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1 Vol. 31(4): DOI: /OPR Ocean and Polar Research December 2009 Note yw w x w d Á Á½ Á»Á * w w»z w ( )» w 29 Application of a Large Ocean Observation Buoy in the Middle Area of the Yellow Sea Jae-Seol Shim, Dong-Young Lee, Sun-Jeong Kim, In-Ki Min, and Jin-Yong Jeong * Climate Change & Coastal Disaster Research Department, KORDI Ansan P.O. Box 29, Seoul , Korea Abstract : Yellow Sea Buoy (YSB) was moored in the center of the Yellow Sea at 35 o 51'36"N, 124 o 34'42"E, on 12 September YSB is a large buoy of 10 m diameter, and as such is more durable against collision by ships and less likely to be lost or removed by fishing nets compared to small ordinary buoys of 2.3 m diameter. YSB is equipped with 12 kinds of oceanic and meteorologic instruments, and transfers its realtime observation data to KORDI through ORBCOMM system every 1 hour. Data on ocean winds, air temperature, air pressure, and sea temperature appear to be accurate, while water property sensors (AAQ1183), which are sensitive to fouling, are producing errors. YSB (2007), Ieodo ocean research station (2003), and Gageocho ocean research station, which was completed in October 2009, will establish the 2 degrees interval by latitude in the Yellow Sea, and they will contribute though the 'Operational Oceanography System' as the important realtime observation network. Key words : Yellow Sea, Buoy, operational oceanography system, real-time observation data 1. yw w s w, s³ 44 m w w. ¾ w, ù w w y q ƒ j w. w ù» kƒ w» w», yw w w» w w š w. w» ƒ *Corresponding author. d w y w,» w ƒ w w x y w l. l w w l, z, k w e w y y k wš d w» w œw» w w d, m, e w xk w (w 2007). ù ûw yw š, w y w w ü vwƒ j x. vw» w yw œ x mw yw w w l

2 402 Shim, J.-S. et al. w, w x d w w l v ( mw 2008). x yw x d», w, w w, w wwš.» w d sww,, t, y w d wwš, p w 2 l 12 ¾ 2 ù w w Ÿ d wš (w 2007). w w» w ù w yw w w d w w. yw w w x d w j ww w» š ew ù w. š mw w d», š w d ƒ w. ü š. NOAA(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) NDBC(National Data Buoy Center) 3m, 6m 10 m x w w w. ù w w m š y y w w q šƒ y w d. wš x d z w y š. (1999) WOTAN(Wind Observation Through Ambient Noise)» w» d w,» w w. w» d»» d w, t RMSEƒ 1m/s w. w w (1999) NOAA 3m w w 2.5 m ü w, ƒ d wš l w w d» y w.» x 5» ü w t w, 2007 w ü NOMAD ew. q,» w y, w» d w y š. WAVEWATCH-III w» d w q w ƒ w ( 2003), (2006)» e w q qš w, û (2004) w w» d w 2003 kt ƒ w m w w w w y dw. Kim and Hong (2002) z w» mw w w d y w w ƒ š. w w w l w v yw x d w v w w œ yw w x w. yw 10 m x», y y w w q x yw š d ƒ w. yw, š p, d wš w. 2. yw yw yw w 80 m w w» š w» x w. q ƒ j. w w d 10 m x e w. ù ƒ y y w x w 3mù 6m w q x x û š». d w d w 10 m w» w w. yw w w w wx y ,» w w ƒw w w w w ywœ x w w , w yw. e ù y z e e w, ù e w» w. e e ( 32 o N) ƒ ( 34 o N) w w», š 15y ( 38 o N) e w 2 o d x w 36 o N w. w e ù w w n»w w w 309 9

3 Application of Yellow Sea Buoy F ig u r Yqxx Sqg 6 ù e, ù l ewš (Fig. 1). e t 35 o 51.6'N, 'E o 200 km w, 80 m. yw e w» t ( w» ) w Fig. 2 w. x, p, š» d w xv s ƒƒ (Fig. 2a, 2b, 2c), x (Fig. 2d), p xv s wwš(fig. 2e), w (Fig. 2f). yw w x x w x w ƒ ù ƒ w w e. w w» w w» d z l e¾ d w š, w d ùƒ w kw. yw ñ 5 knot w w (Fig. 3a). ü k š w» w d g w w, ù z e 3 y y w. w d 3y(67m) w ww. A-Frame ww. 3y l f wš z ƒ ƒ w w. yw 9 13 zw ù, 9 12 ú ƒ w, d» kƒ z 14 1 w Gg rgi u s iq q ryqxx Sqg6 G YS6gh t xxhyg i ygxx xg r yp u s tq h t xx upq p r r xx u s g qyhx q g qyhxu s tq h t xx yg g p ygxx xg r y g p r gu u s

