The Research Journal of the Costume Culture pissn eissn RJCC Vol.25, No.6, pp , December

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1 The Research Journal of the Costume Culture pissn eissn RJCC Vol.25, No.6, pp , December [Original Article] Men s information search and purchasing behavior related to cosmetic involvement focusing on Korean men in their 20s and 30s Hye Rim Hong and Kyoungjin Baek * Dept. of Human Environment Design, Yonsei University, Korea Dept. of Beauty Art, Jeonghwa Arts University, Korea * 20~30 대남성의화장품관여유형에따른정보탐색과구매행동특성 홍혜림 백경진 * 연세대학교생활디자인학과 정화예술대학교미용예술학부 Abstract Received October 15, 2017 Revised November 10, 2017 Accepted November 13, 2017 Corresponding author ORCID Hye Rim Hong Kyoung jin BAEK The purpose of this study was to examine the differences of the information searches and purchasing behavior Korean men in their 20s and 30s, focusing on cosmetic involvement. Research methods consisted of qualitative and quantitative approaches. For the qualitative approach, in-depth interviews and participant observations were conducted to investigate male customers' cosmetic characteristics in information searches and purchasing behavior. Then, the study conducted a quantitative study methodology based on the questionnaires from the in-depth interviews, participant observations, and literature review. The study surveyed 340 Korean men in their 20s and 30s. The cosmetic involvement of the target group was classified into the amusing group, the rational group, and the obligatory group. The results from this study indicated that the groups of male customers classified by cosmetic involvement showed statistically significant differences in terms of information searches and purchasing behaviors. Especially, the obligatory group generally displayed traits likewise the amusing highinvolvement, was more similar to the rational group regarding cost effectiveness than the obligatory group. Moreover, the classifications of men generally had different characteristics of cosmetic purchasing behavior and information searches than women. This study has a distinctive significance compared with other studies in discovering differences of cosmetic purchasing behaviors of Korean men in their 20s and 30s cosmetic involvement groups classified using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Keywords: information search( 정보탐색 ), men's cosmetics( 남성화장품 ), men's cosmetic involvement( 남성화장품관여도 ), men's purchasing behavior of cosmetics ( 남성화장품구매행동 ) Copyright 2017, The Costume Culture Association. All rights reserved

2 Vol. 25, No. 6 홍혜림 백경진 87 I. Introduction 최근사회생활을하는데있어개인의외모나인상관리에대한중요성이커지면서패션이나미용에관심을갖고투자하는남성들이늘어나고있다. 한화장품브랜드에서조사한남성의화장품사용실태에따르면 20~30대남성의 1인당평균화장품사용개수는약 4.5개에달했으며, 전체남성중 73.6% 가미팅이나면접, 데이트등의상황을앞두고비비크림이나마스크시트와같은남성그루밍 (grooming) 제품을사용한경험이있다 (Oh, 2016) 고답해남성들의외모관리에대한관심이높아지고있음을알수있다. 유로모니터가발표한세계화장품시장보고서에따르면 2009년약 7천억원규모였던국내남성화장품시장은 2014년약 1조원을넘어서매년 10% 안팎의높은성장세를보이고있으며, 한국남성의 1인당월간화장품구매비용역시세계 1위를차지하는것으로나타났다 (Park, 2016). 이에화장품업계도 20~30 대남성을위한남성용화장품과화장품브랜드를잇달아출시하며남성화장품시장을공략하고있다. 화장품시장에서남성소비자의소비행태가변화하고중요성이커지면서남성의화장품관련인식이나행동과관련된연구들이다수진행되어왔으나, 기존의선행연구는주로대학생이나 20~30대남성의단순인구통계적변인에따른구매행동과의관계를보거나라이프스타일과구매행동특성에관한연구등으로한정되어있다. 또한남성소비자를세부적으로구분하여분석한연구가다양하게이루어지지않아남성소비자의화장품소비형태를심층적으로분석한연구는부족한실정이다. 이연구는 Baek and Hong(2017) 의후속연구로연구자가선행연구에서개발한남성화장품관여도척도와이를바탕으로유형화한집단을활용하여화장품관여도유형에따른정보탐색과구매행동의차이를분석하여화장품관여도가남성화장품구매행동에영향을미치는주요변수임을검증하고자한다. 이를위한구체적인연구문제는다음과같다. 첫째, 남성화장품관여도집단에따른정보탐색의차이를밝힌다. 둘째, 남성화장품관여도집단에따른구매시중요요소의차이를밝힌다. 셋째, 남성화장품관여도집단에따른구매성향의차이를밝힌다. Ⅱ. Background 1. Cosmetic involvement and information search 관여 (involvement) 란사물에대해개인이느끼는중요도나관심정도를뜻하는데, 특정제품의차원에서유발되는흥분, 관심이나욕구와같은내적인상태변화의정도를제품관여라고말한다 (Bloch, 1982; Mittal and Lee, 1989). 제품관여는마케팅자극에대한소비자들의인지나행동적반응에있어중요한역할을하기때문에 (Dholakia, 2001) 소비자행동연구에서주요변수로다루어지고있다. 제품관여측면에의화장품은습관적으로쓰던제품을쉽게구매하는저관여특징을보이면서도, 개인의개성이나이미지표현과관련된고관여제품으로신중한구매결정을유발 (Jeon & Jae, 2009; Kang & Sin, 2006) 하기도하는데, 화장품소비자의행동연구에주요한변수인화장품관여에따른화장품소비자행동간의관계에대한연구보다외모관심도 (Jang, Hwang, & Jeon, 2007; Woo & Ryu, 2006) 나의복관여 (Ku, Kwon, & Lee, 2000) 와같은다른변수와의관계에대한연구가더많이진행되어왔다. 정보탐색이란탐색되는정보의양에대한것으로 (Jacoby, Chsetnut, Weigl, & Fisher, 1976). 소비자가특정제품을사용할때혜택은최대화하고위험은최소화하기위한행동을하게되는데 (Im, Kim, Hong, & Yi, 2006), 이를위해고관여소비자는보다많은정보를능동적으로탐색하고많은정보원을활용하며, 방문하는매장의수가많고다양한반면, 저관여소비자는정보탐색에소극적이고수동적이며, 구매선택을단순화하여위험을줄이려는경향이있다 (Krugman, 1965; Lockshin & Hall, 2003; Park & Park, 1995). 정보탐색의정도는같은제품이라하더라도관심도나사용목적, 상황등에따라서변할수있는데, 화장품에관심이많은여고생일수록인터넷과 TV 광고, 잡지등을통해화장품에대한정보를얻고구매에관심이많으며, 화장행동에도적극적으로참여하는특성을보였다 (Lee & O, 2011). 화장품의정보원활

