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1 1) J. Korean Soc. For. Sci. Vol. 110, No. 2, pp. 266~279 (2021) JOURNAL OF KOREAN SOCIETY OF FOREST SCIENCE ISSN (Print), ISSN (Online) 이송희 1,3 이재은 2 강호덕 3 윤태경 1* 1 상지대학교산림과학과, 2 상지대학교생애개발상담학과, 3 동국대학교바이오환경과학과 An Application and Educational Outcomes of e-pbl (e-project-based Learning) to University Forest Education Songhee Lee 1,3, Jaeeun Lee 2, Hoduck Kang 3 and Tae Kyung Yoon 1 * 1 Department of Forest Science, Sangji University, Wonju 26339, Korea 2 Department of Adult Learning and Counselling, Sangji University, Wonju 26339, Korea 3 Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Dongguk University, Goyang 10326, Korea 요약 : 본연구는대학산림교육발전을목적으로 S 대학교산림과학과 4 학년 도시림관리학및실습 전공과목에 e-pbl (e-project-based learning) 학습법을적용한사례를소개한다. 특히 2020 년코로나 -19 확산으로비대면학사운영상황에서학습자들은온라인매체를주로활용하여학교숲을대상으로프로젝트를수행하고결과물을발표하였다. 학습자중심의 e-pbl 학습법은학습자들이프로젝트주제를직접선정하고수행함으로써자기주도학습, 문제해결능력과의사소통능력및책임감등을향상시킬수있다. 학습자들의 e-pbl 학습성과에대해 5 점리커트척도를이용하여조사한결과, 학습자들은 e-pbl 학습법을통해동기부여및흥미를유발할수있었으며 (4.17 점 ), 전공지식에대한이해도를높일수있었다 (4.17 점 ). 또한, 학습자들은의사소통능력 (4.33 점 ), 문제해결능력 (4.25 점 ), 의사결정능력 (4.21 점 ) 을향상시킬수있었다고응답하는등전반적으로 e-pbl 학습법에대해만족하였다. 특히학습자들은팀원들과밀접한의사소통과상호협력이문제및전공지식에대한이해력향상에효과적이었다고응답하였다. 향후산림교육에적합한 e-pbl 학습모델을개발이필요하며, 효율적수업시간의운영과 e-pbl 학습법지침및제도적지원이마련됨으로써보다효율적이고성공적인산림교육의발전을기대한다. Abstract: This study applied the e-pbl (e-project-based learning) method for Urban Forest Management courses in the Department of Forest Science at S University to progress in university forest education. e-pbl effectively motivates self-directed learning, problem-solving, communication skills, and learners' responsibility by enabling them to choose, design, and perform their projects. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, learners were encouraged to use online media to carry out projects and submit presentations for the campus forest. Learners' educational effects were subsequently investigated through a five-point Likert scale. This study discovered a positive effect on learners' motivation and interest (4.17) through e-pbl. Learners responded that e-pbl also helped their understanding regarding the subject (4.17). In addition, this study provided evidence that the e-pbl method was helpful in problem-solving (4.25), communication (4.33), and decision-making skills (4.21). According to learners' responses, there are positive indications that learners were satisfied with e-pbl. Learners responded that interactions and communications with team members could improve their understanding of the subject. Hence, there is scope for improving an efficient and successful e-pbl model suitable for university forest education by providing more efficient instructional time management, e-pbl method guidelines, and institutional support. Key words: distance learning, forest college, learning method, urban forest management * Corresponding author ORCID Tae Kyung Yoon 서론 2020년 5월한국산림과학회는 < 대학산림교육활성화방안화상토론회 > 를개최하여, 대학산림교육의현주소와미래활성화방안에대해논의하였다. 이는대학산림교육이 266

2 267 시대적, 사회적, 교육적, 수요자측면의요구 (Park, 2020) 에충분히부합하지못하며, 학계에서도이러한문제의식을상당부분공유하고있다는것에대한방증일지모른다. 대학산림교육은고등교육법제28조대학의목적에따라고등교육기관으로서대학에서이루어지고있는전문적인학술이론과그응용방법에대한교육 (NLIC, 2021) 으로향후산림분야의발전에이바지하고해당업무를담당할인재를양성하는것 (Lee, 1993) 을목적으로한다. 대학산림교육에관하여우리나라와독일대학산림과학과교육과정비교연구 (Park and Kim, 2002) 와대학산림관련학과의통폐합으로전공교육의부실화, 현장실습의약화등의대학산림교육의문제점및발전방안에관한연구 (Yoon et al., 2004) 가과거보고된바있다. 그외캐나다의산림교육동향및시사점을분석하였으며 (Lee and Ha, 2016), 최근 Park(2020) 은국내산림교육의변화와해외산림교육실태를비교하여산림교육활성화방안에대해제언하였다. 지금까지대학산림교육관련연구가일부있었으나, 대학산림교육을진단하고개선ㆍ혁신방안을발굴고자하는학계의요구를충족시키기에는다소미흡한상황이다. 