4 404 Shim, J.-S. et g 6 g hqu s ssqp r Qu spg tg h h sh g h pq gwu s tq h i p u s tq y u s xu q g p g it g p p i y xq " G u s qy r Yqxx Sqg 6 w (Fig. 3b). š w ú z 7 l 8 t w (Fig. 3c, 3d). Fig. 4 yw. f 3 m s wš, 46 mm 280 mƒ f wì wš. yw x j l w ùƒ» w ¼ ¾ z w w š, š x. 32 mm w w» w e (Fig. 4). z 32 mm w ñ wì, z j 2 w ƒ w. š (Dummy) ew e t w f ƒ w» mw wš, š. yw l 200 m û qš ƒ e. qš , x z

5 Application of Yellow Sea Buoy 405 w w ù, y y yw y w ƒ d. yw p yw NOAA(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrator) w 10- Meter Discus k, ¾š w w» d ƒ w. 30~200 m, 80 m/s t 25 m q. 10 3» z w, w q wš r p w z w. w yw w l ¾ w q 32 mm z e, z e z. yw p, š x v s. 10 m, 2.4 m, š 0.95 m. p q l 8.1 m, p x v s ewš (Fig. 5). x v s w l 8m», x v s w» d 10 m d wš. k CCSB, w» w d 2 y ƒ e 1 w w. 6» l š xk, ƒƒ ƒ 1, 2 ù e. ƒ»y w d ew (Fig. 5). yw q 3, ü y» Ÿ j w w. yw œ p x v s e 90 W k q 12 mw, l, yz, DC-DC yz mw l œw. 14 V, 10~60 Ah/day œ w. yw» d 8, w d 4, š k y w d. d Table 1 Table 2 ùkü, Fig. 6 e e w w. d l w l (Datalogger) mw ü» e, m l mw œw. y w š w fp l p AquaPro-MK V w. t ƒƒ m w w sp ƒ š m k s y w ww. l» e CF w, l w w, l z r w w. # 8uyq u r Yqxx Sqg 6 xqr g p r yg u r h t xx u upq ust

6 6CDNG 5[UVGO EQORQPGPVU GSWKRRGF YKVJ ;5$ Observations Sensor Model/Manufacturer Specification Sampling Meteorologic Oceanic Measur -ing instrument Wind Speed & Direction Wind Monitor-Ma / RM YOUNG Air Temperature & Humidity Pressure Vaisala Air Temp. /Humidity Sensor Vaisala Barometric Pressure Sensor HMP45A / Vaisala PTB210B / Vaisala Precipitation Rain Gauge / RM YOUNG Short wave radiation Spectral Pyranometer PSP / Eppley Laboratory Long wave radiation Infrared Radiometer PIR / Eppley Laboratory Visibility Visibility PWD22 / Vaisala Wave Current Water Properties (Temperature, Salinity, ph, Turbidity, DO, Depth, Chlorophyll) Temperature, Salinity, Depth Directional wave sensor ADCP HIPPY 40-MKII Datawell bv. Work Horse Self-contained 300kHz (WHM300) / RDI Range : 0~100 m/s, 0 o ~360 o Accuracy : ±0.3 m/s, ±3 o Range : 39.2~+60 o C, 0.8~100%RH Accuracy (at 20 o C) : ±2 o C, ±1%RH Range : 500~1,000 hpa Resolution : 0.10 hpa Accuracy (at 20 o C) : ±0.15 hpa Range : 0-50 mm Resolution : 0.2 mm/hr Accuracy : ±0.2 mm/hr Sensitivity : 9 µv/wm -2 Resistance : 650 Ohms Response time : 1 second Linearity : ±0.5% from 0 to 2800 Wm -1 Sensitivity : 4 µv/wm -2 Resistance : 700 Ohms Response time : 2 second Linearity : ±1% from 0 to 700 Wm -1 Range : 10~20,000 m Resolution : 1 m Range : ±10 m Resolution : 0.01 m Accuracy : 0.5% Range : ~5 m/s (~10 m/s maximum) Bins : 1~ minutes averaged 10 minutes averaged 10 minutes averaged Every one hour 10 minutes averaged 10 minutes averaged 1 second interval and more than 512 seconds Every one hour Water Property Sensors AAQ1183 /ALEC Table 2 1 Sample CTD SBE 37 SI /Seabird Engineering GPS Satellite compass SC-110 / FURUNO Accuracy : ±0.6 o Compass Electronic compass HS8000 / NAVICO Range : 5~+35 o C, 0-7 S/m Resolution : 0-7 S/m, S/m Accuracy : o C, S/m Resolution : 0.1 o Accuracy : ±1 o Position GPS antenna SC-110 / FURUNO Accuracy : GPS-10m, DGPS-5m 1 Sample S h im, J.- S. e t a ḷ

