DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "DBPIA-NURIMEDIA"

Transcription

1 KOREAN J. FOOD COOK. SCI. Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 764~772 (2015) ISSN (Print) ISSN (Online) 어린이급식소의위생관리실태조사및방문지도에따른위생관리개선효과분석 백재은 이현아 1 배현주 2 부천대학교식품영양과, 1 부천시제2어린이급식관리지원센터, 2 대구대학교식품영양학과 The Assessment of Food Safety Practices and the Effect of Visiting Education on Food Safety Improvement in Children s Foodservice Facilities Jae-Eun Paik Hyun-A Lee 1 Hyun-Joo Bae 2 Department of Food and Nutrition, Bucheon University, Bucheon, 14632, Korea 1 Center for Children's Foodservice Management of Bucheon 2 Center, Bucheon, 14632, Korea 2 Department of Food and Nutrition, Daegu University, Gueongbuk, 38453, Korea Abstract This study was conducted to investigate food safety management practices at children s foodservice facilities and evaluate the effect of visiting education by Center for Child-care Foodservice Management (CCFSM) for food safety improvement. The subjects of evaluation included child care centers (84.3%), kindergartens (7.8%), and community child centers (7.8%). Facilities by foundation types were private (70.6%), public (19.6%), and corporation (9.8%). The average score of food safety evaluation was points. The total score of food safety evaluation of community child center was significantly lower than that of child care center and kindergarten (p<0.01); and the total score of public facilities was higher than that of private facilities. Furthermore, 35.9% of evaluation items showed performance higher than 90%, while 15.4% showed performance less than 60%. The item with lowest performance was washing and disinfection of fruits and vegetables (26.5%). Results of one-way ANOVA of food safety evaluation score by the frequency of visiting education indicated that the evaluation score of the third session significantly increased from the first and second sessions. In addition, the result of two-way ANOVA showed that both foodservice type (F=21.730, p<0.001) and the frequency of visiting education (F=7.968, p<0.001), and both foundation type (F=31.387, p<0.001) and the frequency of visiting education (F=7.507, p<0.001) affected the total food safety evaluation score. There were significant differences in result scores according to the number of meal served (F=17.133, p<0.001) and the frequency of food safety evaluation (F=17.065, p<0.001). In conclusion, visiting education of children s foodservice facility showed significant effect on the improvement of food safety level. Key words: Center for Child-care Foodservice Management(CCFSM), children s foodservice facility, child care center, food safety evaluation, visiting education Ⅰ. 서론 여성의경제활동참여증가와더불어가족구조의핵가족화등으로인해자녀양육이가정에서만해결할수없는사회문제로확대되었을뿐만아니라저출산시대에대응하여자녀의양육에대한부담을경감시킬수있도록관련부처에서는아동보육시설확대와환경개선사업을정책적으로지원해왔고그결과전국적으로어린이집 Corresponding author: Hyun-Joo Bae, Department of Food and Nutrition, Daegu University, 201 Daegudae-ro, Jillyangup, Gyeongsansi, Gyeongbuk, 38453, Korea. Tel: Fax: 수는매년증가하고있다 (Lee MS 등 2006, Bae HJ 등 2009, Park HS 등 2009). 보육통계 (Ministry of Health and Welfare 2014) 에따르면전국의어린이집수는 2014 년기준으로 43,742 개소로, 10 년전 2004 년기준으로 26,903 개소였던것에비해약 1.6 배증가하였다. 또한어린이집이용아동수도 2014 년기준으로 1,496,671 명으로, 2004 년기준으로전국적으로 930,252 명이었던것에비해 60.9% 정도증가하였다. 반일제, 종일제등으로운영되고있는어린이집이나유치원에서는시설의어린이들에게간식과급식을제공하고있으며, 특히어린이는면역체계가약해감염성질환에대한감수성이다른연령층에비해높고신체성장발육이왕성하므로어린이를대상으로한급식의품질관리 2015 Korean Society of Food and Cookery Science This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( /by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2 어린이급식소의위생관리실태조사및방문지도에따른위생관리개선효과분석 765 는매우중요하나어린이급식소의양적성장에비해질적성장은미흡한실정이다 (Lee YM & Oh YJ 2005). 선행연구 (Lee MS 등 2006, Chang HJ 등 2008, Bae HJ 등 2009) 결과에의하면어린이집이나유치원급식의문제점은비전문가에의한식단관리, 식당시설의미확보, 영양사의낮은배치율, 교차오염방지시설부족, 조리실및식품보관실의온 습도관리미흡등이었다. 따라서어린이급식의질적개선을위해서식품의약품안전처와각지자체의지원으로 2011 년부터서울, 경기, 인천, 울산, 경남, 제주등전국적으로 12 개의어린이급식관리지원센터를설립 운영을시작하여어린이급식소의위생및영양관리를전문적으로지원할수있는시스템을마련하였고, 최근식품의약품안전처의발표에따르면 2015 년 12 월기준으로전국에 186 개의 지역센터 가설치되어 71 만여명의어린이들이혜택을받고있으며, 향후 228 개지자체별로최소 1 개소이상 지역센터 를설치하여 143 만명의어린이가혜택을받을수있도록할계획이라고하였다 (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety 2015). 어린이급식관리지원센터에서는 100 인미만의어린이집이나유치원중영양사가없는곳을대상으로영양및위생 안전관리전반에걸쳐전문지식과경험을보유한직원들이체계적으로순회방문지도를해오고있다 (Kim JA & Lee YM 2014). 이와관련된선행연구 (Kim HY 등 2013, Kim SH 등 2014, Kim JA & Lee YM 2014) 결과에의하면전국의어린이급식관리지원센터의순회방문지도로인해어린이급식소위생및영양관리수준이전반적으로높아졌고수혜기관의만족도도높은것으로조사되었다. 어린이급식관리지원센터관련연구를살펴보면, 어린이급식소의조리원대상위생지식의변화평가 (Kim JA & Lee YM 2014), 메뉴관리및식사다양성변화연구 (Kim HY 등 2013), 센터직원의업무수행난이도인식 (Park EH & Lee YE 2015), 어린이급식소의센터지원요구도분석과센터운영성과평가체계마련연구 (Kim SY 등 2011, Jeong YH 등 2013), 원장및조리원, 어린이대상교육프로그램효과평가 (Jo CY 등 2015) 등에대한연구가주로수행되었으나어린이급식소순회방문지도에따른위생관리수행도개선효과를분석한연구는부족하다 (Kim SH 등 2014). 따라서본연구는어린이급식관리지원센터에서등록 관리하고있는경기일부지역의어린이급식소를대상으로위생 안전관리실태를조사하고, 1 년동안순회방문지도를통해위생 안전관리가각영역별로, 급식소의운영특성별로어느정도개선되었는지를비교 분석하여어린이급식관리지원센터순회방문지도의효과를평가해보고자실시하였다. Ⅱ. 연구방법및내용 1. 조사대상및기간본연구는경기남부지역소재어린이집, 유치원, 지역아동센터중어린이급식관리지원센터정회원으로등록하여지속적인지원관리를받고있는총 102개소를대상으로실시하였다. 원아수가 100명미만으로영양사가급식관리를하고있지않은어린이급식소를대상으로 2014년 1년동안방문지도를실시한후위생 안전관리수행수준을체크리스트를이용하여평가하였다. 2. 조사내용및방법어린이급식소운영특성을파악하기위해급식소구분, 운영주체, 급식원아수, 조리원수, 배식형태, 먹는물제공형태등을조사하였다. 그리고어린이급식소위생관리실태조사를위하여식품의약품안전처에서제공하는 2014년어린이급식관리지원센터운영가이드라인에포함된위생 안전체크리스트를이용하였다 (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety 2014). 위생 안전체크리스트점검항목은개인위생관리, 식재료관리, 조리및배식관리, 소독및방역관리, 시설 설비관리, 음용수관리, 위생교육, 안전관리등에대해서총 39개문항으로구성되어있다. 2014년최초제공된위생 안전체크리스트 (39문항) 는같은해에 40개문항으로수정되었으나본연구에서는총 4회차의평가내용을동일하게진행하기위해 1회차평가에사용하였던위생 안전체크리스트 39개문항의점검항목으로 4회차까지모두동일하게평가하였다. 이체크리스트를이용하여각항목별로관리기준에적합하게실시하고있으면 1점, 실시하고있지않으면 0점으로평가하였다. 각급식소별위생 안전관리총점은 39 점만점으로평가하였고, 이를 100점만점으로환산하여급식소의운영특성별, 관리영역별, 순회지도회차별로비교 평가하였다. 관리영역별수행도비교 평가를위해서체크리스트의 39개문항을개인위생관리, 식재료관리, 조리및배식관리, 소독및방역관리, 시설 설비및안전관리등총 5개영역으로구분하였다. 어린이급식소의위생 안전관리개선을위한순회방문지도에활용한교육자료는급식관리지원센터에서자체제작하여사용하였다. 어린이급식소에방문하면체크리스트를이용하여위생관리수준을평가한후각회차에적합하도록작성된위생 안전관리교육안을기준으로하여 102곳의급식소에서동일한교육을실시하였다. 다음회차방문시에는직전회차때평가한결과를기준으로관리가안되고있는항목을우선점검하고, 교육내용에도 Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. Vol. 31, No. 6 (2015)