대학산림교육의미래지향적변화가필요한시점에서초중고교육및타학제에서도입하고있는학습자중심의프로젝트기반학습법 (PBL; Project based learning method; 이하 PBL) 에대한검토는시의성있는과제로판단된다. PBL은 1950년대중반북미의과대학에서처음도입된교수설계모형으로암기위주의의과대학에서의학지식학습이아닌, 의사들이실제상황에서겪을수있는상황에 대해생각하고대응하기위한학습법으로고안되었다 (Barrow, 1986). PBL은 1990년대구성주의학습패러다임변화와지식기반사회의발전으로지식전달과습득위주의교수자중심의교육에서자기주도학습, 문제해결능력, 책임감, 리더십등의역량강화를위한학습자중심의교육법이다 (Woods et al., 1996; Ryu, 2015; Kan et al., 2016; Kim, 2016). PBL은학습자스스로문제를제시하고해결하며 (Barrows, 1986) 보통 4 8명으로팀을구성하고 (Kim and Kang, 2014), 프로젝트수행은모든팀원이참여하여결과물을도출한다 (Helle et al., 2006). 학습자는사회적상호작용과지식공유및이해를목표로전기간학습과정에적극적으로참여한다 (Kokotsaki et al., 2016; Seol, 2014). PBL 학습법은학습방법, 원리, 교수자의역할, 학습자료, 평가등에있어서교수자에의한강의중심학습법 (LBL; Learning based learning) 과상반된특징을가지고있다 (Table 1). 교수자, 강의중심학습법은교수자의강의를통하여지식을전달하는학습법인반면, PBL 학습법은학습자중심학습법으로학습자들이직접문제를제기하고프로젝트를수행하는과정에서관련된이론과개념을학습하는방법이다. 강의중심학습법은계획된강의계획서를바탕으로수업이진행되지만, PBL 은교육상황과학습자들의상황에따라변화할수있는능동적인학습법이다. 강의중심학습법은지필평가등으로평가하는반면, PBL 은프로젝트전반에걸친모든활동에대한수행평가로평가된다. 강의중심학습법에서교수자는강사, 지식전달자로서 Table 1. Comparison of LBL (Lecture-based learning) with PBL (Project-based learning). LBL (Lecture-based learning) Director of learning activities Lecturer Students/Learner PBL (Project-based learning) Matter Lecture Implement project Focus Result-oriented Process-centric Objectives Knowledge achievement Problem-solving ability Learning content Planned curriculum determined by theory Education settings determined by learner Characteristics Passive Active Learning unit Class Group Role of lecturer Teacher Tutor/Assistant Role of students Class learner Class leader Interaction One-sided Cooperative Expected effect Understanding knowledge Improving practical ability Assessment method Paper test Performance evaluation

3 268 韓國山林科學會誌제 110 권제 2 호 (2021) 역할을수행하는반면, PBL에서교수자는학습자들의프로젝트수행에있어보조적역할로튜터 (tutor), 조력자역할 (Kim, 2015) 을담당하며학습자들은수업을이끄는리더의임무를수행한다. PBL 학습의중요성과학습효과가증명되면서국내대학의다양한학문분야에서 PBL 학습법활용사례가증가하고있다 (Reigeluth and Carr-chellman, 2009; Kim and Koo, 2020). 현재국내ㆍ외대학에서 PBL 학습법에관한연구사례및만족도에관한연구는의학 (Barrows, 1986; Birgegård and Lindquist, 1998; Si, 2020), 환경공학 (Jang et al., 2013), 공학 (Choi, 2005; Hwang et al., 2005; Lee, 2018) 등다양한전공에서적용하여활용한사례등이보고되고있다. 그러나, 대학산림교육관련 PBL 학습법적용사례및만족도에관한연구는현재까지보고된바없다. 특히 2020년대학산림교육은비대면환경, 언택트 (untact) 사회, 뉴노멀 (new normal) 의출현이라는사회환경의변화와새로운도전에직면하게되었다. 2019년 12월중국에서처음발생한코로나바이러스-19(COVID-19, 이하코로나- 19) 의국내확산과전세계적팬데믹 (pandemic) 상황으로인하여많은변화가초래되었다. 교육현장에서는사회적거리두기로인한학습공백의우려로실시간온라인수업을도입하였다 (Choi et al., 2020). 온라인수업은물리적으로다른공간에서온라인등의매체를이용하여행해지는교육 (Lee and Kim, 2018) 으로원격교육 (distance learning), 이러닝 (E-learning), 인터넷강의, 온라인강의, 가상수업 (cyber education), 웹기반원격교육 (Web-based distance education) 등으로불리고있다 (Choi et al., 2020). Joeng et al.(2012) 는온라인수업은대면수업이불가능한경우학습자의학습권보장을위하여인터넷매체등을활용하여교수자가지도하는실시간또는비실시간수업이라고정의하였다. 코로나-19 감염확산우려로대부분대학에서이론수업은온라인강의로, 실험ㆍ실습은대면강의로실시하였으나, 지역별코로나-19의심각성과대학본부의지침, 교수와학생들의의향에따라서일부대학에서는실험ㆍ실습과목도사실상대면으로진행하지못한경우도발생하였다. 코로나-19로인한비대면방식의학사운영은실험ㆍ실습의의존도가높은대학산림교육에많은제약으로작용했다. 이러한문제점을해결하기위하여 PBL 학습모델에온라인, 디지털미디어등을적극활용한 e-pbl 적용사례가보고되고있다 (Kang et al., 2014; Kang and Lee, 2015). 자기주도학습의확산과비대면교육환경에대응하고자 S 대학교산림과학과전공 도시림관리학및실습 과목은 2019년도 2학기에 PBL 수업방식을시범적으로도입했으며, 2020년도 2학기에는코로나 -19의사회적거리두기와대면 수업의제한으로인하여 e-pbl을적용해운영하였다. 2019년도시범적으로도입한 PBL은대면활동을통하여프로젝트수행, 회의가진행되었다. 반면 2020년도 2학기 e-pbl 학습법은 PBL 학습모델을기반으로실시간화상강의시스템, 등온라인매체를주로활용하여프로젝트를수행하였다. 본연구는대학산림교육에서 e-pbl 학습법을적용한사례를소개하고, 그것의학습성과분석을통해대학산림교육의 e-pbl 학습법적용가능성을제안하고자실시하였다. 연구방법 1. 연구대상및사례 2020년 2학기 S 대학교산림과학과 4학년전공과목 도시림관리학및실습 수업에이론강의와학습자중심의 e-pbl 학습법을적용하였다. 본수업은도시림의정의, 현황, 가치, 특성및관리기법에대해학습하고, PBL 수업을통하여도시림유형중학교숲을대상으로문제를제기하고프로젝트수행경험을목표로한다. 강의는총 15주로구성되었으며, 코로나-19 사회적거리두기단계가격상됨에따라대학본부에서는코로나-19 대응학사운영지침으로비대면수업과수업시간 25% 이상동영상강의를권고하였다. 