3 88 20~30 대남성의화장품관여유형에따른정보탐색과구매행동특성복식문화연구 용에있어여성들은친구나지인을통해화장품과관련된가장많은정보를얻는것 (Kim & Moon, 2004) 으로나타난반면, 남성은주로대중매체와인터넷을정보원으로활용하는비율이가장높은것 (Yim & Kim, 2014) 으로나타나정보탐색에있어서남녀의차이도발생할수있음을예측할수있다. 따라서소비자의구매행동에영향을미치는정보탐색의정도와유형은특히제품관여수준이중요한변수라고할수있고 (Park & Park, 1995), 남성과여성소비자는정보탐색특성에차이가있을수있기때문에남성의화장품관여도에따른연구를진행하여야할필요가있다고본다. 2. Cosmetic purchase behavior of male customers 제품의구매행동이란소비자가사회문화적인환경요인과개인적욕구등의동기에따라필요로하는제품을지각하고, 정보를탐색한후제품을평가, 선택하는과정을거쳐구매하는것을말한다 (Lee & Kim, 2006). 소비자의구매행동에서결정적인요인으로작용하는상품과관련된속성은상품의물리적요소나혹은서비스의요구와관련된것으로가격정보, 포장, 사용자이미지, 사용상황과같은것들이포함된다 (Keller, 1993). 선행연구에서논의된화장품구매에서고려되는속성은다양하게나타나는데, 피부적합성, 제품의품질, 제품의디자인및색상, 가격및용량과같은제품특성요인과제품의신뢰성이나명성, 타인의식, 기분전환과같은주관적특성요인, 그리고서비스나사은품과같은제품외특성요인등으로분류되고, 이들속성들은화장품구매처나구매금액등과연관이있는것으로나타났다. 남성소비자가화장품을구매할때중요하게생각하는속성은공통적으로피부적합성이가장높고, 그외에품질, 가격, 향취, 유행품목및색상등으로라이프스타일유형이나연령이나결혼여부와같은인구통계적특성별로는유의한차이가없는것으로나타났다 (Hong, 2007; Hong & Kim, 2008; Lee & Kim, 2011; Yim & Kim, 2014). 한편, 화장품관여는화장품의구매행동에도유의한영향을미치는데, 연령이높아질수록화장관여도가높아지며, 고관여소비자일수록색조화장품의색상을중요시하고, 저관여집단일수록사용하던제품 을주로구매하는것으로나타났다 (Lee, 2011). 또한화장품에관심이많을수록구매빈도와비용이높아지는것으로나타났다 (Kim & Lee, 2015). 화장품구매행동은남녀의차이도연구된바있는데, 남성이여성보다유행이나유명브랜드를추구하는성향이높고, 소셜쇼핑및기업의 SNS 활동에도관심이많았으며, 화장품구매시가격에예민하고저가구매를지향하는것으로나타났다. 반면, 여성들의경우에는남성보다화장품의품질이나효과에관심이많았고, 충성구매성향이높게나타나, 브랜드나소매점의재방문의도가높게나타났다 (Nam, 2014). 화장품구매장소측면에서는 20대여성과남성의화장품구매장소중백화점이가장높은비중을차지하는것으로나타났으나 (Lee & Kim, 2010; Lee & Kim, 2011), Hong(2007) 에따르면대체로남성은도심의중대형매장에서화장품을구매하는경향이가장높고, 세부적으로는라이프스타일유형별로차이를보여개성추구집단은인터넷, 패션추구집단은백화점, 경제성추구집단은대형할인매장의이용비중이높은것으로분석되어, 남성화장품의구매행동연구에있어소비자를세부적으로분류하여접근해야할필요성이있음을시사한다. Ⅲ. Methods 이연구는질적조사와양적조사로이루어졌으며질적조사의결과를바탕으로설문지를구성하였다. 질적조사는 20~30대남성 10명을대상으로심층면접과참여관찰을실시하였으며, 양적조사는 20~30대남성을대상으로설문지법을실시하였다. 설문지의구성은화장품관여도, 정보탐색, 구매성향, 구매시중요요소, 구매행동과관련된문항들로이루어졌으며, 정보탐색을제외한나머지변수와관련한문항들은질적조사를바탕으로설문지를구성하였다 (Table 1). 조사기간은 2015년 1월 24일부터 31일까지이며, 온라인설문방법을통해총 340명의데이터를수집하였다. 표본특성은 20대가 170명 (50.0%), 30대가 170명 (50.0%) 이며미혼 248명 (72.9%), 기혼 92명 (27.1%) 이며, 학력은대학교졸업이상이 70% 이상이었다. 직업은회사원이 138명 (40.6%) 으로가장높은비중을차지하였고, 월평균소득은 200만원이상 ~300만원