3 766 백재은 이현아 배현주 각급식소별로수행도가낮은항목에대한교육을집중적으로포함하였다. 특히 2 회차순회방문지도시에는 개인위생관리및식중독예방 을위한조리원대상위생교육을실시하고위생관리에필요한비품을제공하였다. 또한 3 회차지도시에는 채소나과일류의올바른세척 소독방법 에대한교육을실시하고, 소독을실시하기위해필요한염소계소독액, 염소농도테스트페이퍼, 계량컵등을제공하였다. 위생 안전관리평가는위생관리에전문지식과경험을가진어린이급식관리지원센터위생팀직원이직접관찰하면서평가하거나해당급식소의관리담당자와의면담을통해평가하였으며, 급식소별로 2 개월간격으로총 4 회차를평가하였다. 3. 통계분석방법위생 안전체크리스트의각항목은 SPSS 통계패키지 (ver 20.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) 를사용하여통계분석하였다. 어린이급식소의운영특성조사항목에대해서는빈도와백분율, 평균과표준편차를구하였고, 조사대상어린이급식소의운영특성에따른위생 안전관리총점과위생 안전관리영역별평가점수차이분석을위해서는 t-test와일원분산분석 (one-way ANOVA) 을실시하였다. 또한순회지도횟수와급식소구분, 운영주체, 급식원아수등의급식소운영특성에따라위생 안전관리총점에차이가있는지를분석하고자이원분산분석 (two-way ANOVA) 을실시하였다. 분산분석결과그룹간에유의적인차이가있는경우에는 Dancan s multiple range test를실시하여유의성을검증하였다. Ⅲ. 결과및고찰 1. 조사대상어린이급식소의운영특성조사대상어린이급식소의운영특성은 Table 1과같다. 어린이집이 86곳 (84.3%), 유치원과지역아동센터가각각 8곳 (7.8%) 이었다. 그리고운영주체는민간인경우가 72곳 (70.6%) 로가장많았고, 국공립이 20곳 (19.6%), 법인이 10곳 (9.8%) 이었다. 급식원아수는 50명미만이 47곳 (46.1%), 50명이상인곳이 55곳 (53.9%) 이었고, 최소 18명에서최대 98명으로조사대상어린이급식소의평균원아수는 56.6명이었다. 조리원수는 1명인곳이 86곳 (84.3%), 2명인곳이 16곳 (15.7%) 이었고, 조리원 1인당평균급식인원수는 50명이었다. 또한원아들에게제공하는식수는정수기물을이용하는경우가 84곳 (82.4%) 이었고, 끓인물을제공하는곳이 18곳 (17.6%) 이었다. Table 1. Characteristics of foodservice facilities Type of foodservice Foundation type No. of meals served/time Category n (%) Child care center 86(84.3) Kindergarten 8(7.8) Community child center 8(7.8) Public 20(19.6) Private 72(70.6) Corporation 10(9.8) < 20 1(1.0) 20 ~ < 50 46(45.1) 50 ~ < (53.9) 1 86(84.3) Number of cook 2 16(15.7) No. of meals served per cook 50.04± ) Drinking water type 1) Mean±SD Purified water 84(82.4) Boiled water 18(17.6) 2. 어린이급식소의위생 안전관리실태조사대상어린이급식소를대상으로위생 안전관리실태를파악하고자최초 1회방문하여위생 안전체크리스트총 39개항목을평가한결과는 Table 2와같다. 각관리항목별수행도및전체평가항목을개인위생관리, 식재료관리, 조리및배식관리, 소독및방역관리, 시설 설비및안전관리등총 5개영역으로구분한후관리영역별로도수행도를비교 평가해보았다. 항목별로수행도가 90% 이상되는경우가총 16개 ( 전체의 41.0%) 였고, 60% 미만인경우가총 6개 ( 전체의 15.4%) 였다. 수행도평가에서 지하수를사용하는경우소독또는살균하여사용 과 조리실내바닥이미끄러운곳이없는가? 항목은수행도가 100% 였고, 조리작업구역의벽, 바닥, 천장은청소소독이용이한재질인가?, 전선불량은없는가?, 조명기구불량은없는가? 항목은수행도가 99% 였다. 따라서수행도가 99% 혹은 100% 인항목이포함된시설 설비및안전관리영역의수행도는 91.7% 로다른관리영역에비해높은수준이었다. 반면에수행도가가장낮은항목은 채소와과일의세척소독실시 (26.5%) 였다. 그다음으로수행도가낮은항목은 집단급식소위생관리책임자의위생교육수료 (48.0%), 뚜껑이있는페달식쓰레기통청결하게사용 (52.9%), 식재료검수시제조일또는유통기한확인및기록 (56.9%), 냉장 냉동고적정온도확인 (57.8%) 등의순이었다. 개인위생관리 5개항목의평균수행도는 79.6% 였는데, 한국식품조리과학회지제 31 권제 6 호 (2015)

4 어린이급식소의위생관리실태조사및방문지도에따른위생관리개선효과분석 767 Table 2. Assessment of food safety management performance in foodservice facilities for children Personal hygiene (average performance 79.6%) Food safety management items n (%) 1. Wearing clean uniform, hair cap, and apron while cooking 74(72.5) 2. Checking and managing health condition before work 98(96.1) 3. Performing annual medical examination and keeping the records for 2 years 87(85.3) 4. Working with manicure and accessaries removed 86(84.3) 5. Washing and disinfecting hands properly before work 61(59.8) Food management (average performance 72.4%) 6. Monitoring and recording manufactured date and expiration date during food inspection 58(56.9) 7. Storing food and non-food separately 87(85.3) 8. Cleaning and managing refrigerator and freezer 79(77.5) 9. Monitoring proper temperature of refrigerator(0 5 ) and freezer(below 18 ) 59(57.8) 10. Keeping expiration date and labeling manufactured date of processed food 69(67.6) 11. Checking the place of origin of food materials 74(72.5) 12. Not using food past expiration date 91(89.2) Preparation and distribution management (average performance 76.5%) 13. Washing and disinfecting of fruits and vegetables properly 27(26.5) 14. Handling foods on working table at least 60cm high from the kitchen floor 99(97.1) 15. Separate use of knives, cutting boards and rubber gloves 88(86.3) 16. Eating foods within 2 hours after cooking 97(95.1) 17. Wearing clean uniforms, sanitary gloves and clean apron during distribution 78(76.5) 18. Keeping preserved meals for 144 hours and below (77.5) Disinfection and infection management (average performance 83.5%) 19. Maintaining washing table, cooking table, worktable and bottom drain hole clean 95(93.1) 20. Washing and sterilizing cooking machine and utensils after using 93(91.2) 21. Hygienic management and disinfection of knives, cutting boards and dish clothes 91(89.2) 22. Using food pedal type garbage can and maintaining it clean 54(52.9) 23. Equipped with insect and rat proof facilities 87(85.3) 24. Disinfecting and keeping disinfection certification of foodservice facilities for prevention of epidemics 91(89.2) Facility, equipment, and safety management (average performance 91.7%) 25. Equipped with cross-contamination prevention facility 85(83.3) 26. Installed with ventilation system in kitchen 95(93.1) 27. Floors, walls and ceilings easy to clean and disinfect, durable, non-absorbent 101(99.0) 28. Food contact surface easy to clean and disinfect 98(96.1) 29. Controlling access of outsiders to kitchen 89(87.3) 30. Disinfecting and sterilizing underground water when using it instead of tap water 102(100.0) 31. Completion of food safety education of foodservice manager 49(48.0) 32. Keeping the kitchen floor dry 102(100.0) 33. Having smooth surface of floor, walls and ceilings 99(97.1) 34. Installing ventilation system in kitchen 96(94.1) 35. Controlling of brightness of light in kitchen 99(97.1) 36. Installation and operation of fire extinguisher 88(86.3) 37. Proper wire control 101(99.0) 38. Keeping light equipment in proper condition 101(99.0) 39. Operating ventilation facilities before and after using gas stove 98(96.1) Total 102(100.0) Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. Vol. 31, No. 6 (2015)

5 768 백재은 이현아 배현주 이중 올바른손씻기 항목의수행도가 59.8% 로가장낮았다. 손씻기는 3 가지의세부기준이있는데첫째손세정제사용, 둘째핸드타올사용, 셋째알코올소독이다. 3 가지세부기준을모두수행한경우에만 1 점을부여하므로다른항목에비해상대적으로수행도가낮게평가된부분도있다고판단되나 3 가지의세부기준을충족해야만조리원손에의한교차오염을예방할수있으므로순회위생지도시에이부분에대한지속적인교육이필요하다고판단된다. 한편, 식재료관리 7 개항목의평균수행도는 72.4% 였다. 이중 식재료검수시제조일및유통기한확인기록 이 56.9% 로가장낮았고, 그다음으로는 냉장 냉동고적정온도관리 에대한수행도가 57.8% 로낮게평가되었다. 순회지도과정에서냉장보관후사용해야하는식재료의일부를냉동보관하면서냉장식품의유통기한이지나도록제품을사용하는경우가다수있었다. 따라서이와같이식품별보관온도와유통기한관리가안되는주요품목리스트를작성하여이항목에대해서는유통기한관리는철저히하도록식품입고스티커부착활용법등을교육하고순회지도시에집중적으로체크할필요가있다고판단된다. 또한 Kim SH 등 (2014) 의연구에서순회방문시지원물품으로냉장 냉동고용온도계를제공한후냉장 냉동고적정온도관리수행도가높아졌다고하였으므로어린이급식소냉장 냉동고온도관리개선을위해서는온도계등의실물제공과함께식재료보관고의온도관리의중요성에대한조리원위생교육실시가필요하다고생각된다. 조리및배식관리 6 개항목의평균수행도는 76.5% 였다. 이중 채소와과일의세척소독실시 항목에대한수행도가 26.5% 로가장낮았다. 현장평가를실시한결과조사대상모든어린이급식소에서채소와과일을충분히세척하고있었으나소독은대부분실시하고있지않았다. 면접법을통해채소와과일의소독을실시하지않는이유를확인한결과염소계소독액의냄새등에대해부정적인인식을가지고있어사용을기피하는경우가대부분이었으므로조리원을대상으로염소소독의안전성에대해서위생교육을실시할필요가있다고판단된다. 소독및방역관리 6 개항목의평균수행도는 83.5% 였다. 이중 페달식쓰레기통을청결하게관리 항목의수행도가 52.9% 로가장낮았다. 현장실사결과쓰레기통은대부분뚜껑은있었으나페달식이아니거나청결하게관리되고있지않았다. 쓰레기통을손으로개폐하는과정에서교차오염이발생하지않도록쓰레기통은페달식으로교체하도록지도하고, 음식물쓰레기는발생즉시폐기하고쓰레기통은하루에한번씩세척 소독하도록위생지도를할필요가있다고생각된다. 5 개관리영역별수행도를비교해본결과수행도평균은시설 설비및안전관리, 소독및방역관리, 개인위생관리, 조리및배식관리, 식재료관리순으로높았다. 대구 경북지역어린이급식소를대상으로위생관리평가를실시한결과에서는개인위생관리수행도가시설환경관리나작업위생관리영역에비해전반적으로높았으나본연구에서는개인위생관리수행도가작업위생관리수행도보다는다소높았으나시설 설비및안전관리나소독및방역관리영역의수행도보다는낮았다. 그이유는선행연구 (Bae HJ 등 2009) 에서 100 명이상인급식소가 23.3% 였던것에비해서본연구에서는조사대상어린이급식소가모두 100 인미만의소규모였으므로중 대규모급식소에비해시설 설비및안전관리, 소독및방역관리가용이했기때문에해당영역의수행도가개인위생관리항목보다높았다고생각된다. 조사대상어린이급식소운영특성에따른위생관리평가점수의차이분석결과는 Table 3 과같다. 위생 안전체크리스트 39 개항목에대해각 1 점씩총 39 점으로평가한후 100 점으로환산한총점은전체평균이 점이었다. 조사대상어린이급식소의평가점수총점은 2007 년대구 경북지역어린이급식소 60 곳을대상으로위생관리실태현장평가를실시한결과 (Bae HJ 등 2009) 어린이집평가점수평균 점과유치원평가점수평균 점에비해높은수준이었다. 급식소구분에따라서는어린이집과유치원에비해지역아동센터의위생 안전관리평가점수가유의적으로낮았다 (p<0.01). 또한급식소운영주체에따라서는국공립 Table 3. Comparison of food safety performance according to the operation characteristics of foodservice facilities Category Food safety evaluation score 1) F= Type of Kindergarten (n=8) 83.65±17.17 a Child care center (n=86) 84.32±10.54 a2) foodservice Community child center ** 69.25±8.55 b (n=8) Public (n=20) 92.66±7.97 a Foundation F= Private (n=72) 80.32±11.08 b type *** Corporation (n=10) 85.88±13.64 ab No. of meals < 50 (n=47) 79.76±12.33 t= served/time 50 ~ < 100 (n=55) 85.92± ** Total score 84.09± ) The total food safety management score is 100 point. 2) a-c : Different letters mean significant difference between groups by Duncan's multiple range test. **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 한국식품조리과학회지제 31 권제 6 호 (2015)

