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1 w ywz 16«2y(2011)/ 97 LNG- y f Œ * Á Œ * Ái * ÁŒ s ** Áfld A Study on Vehicle Application and Performance of LNG-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine Seokhwan Lee, Hongsuk Kim, Gyubaek Cho, Suncheol Hong and Jinwook Lee Key Words: Dual fuel(y ), MPI injection( ), Fuel economy( ), Substitution ratio( ), Driveability( ) Abstract The electronically controlled diesel engine was converted to dual fuel engine system. Test engine was set up for investigating the power output, thermal efficiency and emissions. ND 13-mode tests were employed for the engine test cycle. The emission result of dual fuel mode meets Euro-4 (K2006) regulation and the engine performance of dual fuel engine was comparable to the performance of diesel engine. To estimate economical efficiency, test vehicles have been operated on a certain driving route repeatedly. Fuel economy, maximum driving distance per refueling and driveability were examined on the road including free ways. Developed vehicle can be operated over 500G km with dual fuel mode and shows 80% of diesel substitution ratio. Driveability of dual fuel mode is similar with that of diesel mode. 1. ƒ t w œw, p š kƒ w š û ky p, ùy yk p ƒ š. w, ƒ ƒ w w p ƒ y ƒ ³ w ƒ x w (1,2) ƒ ( ~ , y ) *w» **, z, w» œw TEL : (02) FAX : (02) ³ ywš, ü y w p ü ƒ ³ w š. œw w» ƒ, š y ƒ ƒ š. x ü w w e œw wš. x œw y t ƒ. ƒ w» w y ù., w w ƒ», x œw y l w x (3,4). y l l w k ƒ l ƒw ƒ. w ƒ ƒ w w ƒ w

2 98 /JOURNAL OF ILASS-KOREA VOL. 16 NO. 2 (2011) 한 환경을 극복할 수 있다. 장거리 운행을 주로 하는 대 형경유자동차의 경우 운행거리를 고려했을 때 CNG 보 다는 LNG를 적용하는 것이 바람직하다. 본 연구에 앞서, 기존 전자제어식 디젤엔진을 기본으 로 하여 dual-fuel 연료제어시스템을 구성하고 엔진구동 을 위한 인젝터 드라이버, ECU 등의 하드웨어를 제작 하였으며 이를 구동하기 위한 알고리즘 및 소프트웨어 를 개발하였다. 이를 바탕으로 해서 본 연구에서는 LNG-디젤 혼소엔진의 실제 차량 주행성능과 ND-13 모 드에서의 배기성능 특성을 살펴보았다. (5) (6) 2. 실험장치 및 구성 대상엔진 본 실험에서는 베이스 디젤 엔진으로 국내 H사에서 개발한 13L급 POWERTEC 디젤엔진을 사용하였다. 이 엔진은 터보차져가 부착된 대형엔진으로 전자적으로 시 스템이 제어되며 Euro-3 배기규제를 만족하는 엔진이다. 전자제어식 유닛인젝터 (EUI) 시스템을 장착하고 있으 므로 엔진회전수와 상관없이 디젤 분사량과 분사시기를 전자적으로 제어할 수 있다. 엔진의 주요 제원은 Table 1과 같다. 13L급 대형엔진의 구동을 위해 엔진의 크랭크축에 600마력급 엔진 동력계(Dynamometer)를 연결하여 엔진 회전속도와 부하를 임의적으로 제어 하였다. 디젤유 및 천연가스의 분사시기와 분사량은 엔진 구동 조건에 따라 서 자체 개발한 ECU를 사용하여 제어하였으며, 연료 조 성 변화에 따른 엔진의 공연비를 측정하기 위하여 광역 산소센서(Wide band O sensor)를 배기 매니폴드에 장착 하였다. 질소산화물(NOx), 미연탄화수소(THC), 일산화탄 소(CO)는 배출가스 분석장치(HORIBA MEXA7100DEGR)를 사용하여 분석하였으며, 디젤 입자상물질 (PM)은 여지에 샘플링 된 PM의 무게를 직접 측정하는 2.1 (7) Fig. 1 LNG-diesel dual fuel engine Microtrol 방식의 장비(Nova Nicrotrol 5), 검댕의 경우는 광투과 방식인 Opacimeter(AVL)를 사용하여 측정하였 다. 디젤 연료의 대체율은 디젤연료통과 LNG 연료통의 무게 변화를 저울을 사용하여 측정한 뒤 계산하였다. 실 험은 대형 디젤 엔진의 배기인증을 위하여 규정된 모드 인 ND-13 모드에서 정해진 엔진회전수와 부하 조건에 서 수행되었다. 본 연구에서 사용된 디젤-LNG 혼소엔 진을 Fig. 1에 나타내었다. 혼소엔진 개조 대형디젤엔진을 혼소엔진으로 개조한 시스템을 Fig. 2에 나타내었다. 천연가스는 LNG 저장용기에서 공급되 는데 대형트럭에서는 단위체적당 연료저장량을 고려하 면 LNG 상태의 연료를 사용하는 것이 적합하다. 연료 구성 장치는 연료공급 포트, 천연가스 인젝터, 인젝터 Table 1 Base diesel engine specifications Specifications Resources Displacement 12,340 cc Max. Power 440 rpm Max. Torque 206 rpm Bore Stroke mm Compression ratio 17:1 Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of LNG-diesel dual fuel engine system