중간, 기말고사를제외한 13주간동영상이론강의를진행하였으며, e-pbl 학습은강의 7 15주차에구성하여이론수업과병행하였다. 비대면수업은실시간화상강의프로그램 (Cisco Webex) 을활용하여주제선정, 최종프로젝트결과발표수업등을진행하였다. 학습자와교수자간의피드백은학습관리시스템 (LMS; Learning Management System), , 모바일메시지등을이용하였다 (Table 2). 조별프로젝트수행을제외한모든 e-pbl 수업은비대면방식으로진행되었다. 1주차에는효과적인 e-pbl 학습을위하여한팀당 4 6명을구성하여총 5팀이프로젝트를수행하였다. 2주차에는화상강의프로그램내세부세션탭을활용하여광범위한도시림유형중에서학교숲 ( 캠퍼스숲 ) 을대상으로문제제기, 주제선정, 프로젝트수행방법등의결정은팀별로자유토론으로결정하였다 (Table 3). 3 4주차에는프로젝트방향등을설정, 활동을수행하였으며역할과팀참여도를점검하였다. 5 6주차에는프로젝트수행중간점검과프로젝트활동을하였으며 7주차에는프로젝트최종발표를위한활동을하였다. 8주차프로젝트최종발표는팀별로발표자 1명을선정하여프로젝트수행에대한결과물, 느낀점등에대해발표하였다. 8주차최종발표에서학습자들은그룹평가와동료평가를하였으며, 교수자는학습자들의의사소통및

4 269 Table 2. Course syllabus of e-pbl in Urban Forest Management. Week Objective Lecture Learner 1 Introduction of e-pbl and team building Lecture of e-pbl (objective, method, process, etc.) Team building Educational effect* Strength, weakness of e-pbl Communication tool Webex, LMS Case of project group Team building 2 Discussion of project subject Lead a discuss Select subject of project Objective, capabilities by implementing e-pbl Webex, LMS Discuss and select of subject 3 Discussion of materials and method Feedback to group Design materials and method Role and participation , LMS Fill out the questionnaire 4 Implement project Feedback to group Role Process report LMS, Message Conduct survey 5 Interim review Checking and feedback of project Implement and discuss project Communication of group LMS, Message Analysis survey, Interview and advice facility 6 Analysis and project Induced communication and problem solving Implement project - , LMS Analysis survey, Measurement of building 7 Prepare presentation Feedback of project Prepare presentation Strength and weakness of e-pbl , LMS Prepare presentation, Create a Bird s eye view 8 Final Presentation Evaluation Presentation and evaluation (Group) Realization of e-pbl Webex, LMS * Educational effect was carried out via questionnaire for analysis qualitative evaluation by LMS Final presentation Table 3. Subject, problem-posing, method and result of the group projects. Group Category Content A Subject Survey on the recognition and usage of campus forest Problem-posing Strenthening functions of urban forest by expansion of campus forest Importance of campus forest in education and urban environments Method Survey Result Perception of campus forest B Subject Current status of tree disease and insect pest control at campus forest Problem-posing The university s neglect of tree disease and insect pest Method Field investigation, Data survey Result Comparison of landscaping budget by four universities Suggestion of control protocol for tree disease and insect pest C Subject Current status of tree disease and insect pest control at campus forest Problem-posing Monitoring of disease and insect pest of tree at campus forest Method Field investigation, Research literature Result Suggestion of control protocol for tree disease and insect pest D Subject A survey on the perception of faculty and students on the green rooftop Problem-posing Unused rooftop space Expansion method of green space through roof garden Method Survey, Interview, Measuring Result Analysis survey, Create a bird s eye view E Subject Decoration of campus forest Problem-posing Absence of theme about campus forest Method Survey, Data survey Result Re-design of campus forest Considerate of climate change when planting trees