4 Vol. 25, No. 6 홍혜림 백경진 89 <Table 1> Composition of questionnaire Variable Number of questions References Information search 12 Lee(1986), Shin(1998), Sunwoo(2008), Lee and O(2011), Written by researcher Important factors for purchasing cosmetics 18 Written by researcher Purchasing behavior of cosmetics 23 Written by researcher 미만이 107명 (31.5%) 으로가장높게나타났다. 자료분석을위한통계프로그램은 SPSS 21.0을활용하였으며요인분석, Cronbach s α, 빈도분석, 교차분석, 분산분석, Duncan-test를실시하였다. Ⅳ. Results 이연구는 Baek and Hong(2017) 이개발한화장품관여도의차원과집단유형결과 (Table 2) 를토대로남성화장품구매행동의차이를살펴보고자하였다. 선행연구에서분류된화장품관여도에따른집단은 유희적고관여집단, 합리적저관여집단, 의무적고관여집단 의총 3집단으로유형화되었다. 유희적고관여집단 은유행및흥미관여과과시적관여가높은집단이며 합리적저관여집단 은이와반대로유행, 흥미 및과시적관여는낮으나가격과관련된합리적관여가높은특성이나타난다. 또한 의무적고관여집단 은 5개의관여도차원중피부관여, 합리적관여, 의무적관여의평균이높아고관여지만의무적으로관리하는특성을지닌다. <Table 2> 는유형화된집단의특성에대한이해를돕고자 Baek and Hong(2017) 의선행연구에제시된표와동일한표를제시하였다. 화장품관여도유형별로살펴볼화장품구매행동특성은정보탐색, 구매시중요요소, 일반적인화장품구매행동특성으로나누어분석하였다. 1. Information search in terms of cosmetic involvement 1) Results of factor analysis of information search <Table 2> The results of differences of 3 groups by cosmetic involvement factors Cosmetic involvement Trend & interest involvement Skin involvement Prestige sensitivity involvement Price and value involvement involvement Group Mean 3.48± ± ±.59 Mean 3.80± ± ±.56 Mean 3.51± ± ±.54 Mean 3.85± ± ±.53 Mean 3.87± ± ±.57 F-value *** *** *** *** *** *** p<.001 Different letters mean significant differences in Duncan's multiple range test: A>B>C From Baek and Hong. (2017). p

5 90 20~30 대남성의화장품관여유형에따른정보탐색과구매행동특성복식문화연구 남성의화장품관여도에따른정보탐색차이를살펴보기위하여먼저정보탐색의차원을밝히고자주성분분석과 Varimax 직교회전법을이용하여요인분석을실시하였고, 요인별신뢰도를검증하기위하여 Cronbach's α 신뢰도검증방법을사용하였다. 정보탐색을묻는 12개문항에대해고유치 1 이상을기준으로요인을추출한결과, 총 3개의요인이추출되었다 (Table 3). 결과를살펴보면, 요인 1은화장품정보탐색에적극적이고유희적인문항들로구성되어있으므로이를 유희적정보탐색 이라명명하였다 ( 고유값 : 4.116, 전체변량 : ). 요인 2는화장품구매에걸리는시간과정보탐색에대한몰입이높은문항들로 구성되어있으므로이를 몰입적정보탐색 이라명명하였다 ( 고유값 : 2.544, 전체변량 : ). 요인 3은주변의권유와구매경험에관한문항들로구성되어있으므로이를 경험적정보탐색 이라명명하였다 ( 고유값 : 2.106, 전체변량 : ). 추출된 3개의요인의전체설명력은 % 로나타났으며, 모든요인의신뢰도계수는.70 이상으로나타나내적일관성이확보되었다. 2) Analysis of differences of information search by cosmetic involvement 화장품관여도집단에따른정보탐색의차이를살 <Table 3> The results of factor analysis of information search Factors Questions information search Absorbing information search Experiential information search When a new cosmetic product comes, I stop by the store to have l look I read carefully cosmetic articles and books written by cosmetic experts or authorities I read carefully articles about cosmetics in a newspaper and magazine In general I talk a lot about cosmetics with others I read cardfully catalogs of department stores and a cosmetic brands When I buy cosmetics, TV advertisements of cosmetics impact on the purchasing choices. I spend more time to search information about cosmetics than buy cosmetics I search information about cosmetic products before purchasing I search information carefully about cosmetic products even though it takes long time. When I buy cosmetics, recommendations of my friends and neighbors impact on the purchasing choices I buy brands of cosmetics that I had experiences to buy I buy cosmetics at the stores where I had experiences to buy Self-values(eigenvalues) % of variance explained % of cumulative variance explained Cronbach's alpha