7 Application of Yellow Sea Buoy 407 6CDNG 6JG URGEKHKECVKQPU QH ##3 Items Range Resolution Accuracy Temperature 5~+40 o C o C ±0.02 o C Salinity 0~40 ppt ppt ±0.03 ppt Depth 0~100 m m 0.3% Disolved oxygen 0~20 mg/l 0.01 mg/l ±1%, ±0.2 mg/l ph 0~14 units 0.01 units ±0.2 units Turbidity 0~1,000 FTU 0.03 FTU ±2%, ±0.3 FTU Chlorophyl 0~400 µg/l 0.1 µg/l ±1%, ±0.1 µg/l (KI 6JG UGPUQTU GSWKRRGF YKVJ ;5$ 5CVGNNKVG )25 #PVGPPC CKT VGORGTCVWTG JWOKFKV[ UGPUQT YKPF OQPKVQT TCFKQOGVGT TCKP ICWIG OCIPGVKE CPVGPPC XKUKDKNKV[ UGPUQT FCVC NQI IGT CPF RQYGT EQPVTQNNGT KP VJG DWQ[ YCXG UGPUQT KPUKFG VJG DWQ[ %6 UGPUQT 5$'5+ EWTTGPV UGPUQT #&%2 CPF YCVGT RTQRGTV[ UGPUQT ##3 &QVVGF EKTENG KPFKECVG VJG UOCNN RNCVHQTO HQT OGVGQTQNQIKECN UGPUQTU CV O CDQXG VJG UGC UWTHCEG 5$'5+ #&%2 CPF ##3 KU NQECVGF CV OFGRVJ w CPU CPUƒ ƒƒ, d w t,»,» š. ƒ d l mw (Fig. 7), ORBCOMM mw (Fig. 8). yw w yw 3 1z» x m w ƒ z. w l 200 km w ewš»,» w k d». p d q, š d y w w»ƒ x l l, w w , ƒ. yw x CF d, l e, f k, fp k, ƒ, m k wš. yw d yw ORBCOMM mw 1 wš. d» l w» d tw t w t dw QuikSCAT (QSCAT) 12.5 km w w. QSCAT w t t 2m/s, tw 20 o ƒ (NASA 2009), d mw ü w t wü (Ebuchi et al. 2002; 2008). w QSCAT w t yw l 12.5 km ü d š, ƒ 30 ü w w. yw e twt ƒƒ GPS fq ( ) Magnetic fq ( ) w w t d wš. twt QSCAT w t Fig. 9 Table 3 ùk ü. w t (Main) 938 (Sub.) l w d w». w t, tw t GPS fq w t

8 408 Shim, J.-S. et al. (KI 6JG QXGTCNN U[UVGO FKCITCO QH ;GNNQY 5GC $WQ[ (KI5EJGOCVKEFKCITCOQHVJGFCVCVTCPUHGTU[UVGOQH;GNNQY5GC$WQ[ wt QSCAT ƒ ùkû. w QSCAT w t š w w š q. t RMSE ƒƒ m/s w w» 1.83 m/s y ù, tw o o 25.8 o» j ùkû ( 2008). t QSCAT w t w m/s j d w ùkû ù w w q. s³t 8m/s ƒ w ùkû, 4.6 m/s ƒ w ùkû.»,, š»