6 어린이급식소의위생관리실태조사및방문지도에따른위생관리개선효과분석 769 으로운영하는곳이민간에서운영하는곳에비해위생 안전관리점수가유의적으로높았다 (p<0.001). 그리고, 급식원아수가 50 명이상인경우가 50 명미만인경우에비해위생 안전관리총점이유의적으로높았다 (p<0.01). 상시급식인원수 50 명이상인경우집단급식소신고가의무화되어있고, 관할관리부서에서식품위생법에의해주기적으로관리 감독을하므로급식인원수 50 명미만인경우에비해전반적으로위생 안전관리가양호한수준이었다고생각된다. 3. 어린이급식소순회방문지도에따른위생관리개선효과분석 1) 순회방문지도회차에따른위생관리영역별개선효과조사대상어린이급식소를 1년간총 4회순회방문지도를실시한후평가한위생 안전관리점수를관리영역별로분류하여순회방문지도회차에따른점수의차이를분석한결과는 Table 4와같다. 비교평가가용이하도록각영역별로 100점만점으로환산하여결과표를작성하였다. Table 3의관리영역분류총 5개의영역중에서식재료관리와조리및배식관리항목은 Table 4에서는 급식작업위생관리 로통합하여수행도를비교 평가하였다. 최초평가시에각관리영역별수행도는개인위생관리가 79.61점, 급식작업위생관리가 74.34점, 소독및방역관리가 83.49점, 시설 설비및안전관리가 91.69점이었다. 순회방문지도회차에따른각관리영역별수행도의변화를알아보고자일원분산분석 (one-way ANOVA) 을실시한결과, 전체평가총점 (p<0.001) 과개인위생관리 (p<0.01), 급식작업위생관리 (p<0.001), 소독및방역관리 (p<0.001), 시설 설비및안전관리 (p<0.001) 영역모두순회방문지도회차에따라서평가점수에유의적인차이가있었다. 개인위생관리는 1회차에비해 2회차평가때부터유의 적으로수행평가점수가상승하였고, 급식작업위생관리영역은 3 회차때유의적으로점수가상승하였고, 4 회차때는또다시평가점수가유의적으로상승하였다. 한편, 소독과방역관리영역은 1 회차에비해 2 회차때, 2 회차에비해 3, 4 회차에서평가점수가유의적으로높았다. 그리고시설 설비및안전관리영역은다른영역에비해평가점수평균이 1 회차때부터 점으로높게평가되었고, 개인위생관리와같이 2 회차평가시에 1 회차에비해평가점수가유의적으로상승하였다. 위생 안전관리전체총점을 100 점만점으로환산하여순회지도평가회차에따른차이분석을실시한결과 1, 2 회차때에는유의적인차이를보이지않다가 3 회차와 4 회차에서는 1, 2 회차에비해평가점수가유의적으로상승하였다. 위의연구결과를종합해볼때각위생관리영역의수행도는순회방문지도회차가증가할수록유의적으로상승한다는것을알수있었다. 특히개인위생관리, 소독및방역관리, 시설 설비및안전관리항목은순회방문지도 2 회차때부터수행도가유의적으로증가되었고, 이는각관리영역의수행도향상을위해순회방문지도가효과적이었다는것을입증하는결과라고생각된다. 한편, 급식작업위생관리 영역의수행도는 1, 2 회차를거쳐 3 회차가되었을때유의적으로상승하였고, 4 회차가되었을때 3 회차에비해유의적으로더상승하기는하였으나 1 회차평가에서여러영역중평가점수 (74.34 점 ) 가가장낮았고, 4 회차순회방문지도가실시되고나서도다른영역은모두평균 90 점이상으로평가되었으나 급식작업위생관리 영역은평가점수가 점으로관리영역중가장낮게평가되었다. 따라서이영역에대한지도와교육을더욱집중할필요가있다고판단된다. 관련연구 (Kim JA & Lee YM 2014) 에의하면어린이급식소조리원을대상으로위생교육과순회방문지도유무에따라위생지식을비교 평가한결과 식재료관리 와 조리도구의위생관리 영역에대한지식이유의적으로 Table 4. Comparison of food safety performance according to the frequency of food safety evaluation Category Frequency of food safety evaluation 1st 2nd 3rd 4th F value Personal hygiene management )b a2) a a ** Foodservice processing sanitation management c c b a *** Disinfection and infection management c b a a *** Facility, equipment, and safety management b a a a *** Total score (n=102) b b a a *** 1) Mean: The total food safety management score is 100 points. 2) a-c : Different letters mean significant difference between groups by Duncan's multiple range test. **p<0.01, ***p< Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. Vol. 31, No. 6 (2015)

7 770 백재은 이현아 배현주 상승하였다고했으므로, 어린이급식소급식종사원을대상으로체계적이고지속적인위생교육과위생지도를실행해나간다면 급식작업위생관리 영역에대한종사원의위생지식이증가됨과동시에이영역의위생관리수행도도향상될수있을것으로기대된다. 또한선행연구 (Kim SY 등 2011) 에서도어린이급식소급식관리자의교육요구도를조사한결과 개인위생과작업공정별위생관리 에대한교육요구도가가장높았으므로이관리영역에대한방문지도가더욱강화될필요가있다고생각된다. 2) 순회방문지도회차와급식소운영특성에따른위생관리개선효과조사대상어린이급식소를 1 년간총 4 회순회방문지도를실시한후평가한위생 안전관리점수에급식소의운영특성과순회방문지도횟수가영향을주는지를알아보고자이원분산분석 (two-way ANOVA) 을실시한결과는 Table 5 와같다. 비교평가가용이하도록각영역별점수를 100 점만점으로환산하여결과표를작성하였다. 이원분산분석실시결과, 전체위생 안전관리총점은급식소구분 (F=21.730, p<0.001) 과순회방문지도회차 (F=7.968, p<0.001) 에따라서유의적인차이가있었고, 급식소운영주체 (F=31.387, p<0.001) 와순회방문지도회차 (F=7.507, p<0.001) 에따라서유의적인차이가있었다. 또 한급식원아수 (F=17.133, p<0.001) 와순회방문지도회차 (F=17.065, p<0.001) 에따라서도유의적인차이가있었다. 한편, 급식소구분과순회방문지도회차, 급식소운영주체와순회방문지도회차, 급식원아수와순회방문지도회차간에는상호작용효과 (interaction effect) 가없었다. 급식소구분과순회방문지도회차에따른위생 안전관리평가점수의변화를살펴보면, 어린이집의경우 1, 2 회차순회방문지도이후 3 회차와 4 회차평가점수가유의적으로증가하였고, 지역아동센터의경우 4 회차로진행된평가에서회차를거듭할수록평가점수가유의적으로증가하였다 (p<0.001). 그러나지역아동센터의경우 1 회차에서 4 회차까지의평가에서모두어린이집이나유치원에비해평가점수가유의적으로낮았으므로지역아동센터의위생관리개선이시급하다고판단된다. 본연구결과에서여러회차의순회방문지도에도불구하고 4 회차최종평가시에지역아동센터의위생 안전관리수행도가어린이집이나유치원에비해낮았던것은지역아동센터에서근무하는조리원의잦은교체가가장큰원인이었다고생각된다. 따라서어린이급식소에서근무하는조리원의처우개선을통해고용을유지할수있도록하여정기적인위생교육을받은조리원이급식업무를담당할수있도록해야할것이다. 또한지역아동센터는어린이집과유치원과달리다양한연령대의아이들이이용하고있으므로급식관리가이 Table 5. Two-way ANOVA results of food safety evaluation score according to the evaluation frequency and the characteristics of foodservice facility Type of foodservice Foundation type No. of meals served/time Frequency of food safety evaluation Category 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Child care center (n=86) a B a B a A a A Kindergarten (n=8) a a a a Community child center (n=8) b C b BC b AB b A F value *** Public (n=20) a B a AB a AB a A Private (n=72) b B b B b A b A Corporation (n=10) ab b ab ab F value *** < 50 (n=47) ~ < 100 (n=55) F value *** F value *** *** *** 1) Mean: The total food safety management score is 100 points. 2) a,b Means with different superscript in a column are significantly different by Duncan s multiple range test. 3) A-C Means with different superscript in a row are significantly different by Duncan s multiple range test. ***p< 한국식품조리과학회지제 31 권제 6 호 (2015)