5 270 韓國山林科學會誌 제110권 제2호 (2021) Table 4. Lecturer and group evaluation index. Lecturer and students responded with relative evaluation according to the survey statement. No. Lecturer evaluation index Group evaluation index 1 Communication and cooperation Provided appropriate information 2 Participation Collected and analyzed various data 3 Problem solving Results are convenient to understand 4 Presentation and results Helped each other to carry out Figure 1. A case of e-pbl project (A) project planning, (B) field survey for design of rooftop greening, (C) a blueprint of rooftop greening, (D) oral-presentation of final results in Webex, and (E) poster presentation. 상호협력관계, 학습자 참여도, 문제해결 방법 및 완성도를 있도록 피드백을 제공하였다. 문제해결 과정에서 옥상녹화가 중점으로 평가하였다(Table 4). 각 주차 마다 교수자와 설치된 4개 대학의 시설팀과 전화 인터뷰를 수행하였으며, 학습자는 필요시 계속적으로 피드백을 주고받았다. 교내 시설팀 팀장과의 면담을 통해 문제를 해결하였다. 설문 아래의 우수사례를 중심으로 학생 프로젝트 수행 과정을 조사를 바탕으로 옥상정원 설치 선호도가 높은 건물을 실측 구체적으로 소개하고자 한다. 교수자와 그룹 평가에서 높은 후, 기후 등을 반영하여 해당 지자체 시청 홈페이지를 참고 점수를 받은 교직원과 재학생 옥상정원 조성에 대한 하여 식재수종을 선정하고 옥상정원 조감도를 작성하였다 인식조사 및 녹지공간 확충 및 조감도 작성(D팀) 프로젝트는 [Figure 1(B), 1(C)]. 이러한 활동들을 바탕으로 7주 차에는 교내 녹지공간이 주로 지상부에 집중되어 있으며, 옥상이 발표 자료를 구성하고 교수자와 피드백을 통해 발표 자료를 활용되지 않고 있다는 문제를 제기하였다. 이러한 문제점을 완성하였다. 8주 차에 최종발표를 하였고[Figure 1(D), 1(E)], 해결하고자 캠퍼스 내에 옥상녹화 및 옥상 녹지 면적 확보 학습자는 그룹 평가 및 동료 평가를 실시하였으며, e-pbl 방안을 주제로 선정하였다. 학교의 주 이용자인 교직원과 학습성과에 대한 설문 조사에 응하였다. 재학생을 대상으로 옥상정원 조성 및 이용방안에 대해 옥상정원 설치의견과 시설물 설치 등에 관한 설문 조사를 2. e-pbl 학습성과 위해 학습자들은 직접 설문 조사 항목을 작성하고[Figure 8주 차 최종발표와 함께 e-pbl 학습 만족도는 인터넷 1(A)], 과 LMS를 통하여 교수자에게 피드백을 설문 조사 형식을 활용하여 수행하였다. 만족도 설문지 요청하였다. 교수자는 설문 조사 항목에서 추가하거나 수정, 문항은 Gurpinar et al.(2010), Jang et al.(2013)의 평가 항목 삭제해야 하는 부분에 대해 학습자들의 생각을 끌어낼 수 등을 바탕으로 재구성하여, 3가지 하위 요인 (1) e-pbl

6 271 학습법의동기, (2) 프로젝트수행만족도, (3) e-pbl 을통한역량향상기여도로구분하여총 16문항으로구성하였다. 각설문조사의답변은리커트 5점척도로 매우그렇다 는 5점, 그렇다 는 4점, 보통이다 는 3점, 그렇지않다 는 2점, 전혀그렇지않다 는 1점으로분석하였다. 수강생 26명중 24명이만족도설문조사에응답하였다. 또한, 프로젝트수행기간동안학습자들의팀참여도, 역할등원활한프로젝트수행을위하여 PBL 학습기간중 LMS 상의온라인학습활동프로그램을이용하여개별적으로응답하였다. e-pbl 학습 1주차프로젝트수행에앞서 e-pbl 학습의강점과약점, 2주차 e-pbl 학습을통해개인적으로향상하고싶은역량및목표, 3주차팀별역할및팀원참여도, 4주차프로젝트진행상황, 5주차팀별의사소통및진행상황, 7주차프로젝트를수행후 e-pbl 강점과약점, 8주차 e-pbl 학습법의아쉬운점에대해 LMS를이용하여학습자들의의견을수집하였다. 그리고개방코딩 (open coding) 방식으로서술형답변을분석한후핵심개념과단어를도출하여정리하고유사범위로범주화하였다. 3. 통계분석본연구의통계는 IBM SPSS 24.0을이용하였다. 5점리커트척도를이용한설문조사응답결과는하나의집단을대상으로실시하여평균과표준편차를산술하였다. 또한, 본연구의설문지의신뢰도는크론바흐알파계수 (Cronbach s α coefficient) 를통하여신뢰도검사를수행하였다. 크론바흐알파계수는검사도구의문항들이측정하고자하는개념을일관성있게측정하고있는지를나타내는것으로크론바흐알파계수값이 0 1 사이의값을가지며 1에가까울수록신뢰도가높으며일반적으로학계에서는 0.7 이상일때신뢰도가높다고정의하고 있다 (Peterson, 1994; Um, 2019). 따라서본연구의설문지신뢰도는크론바흐알파계수는 의값을나타냈으며설문지신뢰도가높다고정의할수있다. 연구결과 1. e-pbl 학습법동기부여학습자들은프로젝트발표와함께 e-pbl 학습법수행한경험에대해동기부여, 학습만족도, 흥미유발, 전공지식의이해등의측면에서전반적으로만족한다고응답하였다 (Table 5). 5점척도조사결과학생들은 e-pbl 학습법이학습동기부여및전공이해에대한만족도가평균 4.17점으로높았으며, e-pbl 학습을통해 도시림관리학 에관한개념을이해하는데도움이되었다고응답하였다 (4.17점). 학습자의동기부여 4.08점, e-pbl 학습만족및지식확장 4.04점, e-pbl 학습법에대해만족하는지에대한질문에는 4.04점을확인하였다 (Table 5). 2. 프로젝트수행만족도학습자들은 e-pbl 학습수행이전 e-pbl 학습법에대해자기주도학습및동기부여와흥미를유발할수있으며일부팀원들의저조한참여율에대해걱정하였다. 하지만학습자들의초기우려와달리참여수준의적절성에대해평균 4.25점으로높은만족도를보였다. 또한, 프로젝트를수행하면서 도시림관리학및실습 과목에 e-pbl 학습법의적용적합성은 4.33점으로평가되었다. 역할만족도는 4.29점, 교수자와학습자간의의사소통만족도는 4.55점을보였다. 이는프로젝트수행과정에서온라인매체를활용한프로젝트수행의제약과코로나-19로인해조사, 인터뷰등대면활동의어려움으로 e-pbl 학습에대한기회가상대적으로낮게평가된것으로사료된다. Table 5. Results of learning motivation in the e-pbl method (N=24). Items* Mean SD Did you feel comfortable in performing the e-pbl method? Were you able to apply your knowledge during the project? Were you positively motivated to learn during the project? Did the project help you to effectively understand the concept and the meaning of Urban forest management? Did you think the project enhanced learners interest? * Reliability analysis showed a value of Cronbach s α.