9 Application of Yellow Sea Buoy 409 (KI 3WKM5%#6 35%#6 CPF ;5$ YKPF URGGF CPF FKTGEVKQP UECVVGT RNQVU C 9KPF URGGF CPF E YKPF FKTGEVKQP UECVVGT FKCITCOU QH 35%#6 CPF;5$ OCKP UGPUQTU WUKPI)25 EQORCUU TGURGEVKXGN[ D 9KPF URGGF CPF F YKPF FKTGEVKQP UECVVGT FKCITCOU QH 35%#6 CPF ;5$ UWDUVKVWVG UGPUQTU WUKPI OCIPGVKE EQORCUU TGURGEVKXGN[ 6CDNG 3WKM5%#6 CPF ;5$ YKPF XCNKFCVKQP UEQTGU Wind scores Correlation coef. RMSE Bias Number of data Main Speed (m/s) (GPS compass) Direction ( o ) Sub. Speed (m/s) (Magnetic compass) Direction ( o ) ù d wwš.» d 0.33 o C š ù w q (Fig. 10).» š» 29.9 o C,» 5.4 o C ùkû l d ƒ ùkû ù ƒ w (Fig. 11). w l» w w d y w. x t wt w ƒ.» RMSEƒ 0.55 mbar ùkù q ù z ƒ 3mbar j ùk ùš y (Fig. 12).» š û x xk, mbar ùkþ, w yw w ù» 989 mbar¾ d. ƒ ƒ 1km ƒ mw 2007 l 2009 ¾, 2 w r (Fig. 13). (12, 1, 2 )

10 410 Shim, J.-S. et al. (KI #KT VGORGTCVWTGU QDUGTXGF CV ;5$ HTQO OCKP UGPUQT UQNKF NKPG CPF UWDUVKVWVG UGPUQT FQVVGF NKPG (KI #KT RTGUUWTG QDUGTXGF D[ OCKP UQNKF NKPG CPF UWDUVKVWVG FQVVGF NKPG UGPUQTU (KI #KT JWOKFKV[ QDUGTXGF CV ;5$ HTQO OCKP UGPUQT UQNKF NKPG CPF UWDUVKVWVG UGPUQT FQVVGF NKPG 4z ùkû, 2 ü ùkû. 3 l 7 ¾ s³ ƒ 12z ƒw, 5 s³ 6 ¾ d. p w 2007 l 2009 ¾ 9 d. x, w p w ƒ z y w w q. yw d w w ƒ»ƒ ù x» x w p ùküš (KI 5GC HQI FGVGEVGF D[ ;5$ (QI XKUKDKNKV[ MO 6TKCPINGU CTG HQI FWTCVKQP VKOG CPF DCTU CTG OQPVJN[ HQI QEEWTTGPEG HTGSWGPEKGU HQT [GCTU HTQO 5GR VQ 1EV. w d yw ƒ z kt ù (200711) q(200712) ƒ yw w. kt dy w yww td, kt w w ù td ü ƒ x (Fig. 14), kt w qš w w (Fig. 15). kt ù ƒ w ( )qš 1.5(1.9)m, t 10 m/s, td 1.2 o C w w. q

11 Application of Yellow Sea Buoy 411 (KI 8CTKCVKQPU QH UGC UWTHCEG VGORGTCVWTG O YJGP V[RJQQP 0CTK CPF 9KRJC JCF CRRTQCEJGF KP 5GRVGODGT ( )qšƒ 2.7(4.4)m, t 15 m/s ù qš š w ù 0.9 o C w w ù ùkû. td w w z» k, kt ù z o C w w. (2 m)» w z l ¾ y (KI 6KOG UGTKGU QH CKT VGORGTCVWTG UQNKF NKPG CPF UGC VGORGTCVWTG CV O FGRVJ FQVVGF NKPG w ùkû. 9 z ƒ ƒ» ùkù,» y s f y w (Fig. 16) » 5 o C ¾ ü ù yw» 1 o C ùkû, 8 o C w w w w ùkü. d AAQ1183 SBE37 mw d (KI 6KOG UGTKGU QH YCXG JGKIJV OCZKOWO YCXG JGKIJV CPF YKPF URGGF WRRGT CPF YCXG RGTKQF NQYGT