8 어린이급식소의위생관리실태조사및방문지도에따른위생관리개선효과분석 771 드라인도어린이집이나유치원과는다르게마련하여적용할필요가있다고생각된다. 그리고급식소유형과순회방문지도회차에따른위생 안전관리평가점수는국공립으로운영하는곳은 1 회차평가이후 4 회차평가시에유의적으로평가점수가상승했고, 민간이운영하는곳은 1, 2 회차순회지도이후 3 회차와 4 회차평가에서평가점수가유의적으로증가하였다. 국공립운영어린이급식소의수행도점수변화가빠르게나타나지않았던이유는 1 회차실태평가시에이미평가점수가 점으로민간 (80.32 점 ) 이운영하는곳에비해유의적으로높은수준이었기때문이라고생각된다. 위의결과를종합해볼때어린이급식소위생 안전관리수준은급식소구분, 급식소운영형태, 급식소규모와상관없이순회방문지도횟수가증가할수록유의적으로증가한다는것을알수있었고, 이로써어린이급식소위생 안전관리개선을위해서진행한어린이급식관리지원센터의순회방문지도가효과적이었다는것을확인할수있었다. 특히급식관리담당자의교육과함께교육받은내용을실행할수있도록소도구나비품을지원해주는것이위생관리수행도향상을위해효과적이라고판단된다. 그리고본연구에서는위생 안전관리평가결과를다음회차의위생교육자료로활용함으로써각어린이급식소운영특성에적합한맞춤식방문지도가가능하였기에위생 안전관리수행도를빠르게개선시켜나갈수있었다고생각된다. 이연구결과는어린이급식관리지원센터사업에대한관련부처와지자체의예산지원이더욱증가하고우수한인재들이관련사업에다수참여할수있는기회가확대되는데기여할수있을것으로기대된다. 또한전국의어린이급식관리지원센터에서도센터사업의활성화와발전을위해사업성과를수혜기관이나학부모, 지역사회에널리알릴수있도록지속적으로홍보해나갈필요가있다고생각된다. Ⅳ. 요약 본연구는어린이급식소의위생 안전관리실태를조사하고, 경기남부지역소재총 102 개소의어린이급식소를대상으로 1 년동안순회방문지도를실시한결과위생 안전관리수준이어느정도개선되었는지를평가하고자수행하였다. 평가대상급식소는어린이집이 84.3%, 유치원과지역아동센터가각각 7.8% 였다. 그리고운영주체는민간이 70.6%, 국공립이 19.6%, 법인이 9.8% 였다. 급식원아수는 50 명미만이 46.1%, 50 명이상 100 명미만인곳이 53.9% 였다. 위생 안전관리실태평가결과총점은 평균 점이었고, 위생 안전관리평가총점은급식소구분에따라서는어린이집과유치원에비해지역아동센터의평가점수가유의적으로낮았다 (p<0.01). 또한급식소운영주체에따라서는국공립으로운영하는곳이민간에서운영하는곳에비해위생 안전관리점수가유의적으로높았다 (p<0.001). 그리고, 급식원아수가 50 명이상인경우가 50 명미만인경우에비해위생 안전관리총점이유의적으로높았다 (p<0.01). 한편, 위생 안전관리수행도가 90% 이상되는항목은전체의 41.0%, 수행도가 60% 미만인항목은전체의 15.4% 였다. 이중수행도가가장낮은항목은 채소와과일의세척 소독실시 (26.5%) 였다. 또한순회방문지도평가회차에따른위생 안전관리평가총점의차이분석을실시한결과 1, 2 회차때에는유의적인차이를보이지않다가 3 회차에서는 1, 2 회차에비해평가점수가유의적으로상승하였다. 그리고이원분산분석을실시한결과, 전체위생 안전관리총점은급식소구분 (F=21.730, p<0.001) 과순회방문지도회차 (F=7.968, p< 0.001) 에따라서유의적인차이가있었고, 급식소운영주체 (F=31.387, p<0.001) 와순회방문지도회차 (F=7.507, p< 0.001) 에따라서유의적인차이가있었다. 또한급식원아수 (F=17.133, p<0.001) 와순회방문지도회차 (F=17.065, p<0.001) 에따라서도유의적인차이가있었다. 이결과를종합해볼때어린이급식관리지원센터의순회방문지도는어린이급식소의위생 안전관리수행도를효과적으로향상시키는데기여했다고판단된다. 감사의글 본연구는 2014 년도부천대학교교내연구비지원으로수행하였으며, 이에감사드립니다. References Bae HJ, Lee HY, Ryu K Field assessment of food safety management at preschool foodservice establishments. Korean J Food Cook Sci 25(3): Chang HJ, Park YJ, Ko ES Current and future foodservice management performance in child-care centers. Korean J Diet Assoc 14(3): Jeong YH, Chae YH, Yang IS, Kim HY, Lee HY Analysis of relative importance of key performance indicators for center for child-care foodservice management through analytic hierarchy process. Korean J Community Nutr 18(2): Jo CY, Kim JH, Han JS Study on development and evaluation of nutritional education program for preschool children in association with center for children's foodservice management, child care facilities and home. J East Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. Vol. 31, No. 6 (2015)

9 772 백재은 이현아 배현주 Asian Soc Dietary Life 25(2): Kim HY, Yang IS, Chae IS, Yi BS, Park MK, Kim HY, Kang TS, Leem DG, Lee JH, Lee HY Effectiveness of center for child-care foodservice management for menu management and dietary variety. Korean J Community Nutr 18(3): Kim JA, Lee YM The effect of a periodic visiting education program on food safety knowledge of cooks in children's foodservice facilities. J Korean Diet Assoc 20(1):36-49 Kim SH, Oh EY, Han JS Effects of food safety management support of center for children's foodservice management on foodservice facilities for children in Busan area. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 24(2): Kim SY, Yang IS, Yi BS, Baek SH, Shin SY, Lee HY, Park MK, Kim YS Child-care facility and kindergarten's demands on foodservice support by center for child-care foodservice management in Seoul and Gyeonggido. Korean J Community Nutr 16(6): Lee MS, Lee JY, Yoon SH Assessment of foodservice management performance at child care centers. Korean J Community Nutr 11(2): Lee YM, Oh YJ Parents perception and attitudes to the school meal service program (SMSP) in kindergarten. Korean J Community Nutr 10(2): Ministry of Health and Welfare Child care statistics. Available from: jsp?menu_code=mn &cont_seq=18457&page=1&s earch_key=&search_word=. Accessed October 30, 2015 Ministry of Food and Drug Safety Detailed operating guideline for CCFSM in Available from: foodnara.go.kr/home/?menuno=164. Accessed October 30, 2015 Ministry of Food and Drug Safety Plan of central center for children's foodservice management. kr/index.do?mid=675&seq= Accessed December 17, 2015 Park EH, Lee YE Center for children's foodservice management employees' perception of difficulties in performing tasks. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 44(4): Park HS, Lee KM, Seol HR, Park KH, Ryu K Evaluation of foodservice managers' perception on safety management in child care centers and kindergartens. Korean J Community Nutr 14(1):87-99 Received on Dec.16, 2015/ Revised on Dec.23, 2015/ Accepted on Dec.24, 2015 한국식품조리과학회지제 31 권제 6 호 (2015)

서론 34 2

서론 34 2 34 2 Journal of the Korean Society of Health Information and Health Statistics Volume 34, Number 2, 2009, pp. 165 176 165 진은희 A Study on Health related Action Rates of Dietary Guidelines and Pattern of

More information

- i - - ii - - iii - - iv - - v - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 - - 11 - - 12 - - 13 - - 14 - - 15 - - 16 - - 17 - - 18 - - 19 - α α - 20 - α α α α α α - 21 - - 22 - - 23 -

More information

386-390.hwp

386-390.hwp 386 HANYANG MEDICAL REVIEWS Vol. 29 No. 4, 2009 우리나라 미숙아의 통계와 의료비용 Statistics and Medical Cost of Preterm in Korea 윤혜선 을지대학교 노원을지병원 소아청소년과학교실 Hye Sun Yoon, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Pediatrics, Nowon

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 4, August, 30, 2016:319~332 Received: 2016/07/28, Accepted: 2016/08/28 Revised: 2016/08/27, Published: 2016/08/30 [ABSTRACT] This paper examined what determina

More information

자기공명영상장치(MRI) 자장세기에 따른 MRI 품질관리 영상검사의 개별항목점수 실태조사 A B Fig. 1. High-contrast spatial resolution in phantom test. A. Slice 1 with three sets of hole arr

자기공명영상장치(MRI) 자장세기에 따른 MRI 품질관리 영상검사의 개별항목점수 실태조사 A B Fig. 1. High-contrast spatial resolution in phantom test. A. Slice 1 with three sets of hole arr Original Article pissn 1738-2637 J Korean Soc Radiol 2012;67(2):129-134 The Survey of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quality according to in Korea 1 자기공명영상장치(MRI) 자장세기에 따른 MRI 품질관리 영상검사의 개별항목점수 실태조사 1 Hyun-Hae

More information

한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구

한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구 한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구 한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구 - - i - - i - - ii - - iii - - iv - χ - v - - vi - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - 그림 1. 연구대상자선정도표 - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - 그림 2. 연구의틀 χ - 9 - - 10 - - 11 -