7 272 韓國山林科學會誌제 110 권제 2 호 (2021) Table 6. Satisfaction of students with the e-pbl method (N=24). Items* Mean SD Were you in an appropriate environment and provided opportunities to carry out the project? Were you satisfied with your role and performance during each team-based project? Were you satisfied with your level of participation in the project? Did you consider the e-pbl method to be appropriate for urban forest management and application in the class? Compared with the teaching-oriented method, are you satisfied with the e-pbl method? Did the lecturer communicate with students sufficiently? * Reliability analysis showed a value of Cronbach s α. Table 7. Satisfaction of the learning outcomes from e-pbl method (N=24). Items* Mean SD I gained the following skills better in e-pbl method: Reasoning I gained the following skills better in e-pbl method: Problem solving I gained the following skills better in e-pbl method: Decision making I gained the following skills better in e-pbl method: Communication I gained the following skills better in e-pbl method: Understanding major * Reliability analysis showed a value of Cronbach s α. 3. e-pbl을통한역량향상기여도프로젝트수행초기학습자들은 e-pbl 학습을통해협업능력, 의사소통능력, 의사결정능력등의역량향상을기대하였다. e-pbl 학습이후학습자들은의사소통능력 (4.33점), 문제해결능력 (4.25점), 의사결정능력 (4.21점) 등의역량을향상시킬수있었다고응답하였다. 반면, 추론능력 (4.08점), 전공이해 (4.00점) 는상대적으로낮은점수를보였다 (Table 7). 일부학습자들은프로젝트를수행하면서관련내용에대해논문, 연구보고서등을찾아보면서현재진행되고있는연구동향을파악할수있었고, 창의적인결론도출및전공지식을습득할수있었다고응답하였다. 4. e-pbl에관한정성적평가학습자에게 e-pbl 학습법에대한강점과약점에대해 e-pbl 수행 1주차와 7주차에공통으로질문하였다 (Table 8). 1주차조사에서학습자들은강의중심수업방식과달리새로운방식의수업으로전공, 의사결정등역량강화에도움이될것이라고응답하였다. 또한, 직접체험하고문제를해결함으로써문제해결능력을향상시킬수있고, 다양한분야의지식확장에도움이될것이라고응답하였다. 반면, e-pbl 학습의약점으로는팀활동으로인하여 동기부여가되지않는학습자들의참여도가낮을것이라예상하였다. 또한, 의사소통의어려움과시간적부담감을언급하였다. 무엇보다코로나-19 상황에서프로젝트수행은 e-pbl 학습의걸림돌이며, 대면활동의제한으로원활한프로젝트수행이어려울것이라고응답하였다 (Table 8). 일정기간프로젝트를수행한후 7주차에동일한질문에대해학습자들은프로젝트수행을통해실제사례를바탕으로학습을할수있었으며직접경험을통해전공에대한지식의이해를높일수있었다고응답하였다 (Table 8). 또한, 문제해결을위해무조건동의보다는소통을통하여보완하고보충해가는과정이필요하며, 학습자들은 e-pbl을통해잘모르는부분에대해서팀원들에게도움을받을수있어이해력을높일수있었다. 무엇보다프로젝트수행을통해의사소통능력, 협동심, 문제해결능력등역량강화에도움이되었다고응답하였다. e-pbl 학습의약점으로는학습초기의우려와달리협동활동, 참여율에대한불만족은없었으며, 코로나-19로인하여대면수업및대면활동의제약을언급하였다. 이는코로나- 19의종식및사회적거리두기의완화가된다면 e-pbl 프로젝트는상대적으로원활하게수행할수있을것이고, 학습에효과적일것이라고응답하였다 (Table 8).

8 273 Table 8. Qualitative evaluation of the strength and weakness of early and late-stage e-pbl. Strength Weakness Early-stage e-pbl I think it will be an interesting class through a different method of teaching rather than a lecture-oriented class. I think it will help me to develop a little more by experiencing it for myself. I think I will be able to improve my skills and capabilities while preparing and implementing the project. It seems difficult to communicate, and I think the group project will be difficult with COVID-19. Some of the students with poor participation may have difficulty with the team project. Late-stage e-pbl I can experience the field in person, communicate with my team members, and experience things that I can't do alone. It seems that understanding was improved by getting to know everything with the team members. Because of the COVID-19 this year, there was no need for students to gather together at school, but through this project, we had time to work and become intimate with students after a long time. I think I've felt the feeling of being in school after a long time. It takes a lot of time to implement the project. As I was taking non-face-to-face classes due to COVID-19, it was difficult for my friends from other regions to gather. Table 9. Answers to qualitative questions about communication, participation, role, and others during the project. Category Motivation Communication Team work Problem solving Understanding major Environment Satisfaction with e-pbl Answer I was able to understand my major effectively and found it interesting. It was even more fun to be able to encounter, experience, and gain knowledge while implementing the project. I wish I had thought more creatively. Our group continued to communicate through group chat. I was able to learn the importance of communication throughout the project. The projects seems to be a good opportunity to cooperate and to respect each other's opinions without ignoring them. I felt how important it is to give and receive feedback than to say that it's always good. The team members' responses were late, due to a web meeting. I learned a sense of cooperation. Team members actively participated during implementation project. I developed respect for team members through project implementation. I was having difficulty and team members helped me. Now, the content is well understood. I want to improve my problem solving skills. The project has improved my problem solving ability. I learned theory and hypothesis from the lecture but the project actually helped me to better understand my major by implementing knowledge into practice. If the investigation had been a little further earlier, it would have been possible to confirm the symptoms of many tree diseases. Unfortunately, we were unable to conduct a face-to-face investigation due to COVID-19. Because the research time was short, it was difficult to research a lot of data, so I was disappointed that I could not include a lot of information in the presentation. I took self-directed learning and e-pbl method as an opportunity to better understand my course and learn more from my major. I realized one cannot learn in solo; therefore, this was a good opportunity to share and interact with others to learn more. I find e-pbl learning to be more helpful than the existing lecture-oriented learning method when acquiring diverse knowledge.