6 Vol. 25, No. 6 홍혜림 백경진 91 <Table 4> Analysis of differences of information search by cosmetic involvement Searching information Group F-value information search Absorbing information search Experiential information search Mean 3.23± ± ±.71 Mean 3.68± ± ±.87 Mean 3.81± ± ± *** *** *** *** p<.001 Different letters mean significant differences in Duncan's multiple range test: A>B>C 펴보기위해 ANOVA와 Duncan-test를실시한결과, 정보탐색의모든요인에서유의한차이가나타났다 (Table 4). 3요인모두유희적고관여집단에서평균이가장높았으며다음으로는의무적고관여집단의평균이높게나타났고합리적저관여집단은평균이가장낮게나타났다. 화장품에대한관여수준에따라평균이순차적으로나타나화장품에대한관여가높을수록정보탐색을즐기고적극적임을알수있다. 그러나경험적정보탐색요인의경우에는유희적고관여집단에서의평균이가장높긴하지만합리적저관여집단과의무적고관여집단의평균도다른요인에비해서는 3.00 이상으로높게나타나관여도와상관없이대체적인남성들은자신의경험을신뢰한다는것을보여주었다. 이는친구나지인을통해화장품과관련된가장많은정보를얻는여성들 (Kim & Moon, 2004) 과는다소다른정보탐색행태를가짐을알수있다. 2. Important factors for purchasing cosmetics 1) Results of factor analysis of important factors for purchasing cosmetics 남성의화장품관여도에따른구매시중요요소의차이를살펴보기위하여먼저구매시중요요소의차원을밝히고자요인분석과 Cronbach's α 신뢰도검증방법을실시하였다. 구매시중요요소를묻는 18 개문항에대해고유치 1 이상을기준으로요인을추 출한결과, 총 3개의요인이추출되었다 (Table 5). 결과를살펴보면, 요인 1은피부와관련한문항들로구성되어있으므로이를 피부관련요소 라명명하였다 ( 고유값 : 3.601, 전체변량 : ). 요인 2는제조사와브랜드및할인율등제품에관한문항들로구성되어있으므로이를 상품요소 라명명하였다 ( 고유값 : 3.094, 전체변량 : ). 요인 3은가격과용량에관한문항들로구성되어있으므로이를 가격대비성능요소 라명명하였다 ( 고유값 : 1.537, 전체변량 : ). 추출된 3개의요인의전체설명력은 % 로나타났으며, 모든요인의신뢰도계수는.50 이상으로나타나내적일관성이확보되었다. 2) Differences of important factors for purchasing by cosmetic involvement 화장품관여도에따른구매시중요요소의차이를살펴보기위해 ANOVA와던컨테스트를실시한결과구매시중요요소의모든요인에서유의한차이가나타났다 (Table 6). 유희적고관여집단은피부, 상품, 가격대비성능의모든요소에서평균이가장높게나타나구매시다양한요소를고려하고있음을알수있다. 한편, 가격대비성능요소의경우관여도에따라집단의차이가나타났지만세집단모두평균 3.5 이상으로높게나타나관여도와관계없이남성소비자는가격과용량을중요시함을알수있다. 이는남성이여성보다실질적인효용을중시하는경향이있으며 (An & Kim, 2011) 가격에따른유용성을중요시

7 92 20~30 대남성의화장품관여유형에따른정보탐색과구매행동특성복식문화연구 <Table 5> The results of factor analysis of important factors for purchasing cosmetics Factors Items Skin-related factors Product factors Costeffectiveness factors When I buy cosmetics, I carefully consider whether it works good for my skin When I buy cosmetics, I carefully consider how stimulative it is on my skin When I buy cosmetics, I carefully consider my experiences of using cosmetics When I buy cosmetics, I carefully consider how natural(well-matched) it is on my skin When I buy cosmetics, I carefully consider moisturizing ability When I buy cosmetics, I carefully consider whether it is oily(sticky or glossy) When I buy cosmetics, I carefully consider whether it is something new When I buy cosmetics in a store, I carefully consider manufacturer When I buy cosmetics in a store, I carefully consider designs of container or package When I buy cosmetics, I carefully consider balance with other products that I already have When I buy cosmetics, I carefully consider brands When I buy cosmetics in a store, I carefully consider discount rate or giveaway When I buy cosmetics, I carefully consider price When I buy cosmetics, I carefully consider quantity Self-values(eigenvalues) % of variance explained % of cumulative variance explained Cronbach's alpha 한다는 Lee(2014) 의선행연구결과와일치한다. 또한여성의경우관여도가높을수록화장품구매에있어유행지향적이며과시적인소비특성을보인다고한 Baek and Kim(2004) 의연구결과와는다르게나타나남녀의차이를알수있다. 3. Differences of cosmetic purchasing by cosmetic involvement 1) Differences of cosmetic purchasing disposition by cosmetic involvement 화장품관여도에따른구매성향차이를살펴보기 위해서교차분석을실시하였다 (Table 7). 그결과유희적고관여집단과의무적고관여집단은구매할상품을탐색후미리정하고가는편이라고응답한사람이더높게나타났으며특히유희적고관여집단은 67.8% 로그비율이더높게나타났다. 반면합리적저관여집단은직접매장에가서둘러보고사는편이라고응답한사람이 65.7% 로나타나앞서정보탐색의요인들의평균이합리적저관여집단에서모두낮게나타난것과일맥상통하는결과임을알수있다. 2) Differences of items determined before purchasing by cosmetic involvement