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp DOI: : A basic research

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp DOI:   : A basic research Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp.379-404 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.3.201709.379 : A basic research for the after-school forest activities program models:

More information

012임수진

012임수진 Received : 2012. 11. 27 Reviewed : 2012. 12. 10 Accepted : 2012. 12. 12 A Clinical Study on Effect of Electro-acupuncture Treatment for Low Back Pain and Radicular Pain in Patients Diagnosed with Lumbar

More information

Lumbar spine

Lumbar spine Lumbar spine CT 32 111 DOI : 10.3831/KPI.2010.13.2.111 Lumbar Spine CT 32 Received : 10. 05. 23 Revised : 10. 06. 04 Accepted : 10. 06. 11 Key Words: Disc herniation, CT scan, Clinical analysis The Clinical

More information

03-서연옥.hwp

03-서연옥.hwp 농업생명과학연구 49(4) pp.31-37 Journal of Agriculture & Life Science 49(4) pp.31-37 Print ISSN 1598-5504 Online ISSN 2383-8272 http://dx.doi.org/10.14397/jals.2015.49.4.31 국가산림자원조사 자료를 적용한 충남지역 사유림경영율 추정 서연옥

More information

Abstract Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Related Factors for Nurses and Radiological Technologists Wearing a Lead Apron for Radiation Pro t e c t i o n Jung-Im Yoo, Jung-Wan Koo 1 ) Angio Unit, Team of Radiology,

More information

- i - - ii - - iii - - iv - - v - - vi - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - 1) 통계청고시제 2010-150 호 (2010.7.6 개정, 2011.1.1 시행 ) - 4 - 요양급여의적용기준및방법에관한세부사항에따른골밀도검사기준 (2007 년 11 월 1 일시행 ) - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 -

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp DOI: * A Study on Teache

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp DOI:   * A Study on Teache Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp.149-171 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.4.201712.149 * A Study on Teachers and Parents Perceptions on the Introduction of Innovational

More information

(): () (, ),, (Ministry of Health and Welfare, ), (Lee MJ ; Kim SY ).,,,,,,,,,,,, (Ministry of Health and Welfare, ).,., (Pak DJ ). (Park JS ). (Pak D

(): () (, ),, (Ministry of Health and Welfare, ), (Lee MJ ; Kim SY ).,,,,,,,,,,,, (Ministry of Health and Welfare, ).,., (Pak DJ ). (Park JS ). (Pak D J East Asian Soc Diet Life (): () http://dx.doi.org/./easdl..., A Study on the Quality of Elderly Dietary Services by Different Levels of Nutrition Knowledge of the Visiting Long-Term Care Provider Eun-Young

More information

54 한국교육문제연구제 27 권 2 호, I. 1.,,,,,,, (, 1998). 14.2% 16.2% (, ), OECD (, ) % (, )., 2, 3. 3

54 한국교육문제연구제 27 권 2 호, I. 1.,,,,,,, (, 1998). 14.2% 16.2% (, ), OECD (, ) % (, )., 2, 3. 3 27 2, 53-70, 2009. (Nursing Home) * ** (Nursing Home). 5 50 5 2 1,,,,, SPSS t.,,,,,,,. :,, : 2009/08/27 : 2009/09/24 : 2009/09/30 * ** (: hjkim@daelim.ac.kr) 54 한국교육문제연구제 27 권 2 호, 2009. I. 1.,,,,,,, (,

More information

歯1.PDF

歯1.PDF 200176 .,.,.,. 5... 1/2. /. / 2. . 293.33 (54.32%), 65.54(12.13%), / 53.80(9.96%), 25.60(4.74%), 5.22(0.97%). / 3 S (1997)14.59% (1971) 10%, (1977).5%~11.5%, (1986)

More information

Analyses the Contents of Points per a Game and the Difference among Weight Categories after the Revision of Greco-Roman Style Wrestling Rules Han-bong

Analyses the Contents of Points per a Game and the Difference among Weight Categories after the Revision of Greco-Roman Style Wrestling Rules Han-bong Analyses the Contents of Points per a Game and the Difference among Weight Categories after the Revision of Greco-Roman Style Wrestling Rules Han-bong An 1 & Kyoo-jeong Choi 2 * 1 Korea National Wrestling

More information

<30345F283439372D353034295F313135375FC0CCB5BFC8F15FB5B5B7CEC5CDB3CEC0C720B0BBB1B8BACE20B0E6B0FCBCB3B0E8B0A120C5CDB3CE20B3BBBACEC1B6B8ED2E687770>

<30345F283439372D353034295F313135375FC0CCB5BFC8F15FB5B5B7CEC5CDB3CEC0C720B0BBB1B8BACE20B0E6B0FCBCB3B0E8B0A120C5CDB3CE20B3BBBACEC1B6B8ED2E687770> J of Korean Tunn Undergr Sp Assoc 15(5)497-504(2013) eissn: 2287-4747 http://dx.doi.org/10.9711/ktaj.2013.15.5.497 pissn: 2233-8292 도로터널의 갱구부 경관설계가 터널 내부조명에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 이미애 1 ㆍ이동희 2 * 1 아이라이트 대표이사 2

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 6, December, 30, 2016:237~251 Received: 2016/11/20, Accepted: 2016/12/24 Revised: 2016/12/21, Published: 2016/12/30 [ABSTRACT] Recently, there is an increasing

More information

27 2, 1-16, * **,,,,. KS,,,., PC,.,,.,,. :,,, : 2009/08/12 : 2009/09/03 : 2009/09/30 * ** ( :

27 2, 1-16, * **,,,,. KS,,,., PC,.,,.,,. :,,, : 2009/08/12 : 2009/09/03 : 2009/09/30 * ** ( : 27 2, 1-16, 2009. * **,,,,. KS,,,., PC,.,,.,,. :,,, : 2009/08/12 : 2009/09/03 : 2009/09/30 * ** (: jjhkim@cau.ac.kr) 2 한국교육문제연구제 27 권 2 호, 2009 Ⅰ.,. 2008 3,536, 10 99.9% (, 2008). PC,, (, 2007). (, 2008),.,

More information

ISSN 제 3 호 치안정책연구 The Journal of Police Policies ( 제29권제3호 ) 치안정책연구소 POLICE SCIENCE INSTITUTE

ISSN 제 3 호 치안정책연구 The Journal of Police Policies ( 제29권제3호 ) 치안정책연구소 POLICE SCIENCE INSTITUTE 11-1320082-000013-09 ISSN 1738-2963 2015 제 3 호 치안정책연구 The Journal of Police Policies 2015. 12 ( 제29권제3호 ) 치안정책연구소 POLICE SCIENCE INSTITUTE : 통학버스를중심으로 차례 전병주 * 최은영 ** Ⅰ. 서론 1) Ⅱ. 이론적배경 Ⅲ. 연구방법 Ⅳ. 연구결과

More information

<35BFCFBCBA2E687770>

<35BFCFBCBA2E687770> 주요개념 : 컴퓨터음란물 접촉자, 성지식, 성태도 남자중학생의 컴퓨터음란물 접촉자와 비접촉자간의 성지식과 태도의 차이 김 영 혜* 이 화 자** 정 향 미*** 1. 연구의 필요성 한국은 I. 서 론 1960 년대 이후부터 시작된 돌진적 산업화 ( 한 상진, 1996) 로 인하여 경제적 부흥을 이루어 집집마다 TV 수상기를 가질 수 있게 되었고 최근에는 PC보급율

More information

1..

1.. Volume 12, Number 1, 6~16, Factors influencing consultation time and waiting time of ambulatory patients in a tertiary teaching hospital Jee-In Hwang College of Nursing Science, Kyung Hee University :

More information

인문사회과학기술융합학회

인문사회과학기술융합학회 Vol.5, No.5, October (2015), pp.471-479 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ajmahs.2015.10.50 스마트온실을 위한 가상 외부기상측정시스템 개발 한새론 1), 이재수 2), 홍영기 3), 김국환 4), 김성기 5), 김상철 6) Development of Virtual Ambient Weather Measurement

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 6, December, 30, 2016:275~289 Received: 2016/12/02, Accepted: 2016/12/22 Revised: 2016/12/20, Published: 2016/12/30 [ABSTRACT] SNS is used in various fields. Although

More information

Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 라이프스타일은 개인 생활에 있어 심리적 문화적 사회적 모든 측면의 생활방식과 차이 전체를 말한다. 이러한 라이프스 타일은 사람의 내재된 가치관이나 욕구, 행동 변화를 파악하여 소비행동과 심리를 추측할 수 있고, 개인의

Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 라이프스타일은 개인 생활에 있어 심리적 문화적 사회적 모든 측면의 생활방식과 차이 전체를 말한다. 이러한 라이프스 타일은 사람의 내재된 가치관이나 욕구, 행동 변화를 파악하여 소비행동과 심리를 추측할 수 있고, 개인의 RESEARCH ARTICLE Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 한국 중년 여성의 라이프스타일이 메이크업 추구이미지와 화장품 구매행동에 미치는 영향 주영주 1 *, 이순희 2 1 서경대학교대학원미용예술학과, 2 신성대학교 미용예술계열 The Effects of The Life Style for Korean Middle Aged Women on

More information

상담학연구,, SPSS 21.0., t,.,,,..,.,.. (Corresponding Author): / / / Tel: /

상담학연구,, SPSS 21.0., t,.,,,..,.,.. (Corresponding Author): / / / Tel: / ,,. 164 -. SPSS 21.0., t,.,,,..,.,.. (Corresponding Author): / / 1 11 404 / Tel: 02-880-7636 / E-mail: dikimedu@snu.ac.kr ...,,, (, 2012),, (,,, 2012a, 2012b;,, 2011;, 2011;,, 2010). (, 2013;, 2012;, ;

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI: 3 * The Effect of H

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI:   3 * The Effect of H Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp.577-601 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.4.201812.577 3 * The Effect of Home-based Activities Using Traditional Fairy Tales

More information

. 45 1,258 ( 601, 657; 1,111, 147). Cronbach α=.67.95, 95.1%, Kappa.95.,,,,,,.,...,.,,,,.,,,,,.. :,, ( )

. 45 1,258 ( 601, 657; 1,111, 147). Cronbach α=.67.95, 95.1%, Kappa.95.,,,,,,.,...,.,,,,.,,,,,.. :,, ( ) . 45 1,258 ( 601, 657; 1,111, 147). Cronbach α=.67.95, 95.1%, Kappa.95.,,,,,,.,...,.,,,,.,,,,,.. :,, (402-751) 253 E-mail : yspark@inha.ac.kr ,. (, 2011),, 1980 5 49.9%, 4 (20.3%). 1985, 5 (39.0%), 4 (25.3%).

