Grade Students Participation in Career Curriculum Cluster

More information

레이아웃 1

레이아웃 1 i g d e d mod, t d e d e d mod, t e,0 e, n s,0 e,n e,0 Division of Workers' Compensation (2009). Iowa workers' compensation manual. Gamber, E. N. & Sorensen, R. L. (1994). Are net discount rates stationary?:

More information

<283732372D3733312920B4D9C3CAC1A120BCD2C7C1C6AEC4DCC5C3C6AEB7BBC1EEC0C720B3EBBEC8C0C720BDC3B7C2BAB8C1A4BFA120B4EBC7D120C0AFBFEBBCBA20C6F2B0A1283035292E687770>

<283732372D3733312920B4D9C3CAC1A120BCD2C7C1C6AEC4DCC5C3C6AEB7BBC1EEC0C720B3EBBEC8C0C720BDC3B7C2BAB8C1A4BFA120B4EBC7D120C0AFBFEBBCBA20C6F2B0A1283035292E687770> 대한안과학회지 제 49 권 제 5 호 2008 J Korean Ophthalmol Soc 49(5):727-731, 2008 DOI : 10.3341/jkos.2008.49.5.727 다초점 소프트콘택트렌즈의 노안의 시력보정에 대한 유용성 평가 김현경 1 김효명 2 정성근 1 가톨릭대학교 의과대학 성모병원 안과학교실 1, 고려대학교 의과대학 안암병원 안과학교실

More information

09구자용(489~500)

09구자용(489~500) The Study on the Grid Size Regarding Spatial Interpolation for Local Climate Maps* Cha Yong Ku** Young Ho Shin*** Jae-Won Lee**** Hee-Soo Kim*****.,...,,,, Abstract : Recent global warming and abnormal

More information

25(6)-12(조윤아).fm

25(6)-12(조윤아).fm Printed in the Republic of Korea "/"-:5*$"- 4$*&/$& 5&$)/0-0(: Vol. 25, No. 6, 416-420, 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.5806/ast.2012.25.6.416 Characteristics of heavy metals's exposure from playground flooring

More information

83.fm

83.fm Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society Vol. 44, No. 9, pp. 483~488, 2007. The Influence of on the Clinker Mineral Composition and Cement Quality Tae-Hyoung Eom, Won-Seok Kim, Chang-Bum Kim, Byeong-Yong

More information