9 274 韓國山林科學會誌제 110 권제 2 호 (2021) e-pbl 학습을수행하는과정동안학습자들에게 e-pbl 학습을통해성취하고싶은역량, 팀원역할및참여도, 프로젝트진행상황및의사소통등에대한답변을종합하여동기부여, 의사소통, 문제해결능력, 환경, e-pbl 만족도로범주화하였다 (Table 9). 학습자들은강의중심수업에서는암기위주의지식을습득하는반면, e-pbl을통해직접프로젝트를수행하면서경험과문제해결을위해자기주도학습이가능하였다고응답하였다. 팀원들과함께정보를공유하면서더흥미롭게학습할수있었다. 도시림관리학및실습 과목에서도시림, 학교숲이라는범위의실제사이트를대상으로프로젝트를수행함으로써지식에대한확장, 이해그리고타전공과목에서학습한이론도응용할수있었다고응답하였다. e-pbl을통해학습자들은사회적기술의학습과경험으로졸업후사회진출시유사한방식의프로젝트가진행될경우자신감을키울수있었다. 또한, 8주간 e-pbl을수행하면서계절적특성으로인하여조사결과가극히일부분으로제한된점과데이터를수집하고분석하는데시간이부족한점이아쉽다고응답하였다. 학습자들은 LMS, SNS 활용, 영상통화등온라인매체를이용하여프로젝트수행을위한의사결정및의사소통을진행하였다. 단체채팅방등을통하여의견및자료를공유하고그룹피드백을주고받았으며필요시에는직접개별적인연락을취하여프로젝트를수행하였다고응답하였다. 팀활동에서다수의의견에따라는것이좋다고생각하였으나, 프로젝트를수행하면서팀원간의피드백과의사표현, 의사소통등이중요하다는것을느꼈다고답하였다. 일부그룹에서는비대면의사소통으로인하여의사결정에집중하기힘들었으며, 비효율적이었다고응답하였다. 이러한문제점을해소하기위해서는학습자들의 SNS 등을활용한의사소통기술에관한학습및연습도필요하다고여운을남겼다. 고찰 1. 학습자중심의 PBL 학습효과본연구는대학산림교육전공과목에학습자중심 PBL 학습법을바탕으로온라인매체를활용한 e-pbl 학습법을적용하고학습효과를분석하였다. 교수자중심의학습법은학습자의전공과목에대한흥미, 전공에대한기초적학습에어려움을줄수있다. 반면, PBL과같이학습자중심의학습법은학습자-학습자, 학습자- 교수자간의실질적의문을가지고해결방안을직접설계, 해결하는과정에서학습자에게자기주도학습에대한동기부여및흥미유발과지식확장기회를제공한다 (Holubova, 2008; Kim, 2020). 프로젝트를수행하는과정에서흥미를느끼고수업참여율도높일수있으며, 책임감있게수업에참여할수있다 (Kong, 2014). 또한, Barak and Doppelt(2000) 은 PBL 학습이학습자에게다른주제로부터지식을통합하고새로운영역으로확장하는데효과적이라고보고하였다. Cho(2001) 는프로젝트수행에있어창의적사고, 비판적사고와교과지식이필요함을주장하였다. 학습자중심의 PBL 학습법은학생들에게프로젝트수행기간및학습기간능동적학습의기회를제공하며 (Parrado-martinez and Sanchez-Andujar, 2020), 팀프로젝트학습은학업성취도를향상시키고사회적기술학습에도도움을줄수있다 (Kim, 2016). 본연구에서도학습자들은전공지식을확장하고응용할수있었으며학습기간동안자기주도학습이가능하였다. 또한, 실험ㆍ실습이중요한산림교육현장에서사회적기술을선행함으로써사회진출에대한자신감, 성취감을얻을수있다고답하였다. Kong(2014) 은대학작문수업에서도학습자들이초기작문에흥미가없던학생들도팀활동을통해흥미를유발하였고, 협동학습을기반으로프로젝트를수행하였을때, 성취감을느꼈다고보고하였다. Soller(2001) 는팀활동은구성원의참여, 리더십, 이해, 격려등이유지되며진행하는것이이상적이지만, 이러한요소들이균형을잃게되면학습의질을저하시킬수있다고말하였다. 본연구에서학생들은프로젝트수행중참여기회에만족도점수가높았으며, 주관적답변으로조장의리더십및의견조율, 팀전체참여율등에긍정적인평가를하였다. 일부팀에서는역할분담을통하여효율적인프로젝트를수행하였으며팀프로젝트수행만족도가높은것은의사소통, 리더십, 팀참여율등이적절히유지된결과라고사료된다. 최근학습자들에게의사소통과협업능력은가장강조되고중요한역량이며, 프로젝트수행과정을통해문제해결능력, 의사전달능력, 소통능력및창의력, 비판적사고등을향상시킬수있다 (Woods et al., 1996; Jang et al., 2013; Kang, 2017). Gurpinar et al.(2010) 의연구에서교수자중심의수업방식그룹과학습자중심의 PBL 학습그룹을대상으로학습만족도를조사하였을때교수자중심의학습만족도 (3.3점) 와비교하면 PBL 학습에대한만족도 (4.2점) 가상대적으로높은것을보고하였다. 공과대학내에서 PBL 적용을통하여학습의이해, 협동학습, 의사소통의중요성을경험할수있었으며, 팀활동을통한팀협력, 자기주도학습, 문서작성, 프레젠테이션능력향상등다양한 PBL 효과를학습자가경험하였다 (Lee, 2018). 이러한 PBL 학습법의가능성과반대로학습자들은익숙하지않은학습법으로어려움을느끼고 (Lee, 2020), 경우에따라불안감을호소할수있는위험이존재한다.