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI: * A Research Trend

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI:   * A Research Trend Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp.295-318 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.4.201812.295 * A Research Trend on the Studies related to Parents of Adults with Disabilities

More information

Æ÷Àå82š

Æ÷Àå82š Lee, Kyungbae (E-mail : kblee6078@ex.co.kr) Lee, Jaehoon (E-mail : ranian74@ex.co.kr) Sohn, Duecksu (E-mail : mgsds@ex.co.kr) Kwon, Soonmin (E-mail : soonmini2@ex.co.kr) ABSTRACT PURPOSES : The purpose

More information

,,,.,,,, (, 2013).,.,, (,, 2011). (, 2007;, 2008), (, 2005;,, 2007).,, (,, 2010;, 2010), (2012),,,.. (, 2011:,, 2012). (2007) 26%., (,,, 2011;, 2006;

,,,.,,,, (, 2013).,.,, (,, 2011). (, 2007;, 2008), (, 2005;,, 2007).,, (,, 2010;, 2010), (2012),,,.. (, 2011:,, 2012). (2007) 26%., (,,, 2011;, 2006; ,,.. 400,,,,,,.,,, -, -, -., 3.. :, Tel : 010-9540-0640, E-mail : sunney05@hanmail.net ,,,.,,,, (, 2013).,.,, (,, 2011). (, 2007;, 2008), (, 2005;,, 2007).,, (,, 2010;, 2010), (2012),,,.. (, 2011:,, 2012).

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI: An Exploratory Stud

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI:   An Exploratory Stud Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp.423-441 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.1.201903.423 An Exploratory Study on the Improvement of Democratic Consultative Culture

More information

-07-......

-07-...... A Depth Interview on Qualification, Role, and Professionalism of Infant/Toddler Teachers Department of Child & Family Studies, Kyung Hee University Associate Professor : Ahn, Sun Hee Department of Early

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp DOI: 3 * Effects of 9th

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp DOI:   3 * Effects of 9th Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp.357-378 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.2.201906.357 3 * Effects of 9th Grade Students Participation in Career Curriculum Cluster

More information

<283732372D3733312920B4D9C3CAC1A120BCD2C7C1C6AEC4DCC5C3C6AEB7BBC1EEC0C720B3EBBEC8C0C720BDC3B7C2BAB8C1A4BFA120B4EBC7D120C0AFBFEBBCBA20C6F2B0A1283035292E687770>

<283732372D3733312920B4D9C3CAC1A120BCD2C7C1C6AEC4DCC5C3C6AEB7BBC1EEC0C720B3EBBEC8C0C720BDC3B7C2BAB8C1A4BFA120B4EBC7D120C0AFBFEBBCBA20C6F2B0A1283035292E687770> 대한안과학회지 제 49 권 제 5 호 2008 J Korean Ophthalmol Soc 49(5):727-731, 2008 DOI : 10.3341/jkos.2008.49.5.727 다초점 소프트콘택트렌즈의 노안의 시력보정에 대한 유용성 평가 김현경 1 김효명 2 정성근 1 가톨릭대학교 의과대학 성모병원 안과학교실 1, 고려대학교 의과대학 안암병원 안과학교실

More information

untitled

untitled 3. 농업환경연구과 과제구분 기본연구 수행시기 전반기 연구과제 및 세부과제 수행 기간 소 속 책임자 농가에 적합한 부식성곤충 대량 사육기술 개발 12~ 13 농업환경연구과 곤충팀 이영혜 1) 부식성 곤충 먹이 제조 기술 개발 12~ 13 농업환경연구과 곤충팀 이영혜 색인용어 부식성곤충, 장수풍뎅이, 계통, 먹이제조 ABSTRACT In first check,

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering 한국정보통신학회논문지(J. Korea Inst. Inf. Commun. Eng.) Vol. 19, No. 5 : 1031~1039 May. 2015 정보보호 산업의 경제적 파급효과 및 기여도 분석 김방룡 1 홍재표 2* Economic

More information

<30312DC1A4BAB8C5EBBDC5C7E0C1A4B9D7C1A4C3A52DC1A4BFB5C3B62E687770>

<30312DC1A4BAB8C5EBBDC5C7E0C1A4B9D7C1A4C3A52DC1A4BFB5C3B62E687770> Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering 한국정보통신학회논문지(J. Korea Inst. Inf. Commun. Eng.) Vol. 19, No. 2 : 258~264 Feb. 2015 ID3 알고리즘 기반의 귀납적 추론을 활용한 모바일 OS의 성공과 실패에 대한

More information

ePapyrus PDF Document

ePapyrus PDF Document 육아지원연구 2008. 제 3권 1 호, 147-170 어린이집에서의 낮잠에 대한 교사와 부모의 인식 및 실제 이 슬 기(동작구 보육정보센터)* 1) 요 약 본 연구의 목적은 어린이집에서의 일과 중 낮잠 시간에 대한 교사와 부모의 인식 및 실제를 알아봄 으로써, 교사와 부모의 협력을 통해 바람직한 낮잠 시간을 모색해 보는 데 있었다. 연구 대상은 서울, 경기지역

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp DOI: * The

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp DOI:   * The Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp.243-268 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.1.201703.243 * - 2001 2015 - The Research Trends on Peer Counseling in Elementary and

More information

278 경찰학연구제 12 권제 3 호 ( 통권제 31 호 )

278 경찰학연구제 12 권제 3 호 ( 통권제 31 호 ) 여성경찰관의직업윤리의식결정요인분석 * An Analysis of Determinantal Factors Influencing Professional Ethical Standards of South Korean Police Women 신문희 ** 이영민 *** Ⅰ. 서론 Ⅱ. 이론적배경 Ⅲ. 연구방법 Ⅳ. 연구결과 Ⅴ. 결론 Ⅰ. 서론 278 경찰학연구제 12

More information

The characteristic analysis of winners and losers in curling: Focused on shot type, shot accuracy, blank end and average score SungGeon Park 1 & Soowo

The characteristic analysis of winners and losers in curling: Focused on shot type, shot accuracy, blank end and average score SungGeon Park 1 & Soowo The characteristic analysis of winners and losers in curling: Focused on shot type, shot accuracy, blank end and average score SungGeon Park 1 & Soowon Lee 2 * 1 Program of Software Convergence, Soongsil

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp DOI: (NCS) Method of Con

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp DOI:   (NCS) Method of Con Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp.181-212 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.3.201709.181 (NCS) Method of Constructing and Using the Differentiated National Competency

More information

<353420B1C7B9CCB6F52DC1F5B0ADC7F6BDC7C0BB20C0CCBFEBC7D120BEC6B5BFB1B3C0B0C7C1B7CEB1D7B7A52E687770>

<353420B1C7B9CCB6F52DC1F5B0ADC7F6BDC7C0BB20C0CCBFEBC7D120BEC6B5BFB1B3C0B0C7C1B7CEB1D7B7A52E687770> Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society Vol. 13, No. 2 pp. 866-871, 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.5762/kais.2012.13.2.866 증강현실을 이용한 아동교육프로그램 모델제안 권미란 1*, 김정일 2 1 나사렛대학교 아동학과, 2 한세대학교 e-비즈니스학과

More information

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 29, no. 10, Oct ,,. 0.5 %.., cm mm FR4 (ε r =4.4)

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 29, no. 10, Oct ,,. 0.5 %.., cm mm FR4 (ε r =4.4) THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. 2018 Oct.; 29(10), 799 804. http://dx.doi.org/10.5515/kjkiees.2018.29.10.799 ISSN 1226-3133 (Print) ISSN 2288-226X (Online) Method

More information

Study on the Improvement of Management System through Analysis of golf semi- market: Focus on Physical Education Facility Act Ji-Myung Jung 1, Ju-Ho Park 2 *, & Youngdae Lee 3 1 Korea Institute of Sport

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA 논문 10-35-03-03 한국통신학회논문지 '10-03 Vol. 35 No. 3 원활한 채널 변경을 지원하는 효율적인 IPTV 채널 관리 알고리즘 준회원 주 현 철*, 정회원 송 황 준* Effective IPTV Channel Control Algorithm Supporting Smooth Channel Zapping HyunChul Joo* Associate

More information

hwp

hwp 심사위원 심사위원 심사위원 인 인 인 - i - - ii - - iii - - iv - - v - Ⅰ. 서 - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 - - 11 - - 12 - - 13 - - 14 - - 15 - - 16 - - 17 - - 18 - 항목 건강하지못하다 주관적구강상태 보통이다

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp DOI: * Experiences of Af

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp DOI:   * Experiences of Af Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp.201-229 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.26.2.201608.201 * Experiences of After-school Class Caring by Married Early Childhood

More information

- iii - - i - - ii - - iii - 국문요약 종합병원남자간호사가지각하는조직공정성 사회정체성과 조직시민행동과의관계 - iv - - v - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 - - 11 - - 12 - - 13 - - 14 - α α α α - 15 - α α α α α α

More information

(Exposure) Exposure (Exposure Assesment) EMF Unknown to mechanism Health Effect (Effect) Unknown to mechanism Behavior pattern (Micro- Environment) Re

(Exposure) Exposure (Exposure Assesment) EMF Unknown to mechanism Health Effect (Effect) Unknown to mechanism Behavior pattern (Micro- Environment) Re EMF Health Effect 2003 10 20 21-29 2-10 - - ( ) area spot measurement - - 1 (Exposure) Exposure (Exposure Assesment) EMF Unknown to mechanism Health Effect (Effect) Unknown to mechanism Behavior pattern