8 Vol. 25, No. 6 홍혜림 백경진 93 <Table 6> Analysis of differences of important factors for purchasing cosmetics by cosmetic involvement Important factors Skin-related factors Product factors Cost-effectiveness factors Group Mean 3.94± ± ±.59 Mean 3.37± ± ±.63 Mean 3.83± ± ±.67 Duncan test A B AB F-value *** *** *** *** p<.001 Different letters mean significant differences in Duncan's multiple range test: A>B>C <Table 7> Differences of cosmetic purchasing disposition by cosmetic involvement Propensity to consume cosmetics Cosmetic involvement χ 2 When I buy cosmetics, I tend to decide what I want to buy by searching before going shopping. 78(40.6) (67.8) 23(12.0) (34.3) 91(47.4) (57.6) When I buy cosmetics, I tend to decide what I want to buy while I am looking around in a store. 37(25.0) (32.2) 44(29.7) (65.7) 67(45.3) (42.4) *** Total 158(100.0) 67(100.0) 115(100.0) *** p<.001 화장품관여도에따른화장품구매전결정항목의 차이를살펴보기위해 ANOVA 와 Duncan-test 를실 시한결과, 구매전결정항목에서화장품브랜드에서 만집단별유의한차이가나타났다 (Table 8). 구체적 <Table 8> Analysis of differences of items determined before purchasing by cosmetic involvement Items determined before purchasing Products(items like skin, lotion, essence, ect.) Group F-value Mean 4.12± ± ± Cosmetic brands Mean 3.71± ± ± ** Shops to go shopping Mean 3.21± ± ± Price Mean 3.90± ± ± ** p<.01 Different letters mean significant differences in Duncan's multiple range test: A>B>C

9 94 20~30 대남성의화장품관여유형에따른정보탐색과구매행동특성복식문화연구 인결과를살펴보면유희적고관여집단이다른두집단에비해평균이높아화장품브랜드를미리결정하고가는것으로나타났다. 품목, 구매할매장, 가격항목에대해서는집단별로유의한차이가나타나지는않았지만전반적으로평균이 3점이상으로높게나타났다. 특히품목과가격은 20~30대남성들이화장품구매시집단에상관없이미리정하는비중이높은항목임을알수있다. 3) Differences of purchase channel and web based by cosmetic involvement 화장품관여도에따른구매경로와웹기반의차이를살펴보기위해교차분석을실시한결과구매경로와웹기반에서유의한차이가나타나지않았다 (Table 9). 집단별로차이는없으나 20~30대남성들은온라인보다는오프라인에서주로구매하며온라인으로구매할경우에는스마트폰보다는주로 PC를이용해서화장품을구매하고있는것으로나타났다. 이는남성소비자들이 PC보다상대적으로모바일기반의구매환경에긍정적인활용행태를보임을시사한 Lee(2014) 의연구와는다소다른결과가나타났다. 4) Differences of purchasing place and purchaser by cosmetic involvement 화장품관여도에따른구매처와구매자의차이를살펴보기위해 ANOVA와던컨테스트를실시하였다. 그결과구매처의경우모든항목에서유의한차이가나타났으며모든구매처에서유의적고관여집단의평균이가장높게나타나화장품관여도가높을수록다양한구매처를활용하고있음을알수있다. 특히남성들은세집단모두로드샵을가장많이이용하는것으로나타났다 (Table 10). 이는 20대남성의화장품구매장소중백화점이가장높게나타난 Lee and Kim (2010), Lee and Kim(2011) 의연구와는다소다른결과로남성화장품소비자의유형분류가필요함을재확인할수있는결과라할수있다. 구매자의경우직접구매, 타인대행, 여자형제항목에서유의한차이가나타났으며어머니, 배우자또는여자친구에서는집단별차이가나타지않았다. 유희적고관여집단은직접구매의평균이가장높았으며타인대행도두집단에비해서는평균이높게나타났다. 구매시타인동행유무에서는혼자구매한다는응답에서집단별유의한차이가나타났으며유희적고관여집단과의무적고관여집단의평균이높게나타났다. 구매처와구매자에대한결과를종합해보면남성들은혼자서직접매장에방문하며관여도가높을수록다양한매장을방문하여구매를하고있음을알수있다. 5) Purchasing behavior by cosmetic involvement 화장품관여도에따른구매주기, 구매시방문매장수, 구매시탐색브랜드수, 평균구매시간을살펴보기위해교차분석을실시한결과모든항목에서유의한차이가나타났다 (Table 11). 각항목을구체적으로살펴보면, 먼저구매주기는세집단모두유희적고관여집단은 3개월에 1회에서의비율이가장높게나타났다. 특히월 1회이상구매하다고응답한비율은유희적고관여집단에서가장높게나타나관여도가높을수록화장품구매주기가짧아 Kim and Lee (2015) 의연구결과와같게나타났다. <Table 9> Analysis of differences of purchase channel and web based by cosmetic involvement Propensity to consume Cosmetic involvement χ 2 Purchase channel Web based Online 45(33.8) 25(18.8) 63(47.4) Offline 70(33.8) 42(20.3) 95(45.9) PC 90(34.4) 51(19.5) 121(46.2) Mobile phone 25(32.1) 16(20.5) 37(47.4) Total 158(100.0) 67(100.0) 115(100.0)