10 275 또한프로젝트수행과정에서동료학습자들과의협업이필요한경우, 의사소통능력부족으로동료학습자들과의갈등요인으로작용하는경우도있다 (Lee, 2020). 예를들어, Deslauriers et al.(2019) 는학습자중심학습법과교수자중심학습법으로대학기초물리학수업을각각운영하고, 학습자의반응과학습효과를비교실험하였다. 학습자들은교수자중심학습법대비학습자중심학습법의학습효과가낮다는인식을가졌으나, 실제시험성적이더높은결과가나타났다. 이처럼 PBL 학습법은학습자들의역량강화에적합한수업방식이지만, 학습자들의부담과부정적반응은수업진행뿐만아니라강의평가및강의후기에도악영향을미치는등교수자에게도부담이될수있다. 따라서학습자와교수자는 PBL 학습법을적극적으로도입하기보다회피하려하는문제가발생할수있다 (Lee, 2020). 따라서, Jang et al.(2013) 은 PBL 문제수행시발생할수있는팀원간갈등, 회의진행요령, 팀워크문제등이발생할수있으며이에대한적절한대처및조언에대한지속적개선이필요하다고보고하였다. 무엇보다도학습자와교수자사이에 PBL의취지와효과에대한이해를공유하고, 상호간의신뢰를확보하기위한교수자의노력이요구된다. 또한, 학습자중심의교수법을확대하기위한학사제도상의유도방안도마련되어야할것이다. 본연구에서는학습자들의의사소통과정및갈등관계등에대해다루지는않았으나효과적인의사소통기술, 학습자들의갈등관계해소를위한추가적인교육및연구가필요하다. 2. 비대면 (e-pbl) 학습법의개발및활용 1990년대중반부터 PBL 수업은대면활동의시ㆍ공간적제약, 물적, 인적자원등의제약을해소하기위해 e-pbl에대한시도와연구가진행되었다 (King et al., 2010; Kang and Lee, 2015). 최근활용되고있는 e-pbl 학습법은 LMS를이용한학습자료게시판, 팀별토론등이며, 학습자의생각및지식의전달과팀활동을위한 e-pbl 학습법플랫폼이마련되어야한다 (Beaumont and Cheng, 2006). Kim and Park(2020) 은대면수업과비대면온라인수업은상호작용과의사소통방법에차이가있어학습자의노력이필요할뿐아니라원활한의사소통을위한기술적방안이모색되어야한다고보고하였다. 본연구에서도코로나-19 특수상황의사회적거리두기로인하여프로젝트수행에제약을받았으며, 이를대처하기위해 Webex, LMS, 모바일메신저등온라인매체를주로활용하였다. 학습자들은 e-pbl 진행과정에서의사소통이원활히진행되었다는의견과그렇지않다는의견이있었다. 학습자들의원활한의사소통및의사결정을위해온라인매체를활용한 의사소통기술에관한교육, 연구도필요할것이라사료된다. 또한, e-pbl 설계시학습자들이 PBL 에서요구하는다양한학습활동을온라인상에서진행할수있도록구성주의적교육설계가필요하고, 온라인환경에서학습자에게학습활동을구성하기는쉽지않다. 특히, PBL 학습법은학습자-교수자, 학습자-학습자사이밀도높은상호작용이요구되나, 비대면환경의특성상상호작용이어려울뿐아니라동기부여가되지않을우려가있다. 따라서, 교수자의역할이매우중요하며, e-pbl 학습법구축을위해많은시간과노력이필요하다 (Lim et al., 2012). 최근간호학과에서는 e-pbl 학습과연계하여시뮬레이션실습에관한연구 (Park and Choi, 2018; Cho and Seo, 2020) 가진행되고있다. 이처럼대학산림교육에서도기존개발된임업기계시뮬레이션게임을활용하거나시뮬레이션실습장비를개발하는등팬데믹과같은특수상황에대처하고대학산림교육발전을위해적합한 PBL 학습법과 e-pbl 학습플랫폼개발이계속되어야할것이다. 3. 대학산림교육 e-pbl 학습법적용의의의 e-pbl 학습법은교수자-학습자간의상호작용이중요하다 (Im et al., 2020). 성공적인 e-pbl 학습은교수자가비계설정 (Scaffolding) 을통해학습자에게동기를부여하고, 프로젝트수행을구체적으로가이드하고, 학습자가학습기회를인식하고수용할수있도록조력자역할을수행할때가능하다 (Hmelo-Silver et al., 2007; Gresalfi et al., 2012). Im et al.(2020) 은성공적인 e-pbl 학습법을위해서는교수자와학습자간의최종목표를설정하고공유하며, 교수자의적절한개입과참여촉진전략이필요하다고보고하였다. 따라서교수자와학습자의상호작용이지속적으로이루어져야하며이를통해학습자들의참여를촉진시킬수있다 (Ryu, 2015). 또한, 교수자는학습자들이수행하는프로젝트주제에대한관련지식및연구동향등에대해정보를수집하고학습자에게제공함으로써학습자의참여유도및내적ㆍ외적학습동기부여를위한노력이필요하다. 뿐만아니라연구동향등을분석함으로써교수자또한새로운연구주제를발굴할수있는기회가될수있다. 산림교육에서실험ㆍ실습은전공지식을확장하고사회적기술습득에중요한역할을한다. 현재산림교육에서실험ㆍ실습은비용과수업외의시간필요등의이유등을일부제한적으로수행하고있으나, 최근국내ㆍ외적으로산림교육은이론강의뿐아니라, 실습, 현장학습, 온라인학습등의학습법에관해관심을보이고있다. 학습자들이실제산림현장에서문제를확인하고해결해가는 e-pbl 학습법도효과적인학습법일부로언급되고있다 (Rodríguez- Piñeros