More information

Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 및 자아존중감과 스트레스와도 밀접한 관계가 있고, 만족 정도 에 따라 전반적인 생활에도 영향을 미치므로 신체는 갈수록 개 인적, 사회적 차원에서 중요해지고 있다(안희진, 2010). 따라서 외모만족도는 개인의 신체는 타

Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 및 자아존중감과 스트레스와도 밀접한 관계가 있고, 만족 정도 에 따라 전반적인 생활에도 영향을 미치므로 신체는 갈수록 개 인적, 사회적 차원에서 중요해지고 있다(안희진, 2010). 따라서 외모만족도는 개인의 신체는 타 RESEARCH ARTICLE Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 20-40대 여성의 외모만족도가 미용관리태도에 미치는 영향 홍수남 1, 김효숙 2 * 1 건국대학교 뷰티사이언스디자인학과, 2 건국대학교 의상디자인과 Effects of Extrinsic Body Satisfaction on Beauty Management Behavior of

More information

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Dec.; 27(12),

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Dec.; 27(12), THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. 2016 Dec.; 27(12), 1036 1043. http://dx.doi.org/10.5515/kjkiees.2016.27.12.1036 ISSN 1226-3133 (Print) ISSN 2288-226X (Online)

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp DOI: * The Effect of Paren

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp DOI:   * The Effect of Paren Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp.95-116 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.2.201906.95 * The Effect of Parent Education Program Using Action Learning on Family

More information

Analysis of teacher s perception and organization on physical education elective courses Chang-Wan Yu* Korea Institute of curriculum and evaluation [Purpose] [Methods] [Results] [Conclusions] Key words:

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI: * Review of Research

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI:   * Review of Research Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp.79-102 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.2.201706.79 * Review of Research Trends on Curriculum for Students with Severe and multiple

More information

Analysis of objective and error source of ski technical championship Jin Su Seok 1, Seoung ki Kang 1 *, Jae Hyung Lee 1, & Won Il Son 2 1 yong in Univ

Analysis of objective and error source of ski technical championship Jin Su Seok 1, Seoung ki Kang 1 *, Jae Hyung Lee 1, & Won Il Son 2 1 yong in Univ Analysis of objective and error source of ski technical championship Jin Su Seok 1, Seoung ki Kang 1 *, Jae Hyung Lee 1, & Won Il Son 2 1 yong in University & 2 Kang Won University [Purpose] [Methods]

More information

03이경미(237~248)ok

03이경미(237~248)ok The recent (2001-2010) changes on temperature and precipitation related to normals (1971-2000) in Korea* Kyoungmi Lee** Hee-Jeong Baek*** ChunHo Cho**** Won-Tae Kwon*****. 61 (1971~2000) 10 (2001~2010).

More information

05-08 087ÀÌÁÖÈñ.hwp

05-08 087ÀÌÁÖÈñ.hwp 산별교섭에 대한 평가 및 만족도의 영향요인 분석(이주희) ꌙ 87 노 동 정 책 연 구 2005. 제5권 제2호 pp. 87118 c 한 국 노 동 연 구 원 산별교섭에 대한 평가 및 만족도의 영향요인 분석: 보건의료노조의 사례 이주희 * 2004,,,.. 1990. : 2005 4 7, :4 7, :6 10 * (jlee@ewha.ac.kr) 88 ꌙ 노동정책연구

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA e- 비즈니스연구 (The e-business Studies) Volume 17, Number 1, February, 28, 2016:pp. 293~316 ISSN 1229-9936 (Print), ISSN 2466-1716 (Online) 원고접수일심사 ( 수정 ) 게재확정일 2015. 12. 04 2015. 12. 24 2016. 02. 25 ABSTRACT

More information

다문화 가정의 부모

다문화 가정의 부모 영유아아동정신건강연구 Korean Journal for Infant Mental Health 2013, Vol. 6, No. 1, 57-84 영유아기정서및행동문제에대한 부모와일반교사의인식및지원욕구조사 - 57 - 영유아아동정신건강연구 6 권 1 호 - 58 - 영유아기정서및행동문제에대한부모와일반교사의인식및지원욕구조사 - 59 - 영유아아동정신건강연구 6 권

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI: * Suggestions of Ways

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI:   * Suggestions of Ways Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp.65-89 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.1.201903.65 * Suggestions of Ways to Improve Teaching Practicum Based on the Experiences

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI: (LiD) - - * Way to

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI:   (LiD) - - * Way to Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp.353-376 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.1.201903.353 (LiD) -- * Way to Integrate Curriculum-Lesson-Evaluation using Learning-in-Depth

More information

04_이근원_21~27.hwp

04_이근원_21~27.hwp 1) KIGAS Vol. 16, No. 5, pp 21~27, 2012 (Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas) http://dx.doi.org/10.7842/kigas.2012.16.5.21 실험실의 사례 분석에 관한 연구 이근원 이정석 한국산업안전보건공단 산업안전보건연구원 (2012년 9월 5일 투고, 2012년 10월 19일

More information

27 2, * ** 3, 3,. B ,.,,,. 3,.,,,,..,. :,, : 2009/09/03 : 2009/09/21 : 2009/09/30 * ICAD (Institute for Children Ability

27 2, * ** 3, 3,. B ,.,,,. 3,.,,,,..,. :,, : 2009/09/03 : 2009/09/21 : 2009/09/30 * ICAD (Institute for Children Ability 27 2, 71-90. 2009. 3 * ** 3, 3,. B 2003 4 2004 2.,.,,,. 3,.,,,,..,. :,, : 2009/09/03 : 2009/09/21 : 2009/09/30 * ICAD (Institute for Children Ability Development) ** ( : heyjun@gmail.com) 72 한국교육문제연구제

More information

<3136365FB4EBB1B8BDC320BAB8B0C7BAB9C1F6C5EBB0E8BFACBAB820B9DFB0A320BFACB1B85FBEF6B1E2BAB92E687770>

<3136365FB4EBB1B8BDC320BAB8B0C7BAB9C1F6C5EBB0E8BFACBAB820B9DFB0A320BFACB1B85FBEF6B1E2BAB92E687770> 연구보고서 2007 DAEGU-GYEONGBUK DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE 대구시 보건복지통계연보 발간 연구 엄 기 복 대구경북연구원 차 례 차 례 요 약 ⅰ~ⅴ 제1장 서 론 3 1.연구의 목적 및 범위 3 가. 연구배경 3 나. 연구의 목적 4 2. 연구방법 및 내용 4 가. 연구방법 4 나. 연구내용 5 제2장 보건복지통계관리현황 9 1.

More information

歯5-2-13(전미희외).PDF

歯5-2-13(전미희외).PDF The Korean Journal of Counseling 2004, Vol. 5, No. 2, 423-434,. 4 5 18 9, 9.,,,,,.,,, t-.. :,,, (,, 1996),.,,. (, 2001),... 88 98 2000, 88 12.5%(250 )98 35.6%(712 )2.8 (,,, 2001) (Corresponding Author)

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp DOI: * A Analysis of

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp DOI: * A Analysis of Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp.99-117 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.1.201803.99 2015 * A Analysis of the Characters and Issues about the 2015 Revised Social

More information

<C7D1B1B9B1A4B0EDC8ABBAB8C7D0BAB85F31302D31C8A35F32C2F75F303132392E687770>

<C7D1B1B9B1A4B0EDC8ABBAB8C7D0BAB85F31302D31C8A35F32C2F75F303132392E687770> 버스 외부 광고의 효과에 관한 탐색적 연구 : 매체 접촉률과 인지적 반응을 중심으로 1) 고한준 국민대학교 언론정보학부 조교수 노봉조 벅스컴애드 대표 이사 최근 몇 년 사이 옥외 광고나 인터넷 광고 등 BTL(Below the Line) 매체가 광고 시장에서 차지하 는 비중이 점점 높아지고 있다. 버스 외부 광고는 2004년 7월 서울시 교통체계개편 이후 이용자

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp DOI: NCS : G * The Analy

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp DOI:   NCS : G * The Analy Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp.133-158 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.1.201703.133 NCS : G * The Analysis of the Cognitive Level of Basic Job Skills of Specialized

More information

2 1896 2 26 ( ) 2 7-20 2) 1897 1898 ( )3) 6 1902 8 1904 10 10 (19 05-1914 ) ( ) ( ) 4) 1915 ( ) ( ) 1917 2) 3) 4) 285

2 1896 2 26 ( ) 2 7-20 2) 1897 1898 ( )3) 6 1902 8 1904 10 10 (19 05-1914 ) ( ) ( ) 4) 1915 ( ) ( ) 1917 2) 3) 4) 285 13 2 ( 25 ) 2004 12 Korean J Med Hist 13 284 296 Dec 2004 ISSN 1225 505X 1) * ** ** 1 1920 1930 40 ( 1896-1973) 80 * ** 1) 2003 284 2 1896 2 26 ( ) 2 7-20 2) 1897 1898 ( )3) 6 1902 8 1904 10 10 (19 05-1914

More information

605.fm

605.fm Journal of the Korean Housing Association Vol. 19, No. 6, 2008 y k y p w sƒ Care-giver s Needs and Evaluation on the Actual Condition of the Playgrounds in Child Care Facilities y* Choi, Mock-Wha x **

More information

untitled

untitled Original Article Experiences of Unwed Mothers Choi, Yang-Ja 1) Kim, Kwuy-Bun 2) 1) Professor, Redcross College of Nursing, 2) Professor, Kyung Hee University, College of Nursing Science 1) 2) 1) 2) Purpose:

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 6, December, 30, 2016:3~20 Received: 2016/12/04, Accepted: 2016/12/27 Revised: 2016/12/27, Published: 2016/12/30 [ABSTRACT] This study aims to comprehensively analyze

More information

,,,,,,, ,, 2 3,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, (2001) 2

,,,,,,, ,, 2 3,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, (2001) 2 2004- - : 2004 5 11 :?,,,,,? Sen (human capability) 1?,, I 1 2 1 Sen A Why health equity? Health Econ 2002:11;659-666 2 1991 p 17 1 ,,,,,,, 20 1 2,, 2 3,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 3 3 1 (2001) 2 1),, 2), 2),, 3),,,

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp DOI: * Meta Analysis : T

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp DOI:   * Meta Analysis : T Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp.289-314 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.26.3.201612.289 * Meta Analysis : Trends and Effects of Art-Therapy with Clay Purpose:

More information

-06-......,......