3 w ywz 16«2y(2011)/ 99,, š l, k š w e w l w. ƒ l l 6 lƒ š f š f d ƒ œ wì w. ƒ l mw 8 bar œ ƒ l ƒ œ w. kj l œ w y w w. ƒ œ sp s x š w ƒ l Á w s ü ƒ w ƒ 8.2 bar, p 100% ƒ l ƒ w w. ƒ sp l w w œ r w š y w w.» z w w, BTDC 10 deg, w BTDC deg»ƒ w. y yw ƒ j» w Igniter w» w is p w, ƒ p, z q w» w e x ww. x 4ƒ z (idle, 1280, 1495, 1795 rpm) 4ƒ w(24, 50, 75, 100%) ƒ ND-13 w. x w š y w w. THC, NOx, CO ƒ ƒ, œ»,, mj, œ,», ƒ» d w. w THCƒ y ew wš w. y w ƒ œ w ND-13 ƒ z, w» y w. ƒ w k w ¼. Table 2 ND-13 ƒ ùkü š s³ 87% š. Fig. 3 w y Table 2 Substitution ratio of each ND-13 stage ND-13 mode Substitution ratio (%) Ave. 87 Fig. 3 Results of engine performance

4 100 /JOURNAL OF ILASS-KOREA VOL. 16 NO. 2 (2011) Table 3 Engine performance results Engine performance Diesel Dual-fuel Engine spec. Max. Torque rpm) Max. Power rpm) Fig. 4 Comparison the thermal efficiency of diesel & dualfuel engine mj w. y w t mj p 5% ü wyw t v w. ü š w ƒ w w»m ƒ p š w l w.» 1% ü wy w w. Table 3 - ƒ y mj ùkü. Fig. 4 z, w y z w. š w y z j ƒ w y z û. w ƒ û y ƒ ƒ ù w ƒ w., y w z w y z ûš š w w ù p. y z» w 95% w s³ z 87%» yƒ w š w z w û. w w yw ƒ ƒ œ ƒ w ƒ q w ƒ ¼. w ky yk ƒ ƒw š z w û ùkû. wz» y mw, w ƒ w ü w. w y w z, ƒ w ƒ j», x ww wz l w w ww. w d š w Fig. 5 ƒ p š x (7) l w ùk ü. ƒ ( ƒ, LPG) w x ƒ x w w ew 13 w z w ND-13 xw. x Fig. 5 Effects of charging air and natural gas on heat release and cylinder pressure (7)