11 276 韓國山林科學會誌제 110 권제 2 호 (2021) et al., 2020). 산림교육의 e-pbl 학습법은학습자와교수자의협력을통하여프로젝트를수행할수있으며, 리더십, 의사소통능력향상과네트워크형성등의관련기술습득을기대할수있다 (Sample et al., 2015; Rodríguez- Piñeros et al., 2020). 본연구에서학습자들은프로젝트문제해결을위해조사현장을직접관찰하고몸소체험함으로써동기및흥미를유발할수있었다. 또한, 프로젝트를위해조사하는과정에서관련정보를직접수집하고분석함으로써자기주도학습, 의사소통능력및문제해결능력이향상되었다고응답하였다. 또한, e-pbl 수업을참여함으로써이론적내용을실제현장에응용할수있는기회로해당학기이전학습한내용을본 e-pbl 학습법을이용하여현장에서확인할수있었다고응답하였다. 따라서본연구에서대학산림교육에 e-pbl 학습법을적용한사례를소개하고, e-pbl 을통한구체적인학습성과를평가하여학습자중심의 e-pbl 교수법이산림과학분야의고등교육학습과수행에의미있는대안이될수있음을제시하였다. 이러한시도는산림교육내학습자중심의 e-pbl 교수법도입과확산을위해내딛는첫걸음으로산림교육발전을위한다양한시도및연구가계속해서수행되어야한다. 더불어본연구는웹기반 PBL의적용이학생들과의상호작용을확대할수있는유용한대안이될수있음을제시했다는데의의가있다. 향후산림교육분야에서적용할수있는상호작용방법에대한구체적인고안과적용이더많은교육현장에서시도될필요가있다. 이연구는 e-pbl을통한학습성과를측정하는데있어설문지법을활용하여만족도, 역량향상기여도등의정량적방법과내용분석을통한정성적방법을모두활용하였다는데의의가있다. 향후에는학습이시작되기전과학습이종료된후실제학생들의역량을측정하여비교하는등보다엄격한연구설계를통해학습성과를평가할필요가있다. 결론 본연구는 S 대학교산림과학과 4학년전공과목 도시림관리학및실습 수업에 e-pbl 학습법을적용한사례와학습성과에대해분석하였다. e-pbl 학습은교수자중심의일방적수업방식보다학습자중심의학습방법으로양방향수업방식으로자기주도학습및문제해결능력등을배양하는데도움이되며, 학습자에게는프로젝트를수행함으로써전공에대한흥미유발및학습동기부여를제공할수있었다. 1. e-pbl 학습법은학습에대한동기부여, 이해및흥미유발에효과적인것을확인하였다. 2. 학습자들은 도시림관리학및실습 과목에 e-pbl 학습법적용은적합하다고응답하였으며, e-pbl 학습법만족도또한높은것을확인하였다. 학습자들은학습후기정성적답변에향후동일과목에대해 e-pbl 학습법적용을권장하였다. 3. 학습자들은 e-pbl 학습법을통해의사소통능력, 의사결정력, 문제해결능력을향상시킬수있었다. 4. 하지만, 본연구에서는한학기강의를대상으로진행하였으며앞으로효과적인 e-pbl 학습법을발전시키기위해서는지속적인학습성과조사, 학습법만족도조사및학습법개선에관한연구가수행되어야한다. 일부학습자들은 e-pbl 학습법은만족하지만, 코로나- 19로인하여프로젝트수행에제한을받아어려움을겪었다고응답함에따라팬데믹상황에대처하기위한학습자중심의학습법, e-pbl에관한연구가필요하다. e-pbl 학습법은프로젝트수행을위해학습자와교수자는본수업이외의시간도추가적으로활용해야한다. 이에따라 e-pbl 학습법수업의경우유동적수업시간및수업시간활용, 예산확보방안, 프로젝트수행중발생할수있는학생안전에관한교육및매뉴얼, 충분한예산지원등의준비와개선도필요하다. 산림교육은실험ㆍ실습이중요한학문으로졸업이후사회적기술에관한학습도필요하다. 학습자중심의 e-pbl 학습법을실험ㆍ실습과목에활용하여학습자들이학습한전공지식을바탕으로프로젝트를수행함으로써전공지식의이해와응용뿐아니라사회에서요구하는기술에대해경험할수있다. 따라서향후산림교육내다양한세부학문의특성을고려하여산림교육에적합한 e-pbl 학습법을개발하고, e-pbl 학습법에서교수자의역할에관한연구와효율적수업시간의운영, e-pbl 학습지침마련및제도적지원에관한연구를수행함으로써보다효율적이고성공적인산림교육으로의발전을도모할수있을것이다. 감사의글 본연구는국토교통부 / 국토교통과학기술진흥원의지원으로수행되었음 ( 과제번호 20UMRG-B ). References Barak, M. and Doppelt, Y Using portfolios to enhance creative thinking. Journal of Technology Studies 26(2): Barrows, H.S A taxonomy of problem-based learning

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