-06-......,...... Analysis of the Current Condition of Student Childcare Training in Korea: Student Childcare Training Centers, Guidance Teachers, Student Teachers and Student Childcare Training Fees Department of Childcare

More information

[ 영어영문학 ] 제 55 권 4 호 (2010) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1) Kyuchul Yoon, Ji-Yeon Oh & Sang-Cheol Ahn. Teaching English prosody through English poems with clon

[ 영어영문학 ] 제 55 권 4 호 (2010) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1) Kyuchul Yoon, Ji-Yeon Oh & Sang-Cheol Ahn. Teaching English prosody through English poems with clon [ 영어영문학 ] 제 55 권 4 호 (2010) 775-794 ( ) ( ) ( ) 1) Kyuchul Yoon, Ji-Yeon Oh & Sang-Cheol Ahn. Teaching English prosody through English poems with cloned native intonation. The purpose of this work is to

More information

27 2, 17-31, , * ** ***,. K 1 2 2,.,,,.,.,.,,.,. :,,, : 2009/08/19 : 2009/09/09 : 2009/09/30 * 2007 ** *** ( :

27 2, 17-31, , * ** ***,. K 1 2 2,.,,,.,.,.,,.,. :,,, : 2009/08/19 : 2009/09/09 : 2009/09/30 * 2007 ** *** ( : 27 2, 17-31, 2009. -, * ** ***,. K 1 2 2,.,,,.,.,.,,.,. :,,, : 2009/08/19 : 2009/09/09 : 2009/09/30 * 2007 ** *** (: dminkim@cau.ac.kr) 18 한국교육문제연구제 27 권 2 호, 2009. Ⅰ. (,,, 2004). (,, 2006).,,, (Myrick,

More information

제 2 차 (2013~2015) 어린이식생활안전관리종합계획

제 2 차 (2013~2015) 어린이식생활안전관리종합계획 제 2 차 (2013~2015) 어린이식생활안전관리종합계획 2012. 9 목 차 추진배경 1 주요성과와반성 3 정책과여건 11 추진체계 16 세부추진과제 21 1. 어린이기호식품안전판매환경조성 23 1-1. 어린이식품안전보호구역지정및관리강화 26 1-2. 어린이기호식품판매환경개선 30 2. 어린이식생활안심확보를위한안전공급체계구축 39 2-1. 어린이단체급식의안전관리및품질개선

More information

달생산이 초산모 분만시간에 미치는 영향 Ⅰ. 서 론 Ⅱ. 연구대상 및 방법 達 은 23) 의 丹 溪 에 최초로 기 재된 처방으로, 에 복용하면 한 다하여 난산의 예방과 및, 등에 널리 활용되어 왔다. 達 은 이 毒 하고 는 甘 苦 하여 氣, 氣 寬,, 結 의 효능이 있

달생산이 초산모 분만시간에 미치는 영향 Ⅰ. 서 론 Ⅱ. 연구대상 및 방법 達 은 23) 의 丹 溪 에 최초로 기 재된 처방으로, 에 복용하면 한 다하여 난산의 예방과 및, 등에 널리 활용되어 왔다. 達 은 이 毒 하고 는 甘 苦 하여 氣, 氣 寬,, 結 의 효능이 있 대한한방부인과학회지 THE JOURNAL OF ORIENTAL OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY VOL.17, NO.2 : 115-122 (2004) 달생산이 초산모 분만시간에 미치는 영향 * 북경한의원, ** 윤산부인과의원, *** 최은림산부인과의원, 상지대학교 한의과대학 부인과학교실 ****, 경희대학교 동서의학대학원 김성준 *****, 윤왕준

More information

歯14.양돈규.hwp

歯14.양돈규.hwp : The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy 2003. Vol. 15, No. 3, 615-631. 1 2 3 1,410.,, ( ),., ( 69%),.,, ( ), ( ).,,.., ( ).,. :,,. :, (390-711) 21-1, : 043-649-1362 E-mail : ydk9498@hanmail.net

More information

09권오설_ok.hwp

09권오설_ok.hwp (JBE Vol. 19, No. 5, September 2014) (Regular Paper) 19 5, 2014 9 (JBE Vol. 19, No. 5, September 2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.5909/jbe.2014.19.5.656 ISSN 2287-9137 (Online) ISSN 1226-7953 (Print) a) Reduction

More information

Abstract Background : Most hospitalized children will experience physical pain as well as psychological distress. Painful procedure can increase anxie

Abstract Background : Most hospitalized children will experience physical pain as well as psychological distress. Painful procedure can increase anxie Volume 12, Number 1, 92~102, An Intervention Study of Pain Reduction during IV Therapy in Hospitalized Children Myo-Jin Kim 1), Joung-Hae Bak 1), Won-Seok Seo 2) Mi-Young Kim 3), Sun-Kyoung Park 3), Jai-Soung

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI: : Researc

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI:   : Researc Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp.251-273 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.2.201706.251 : 1997 2005 Research Trend Analysis on the Korean Alternative Education

More information

44-4대지.07이영희532~

44-4대지.07이영희532~ A Spatial Location Analysis of the First Shops of Foodservice Franchise in Seoul Metropolitan City Younghee Lee* 1 1 (R) 0 16 1 15 64 1 Abstract The foodservice franchise is preferred by the founders who

More information

22(1)-09a.fm

22(1)-09a.fm J. Fd Hyg. Safety 22(1), 63 75 (2007) w k 1,2 Á½ 3 Á y1, w tœw w t y l A Survey on the Sanitary Management in Food Service Institutions Gowan-Soon Soh 1,2, Yong-Suk Kim 3, and Dong-Hwa Shin 1, 'BDVMUZPG#JPUFDIOPMPHZ

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 6, December, 30, 2016:21~34 Received: 2016/12/04, Accepted: 2016/12/27 Revised: 2016/12/19, Published: 2016/12/30 [ABSTRACT] With the development of the Internet,

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA 한국소음진동공학회 2015추계학술대회논문집년 Study of Noise Pattern and Psycho-acoustics Characteristic of Household Refrigerator * * ** ** Kyung-Soo Kong, Dae-Sik Shin, Weui-Bong Jeong, Tae-Hoon Kim and Se-Jin Ahn Key Words

More information

Æ÷Àå½Ã¼³94š

Æ÷Àå½Ã¼³94š Cho, Mun Jin (E-mail: mjcho@ex.co.kr) ABSTRACT PURPOSES : The performance of tack coat, commonly used for layer interface bonding, is affected by application rate and curing time. In this study, bonding

More information

歯kjmh2004v13n1.PDF

歯kjmh2004v13n1.PDF 13 1 ( 24 ) 2004 6 Korean J Med Hist 13 1 19 Jun 2004 ISSN 1225 505X 1) * * 1 ( ) 2) 3) 4) * 1) ( ) 3 2) 7 1 3) 2 1 13 1 ( 24 ) 2004 6 5) ( ) ( ) 2 1 ( ) 2 3 2 4) ( ) 6 7 5) - 2003 23 144-166 2 2 1) 6)

More information

,......

,...... The Impact of Personal Traits, Family Characteristics, and Job Satisfaction on the Psychological Well-Being of Middle Aged Men from the Baby Boomer Generation Working in Large Corporations Department of

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp DOI: * The Grounds and Cons

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp DOI:   * The Grounds and Cons Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp.63-81 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.26.3.201612.63 * The Grounds and Consequences of the Elementary School Teachers' Trust Formation

More information

433대지05박창용

433대지05박창용 Recent Changes in Summer Precipitation Characteristics over South Korea Changyong Park* JaYeon Moon** Eun-Jeong Cha*** Won-Tae Yun**** Youngeun Choi***** 1958 2007 6 9 6 9 10 10 10 10 10 Abstract This

More information

065-074(김정현).fm

065-074(김정현).fm 대한지역사회영양학회지 21(1): 65~74, 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.5720/kjcn.2016.21.1.65 ISSN 1226-0983 (print) / 2287-1624 (on-line) RESEARCH ARTICLE 노인복지시설 사용자 중심의 영양 식생활관리 프로그램 요구 분석 4) 이민준 1) 김정현 2) 박옥진 3) 이영미 1)

More information

γ

γ 경락경혈학회지 Vol.27, No.1, pp.87 106, 2010 Journal of Meridian & Acupoint Dept. of 1 Meridian & Acupoint, 3 Acupuncture & Moxibustion, College of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon University 2 Division of Clinical

More information

A Study on Married Female Immigrants Life Style and Marriage Satisfaction in Terms of Preparing Their Old Age in Chungcheongnam-do Department of Gerontology, Hoseo University Doctoral Student : Hi Ran

More information

(JBE Vol. 21, No. 1, January 2016) (Regular Paper) 21 1, (JBE Vol. 21, No. 1, January 2016) ISSN 228

(JBE Vol. 21, No. 1, January 2016) (Regular Paper) 21 1, (JBE Vol. 21, No. 1, January 2016)   ISSN 228 (JBE Vol. 1, No. 1, January 016) (Regular Paper) 1 1, 016 1 (JBE Vol. 1, No. 1, January 016) http://dx.doi.org/10.5909/jbe.016.1.1.60 ISSN 87-9137 (Online) ISSN 16-7953 (Print) a), a) An Efficient Method

More information

½Å³âÈ£-³»ÁöÀμâ

½Å³âÈ£-³»ÁöÀμâ Potato C O N T E N T S 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 23 24 25 26 FOODMERCE 4 5 FOODMERCE 6 7 Total hygiene service 3HS FOODMERCE 8 9 FOODMERCE 10 11 4 MON 5 TUE 6 WED 7 THU 8 FRI 19 TUE 20 WED 21 THU 22

More information