10 Vol. 25, No. 6 홍혜림 백경진 95 구매시방문매장수의경우유희적고관여집단은 2개라는응답이가장많았으며의무적고관여집단과합리적저관여집단은 1개라는응답이가장많아대부분처음방문하는곳에서구매가이루어짐을알수있다. 구매시탐색브랜드수에서는유희적고관여집단은 3개라는응답이가장많았으며합리적고관여집단과의무적고관여집단은 2개라는응답이가장많았다. 평균구매시간은유희적고관여집단은 10분이상 ~ 20분미만이, 의무적고관여집단은 5분이상 ~10분미 <Table 10> Analysis of differences of purchasing place and purchaser by cosmetic involvement Purchasing place/purchaser Purchasing place Purchaser With/ without someone for shopping Department store Mart Road shop Drugstore Home shopping Duty free shop In person Someone else Group Mean 3.21± ± ±1.04 Mean 3.17± ± ±1.04 Mean 3.85± ± ±1.01 Mean 3.31± ± ±1.05 Mean 2.37± ± ±1.04 Mean 2.63± ± ±1.07 Mean 4.02± ± ±.87 Mean 3.44± ± ±.73 F-value *** * *** ** *** * *** *** Mother Mean 2.11± ± ± Spouse (or girlfriend) Sister (younger, elder) Shopping alone Shopping with company Mean 2.68± ± ± Mean 2.26± ± ±1.06 Duncan test A B AB Mean 3.09± ± ±1.15 Duncan test A B A * ** Mean 3.23± ± ± * p<.05, ** p<.01, *** p<.001 Different letters mean significant differences in Duncan's multiple range test: A>B>C

11 96 20~30 대남성의화장품관여유형에따른정보탐색과구매행동특성복식문화연구 <Table 11> Analysis of differences of purchasing disposition by cosmetic involvement Cosmetic involvement Propensity to consume cosmetics χ 2 Frequency of shopping No. of stores visited No. of brands searched Average time spent purchasing on cosmetics Price range of skin care product Price range of makeup product Monthly expenditure on cosmetics Over once a month 22(61.1) 2(5.6) 12(33.3) Every 3 months 68(41.0) 30(18.1) 68(41.0) Every 6 months 21(19.6) 22(20.6) 64(59.8) Once a year 4(45.2) 13(41.9) 14(12.9) 1(Purchasing place) 33(21.4) 44(28.6) 77(50.0) 2 61(47.7) 13(10.2) 54(42.2) 3 18(36.7) 9(18.4) 22(44.9) Over 4 3(33.3) 1(11.1) 5(55.6) 1(Purchasing place) 11(20.0) 20(36.4) 24(43.6) 2 43(29.7) 26(17.9) 76(52.4) 3 46(42.6) 17(15.7) 45(41.7) Over 4 15(46.9) 4(12.5) 13(40.6) Under 5mins 3(9.4) 12(37.5) 17(53.1) 5 mins~less than 10 mins 28(24.6) 22(19.3) 64(56.1) 10 mins~less than 20 mins 39(42.9) 20(22.0) 32(35.2) 20 mins~less than 30 mins 25(35.7) 10(14.3) 35(50.0) 30 mins~less than 60 mins 15(65.2) 1(4.3) 7(30.4) Over 60 mins 5(50.0) 2(20.0) 3(30.0) Under \30,000 28(22.2) 37(29.4) 61(48.4) \30,000~less than \50,000 46(37.4) 17(13.8) 60(48.8) \50,000~less than \70,000 20(38.5) 10(19.2) 22(42.3) Over \70,000 21(53.8) 3(7.7) 15(38.5) Under \30,000 32(35.2) 19(20.9) 40(44.0) \30,000~less than \50,000 14(35.9) 5(12.8) 20(51.3) Over \50,000 15(78.9) 2(10.5) 2(10.5) Under \30,000 38(19.5) 50(25.6) 107(54.9) \30,000~less than \50,000 39(47.6) 11(13.4) 32(39.0) \50,000~less than \70,000 16(51.6) 4(12.9) 11(35.5) Over \70,000 22(68.8) 2(6.3) 8(25.0) Total 158(100.0) 67(100.0) 115(100.0) *** *** ** *** ** ** *** ** p<.01, *** p<