5 w ywz 16«2y(2011)/ 101 Table 4 ND-13 mode emission test results Diesel Dual-fuel Euro-4 (K2006) HC (g/kwh) CO (g/kwh) NOx (g/kwh) PM (g/kwh) CO 2 (g/kwh) Opacity (%) Power (PS) Fig. 6 Comparison of exhaust emissions from diesel and dual fuel engine ND-13 ƒ x ww. x ü ƒ ³ Euro-5 ³ w. w x Euro-3 ³ j y w Euro- 4 ³ k w ey y w š w. Table 4 x ƒ ³ ³ Euro-4 ND-13 x y ƒ, ùkü, Fig. 6 v txw w. NMHC (nonmethane hydrocarbon) CO w y w NMHC ³ e 50% ³ w 64% ƒw. ƒ w y w y w ƒ ƒ w z wƒ NMHC. CO y yz 99%. y q» ƒw NOx w ƒw ƒ. w w ƒ q» yw 41% NOx. y w yw ƒ ƒ w» z w. w w x 75%, 61%. CO 2 x ƒ ³ sw ùy š w» x j. y w k ƒ k w w CO 2 14% w z ƒ. zy x» - LNGy w w ƒ ³ w» y, ƒ CO 2 z ƒ w. 3.2 y y LNG z wƒ,, w, d w» w v x w. x w. x ew w w 6 4x p w. 430 l HLNG 119 kj w 25m fl w 40m. Fig. 7 x ùkü š. x ü sk,, sw 3 LNG ƒ. ww» ewš r w sk- -m ww x ww. x 250 km 30,000 km ww ü w x ww. p w x ww x y w x w

6 102 /JOURNAL OF ILASS-KOREA VOL. 16 NO. 2 (2011) ƒ w. Fig. 7 POWERTEC 440ps test truck Table 5 Driveability test results Diesel Dual-fuel Departure (0 400 m) 35.4s 34.2s Passing ( KPH) 6.9s 6.9s Slope (10%, m) 43.9s 45.1s Tip in-out Good Good Surge No No Switching shock - No Table 6 Fuel economy results Diesel Dual-fuel Fuel economy LNG km/nm 3 Diesel 2.25 km/l km/l Sub. ratio(%) - 80 Fuel cost ( /100 km) 80,000 49,194 (Diesel: (1800/l)(NG: 903/Nm 3 ) w. y,, q d w Table 5 ùkü x y w w. x x y yw Ï. ü ƒ ƒ w ƒ w y w z ƒ. x w y d w Table 6 ùkü r 80% y w 38% 4. 13L y l ƒ, ƒ p r,. 1) y z š w w šz w z û. š w ƒ w» w q. 2) ND-13 ƒ d x ww, y w y ƒ w w Euro-4 ³ w. 3) p y w 75%, 61%. 4) w x, y w w, ƒ, q w. 5) ƒ ƒ w ƒ w y w 38% ƒ w. w» y š y»»» w, tw. y (1) Weaver, C. and Turner, S.,G Dual Fuel Natural Gas/ Diesel Engines: Technology, performance, and Emissions, SAE , (2) Norton, P., Frailey, M., Clark, N., Lyons, D., Gautam, M., Addy, J. and Beck, N., Chassis Dynamometer Emission Measurements form Trucks and Buses using Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Engines, SAE ,

7 w ywz 16«2y(2011)/ (3) Beck, J., Barkhimer, R., Johnson, W., Wong, H. and Gebert, K., Evolution of Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engines-Stoichiometric, Carbureted and Spark Ignited to Lean Burn, Fuel Injected and Micro-Pilot, SAE , (4) Gebert, K., Beck, N., Barkhimer, R. and Wong, H., Strategies to improve Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Dual-Fuel Pilot Ignited Natural Gas Engines, SAE 71712, (5) Addy, J., Bining, A., Norton, P., Perterson, E., Campbell, K. and Bevillaqua, O., Demonstration of Caterpillar C10 Dual Fuel Natural Gas Engines in Commuter Buses, SAE , (6) Yoon, S., Heo, S., Roh, Y., Kim, H. and Choi, B., Control system for LNG Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Engine, KSAE 06-s0305, p1910~1915, (7) Takuji I., Masahiro S., Shin-ichi M., Hiroaki S. and Makoto I., Improvement of Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Converted Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Engine, SAE , 2000.

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