12 412 Shim, J.-S. et al. (KI 6KOG UGTKGU QH UGC VGORGTCVWTG UQNKF NKPG CPF UCNKPKV[ FQVVGF NKPG CV O FGRVJ š. AAQ1183 w y y ùkû ù, SBE37 w q. Fig. 17 wì ùk ü. z w 32 psu d ƒ, psu w, s» w j ù kû. x d td r 2007, 2008 w w š d w ù, 2007, 2008» ql w ùkù w, 2009 ùkû x w. 2007, 2008 w x w ƒ w, y» š w. w y w» w ƒ ƒ w. ys 2psu ùkû, w td l w û ùkü. q Datawell Hippy 40-MKII wš. x j q w d ƒ w w w ù Fig. 15 y w 3 ü q w d ƒ w. d w w FFT w z qš wš q» w. (1) qš q» w. qš = m q» = (1) m 0 f : frequency 4 m 0 m 2 E( f) d f, m f 2 E( f) df (KI %WTTGPVU TQUG QDUGTXGF D[ #&%2 HTQO 1EV VQ 5GR CV O FGRVJ

13 Application of Yellow Sea Buoy 413 E( f ): w w FFT q qš m¾ d s³ qš 0.7 m ùkû. qš m d. t qš w t» w z s³ 2 z q š» w ùkû. kt» qš w ƒ¾ w kt q(wipha, y)» 15 m t 3m qš» w š q» 12 ¾ d. yw ADCP 6m l 4m d w d wš. Fig l ¾ 6m w. û w w ƒ w w w d š, ûw ƒ w ùkû. 3. m yw 10 m x l 190 km 80 m w ewš yw 8 w» d, 4 w d, š 3 d ƒ e. d ORBCOMM m w 1 w w, ü l CF. yw w ù» y œy w x³e, 1999 w» ( mw 2008). ù d, e ü w» d, w d l y w w» d t ³ ww š w. l yw w ewš», t ƒ w w w w. 2.5 km w w t w, yw w t q, š w QSCAT z y ƒ w ƒ.»» d y w d š ƒ. d td 30.7 psu 32.7 psu, (KI 5EJGOCVKE FKCITCO QH XGTVKECN RTQHKNKPI U[UVGO YJKEJ YKNN DG GSWKRRGF YKVJ ;5$ ùküš. z kt yw w ù, yw w. ù kt w w q w yw w td 1 o C w w w. yw mw DO, DOU, ph, Turbidity d w ù, w»» d w ƒ q, x k k. š 2008 ƒ ƒ w z ƒ û y w, l d ùkùš w x y v w. w e w w v q w, w yw CTD w, g, w v q dw w eƒ (Fig. 19). w» w» w, w { vw» w mwš. yw 2010 w d. x w w d l pƒ œ óù yw e w. (2003 ) w w» yw, š

14 414 Shim, J.-S. et al. ƒ w w» ƒ œ ù yw û w w 2 o d. wz 38 o ew w w w» z š ü ù 2 o d. w d l d l e w w l w w w». mw (w d l w w» y, PM54880) w w» (w e d», PE98323) w w. ¾ š Ì. š x mw (2008) w w w œ x. w w, BSPM , 303 p û x,, ½ (2004) w w d l dw kt w w š. J Korean Soc Oceanogr 9(3): ,,, Ÿ (1999) w d d». w w w œwz 11(1):56-67 x,,,, z (2006)» d w q : » 16(4): ³, y, (1999) w x» d. J Korean Soc Oceanogr 4(2): ,, ½k, z (2003) q w q p. J Korean Soc Oceanogr 8(3): ,, ³,», «(2008) w 12.5 km w QuikSCAT w t. Ocean and Polar Res 30(1):47-58 w (2007) w w l z. w, 223 p Ebuchi N, Graber HC, Caruso MJ (2002) Evaluation of wind vectors observed by QuikSCAT/SeaWinds using ocean buoy data. J Atmos Ocean Tech 19(12): Kim Y-S, Hong G-M (2002) Estimation of marine meteorological elements using the satellite and buoy data. J Korean Meteorol Soc 38(3): NASA (2009) Missions-SeaWinds on QuikSCAT. winds.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/quikscat/index.cfm. Accessed 4 May 2009 Received Oct. 26, 2009 Revised Dec. G 7, 2009 Accepted Dec. 10, 2009

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