12 Vol. 25, No. 6 홍혜림 백경진 97 만, 합리적저관여집단은 5분미만이가장높은비율로나타나화장품관여도가높을수록매장에서의제품탐색시간이길다는점을알수있다. 기초화장품가격대는유희적고관여집단은 3~5만원미만이가장많았고다른두집단은 3만원미만의비율이가장높게나타났다. 색조화장품가격대는세집단모두 3~5만원미만의응답이가장많았다. 월평균화장품구입비에서는유희적고관여집단은 3만원미만과 3~5만원미만이유사하게높게나타났으며의무적고관여집단과합리적저관여집단은 3만원미만의응답이가장높게나타났다. 기초화장품과색조화장품모두 5만원이상과 7만원이상이라고응답한비율에서유희적고관여집단이각각 53.8%, 78.9% 로높게나타났으며월평균화장품구입비에서도 7만원이상이라고응답한비율이 68.8% 로유희적고관여집단에서가장높게나타나화장품에대한관심이높을수록화장품구매가격대도높게나타난 Kim and Lee(2015) 의연구와유사한결과가나타났다. Ⅴ. Discussion and Conclusion 이연구는화장품관여도에따라 20~30대남성소비자를유형화하여그에따른정보탐색, 구매시중요요소및일반적구매행동특성의차이를분석하여남성화장품마케팅에서의차별점을제공하는데목적이있다. 연구의결과를요약하면다음과같다. 첫째, 정보탐색의차원은유희적정보탐색, 몰입적정보탐색, 경험적정보탐색으로화장품관여도가높을수록정보탐색을즐기고적극적인것으로나타났다. 또한경험적정보탐색의평균이모든집단에서높게나타나 20~30대남성들이자신의경험과결정을신뢰하는것으로나타났다. 둘째, 화장품구매시중요요소의차원은피부관련요소, 상품요소, 가격대비성능요소로나타났으며화장품관여도에따른차이를살펴본결과, 유희적고관여집단이모든요소를중요하게생각하는것으로나타났고의무적고관여집단은가성비요소를중요시하고있어같은고관여집단이지만의무적고관여집단은유희적고관여집단과는차이가있었다. 셋째, 화장품관여도에따른전반적인구매행동차이를분석한결과 20~30대남성들은관여도가높을 수록정보탐색을통해구매할상품을미리결정하며관여도가낮을수록직접매장에서둘러보고구매하는것으로나타났다. 구매전결정항목으로는품목이가장높게나타났고화장품관여도집단별로는관여도가높을수록주로화장품브랜드를결정하고가는것으로나타났다. 구매경로는오프라인에서주로구매하며구매장소는로드샵에서, 직접구매하는것으로나타났으며관여도가높을수록평균이더높았다. 또한관여도가높을수록구매주기가짧고, 구매시방문매장수와탐색브랜드수의빈도도높았으며, 평균구매시간도높은것으로나타났다. 구매화장품가격대역시관여도가높을수록높게나타났다. 본연구의결과가가지는시사점과후속연구를위한제언은다음과같다. 남성들의화장품을여성이대신구매해준다는과거의고정관념과달리현대의 20~30대남성은대부분자신의화장품에대해스스로알아보고직접구매하는것으로나타나남성들에게최적화된전략을세워야할시점이라고판단된다. 연구결과에나타난것처럼남성소비자들도화장품구매와정보탐색에있어상품관여도에따른일반적인특성을보였다. 하지만, 화장품관여도가높은고관여집단이라고할지라도유희적고관여집단과의무적고관여집단은화장품에대한추구가치와구매행동에있어서차이를보였는데, 의무적고관여집단은가격대비효능이나용량에민감하여오히려저관여집단과일부유사한특성을가지기도하였다. 이는여성화장품고관여집단이대부분화장품의품질이나기능을더중요하게생각하는것과도차이를보인다. 따라서화장품시장에서의남성소비자분류시여성소비자와는다소다른측면에서의세분화된접근이필요할것이다. 정보탐색의측면에서봤을때, 고관여집단일수록구매전정보탐색에집중하는경향을보이기때문에정보를얻는매체를통한마케팅전략은고관여집단에효과적일것이다. 저관여집단의경우에는구매시가격과용량이가장중요하고, 사전정보탐색대신써본상품이나구매해본매장, 판매원보다는주변지인의추천등과같은자신의경험적인정보에의존하고신뢰하는경향이있기때문에매장에서의가격할인이나프로모션등을강화하여구매를유도하거나주변지인을통해사용경험을하게해주는것이가

13 98 20~30 대남성의화장품관여유형에따른정보탐색과구매행동특성복식문화연구 장중요할것으로생각된다. 또한사전심층면접과동반쇼핑에서도나타났던것과동일하게남성소비자들은매장에머무르는시간이짧고대부분판매직원의설명보다본인의판단을선호하며, 매장내쇼핑을즐기는것보다는이미결정한제품을찾아서바로구매하는경향이높기때문에남성화장품매장은무인매장이나혹은남성전용의형태도적용가능할것으로보인다. 이연구는 20~30대남성만을대상으로하였으므로, 이연구결과를다른연령층으로확대하여적용하는것은적절하지않을수있다. 따라서후속연구에서는연구대상의영역을청소년, 중장년층, 시니어등으로넓혀화장품관여에영향을미치는변수와생애주기별화장품사용및소비경험의변화를조사한다면세대별맞춤마케팅이가능할것으로사료된다. 이연구는남성화장품시장의주요소비층인 20~ 30대남성들의화장품구매행동을질적연구를통해조사하고이를양적으로검증함으로써여성화장품시장을중심으로연구되어왔던선행연구들과의차이를밝히고, 기존의연구들에서발견하지못한남성소비자의관여도에따른집단특성과그에따른화장품구매행동의차이를발견했다는것에의의가있다. References An, D. C., & Kim, S.-H. (2011). Factors influencing mobile commerce adoption in Korea: The gender gap. Advertising Research, 88, Baek, K. J., & Hong, H. R. (2017). Cosmetic involvement scale development and group classification focusing on Korean men in their 20s and 30s (Part 1). Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, 67(1), doi: /jksc Baek, K. J., & Kim, M. Y. (2004). Make-up purchase behavior and influential factors: Focusing on clothing involvement, age, and face satisfaction. Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, 28(11), Bloch, P. H. (1982). Involvement beyond the purchase process: Conceptual issues and empirical investigation. Advances in Consumer Research, 9 (1), Dholakia, U. M. (2001). A motivational process model of product involvement and consumer risk perception. European Journal of Marketing, 35 (11/ 12), doi: /eum Hong, J.-K., & Kim, J.-D. (2008). A study on the use realities and requirements for man s cosmetics by age. Journal of the Korean Society of Cosmetology, 14(2), Hong, S.-S. (2007). Cosmetics purchasing behavior of males based on the fashion life style. Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, 57(2), Im, J. W., Kim, J. I., Hong, S. T., & Yi, Y. J. (2006). Consumer behavior (3rd ed.). Seoul: Kyungmoon Publisher. Jacoby, J., Chsetnut, R. W., Weigl, K. C., & Fisher, W. (1976). Pre-purchase information acquisition: Description of a process methodology, research paradigm, and pilot investigation. Advances in Consumer Research, 3(1), Jang, J.-Y., Hwang, S.-J., & Jeon, H.-K. (2007). Men s cosmetics purchasing behavior based on the level of interest in appearance, the country of origin, and the sales promotion. Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, 57(6), Jeon, H. R., & Jae, M. K. (2009). 20s~30s men's cosmetics purchase decision factors. Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 18(6), doi: / KJHE Kang. L. J., & Sin, J. B. (2006). An analysis on the determinants of consumers decision to purchase cosmetics by their consumption propensity. Journal of Consumption Culture, 9(4), Keller K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), doi: / Kim, C.-S., & Moon, J.-H. (2004). A study on cosmetic preferences and purchasing behaviors in the segmented groups (career women vs female college students). Journal of the Korea Fashion & Cos

14 Vol. 25, No. 6 홍혜림 백경진 99 tume Design Association, 6(2), Kim, J. Y., & Lee, K. H. (2015). Influence of selfmonitoring and narcissism on product involvement and purchasing behavior: Clothing and cosmetic product comparison. A Journal of Brand Design Association of Korea, 13(2), Krugman, H. E. (1965). The impact of television advertising: Learning without involvement. Public Opinion Quarterly, 29(3), doi: / Ku, Y. S., Kwon, H. J., & Lee, S. M. (2000). A study on cosmetics purchasing behavior of male college students by clothing involvement. The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, 8(2), Lee, E.-K. (1986). A study of adolescent consumers information search activities. Unpublished master s theses, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea. Lee, H. J. (2014). The information architecture design for mobile-app based on the tendency of using fashion-information in men. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. Lee, H. J., & O, I. Y. (2011). Makeup behavior according to high school girls makeup interest and information search. Journal of the Korean Society of Beauty and Art, 12(1), Lee, H. Z., & Kim, H. J. (2011). A study on man's cosmetic products attribute evaluation, purchasing behavior and use realities according to lifestyle type of 20s men's consumer. Journal of the Korean Society of Cosmetology, 17(2), Lee, J.-W., & Kim, M.-Y. (2010). A study on the distribution routes of cosmetic by their types. Journal of the Korea Fashion & Costume Design Association, 12(3), Lee, M.-Y., & Kim, Y.-S. (2006). A study on the cosmetics purchasing behavior according to the 20~30 year old men s life style. Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, 56(1), Lee, S. H. (2011). A study on consumers purchase behavior with the degree of in involvement in organic tone cosmetics. Unpublished master thesis, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea. Lockshin, L. S., & Hall, J. (2003, July). Consumer purchasing behaviour for wine: What we know and where we are going. Proceedings of International Colloquium in Wine Marketing 2003, Adelaide, South Australia, Mittal, B., & Lee, M.-S. (1989). A causal model of consumer involvement. Journal of Economic Psychology, 10(3), doi: / (89) Nam, M. W. (2014). The influence of shopping orientation and sales promotion of cosmetic products on retail store selection behavior between male and female consumers. Journal of Digital Design, 14(3), Oh, J. M. (2016, November 24). 20~30대남성 4명중 3명은화장품사용한다 [20s~30s s men, three of four people use cosmetics]. The Korea Economic Daily, Retrieved January 26, 2017 from p?aid= g Park, E. J. (2016, October 30). 남성화장품시장도이제고가제품시대로 [Man s cosmetics market into high-priced goods]. Maeil Business Newspaper, Retrieved January 26, 2017 from news.mk.co.kr/newsread.php?no=756258&year= 2016 Park, J.-O., & Park, H.-S. (1995). A study on the consume's clothing purchasing behavior related related to the level of apparel product involvement. The Journal of Korean Living Science Research, 13, Shin, J. H. (1998). A study on clothing shopping orientation and information search behavior of female consumer over age 20. Unpublished master s theses, Sookmyung Women s University, Seoul, Korea. Sunwoo, G. (2008). Study on the purchase propensity for men s toiletries according to the types of information search while purchasing men s toiletries. Unpublished master s theses, Hongik University, Seoul, Korea

15 100 20~30 대남성의화장품관여유형에따른정보탐색과구매행동특성복식문화연구 Woo, J.-Y., & Ryu, S.-J. (2006). A study on the metrosexual trend by life-style of 20~30 age. Asian Journal of Beauty and Cosmetology, 4(2), Yim, S.-H., & Kim, M.-S. (2014). A study on attitudes toward man s appearance management and cosmetics purchasing behavior. Journal of the Korea Fashion & Costume Design Association, 16(4),

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